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The internet came to prominence as a tool and pursuit of the masses starting in the early 1990's. The capabilities, depth and breadth of what the internet has to offer have increased exponentially over the ensuing two decades. Such expansion has greatly eased the spread of information (Palfrey, 2010). The ease in which people communicate and disseminate information has created a cause for concern among many different parties that see this as a threat. The threat can be perceived by multiple levels of the populace including individual citizens all the way up to government regimes. The nature of the threat ranges from concerns over online predators to concerns over national security. There is indeed no clear-cut answer that can be applied across the board as the subject can become very murky very quickly. This report seeks to examine the different facts as they exist and what exactly is…
Calingaert, D. (2010). Authoritarianism vs. The Internet. Policy Review. 160 (1), 63-75.
Dibbell, J. (2012). The Shadow Web. Scientific American. 306 (3), 60-65.
Eneman, M. (2010). ISP Filtering of Chlid-Abusive Material: A Critical Reflection of Its
Effectiveness. Journal of Sexual Aggression. 16 (2), 223-235.
Internet censorship could also result in job losses since a court order may compel online search engines in America to block results or domain names. This could contribute to the instant death of some companies, particularly those with limited resources to fight potential legal cases.
In addition, concerns have also been raised regarding the possibility of Internet censorship to weaken the protection provided by the Digital Millennium Copyright Act that supported the growth of major technological companies.
Fundamental Changes to the Current Internet:
The opponents of Internet censorship have stated that such measures could contribute to fundamental changes on the current architecture of the Internet. hile various legislations have been proposed to help in the fight against online piracy, which is a major problem, such regulations could grant unnecessary and random censorship powers to content owners. These could result in huge fundamental changes to the Internet's architecture as its known…
Butt, Matt. "Internet Censorship." IDEA: International Debate Education Association. IDEA Inc., 14 Aug. 2009. Web. 13 Feb. 2012. .
Carter, Zach, and Ryan Grim. "SOPA, Internet Censorship Bill, Lauded by Both Parties in Key House Hearing." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc., 17 Nov. 2011. Web. 13 Feb. 2012. .
Dickinson, Boonsri. "Internet Censorship: Bill May Kill American Innovation, Jobs." SmartPlanet - Innovative Ideas That Impact Your World. CBS Interactive, 16 Nov. 2011. Web. 13 Feb. 2012. .
Hodder, and Stoughton. "The Great Debate: Should We Censor the Internet?" The Great Debate CJM Hewett. Web. 13 Feb. 2012. .
private) activities created an unlimited power of moral and ethical censorship that transcended all boundaries (p 258)."
Human Rights Watch (2008). Human Rights Watch World Report 2008. Human Rights
Watch, New York, NY.
This report will contribute the study being conducted here with regard to statistical information. Other insights into how modern technology is being used by the Chinese people to reach out to other cultures and to send news of important events in China, but how efforts to do that are being censored by the Chinese government. Reports of cell phones being confiscated in order to prevent workers from broadcasting industrial accidents, and other such severe actions are being taken by the Chinese to prevent two way communications between Chinese citizens and people of other countries in an effort to censor the information exchange. For this reason, this report will be useful to the overall understanding of censorship in…
Internet Luring and Pedophiles
hile criminals have been escaping justice on the basis of technicalities for decades, when it comes to sexual predators of children using the Internet, some judges are blazing new trails into the terrain of protecting the criminals and punishing the victims, and diminishing the results of police work as well. In Maryland, recently, a judge "overturned the conviction of a man arrested after he traveled to meet with a state trooper who had posed online as a teen-age girl. The judge said the trooper did not meet the criteria of a victim." (Drake 2001)
To say that sting operation resulted in a big zero is putting it mildly. The predator was not only free to lure victims again; he could be pretty certain he'd get away with it because it was unlikely, at least in Maryland, that the 'victim' would be an undercover cop.
Docherty, Alan. "Don't shoot the messenger." New Statesman 19 Aug. 2002: 15.
Drake, John. "Anti-pedophile unit prowls the Web. The Washington Times. May 29, 2001. Page Number: 4.
Fagan, Amy. "Lawmen ask help on online pedophiles: Schools, parents urged to join fight against Internet predators." The Washington Times 8 Nov. 1997: 3.
Hersh, Melanie L. "Is COPA a cop out? The Child Online Privacy Protection Act as proof that parents, not government should be protecting children's interests on the Internet." Fordham Urban Law Journal 28.6 (2001): 1831+.
Internet and Democracy
In one sense, computers and the Internet are just a continuation of the communications revolution, starting with the printing press then continuing with the telegraph, telephone, motion pictures, radio and television. Could this be leading to a more fundamental change in history on the same level as the agricultural and industrial revolutions? This is a more problematic proposition. Of course, the idea of a post-industrial economy based on services and high technology dates back to the 1960s, although some visionaries had an inkling of it even in the 19th Century. Skills and education that were valuable in an industrial economy have become obsolete in the new system, although this has happened before in the history of capitalism. Society has changed relatively little from the era before the computer age, with only a few exceptions, such as the use of computers to speed up financial transactions and in…
Agre, P.E. And D. Schuler, (eds.). (1997) Reinventing Technology, Rediscovering Community: Critical Explorations of Computing as a Social Practice. Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Alavi, N. (2005). We Are Iran. Brooklyn, NY: Soft Skull Press, Inc.
Baase, S. (2009). A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues in Computing, 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall.
Barglow, R. (1994). The Crisis of the Self in the Age of Information: Computers, Dolphins and Dreams. Routledge.
Internet Censorship in China, South Africa and the est
Internet censorship in China, South Africa and other countries is something that prohibits real discussion from taking place regarding issues that affect the public. For instance, in China, certain key word searches are automatically filtered out so that users cannot find the information they are seeking. hile Internet censorship may be good from one perspective (in terms of stemming the flow of child pornography, curbing false information, or putting a nation's interests first), it can be viewed as bad from another perspective (in terms of cutting down on the opportunity to inform sides of a dialogue, promoting free exchange of ideas, or discussing why one form of pornography is allowed but not another). This paper will show why Internet censorship can be interpreted in both positive and negative ways depending on the perspective that one adopts (whether one is pro-Statist or…
Bitso, Constance. "Internet Censorship In South Africa: A Brief Expose Of Negative and Positive Trends." South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science 80.1 (2014): 41-51. Academia Search Complete.
Carr, Madeline. "Internet Freedom, Human Rights and Power." Australian Journal of International Affairs 67.5 (2013): 621-637. Academia Search Complete.
Casavant, L., Robertson, J. "The Evolution of Pornography Law in Canada."
Parliament of Canada, 2015.
Internet Privacy for High School Students
The unrestrained stream of information is conceived necessary for democracies and market-based economies. The capability of the Internet to make available the vast quantity of information to practically everyone, irrespective of their locations thus entails large benefits. The Internet provides access to the greatest libraries of the world to the students even in the smallest towns and permit the medical specialists to analyze the patients situated about thousands of miles away. The attribute of interactivity of the Internet fosters communication and personal and political expression. The Internet also assists to make the economies progress as it enhances the ease, speed and cost effectiveness with regard to the collection, compilation and delivery around the world to the multiple extent. The electronic commerce will decline the business costs as companies are able to take the benefits of enhanced access to customers, products and suppliers worldwide along…
Baskin, Joy Surratt; Surratt, Jim. "Student Privacy Rights and Wrongs on the Web" School Administrator. Vol: 35; No: 2; pp: 102, 114-116
Beth Givens, (February 2000) "Privacy Expectations in a High Tech World" Computer and High Technology Law Journal. Retrieved from http://www.privacyrights.org/ar/expect.htm Accessed on 14 April, 2005
'Board Policy with Guidelines Date Subject: Student Technology Acceptable Use Policy" (17 July, 2001) North Sanpete School District Policy. Number V-30. Retrieved from http://www.nsanpete.k12.ut.us/~nshs/nslibrary/accuse.html Accessed on 14 April, 2005
Brooks-Young, Susan. (November-December, 2000) "Internet usage update" Today's Catholic Teacher. Vol: 17: No: 2; pp: 53-56
Anonymity in the Internet
Anonymity on the Internet
Limit anonymity for Internet critics- by Edward Wasserman (Journalism Ethics)
I agree with the standing decision of channeling providers of network services to strengthen the way they manage information that the users publish. This suggests that privatized Internet censorship should be done by companies providing network services. All service providers across the world must responsibly restrict access to a wide variety of illegal content described broadly and enacted in order to restrict hate speech. This should reflect the position of the official government: it must incorporate information, which the government considers very politically sensitive. This move was made to strengthen efforts of increased pressure suppressing private companies to limit the further use of search engines, social media, and key online other tools.
Additionally, companies must be able to provide the virtual private networks evading the great boundaries of identification policy on expansion…
Chinese Internet Culture
Decades after the reforms of Deng Xiaoping known as the "Four Modernizations," "a focus on development of agriculture, industry, science and technology and the military" (The University of Michigan. N.D.); China in 2011, grapples with the multiple dilemmas of internet information access, personal freedom, and government control over content. The rise of digital media, web access, and information availability over the past two decades has spread around the globe encompassing the world's second largest economy. As economic freedom continues to slowly evolve in China, so too does the call from its citizens for unfettered access to internet technology and content become more pervasive. The Chinese internet culture is particularly fascinating due to this inherent dichotomy between government control over content and individual demands for information access. How China's leadership confronts the challenges of information dissemination will be critical to China's long-term economic, social, and political future.
Bristow, M. (June 8, 2010). China Defends Internet Censorship. BBC News. Retrieved January 4, 2011 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8727647.stm
Carr, D. (March 28, 2010). Not Creating Content. Just Protecting it. The New York
Times. Retrieved January 4, 2011 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/29/business/media/29carr.html?_r=1&ref=sergeybrin
CNN: Larry King Live. (June 5, 2005). Encore Presentation: An Interview with Richard
Internet has grown exponentially since its first introduction to the public. The precursor to the Internet was the ARPANET. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the Department of Defense (Carlitz and Zinga, 1997) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) were the primary creators of the ARPANET. Subsequently however, efforts from private entities and universities have helped develop the network infrastructure, as it exists today. "The goals of ARPA's 'Resource Sharing Computer Network' project were to develop the technology for and demonstrate the feasibility of a computer network while improving communication and collaboration between research centers with grants from ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO)." (Press, 1996) J.C.R. Licklider of MIT undertook groundbreaking work in developing computer interactivity. Later, he implemented his vision though time-sharing systems-affordable interactive computing. The effort of the NSF also helped to distribute the features of this new networking capability to all major universities and research…
Ansari, Asim, Skander Essegaier, and Rajeev Kohli. "Internet Recommendation Systems." Journal of Marketing Research 37.3 (2000).
Bannan, Karen J. "Clean It Up." PC Magazine 20.16 (2001).
Beguette, Glenda, et al. Internet Content Filtering and Cipa Legislation. 2002. Available: http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/tsullivl/469Sp02/filtering.html. June 26, 2005.
Bell, Bernard W. "Filth, Filtering, and the First Amendment: Ruminations on Public Libraries' Use of Internet Filtering Software." Federal Communications Law Journal 53.2 (2001): 191-238.
U.S. government should not regulate the Internet. One important reason is that it would go against the nations' right to freedom of speech. The government has used a number of reasons to support its quest for regulation, such as protecting children, yet it has ignored the fact that there are other methods to control harmful and illegal material online without hindering the Internet's growth and capabilities.
This paper will show that it would be impossible for any single government or nation to completely regulate the Internet, because by nature, the Internet is resistant to control and regulation.
The Internet was created by the defense-related ARPANET project, which was a communications tool for the United States government in the late 1960's linking a decentralized system of computers that could resist a nuclear attack (Copeland, et al.). Today, this tool, which was once viewed as little more than an emergency fallback system,…
Clinton: Technology is the answer." 16 July 1997. CNET News.com. Nov. 18, 1998. Retrieved Dec. 2 at http://www.news.com/News/Item/0,4,12492,00.html
Copeland, Johanna. Pinter, Edward, Witmeyer, John. Internet Regulation. Ford Marrin Esposito Witmeyer & Gleser, 2002.
Family-Friendly Internet Access Act of 1997. Thomas - U.S. Congress on the Internet. Nov 18, 1998. Retrieved Dec. 2 at http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z-c105:H.R.1180:
Greenfeld, Karl Taro. "Meet the Napster." Time Oct. 2, 2000, pp. 60-73.
Our business is an Internet sales business. Mission, vision and values contribute to defining what that business is, who its target market is and how the business model is going to work. As Radtke (1998) notes, every organization has a purpose for being. That purpose drives most of what the organization does. Thus, the mission statement should provide a clear sense of mission for the company to follow. In creating an online retailer, the mission statement should read something like this:
"Our mission is to provide luxury goods and high-end service to wealthy customers around the world, using an online sales model."
A mission statement like that tells all the stakeholders of the company what we do, who our customers are and how we are going to do it. The mission statement needs to have that level of clarity in order that it continues to guide the organization's…
censorship of the Internet, especially of pornographic materials, is a topic that can be easily resolved is being naive. This is a complicated issue with enough gray areas to be thoroughly debated and to demand that comprehensive information from both sides be studied. Freedom of speech has always been a thorny subject, and it becomes no easier when considering the Internet that can be accessed by individuals of all ages and backgrounds from around the world.
Most of the websites dealing with this topic are slanted in one way or another based on the political, religious or moral stance of the URL's authors. It is refreshing, then, when a writer takes a stab at equally presenting arguments for and against online pornographic censorship. The website "Pornography and the Internet in the United States" (http://www.slais.ubc.ca/courses/libr500/fall1999/www_presentations/c_hogg/print.htm) was written by Charles Hogg as part of an assignment for Library Studies 500: Foundations of…
Bibliography and Checklist."
Website visited 22/4/03.
As it may be inferred from the examples above, the U.S.A. is the leader when talking about online campaigns. Other countries' experiences may look poor in comparison with the American giant even if we invoke the cases of famous European democracies like Germany.
First of all, this country has a parliamentary system which explains why the parties and not the candidates are those who maintain sites. Therefore, Americans enjoy a more personal virtual relationship while Germans are only entitled to a rather collectivist approach. Despite having access to contact information, biographies, details about platforms, the party is the one which counts to a higher degree. ut this seems to be the only major difference between the two countries' web sites as their main goal is providing information, an aim that has received the highest rank from Germans, on a four-point scale.
Still, unlike American candidates who are beginning to understand…
1. Bandler, J., Bulkeley, M., 2004. Dean Campaign Made Payments To Two Bloggers, The Wall Street Journal, [Online], Available at http://users2.wsj.com/lmda/do/checkLogin?mg=wsj-users2&url=http%3A%2F%2Fonline.wsj.com%2Farticle%2FSB110566243803425942.html ,[2006, December 17].
2. Brownlow, M., 2006. What is email marketing?, Email Marketing Reports, [Online], Available at http://www.email-marketing-reports.com/intro.htm,[2006, December 17]
3. Caldwell, F., 2001. E-Voter Institute Study Shows the Emergence of E-Politics, [Online], Available at http://www.gartner.com/resources/103000/103066/103066.pdf ,[2006, December 17].
4. DeYoung, B., 1988. What's Relationship Marketing?, Journal of Extension, [Online], Available at http://www.joe.org/joe/1988fall/a9.html ,[2006, December 17].
There are various expert views and statistics to support the positive influence of the Internet on education. A survey conducted by Pew Internet & American Life indicates that 86% of U.S. college students use the Internet. The study states that students perceive the Internet as essential to their academic lives. "While close on 80% of college students in the United States claim that the medium has had a positive impact on their college academic experience, about 73% use the Internet more than the library for research." (ibid) According to Draves, online learning is being increasingly recognized as a valid learning delivery system. "The number of part time students in higher education, to name just one educational system, now outnumbers full time students. The number of colleges offering online courses last year soared to over 1,000, and the number is growing. Online graduate programs and certificate programs have…
Ebo, Bosah, ed. Cyberghetto or Cybertopia?: Race, Class, and Gender on the Internet. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998.
Hurlbert, W. Business Blogs Are Catching on 2005. Accessed May 4, 2005
Jones, G. Ask the Expert. May 6, 2005. http://www2.cio.com/ask/expert/2000/questions/question1307.html?CATEGORY=5&NAME=Customer%20Relationship%20Management
Lutge-Smith, T. How the Internet will change society: new predictions. May 7, 2005. http://www.klixxx.com/archive/internetsociety.shtml
Sociology and the Internet
The rise of the Internet has been one of the most significant events of the recent past. It has effected society in a massive range of ways, with few people being unaffected by the Internet. The following paper will consider how the Internet has impacted society from a social psychology perspective. With this focus, it will be shown that the Internet has impacted the way people interact with information, has given people greater control over their own lives, has increased the social support available to people, has impacted media and communication, and has created greater censorship issues.
The Internet has resulted in a major change in how people respond and interact with information. Hammerich and Harrison describe the online reader saying,
Online readers are in a big hurry. esearch shows that they hop, skip, and jump over text; avoid fluff such as promotional writing, logos, and…
Graham, A., & Davies, G. Broadcasting, Society and Policy in the Multimedia Age. Luton: University of Luton Press, 1997.
Hammerich, I., & Harrison, C. Developing Online Content: The Principles of Writing and Editing for the Web. New York: Wiley, 2002.
McQuail, D. Audience Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1997.
Meyrowitz, J. "The Separation of Social Space from Physical Place." The Media Studies Reader. Eds. Tim O'Sullivan & Yvonne Jewkes. London: Edward Arnold Ltd., 1997.
A Review of hat the Internet Is Hiding From You
This paper reviews the book, The Filter Bubble: hat the Internet is Hiding from You, by Eli Pariser. The purpose of this paper is to analyze this book in an attempt to determine where the future of the internet is headed. The Filter Bubble begins with an overview of how Google began customizing its search results for intent users in 2009 and the results of that customization. The author hypothesizes that the future of the net is personalization. This is the undertone of the entire work. Follow up pieces by the Economist, including several supporting articles, suggest that personalization is indeed the future of the internet. These articles, while not cited by page number as they are online, do show that personalization is occurring. This however, is leading to decreased privacy over the web. This is a primary…
Alexander, Christopher, Sara Ishikawa, and Murray Silverstein.. A Pattern Language: Towns, buildings, construction. New York: Oxford University Press. 1977.
Battelle, John. The Search: How Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. New York: Portfolio, 2005.
"Black hates, grey hairs. A shake-up in the hacker underground and fresh attacks suggest change is coming up to computer security." Aug 6, 2011. The Economist. Retrieved: http://www.economist.com/node/21525372
"Breaching the great firewall. Home-grown micro blogs are succeeding where Twitter failed."
Censorship, the Internet, and Schools
Describe two implications for schools from the CIPA policy rulings, and two reasons for opposition to the policy
The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) was legislated in the year 2000, obliging public schools and libraries to set up specific technology that restricts internet access to graphic depictions that are indecent, child pornography, or detrimental to minors (Finsness, 2008). One of the implications of these policy rules is that it infringes on intellectual freedom. This is in the sense that it goes against the First Amendment, as intellectual freedom is the right of every person to seek as well as receive information from all perspectives devoid of limitation. Secondly, there is the implication of impacting the capability of students to gain access to information they require for school (Finsness, 2008). Being in a fast-paced technological area and with students having to attain such skills for writing…
Batch, K. R. (2014). Fencing Out Knowledge: Impacts of the Children's Internet Protection Act 10 Years Later. American Library Association, Policy Brief No. 5.
Finsness, L. S. (2008). The implications of internet filters in secondary schools (Doctoral dissertation, UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA).
Flowers, B. F., & Rakes, G. C. (2000). Analyses of Acceptable Use Policies Regarding the Internet in Selected K -- 12 Schools. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32(3), 351-365.
Hu, Q. (2004). To Censor or Not to Censor at the School Library. State University of New York.
The net result is a growing digital divide in the secondary and tertiary cities of India, overlooked for Internet access, making the prospect of creating an Internet cafe in secondary, and often less expensive cities, more difficult.
The ADSL launch across India has been abnormally slow, and cable modem access is concentrated in the most wired cities and regions of the world, yet paradoxically there has not been a reduction in pricing of services due to government regulations. The nation-wide roll-out of ADSL throughout the most wired and affluent regions of India has been abnormally slow, hampered by the lack of infrastructure needed to complete the last mile cabling and integration across legacy telecommunications networks. This has led to a high growth rate in broadband adoption, specifically in the area of cable modem access, with 69% of all of India's cable access customers being in the Global High Income segment.…
AT Kearney (2006) -- Global Retail Development Index (GRDI). Emerging Market Priorities for Global Retailers. Accessed from the Internet on April 22, 2007 from location: http://www.atkearney.com/shared_res/pdf/GRDI_2006.pdf
Economist (2005) - "India: Business Environment at a Glance," Economist Intelligence Unit (18 April 2005).
Icon Group International (2000) - "Marketing and Distribution in India," Executive Report on Strategies in India (2000).
Glaser (2003) - Indian Cities on Verge of Restricting Access to Cyber Cafes. USC Annenberg Online Journalism Review. April 12, 2003. Accessed on April 22, 2007 from location: http://www.ojr.org/ojr/glaser/1070576918.php
Parents who are predisposed to limit children's exposure to violence will do so as a matter of course. Parents who don't feel that way, will not. Therefore, if parents can't be relied upon to police their children, then society must- because what social order wants to have violence-overloaded children heaving their criminal behavior upon it?
In the mid-1950's a Senate sub-committee began to investigate the "sources of the moral rot at the core of an otherwise flourishing postwar America," (Knox, 4). This committee looked at the comic book industry, movies, and particularly at television. While these efforts did little to nothing to curb interest in subjects considered to be anti-American, or "immoral," it does show the depth of time and effort that has been spent on this issue - at every level. However, over the course of time, television has become more liberal rather than less. So, in response, the…
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2007). Children and TV Violence. Online. Internet. Avail:
http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_and_tv_violence.Acc : 12 Oct, 2007.
Duncan, P. (2006). Attractions to Violence and the Limits of Education. The Journal of Aesthetic Education. 40:4; 21-38.
Hornaday, a. (Aug 6, 2006) Parents Fret About Children's Entertainment. The Washington Post. Sunday Arts, N01.
Liberation vs. Control in Cyberspace
Deibertt, Ronald & Rafal Rohozinski. "Liberation vs. control: The future of cyberspace."
Journal of Democracy, 21.4 (2010): 43-56
The Internet is a paradox. On one hand, You Tube and Twitter have been widely credited with creating a more open and liberated world, and giving rise to the Arab Spring and other global pro-democracy movements. Yet while the Internet facilitates communication, it also allows for a greater degree of control of ideas through surveillance. "Even in democratic countries, surveillance systems penetrate every aspect of life, as people implicitly (and perhaps unwittingly) consent to the greatest invasion of personal privacy in history" (Deibertt & Rohozinski 2010: 44). What is unique about the Internet is the degree to which people are complicit in sharing information, enabling themselves to be observed, not its 'liberated' aspects: users are completely unaware of the degree to which they are laying their lives…
Groups that have good intentions are often unaware of that websites can be used to propagate social malware attacks, and have few controls to prevent such abuses. "The advocacy group Reporters Without Borders unknowingly propagated a link to a malicious website posing as a Facebook petition to release the Tibetan activist Dhondup Wangchen" (Deibert & Rohozinski 2010: 54). Using the screen of a reputable group or even a government website can be a convenient screen for a hacker.
A nuanced understanding
The Internet is not inherently good or bad nor is it essentially 'free' by its very nature. Those who would behave in a coercive manner, whether criminals, governments, or corporations, can use the Internet just as easily to engage in surveillance and stifle freedom as it is for advocates of democracy to use it as a vehicle for liberation. The Internet is much more highly regulated than would appear on the surface, and one of its great dangers, in contrast to other forms of speech, is that users are not always aware of how and if they are being controlled, and by whom (Deibert & Rohozinski 2010: 56).
Social Media and the ed Shirt evolution
Most scholars are in conflict with regard to the subject of revolution in the age of social media. Until now, revolution has been considered a top-down process. In Thai situation, things might have been different. The ed Shirt evolution in Thailand was one of the first of the "Twitter" revolutions, that is one that was fueled by social media and Web 2.0 technology. Since then, other revolutions have come as well. The lone citizen is now no longer on their own. The dissident in Chiang Mai now can commiserate with their brother or sister in Tahrir Square and plan revolution on a country to country or even on a global basis. Even as this writer types up a dissertation proposal, demonstrators coordinate strategy on a global basis to protest corporate greed. It is with this in mind that this study looks back at…
Bailey, M and Labovitz C (2011). Censorship and Co-option of the Internet Infrastructure. Ann Arbor,
MI: University of Michigan. p1-14.
Bajpai, K and Jaiswal, A (2011). A Framework for Analyzing Collective Action Events on Twitter.
Lisbon, Portugal: Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference. p1-10.
Leaving the Chinese market would mean, that company could take a major loss and it may affect the competitiveness of the firm in the global marketplace. That being said, this action would deal with the ethical dilemma, but at a high price. Working behind the scenes with the Chinese government, could mean that company officials, can slowly influence public policy on human rights. Where, government officials will not feel the public pressure to change. This could help to address the ethical dilemma. However, if these concerns are addressed in the wrong way, this could outrage the government. At which point, they could impose severe restrictions on the company.
Select the most appropriate action and justify it.
The most appropriate action that the company could take would be to: work from behind the scenes with the Chinese government. Where, there would be an emphasis on addressing this issue in non-confrontational way.…
Censorship in China. (2010). Amnesty International. Retrieved from http://www.amnestyusa.org/business-and-human-rights/internet-censorship/page.do?id=1101572
Who We Are. (2010). Amnesty International. Retrieved from http://www.amnesty.org/en/who-we-are
Maloney, L. (2008). Globe Trekkers. Multi-Family Executive. Retrieved from http://www.multifamilyexecutive.com/development/globe-trekkers-us-firms-expand-overseas.aspx
ACLU v Reno:
A definitive victory for free speech
The First Amendment in the United States of America's Constitution is perhaps the hallmark of what current President ush refers to continually as our "freedom." It represents the fundamental difference between America and so many other countries that do not offer their citizens rights to freedom of speech, religion and the press.
Specifically, the First Amendment of the United States Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of religion and freedom of expression without government interference. See U.S. Const. amend. I. Within that, the concept of freedom of expression consists of the rights to freedom of speech, press, assembly and to petition the government for a redress of grievances, and the implied rights of association and belief. The Supreme Court and the lower courts interpret the extent of the protection afforded to these rights. The Supreme Court has interpreted the First Amendment…
ACLU v. Reno
Legal Information Institute, 2005
ACLU Press Release, 1996
My brother has been unemployed for two years. He is not a moocher -- he works odd jobs and takes care of our ailing grandmother. But the economy in upstate New York has suffered a lot as the result of the financial meltdown. While the bankers on Wall Street continue to get richer and richer, ordinary people continue to struggling with the effects of their corrupt ways. Don't get me wrong -- I love what capitalism can do for us -- everything we take for granted today. But we a capitalist system that works for everybody.
Consider that real wages have flatlined since the 1970s, while the wealth of the richest 1% keeps growing exponentially. We want wage equality and equal rights for all Americans, not just wealthy ones. We want corporate money out of politics. Consider that the Supreme Court rulings that corporations are people (What?
) and that…
The leadership style at McDonald's relies on the three legs of the stool. For the most part, the innovation and vision part of the leadership process is with McDonald's head office, while the more autocratic style comes through the suppliers and the owner/operators, whose job it is to undertake the actions that will allow the company to implement strategy. The company has its own leadership school that helps to ensure all senior managers -- and many lower-level managers as well -- are trained in the leadership functions. Thus, there is a high level of congruence between the leadership training that different McDonald's leaders receive. This allows for the managers to work together better, but it also facilitates management at McDonald's all adhering to the same culture, and the same values.
McDonald's is a pioneer in control. The company believes strongly in measurement as a means of helping to…
Burrows, P., Grover, R., & Green, H. (2006). Steve Job's Magic Kingdom. New York. Business Week, February 6, 2006, Issue 3970,-page 62, retrieved on November 10, 2010 at: http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_06/b3970001.htm
David, Leonard. (2010). Commentary: The Last Pitchamn. Business Week online, June 10, 2010, retrieved November 10, 2010, at: http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/10_25/b4183004440240.htm
Koehn, Nancy F.. Fortune, 11/23/2009, Vol. 160 Issue 10, p110-114. Retrieved on June 1, 2012, at: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=1&hid=107&sid=538e793e-0fab-49ae-8e00-a24024452940%40sessionmgr113&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&an=45693823
Wilson, J. (2010). Wanted: inspirational leaders. Business Week. Retrieved June 1, 2012 from http://www.businessweek.com/managing/content/mar2010/ca2010039_438836.htm
Internet: Privacy for High School Students
An Analysis of Privacy Issues and High School Students in the United States Today
In the Age of Information, the issue of invasion of privacy continues to dominate the headlines. More and more people, it seems, are becoming victims of identity theft, one of the major forms of privacy invasion, and personal information on just about everyone in the world is available at the click of a mouse. In this environment, can anyone, especially high school students, reasonably expect to have any degree of privacy? High school students, after all, are not protected by many of the same constitutional guarantees as adults, but their needs for privacy may be as great, or greater, than their adult counterparts. To determine what measure of privacy, if any, high schools students can expect at home and school today, this paper provides an overview of the issue of…
Alarming Number of Teens Addicted to the Internet. (2001, February 1). Korea Times, 3.
Albanes, R., Armitay, O., Fischer, B., & Warner, J. (1998). Marijuana, Juveniles, and the Police: What High-School Students Believe about Detection and Enforcement.
Canadian Journal of Criminology, 40(4), 401-20.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Blogs and social networking have altered our daily usage of the Internet and the World Wide Web. Of that, we can be certain. But how exactly has this change evolved, and what specific effects is it having on Internet and Web usage patterns around the world? This paper addresses the history of blogs and social media, and shows their state of development now. This brief introduction will segue into a discussion of the various personal and professional applications for both blogging and social media. Additionally, sections on political applications and implications will round out the discussion on how social media and blogging have changed the ways people communicate and receive information. Finally, it would be remiss to ignore the confluence of hardware, software, coding, applications, and protocols that have led to revolutions in the ways people use their digital devices. Tablets and smartphones are the physical manifestations of the changes…
Barnes, S.B. (2006). A privacy paradox: Social networking in the United States. First Monday 11(9).
Boyd, D. (n.d.). Friends, Friendsters, and MySpace Top 8: Writing Community Into Being on Social Network Sites. CiteSeer. Retrieved online: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.79.5665
Bryant, T. (2006). Social software in academia. Educase Quarterly. 2. 2006.
DiMicco, J., Millen, D.R., Geyer, W., Dugan, C., Brownholtz, B. & Muller, M. (2008). Motivations for social networking at work. In Proceedings of the 2008 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work. Pp. 711-720.
" (Wagner, 2000, p. 6)
As an almost limitless tool for advertisement, though some self censorship has recently occurred as more and more people reduce ad time by restricting adware and popup ads on their computer systems, the internet can ad to the most vile of physical, social and mental health state, especially in the young and impressionable.
For these reasons and more, it makes sense for everyone -- especially for children and young adults -- to consider how advertising can affect four basic types of health. First, it can affect our physical health. We may learn about a healthy practice or vitamin, but may also be prone to engaging in unhealthy activities, lulled by media depictions of glamorous smokers and drinkers, as well as by direct ads for tobacco and alcohol. Second, advertising can affect our emotional health by delivering media-imposed definitions of beauty, sexuality, maturity, and problem-solving. Advertising…
Fox, R.F. (2001, November). Warning Advertising May Be Hazardous to Your Health: Ads Pose a Threat to Physical, Emotional, Social, and Cultural Well-Being. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 130, 62-77.
Gattiker, U.E. (2001). The Internet as a Diverse Community: Cultural, Organizational, and Political Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Harris, L.M. (Ed.). (1995). Health and the New Media: Technologies Transforming Personal and Public Health. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hatfield, T.H., & Erbeck, G.W. (1997). The Internet: Legitimate Educational Tool or Giant Electronic Sandbox?. Journal of Environmental Health, 59(8), 19-25.
Censorship and Freedom of the Press
In 2009, Frank ainimarama, the self-appointed Prime Minister of Fiji said that freedom of speech causes trouble and is to blame for his country's political turmoil (AC News, 2009). This is only a small portion of controversial remarks and actions made by ainimarama surrounding the announcement made by President Iloilo stating the abrogation of Fiji's constitution, the dismissal of the judiciary, and the deferral of democratic elections until 2014 (Puppet show, 2009). Iloilo's decision, given its relationship to ainimarama's interim regime, which took power in a coup in 2006, being declared illegal by ruling of the Court of Appeals demanding that a neutral leader replace ainimarama immediately with dissolution of the existing government and elections to commence as soon as possible (Puppet show).
ainimarama expressed his grievance towards this decision by the Court and did not hesitate to ignore it as he showed up…
ABC News. (2009). Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/
Alley, R. (2010). Fiji Under Bainimarama. Journal of Pacific History, 45(1), 145-153. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.
Dikotter, Frank. (1996, Winter). Culture, race, and nation: The formulation of national identity in 20th century China. International Affairs, 49(2), 592.
Evans, M. (2011). Exacerbating social cleavages: The media's role in Israel's religious-secular conflict. Middle East Journal, 65(2), 235-251.
Control over information access in a society is like control anything else, whether it is opium or food safety. Google's use of directing Google.cn users through to Google.co.hk is "fundamentally politically subversive," as Mr. David M. Lampton says. It an abuse of the principle that underlies Hong Kong's governance of "one country, two systems," (New York Times) and was an aggressive attack on Chinese sovereignty.
The counter-argument is that China should allow Google to keep its search engine open in Hong Kong so that Chinese mainlanders can have access to the breadth of information on par with what the rest of the world can access. This is the only way that China can engage in commerce with other countries. Google already posesses a third of China's search engine market share, and if Google just disappears, loyal Googlers will experience a setback in business operations. Google's exit from China could be…
"Baidu.com." Alexa.com: The Web Information Company. < http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/baidu.com > Updated Accessed 22 April 2010.
Chi, Jin, and Lamb, Megan,. "China Mobile, Google Launch Cooperation: Creating Leading Mobile Search Service in China." Press release. Posted 1/04/2007 2. Accesed 17 April 2010 at 5:48pm PST. © Google, Inc.
Drummond, David, SVP. The Official Google Blog: Insights from Googlers into our products, technology, and the Google culture. "A new approach to China." Blog post. Posted1/12/2010 03:00:00 PM . Accessed 17 April 2010, 5:56pm PST. © 2009 Google, Inc.
Google Investor Relations. "Google Announces First Quarter 2010 Financial Results." 4/15/2010. Accessed 17 April 2010.
IT Ethics -- Annotated Bibliography
Bowie, Norman E. (2005). Digital Rights and Wrongs: Intellectual Property in the Information
Age. Business and Society Review, 110(1), 77-96.
Norman Bowie takes great pains in his peer-reviewed article to point out what is legal an what is not legal when it comes to recording / taping from television and from the Internet. In fact Bowie uses an illegal issue (downloading music from the Internet)
to present a moral issue: young people and students know it is illegal to download copyrighted music and movies, but they don't see it as immoral.
While Bowie zeros in on students and young people for their lack of morality vis-a-vis getting copyrighted music for free, his overall argument goes further than that copyright laws are justified when protecting "artistic creativity." He points to the fact that between
1999 and 2005, "...downloaders…reduced industry revenues by at least $700 million" and…
Licensing and Laissez Faire
In viewing the case study at hand, one can begin to fully understand the pros and cons of occupational licensure in viewing each in the context of the study. Occupational licensure -- the requirement that one obtain a license from a recognized authority in order to engage in any occupation -- restricts entry into the field of medicine as noted within the case study at hand (Shaw, 2010, p. 157). In viewing the pros and cons of such licensure, one can see that the debate largely comes down to one of economics vs. safety concerns.
In first understanding the pros of such occupational licensure, one can understand -- and oftentimes be relieved -- by the fact that professionals in fields that follow licensing standards have therefore asserted themselves to be capable of practicing within their field at a level which has been deemed acceptable by the…
Shaw, William. (2010). Licensing and laissez faire, in Business ethics: a textbook with cases, 7th ed. pp. 157-159. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. Print.
Shaw, William. (2010). Yahoo in China, in Business ethics: a textbook with cases, 7th ed. pp. 196-198. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. Print.
Case Study Analysis
United Nations, the Unwanted Nobodies and this tells you much about its status in the world.
The UN has been implicated in a good deal of corruption and scandal. It has been said to be political, to be bigoted, to evidence cowardice and fail its responsibilities, to misappropriate its resources, and to misuse judgment. These have been only a few -- and the weakest -- of the accusations leveled against this not particularly effective institution.
The UN has failed, time and again, to intervene in major world crisis when it was most needed. ather than stand their ground with Egypt for instance during the six-day war, it deserted the region, and it demonstrated this same behavior time and again during the African genocides. Similarly, too, the UN showed its ineffectiveness during the crisis with Iraq, becoming a puppet in the hands of France and ussia who tried to use it…
americans-world.org . Americans and the World: a source of comprehensive information on U.S. public opinion http://www.americans-world.org/digest/global_issues/un/un1.cfm
Charter of the UN
Kim R. Holmes, Assistant Secretary of State, "The Challenges Facing the United Nations Today: An American View," address to the Council on Foreign Relations, October 21, 2003, at www.cfr.org/publication.php?id=6451#.
Google in China
The Google Company in China
Globalization has taken the wold by stom, one could say. In today's society, one can watch evolutions unfold as they do so in the Middle East, can communicate with a peson in a emote Afican village, and can even open a business acoss seas. The latte case happened when the Google conglomeate decided to patne with one of the moe closed counties in the wold: China. This pape will discuss this mege based on the case study "Closing Case," and will analyze legal, cultual, ethical challenges that the tansition pesented, the oles that host govenments played in this opeation and the stategic and opeational challenges faced in the tansition.
Some call the "Google in China" mission a failed opeation, stating "Google had oiginally hoped that the Chinese would appeciate its compomise and tacitly toleate Google's quiet pessue to elax [such…
references to the notorious Tiananmen Square massacre of democratic protestors that occurred in 1989." Many thus complained of degraded service, but Google maintained its position that it had to service the Chinses population as best it could. [4: Information from the Case Study provided ]
Eventually, it became a reality for the company that it could not operate under such ridiculous constraints and decided to leave the country, surprising both its internal employees, but not the Chinese government who had already hacked the company's sensitive information.
On the other hand, parents are not the only ones who should feel responsible for the caliber of popular entertainment. At some point, the media industry must look inward and decide what kind of role it can or will take in the society. Because the media will be concerned primarily with the bottom line, we must, however, forgive any industry that chooses consciously to air and market violent media. When that media is aimed directly at children, though, a line has been crossed. The entertainment industry can and should be self-regulated regarding the promotion of violent video games, films, and television shows. Based on the fact that media violence potentially contributes to the public health issues that Bok addresses in Mayhem: increased fearfulness in the society; increased appetite for more media violence; desensitization to violence; and increased levels of aggression, the media industry and parents alike need to shoulder some…
Banning Books in High School
Book Banning and Censorship
Social groups, including religious organizations, parents, and school administration among others, make decisions daily about what material will become a part of the regular school curriculum and what material will be excluded. Many decisions are made based on the educational value of text books and other learning material. However, many decisions are unfortunately made without educational potential in mind, but rather on the basis of what is considered to be profane or proper based on the opinions of certain people that feel they have the moral authority to make such decisions. American schools have always been built on the principle that children must be protected from that which is inappropriate for them to see, hear, or experience. "American schools have been pressured to restrict or deny students access to books or periodicals deemed objectionable by some individual or group on moral,…
This was because, for some stories, they were forced to use less professional correspondents to cover stories that were on a more national scale.
13. Among this list, newspapers and magazines are the most credible because they strive for objectivity and accuracy, at the same time as they possess the most amount of content. Television news programs are second only because they lack the same level of depth. The other sources should be highly questioned before using as a legitimate source. The internet possesses the best information among all of the rest, but must be evaluated on a site-by-site basis.
14. I have found two sources that indicate that controversial television ads negatively influence the behavior of children. However, there are also a handful of other resources arguing that the influence of ads upon individuals is relatively minute.
15. hetoric tends to vastly influence people's opinions and attitudes. However, statements…
Anderson, Craig L. et al. (2003). "The Influence of Media Violence on Youth." Psychological Science in the Public Influence, Vol. 4, No. 3, Dec. Page 81.
Ayeni, Dr. Olugbenga Christopher. (2004). "ABC, CNN, CBS, FOX, and NBC on the Frontlines." Global Media Journal.
Bushman, Brad J. And Craig A. Anderson. (2001). "Media Violence and the American Public." American Psychologist, June/July.
Damer, T. Edward. (2001). Attacking Faulty Reasoning. Belmont: Wadsworth.
This is also reflected in the view that there is a lot of difference between a high school senior and a college freshman. egarding the world of student journalism, the U.S. Court of Appeals has also agreed with this view. This is reflected in the campus newspaper theft which was not taking place till the beginning of the 1990s. This is now a regular source of trouble for college student media. (Trends in College Media)
At the same time, this has not reflected in the quality of college newspaper, and some of them are of excellent quality. Let us look at some college newspapers for this purpose. One of them, namely the Boston College Chronicle has worked on the recently concluded papal conclave and also tried to inform the audience about what the world can hope from the new Pope. Certainly this information when they appear in a college magazine…
Censorship of College Student Newspapers. Administrative Censorship of the College Press. Retrieved at http://www.collegefreedom.org/report5.htm . Accessed on 28 April, 2005
CSU, Northridge Newspaper Silenced. 11 May, 1989. Retrieved at http://www.totse.com/en/conspiracy/institutional_analysis/papcensr.html . Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Davisson, John. GSEU Strikers Return to the Classroom. 25 April, 2005. Retrieved from www.columbiaspectator.com/- 32k Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Glaser, Dale; Collins, King. Review of Eagle and the Controversy of 1996-1997. Retrieved from www.greenmac.com/eagle/Updates/Up2.html. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Imposing a sort of "rating system" on the Internet interferes with the freedom of expression. Such software could also violate a youth's right to a wide variety of information (Reilly 2001).
Finally, many critics question the effectiveness of such filtering technologies.
Some charge that filtering technologies have a tendency to "overblock" sites. In high schools, for example, some children complain increased difficulty in conducting research on topics like breast cancer and safe sex. Another reported difficulty conducting a search on the term "Mars exploration," because the letters formed the forbidden term "sex." These difficulties interfere with the intent of sharing information over the Internet (Reilly 2001).
Critics do have valid concerns, and were able to articulate these all the way to the Supreme Court. The Court, however, rightly ruled that filtering technology remains an effective solution to keeping children away from violent, pornographic or otherwise dangerous content. The…
Reilly, Rob. 2001. "Government Efforts to Protect Children from Online Pornography Are Ineffective."
James Torr, ed. Current Controversies Series. San Diego: Greenhaven Press
Teens, Technology, and Drugs: An Inside Look; How Technology Is Hooking Teens Up With Drugs." 2006. PR Newswire. July 18.
While Swindle's solution is a start, more thought is needed in addressing privacy issues over an international Internet.
Smith, Sylvia. 2006. "Neutrality' backers fear Net censorship." Journal-Gazette. July 17: page 1.
Smith's article raises other concerns regarding government regulation -- that of restricting price increases for telephone companies, the cable industry and Internet Service Providers. These providers have argued that restricting how much they can raise their fees will compromise the development of the technology, and may pave the way for unequal access to information technology. Cyber-businesses, on the other hand, argue that if Congress takes a "hands-off" approach, these private companies are in a position to monopolize access to the Internet, and to practice censorship.
For consumer advocates and cyber-businesses, the solution should be a government-instituted policy of "net neutrality." Instead of addressing the fee issues, there should be a law specifically stating that service providers could regulate access…
Roach's article takes a look at an ongoing debate regarding the differences between government regulation on regular internet traffic and the kind of access needed for users in higher education. Current legislation gives law enforcement access to communication traffic, under stringent legal conditions and constraints. Librarians and other researchers in higher education, however, argue that access rules should be different for the academe, in order to ensure academic freedom.
This article recognizes the rapid changes in information technology, and many academics and librarians have been quick to use the medium for their own research. While the medium has its advantages, it also brings the researchers outside of the academe, which has a strong tradition of freedom. Such freedom is necessary to ensure that an academic could conduct research without social or political repercussions. For example, severe constraints on research and development would occur if a researcher could face jail time or worse for their beliefs. Similar issues could plague a writer who is crafting a novel that could be deemed "subversive," such as George Orwell's 1984.
Given these larger issues, the coalitions of universities, librarians and researchers are right in asking Congress to recognize their different needs. Law enforcement officials certainly have a legitimate need for wiretaps and other methods of monitoring communications traffic. However, the perceived needs to strengthen national security should not come at the expense of rights that this country already holds dear - those of freedom of expression, freedom of information and, as Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis once stated, "the right to be let alone."
Leni Riefenstahl. The writer explores the topic of Riefenstahl and her unethical art. The writer examines the catastrophic consequences and her lack of integrity that lead to horror for millions. There were nine sources used to complete this paper.
Leni Riefenstahl: Her Unethical Art and The Catastrophic Consequences
The reign of Adolf Hitler is one that history will never forget. Under his terrorist reign of terror millions of people died. Those who did not die suffered from the loss of loved ones, loss of privacy and loss of financial stability. It was a time in which the world was introduced to the dangerous side of charismatic politics. While there were many who were fooled in the beginning by Hitler's manipulation tactics they soon learned his true motivations and spent the rest of their lives working to unseat the inhumane dictator. There is one person however, who admired him from the…
JANE SUMNER / Staff Critic, The Riefenstahl riddle: At age 100, famed Germanfilmmaker Leni Riefenstahl still stirs an enigmatic cocktail of emotions., The Dallas Morning News, 08-18-2002, pp 1C.
John Anderson, Leni Riefenstahl, Film's Queen of Denial., Newsday, 03-16-1994, pp 65.
Author not available, THE WONDERFUL HORRIBLE LIFE OF LENI RIEFENSTAHL; DIE MACHT DER BILDER., Magill's Survey of Cinema, 06-15-1995.
Bennett, Jessica. "Should Facebook Ban Sexist Pages?"
Misogyny is alive and well online; the nternet provides just another forum in which bigots can express their views. n "Should Facebook Ban Sexist Pages," Jessica Bennett (http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2011/11/05/should-facebook-ban-sexist-pages-the-reality-of-misogyny-online.html) suggests that female bloggers can control the discourse by raising awareness about the presence of misogyny and working to correct the underlying social problems that spawn it in the first place. n many online forums, misogynists can hide behind the cloak of anonymity that the nternet provides. Even when identities are exposed, as on Facebook, sexism remains rampant. As Bennett puts it, "Facebook is just a newer version of the same old problem," (p. 2).
While Bennett fails to effectively address the central question she poses in the title of her blog post, other authors tackle the subject well. For instance, Brendan O'Neill of The Telegraph (http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/brendanoneill2/100115868/the-campaign-to-stamp-out-misogyny-online-echoes-victorian-efforts-to-protect-women-from-coarse-language/) accuses all those who would view censorship…
In the peer-reviewed online journal First Monday ( http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/3086/2589 ), Eszter Hargittai notes that young users of Facebook are savvier about protecting their privacy than is commonly feared. However, Facebook has been under a lot of scrutiny lately, related to the site's privacy options and default settings. According to an article appearing in the online Wall Street Journal, ( http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204224604577030383745515166.html ) "Facebook Inc. is close to a settlement with the U.S. government over charges that it misled users about its use of their personal information, the latest sign of widening public concern over privacy in the digital age." Hargittai champions personal responsibility and empowerment: which is far more useful in preventing privacy breaches than government intervention.
With a new Facebook phone ( http://www.itworld.com/it-managementstrategy/227281/facebook-phone-buffy-privacy-slayer ), set to reach markets, consumers are understandably suspicious about the pervasiveness of the social networking tool. Just how far are we willing to allow social networking to monitor our interests, beliefs, and ways of life? Facebook presents an interesting conundrum: we get more out of our Facebook interactions and friendships if we share more about ourselves; yet the more we share, the more of our lives becomes free fodder for marketing companies.
Savvy users of Facebook, like the young men and women participating in Hargittai's study, know how to restrict who sees what on their Facebook profile. It is up to the individual to make the privacy setting changes that are most appropriate to the user. Instead of crying about how a company wants to make money, Facebook members should learn about the Web tools they use on a daily basis.
emergence of the Hollywood Production Code and the PCA
Motion pictures production codes emerged in the 1930's and referred to as the Hays codes after ill hays who was the censor chief at Hollywood during this time. The production codes governed the production of motion pictures in the United States by major studios at the time. The motion pictures production code can be referred to as a set of moral censorship rules that governed the motion picture industry. The codes were adapted by the Motion Pictures Association of America in 1930, commenced enforcing the code in 1934 and deserted them in 1968. The association then adapted Motion Pictures Association of Americas film rating systems which are effective to date. The work of the association was to determine what was morally acceptable in the content produced by American production studios. The code of ethics protected the public audience from images that…
Doherty, Thomas P. Hollywood's Censor: Joseph I. Breen and the Production Code Administration. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. Print.
Kiszely, Philip. Hollywood Through Private Eyes: The Screen Adaptation of the American Private Detective Novel During the Studio Era. Oxford: Lang, 2003. Print.
Phillips, Kendall R. Controversial Cinema: The Films That Outraged America. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Praeger, 2008. Print.
In today's world, a code of ethics is vitally important to navigate the complex systems that make up society and business. In business particularly, a code of ethics serves as a guideline for maintaining good relationships with customers and business partners. Where the appropriate ethical viewpoint becomes murky, a clear code of ethics can assist in decision making, especially where business relationships are concerned. In the case of Google's 2010 announcement that it was likely to leave China, there were several cases of murky ethical waters to navigate. This is not only so of its direct business relationship with the host country, China, but also the one with its worldwide customers and other interested parties. While Google may have had sound ethical grounds for its announcement, the way in which it handled the aftermath of the announcement might be considered somewhat rocky where ethics are concerned.
Acohido, B. (2010, Jan. 13). Google stops short of fingering China for cyber attacks. USA Today. Retrieved from: http://content.usatoday.com/communities/technologylive/post/2010/01/googles-statement-stops-short-of-fingering-chinese-government-for-cyber-attacks/1#.T2MvcxHxrYQ
Efrati, A. And Chao, L. (2012, Jan. 12) Google Softens Tone on China. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203436904577155003097277514.html
Children and Media
Technology surrounds everything that children participate in nowadays. From using computers to watching television, the media influences children in just about every activity that they are a part of. The mainstream and social media have had a great impact on the behavior of children, as they are consistently exposed to numerous forms of the media at all times. As technology advances and children are more and more prone to watching television and participating in activities over the Internet, children will always be affected by how the media is presented to them. It can be difficult to shelter children from the growing media influence, however, the effects of this phenomenon on both the psychological and cognitive development of children need to be analyzed and considered (Christakis & Zimmerman, 2009).
Social life has been completely revolutionized due to the existence of the Internet and the development of social media.…
Anderson, D.R. & Hanson, K.G. (2009). Children, media, and methodology. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1204-1219.
Bargh, J.A. & McKenna, K.Y.A. (2003). The internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychology. 55, 573-590.
Chau, C. (2010). YouTube as a participatory culture. New Directions for Youth Development. 2010(128), 65-74.
Christakis, D.A. & Zimmerman, F.J. (2009). Young Children and media: Limitations of current knowledge and future directions for research. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1177-1185.
Facebook is still banned in China, which took initiatives in 2009 to quell any sort of protest or governmental opposition sparked by social media sites like Facebook. Facebook is not the only Western site to be banned in China. Moreover, it has essentially a lookalike Chinese competitor known as Renren, which is a social media site that operates just like Facebook but complies with the Chinese government’s regulations with regard to the filtering of content posted on the site (Darwell, 2012). China’s government is very concerned about regulating content published on the Internet since this is such an impactful platform for communicating and spreading information in the Digital Age. For a government that wants total control of every aspect of the country’s life, allowing Facebook to have the freedom to come in and allow users to post whatever content they want without regulating or filtering it would be like allowing…
Baker (2006) reports that Google has worked hard to balance its entrance into the restrictive media market that is China with its own values. Baker defends this balance by reporting that "the company's contention that it believes it furthers its mission more by being present in China than it does by not is at least a rational response to a set of unpalatable choices." (Baker, 1) Other sources have not been as forgiving, arguing instead that Google's censorship of its search returns according to the demands of the Chinese government is active participation in the repression of information freedom. This denotes that even where a company presents itself as desiring to behave in a responsible and socially conscious way, a certain scale of success can make this an increasingly difficult achievement.
Microsoft has received similar criticism for its attempts at entering into the Chinese software market. However, the bulk of…
Amaria, K. (2007). Giving and Reaping… Microsoft's CSR Offensive. Digicom 4 Social Change.
Baker, M. (2006). Google's Growing Pains. Mallenbaker.net.
China CSR. (201). Google Faces Corporate Social Responsibility Problem in China. ChinaCSR.com.
Cockaday, J. (2004). CSR, Google and Philanthropy. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
Blogs on Business Communications
Business communications is a field that has drawn the interest of theorists and practitioners interested in improving the results of communication within the business activity. Communications in business has significantly evolved and changed throughout the decades. Business communications is also influenced by technological advancements. The Internet has improved the way individuals communicate in their business or private lives.
Therefore, technology plays an important role in the development of business communications. This refers to the quality of communications, but also to its efficiency. The impact of successful communication can be mostly observed on the success of the company or organization in case. In order to be successful, companies must focus on improving their communication style (Nielsen, 2013). This means that they must invest in technology developments, but also in the know how required in order to efficiently use these technologies in their attempt to improve communication.
1. Nielsen, L. (2013). Importance of Communication in the Business World. Retrieved July 28, 2013 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/importance-communication-business-world-2877.html .
2. The Benefits of Instant Messaging for Your Business (2013). National Federation of Independent Business. Retrieved July 29, 2013 from http://www.nfib.com/business-resources/business-resources-item?cmsid=54733 .
A in millions)
Current in millions)
Provided by Federal ureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006. www.whitehouse.gov/goodbye/3ae6b1ac94aa97e6650780f280890a7c81100e47.html"
CHART: National Correctional Populations
National Correctional Populations
The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.
A in millions)
Current million in millions)
Provided by ureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics riefing Room, 2006)
Violence in the Media
Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. ig World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)
41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).
56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)
Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend…
Alter, Jonathan. "Moving Beyond the Blame Game. (Panel Discussion)," Newsweek, May 17, 1999.
Beyer, John. "PERSPECTIVE: How movie and TV violence hits children; Is there too much violence on television and is it time to curb it? John Beyer, director of the organization mediawatch-uk argues that media viol," Birmingham Post, March 21, 2007.
Chatfield, Joanne E.. "Influence of Media Violence on Children." American Family Physician, February 15, 2002.
Children's Hospital Boston. "Teen-Rated Video Games Loaded With Violence;
Next, the researcher will conduct a query of the computer awareness of education administrators, teachers, parents, and students in the New Orleans school district, then evaluation of documented data will provide a research base of the required elements needed to consider while developing a framework that can be used as a guide by educational leaders and parents for the protection of children at school and at home. esearch areas will include law enforcement agencies, various information systems security sites that provide security solutions that can be implemented in schools and in the home, other avenues of research will include interviews with a multitude of technical personnel proficient in hardware, software and network technology utilized for computer security.
The purpose of this dissertation is to provide recommendations from experienced practitioners of detailed, hands on instruction or guides that even the computer illiterate parent or senior caregiver can use to…
Atkinson, E.N. (1995). Interactive dynamic graphics for exploratory survival analysis. The American Statistician, 49(1), 77.
Barker, C., & Groenne, P. (1996). Advertising on the World Wide Web. [online]. Available: http://www.samkurser.dk/advertising/research.htm[1998, April 6].
Bever, T.G., Smith, M.L., Bengen, B., & Johnson, T.G. (1975). Young viewers' troubling response to TV ads. Harvard Business Review, 54, 109-120.
Cai, X., & Gantz, W. (2000). Online privacy issues associated with Web sites for children. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44(2), 197.
Lastly, I would just like to know what approaches are out there. Everybody has his or her own idea, but I want to know what works for other people. Some will argue against any serious ethical principles at all, some will make ethics a central part of their company. For me, I know that I have to choose a market-based approach, so I am definitely curious to learn about the different theories and models that can help me not only know more, but contextualize that knowledge better.
Kwek, G. (2010). Google Street View controversy takes a bizarre twist. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://www.smh.com.au/technology/technology-news/google-street-view-controversy-takes-a-bizarre-twist-20101125-18814.html
Carmody, T. (2012). Google co-founder: China, Apple, Facebook threaten 'open web'. ired/CNN. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://edition.cnn.com/2012/04/16/tech/web/google-sergey-brin/
Entrepreneur. (2008). Anita Roddick. Entrepreneur Magazine. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/197688
Entrepreneur. (2008). Larry Page and Sergey Brin. Entrepreneur Magazine. Retrieved April…
Kwek, G. (2010). Google Street View controversy takes a bizarre twist. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://www.smh.com.au/technology/technology-news/google-street-view-controversy-takes-a-bizarre-twist-20101125-18814.html
Carmody, T. (2012). Google co-founder: China, Apple, Facebook threaten 'open web'. Wired/CNN. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://edition.cnn.com/2012/04/16/tech/web/google-sergey-brin/
Entrepreneur. (2008). Anita Roddick. Entrepreneur Magazine. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/197688
Entrepreneur. (2008). Larry Page and Sergey Brin. Entrepreneur Magazine. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/197848
Essentially, securing the electronic frontier is very critical because of the potential harms that cyber crime and fraud cause to individual, businesses and nations as a whole.
One of the effective strategies that could be employed to secure the electronic frontier is the collaboration of the government with the private and public organizations. Increasing number of governments has implemented method to secure the electronic frontier without success. Since corporate organizations are more equipped to counter IT threats than the government, a collaboration of the government with organizations will be more effective.
Moreover, the international organizations such as the United Nations should also play effective roles in securing electronic frontier. The United Nation should make a law to ensure that all member nations are obliged to secure electronic transfer in their respective nations since lack of cross-border treaties for data sharing is creating havoc to corporate organizations. Essentially, some countries such…
Berkowitz, B. & Hahn, R.W. (2003).Cyber-security: Who's Watching Store? Issue of Science and Technology.
Goel, S. (2011). Cyberwarfare: Connecting the Dots in Cyber Intelligence. Communications of the ACM. 54 (8): 132-140.
Rosenzweig, P. (2012). The International Governance Framework for Cybersecurity. Canada-United States Law Journal.37 (1).
War coverage-Media obsession
To argue about the role of media in our lives would be only redundant since we already know and acknowledge the influence of media over our perception of the world. How the various news media including newspapers, television, radio and more recently Internet affect our thinking and shape our perception requires some close analysis of the way these agencies gather and present news. There is an interesting process that works behind the seemingly simple task of news presentation. For one the media is almost always biased regardless of how they defend their impartiality. We must remember that journalists are capable of molding our perception because they have a certain hidden agenda and if they were unbiased in their opinion, they would have had little impact on our thinking. In an unbiased news piece, it is up to the viewer or reader to decide whom he would side…
Stuart Allan, News Culture. Open University Press: Buckingham 1999
William V. Kennedy, The Military and the Media: Why the Press Cannot Be Trusted to Cover a War.: Praeger Publishers. Westport, CT. 1993.
The Washington Times. Lynch, West and Common Sense. November 23, 2003. B05.
Christopher Hanson, American Idol: The Press Finds the War's True Meaning. Columbia Journalism Review. Volume: 42. Issue: 2. July-August 2003, 58+.
Counter-Terrorism and Social Media: Freedom vs. Security
The United States prides itself to being the most democratic nation of the world, with the highest respect for the human being, for its values, norms, and dreams. At the same time, before 9/11, it was also considered to be one of the safest nations of the world. The attacks on the World Trade Center towers, in particular pointed out that there are gaps in security and that even the United States represent a vulnerable target. Since then, the security measures have been seriously increased, in certain areas of expertise; security rules have been created if they did not exist. All these measures fueled a constant debate on whether the security that has been increased affects or not the liberties and freedoms of the American population.
On May 1st 2011, Osama bin Laden has been announced dead by the U.S. President, arack Obama…
CNN Wire Staff. (2011) "Bin Laden killing caps decade-long manhunt." CNN Asia. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/05/02/bin.laden.dead/index.html?hpt=T2
Cook, Martin L. (2001) Ethical Issues in Counterterrorism Warfare. Department of Command, Leadership, and Management. U.S. Army War College. May 3, 2011 http://ethics.sandiego.edu/Resources/PhilForum/Terrorism/Cook.html
Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Michigan Dept. Of State Police v. Sitz. 1990. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0496_0444_ZS.html
Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Terry v. Ohio. 1967. May 3, 2011 http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0392_0001_ZS.html
Ethics in Cyberspace
Summary of the Book- the Ethics of Cyberspace by Cees Hamelink
Cees Hamelink is not new in the field of study of the principles relating to the communicating world and their association with civil liberties of mankind. Hamelink has accumulated his skills and views on all fields of communication and authored a book on the ways that most of the democratic society need to be resorted to in order to systematize the cyberspace. Hamelink, in his previous publications, attempted to evaluate the products, system and institutions of traditional industries vis-a-vis the morality of the people and liberty of mankind with a view to identifying these industries firmly and intentionally amidst as well as accountable to the civil society worldwide. He proved both of them to be essential. The book asserts of the facts that the control of the cyberspace worldwide should be guided by the public necessity…
Cerf, Vint; et; al (2003). "Who Rules the Net: Internet Governance and Jurisdiction" Cato
Edgar, Stacey L. (1997) "Morality and Machines: Perspectives on Computer Ethics, Jones and Bartlett Publications"
Featherstone, M; Burrows, R (1995) "Cyberspace, Cyberbodies, Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment" London. Sage.
Is the author clear in her objective? I would say she is absolutely certain of what she is talking about. Her intended audience is the average American who has recently been bombarded with threats of intrusion. The average American however is not living in constant fear, as government wants us to believe. Citizens are intelligent and aware enough to understand the limits of fear, the scope of government's authority and the impact of unnecessary intrusion.
What makes the essay better than other similar opinion pieces is author's dispassionate stance on the issue. She has the same concerns as everyone else but has presented them very objectively as to make the argument based more on logic than passion alone. The government has lately become very intrusive and not everyone welcomes this unwanted monitoring. In fact, most people resent it deeply because not only does it violate their constitutional rights, it…
Gelsey, Zara, Humanist, WHO'S READING OVER YOUR SHOULDER
Sep/Oct2002, Vol. 62 Issue
Media Institutions and Regulations:
A Discussion on the Twitter Phenomenon
Words change meaning all the time. Take, for example, awful. Today, it means something terrible, but it used to mean filled with awe (aweful). In this case, a different spelling has led to a different interpretation. Yet sometimes, the same word may mean the same exact thing, only in a completely different context. This refers to the example of Twitter. Traditionally, twitter as a verb meant to utter a succession of small, tremulous sounds, as a bird or to talk lightly and rapidly, especially of trivial matters. In this day and age, however, a mention of twitter will conjure up images of the phenomenon that the technological age has brought about. Yes, twitter can still mean trivial talk, even in this technological context, but most likely, it will refer to the information network that connects friends to coworkers and even…
"Beyond the dippy lingo, the idea that something intelligent, something worthy of mindshare, might occur in the space of 140 characters -- Twitter's parameters were set by what would fit in a text message on a phone -- seems unlikely. But it was clear […] the primary news platform was Twitter, with real-time annotation of the panels on stage and critical updates about what was happening elsewhere at a very hectic convention." [9: Carr, David. "Why Twitter Will Endure." New York Times, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/03/weekinreview/03carr.html ]
A further perusal of this particular article reflects further opinions, though similar ones, including the fact that the history of the internet suggests "cool" website that go in and out of style, and Twitter is one of those rare ones that are more likely to stay in style than go in and out.
Traditional media outlets are changing all over the world. From Facebook, to Twitter, to Flick, to Linkedin and many others, the new generation is putting its stamp on the vast landscape of information, its retrieval and dissemination. This is important to note, because this change comes with positives and negatives, some of which can harm humanity. However, it is also important to note the progress and the continuation of it, and promote such media outlets for the benefit of advancement.
Lawrence Sargent Hall's short story, The Ledge, is characterized by a devastating emotional pull, compelling prose, and vivid characterization. The Ledge won the O. Henry Award and been included in a number of anthologies. hile Hall's literary career was marked by great success of The Ledge and other writing, he also had successful academic, public service and naval careers.
Lawrence Sargent Hall's life was marked by his notable academic career, his services in the navy, and his writing career. Born in 1915 April 23, 1915, in Haverhill, Massachusetts, Hall graduated from Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine in 1936. He then went on to teach from 1935-1938 at Deerfield Academy at Deerfield, Massachusetts. After his tenure at Deerfield, Hall obtained his Ph.D. from Yale in 1941. He then taught at Yale in 1946, and in Ohio University in Athens from 1941-1942. In 1946, he became a professor of English…
Bernard, Andre. 2004. Best Stories of the Century? Not Quite, but Close Enough. New York Observer. |27 July 2004. http://www.newyorkobserver.com/pages/story.asp?ID=1159
Bowdoin Anthologies. Lawrence Sargent Hall Papers, 1938-1993. 27 July 2004. http://library.bowdoin.edu/arch/mss/lshg.shtml
May, Charles and Magill, Frank N. 2004. The Ledge. In: Masterplots II: Short Story Series, Volume 4. Salem Press, p. 2309.
Hall, Lawrence Sargent. The Ledge. Available online at http://www.bilinguist.com/data/hy03/messages/112644.html
Metrics, Implementation, and Enforcement (Security Governance)
How can you determine whether there has been a malware outbreak?
The threat situation today has become more dangerous than in the past. Security and safety threats have been increasing in an alarming rate; there are more than 70,000 brand new bits of malware recognized daily. Well-funded cybercriminals have been currently making advanced malware that has been made to bypass present security options by launching prior to the operating-system and then evading antivirus defence (Mitre, 2012). Consequently, danger vulnerability has hit unprecedented degrees that need a brand new method of security and safety. With built-in security and safety options from McAfee as well as Intel, one might gain an additional layer of safety that is effective aside from the operating-system to avoid attacks instantly whilst successfully managing security over to a system of endpoints. These revolutionary options gather world-class processor chip technologies from Intel…
McAfee Labs (Q1 2012).
Intel IT Centre. (2012). Planning Guide: Preventing Stealthy Threats with Next-Generation Endpoint Security -- A Proactive Approach from Intel and McAfee. Intel IT and McAfee.
Mitre. (2012). Standardizing Cyber Threat Intelligence Information with the Structured Threat Information eXpression (STIX). Mitre Corporation.
Jones, D.R. (2011). Managing Cyber Threats Risk Management & Insurance Solutions. Roach Smith and Howard Burton.