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Internet Censorship Essays (Examples)

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Internet Luring and Pedophiles
Words: 1537 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9985549
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Internet Luring and Pedophiles

hile criminals have been escaping justice on the basis of technicalities for decades, when it comes to sexual predators of children using the Internet, some judges are blazing new trails into the terrain of protecting the criminals and punishing the victims, and diminishing the results of police work as well. In Maryland, recently, a judge "overturned the conviction of a man arrested after he traveled to meet with a state trooper who had posed online as a teen-age girl. The judge said the trooper did not meet the criteria of a victim." (Drake 2001)

To say that sting operation resulted in a big zero is putting it mildly. The predator was not only free to lure victims again; he could be pretty certain he'd get away with it because it was unlikely, at least in Maryland, that the 'victim' would be an undercover cop.

No wonder…

Works Cited

Docherty, Alan. "Don't shoot the messenger." New Statesman 19 Aug. 2002: 15.

Drake, John. "Anti-pedophile unit prowls the Web. The Washington Times. May 29, 2001. Page Number: 4.

Fagan, Amy. "Lawmen ask help on online pedophiles: Schools, parents urged to join fight against Internet predators." The Washington Times 8 Nov. 1997: 3.

Hersh, Melanie L. "Is COPA a cop out? The Child Online Privacy Protection Act as proof that parents, not government should be protecting children's interests on the Internet." Fordham Urban Law Journal 28.6 (2001): 1831+.

Has the Internet Democratized Our Society
Words: 3588 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40316197
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Internet and Democracy

In one sense, computers and the Internet are just a continuation of the communications revolution, starting with the printing press then continuing with the telegraph, telephone, motion pictures, radio and television. Could this be leading to a more fundamental change in history on the same level as the agricultural and industrial revolutions? This is a more problematic proposition. Of course, the idea of a post-industrial economy based on services and high technology dates back to the 1960s, although some visionaries had an inkling of it even in the 19th Century. Skills and education that were valuable in an industrial economy have become obsolete in the new system, although this has happened before in the history of capitalism. Society has changed relatively little from the era before the computer age, with only a few exceptions, such as the use of computers to speed up financial transactions and in…

REFERENCE LIST

Agre, P.E. And D. Schuler, (eds.). (1997) Reinventing Technology, Rediscovering Community: Critical Explorations of Computing as a Social Practice. Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Alavi, N. (2005). We Are Iran. Brooklyn, NY: Soft Skull Press, Inc.

Baase, S. (2009). A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues in Computing, 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall.

Barglow, R. (1994). The Crisis of the Self in the Age of Information: Computers, Dolphins and Dreams. Routledge.

Why Censorship Is Viewed as a Positive
Words: 2379 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 68200033
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Internet Censorship in China, South Africa and the est

Internet censorship in China, South Africa and other countries is something that prohibits real discussion from taking place regarding issues that affect the public. For instance, in China, certain key word searches are automatically filtered out so that users cannot find the information they are seeking. hile Internet censorship may be good from one perspective (in terms of stemming the flow of child pornography, curbing false information, or putting a nation's interests first), it can be viewed as bad from another perspective (in terms of cutting down on the opportunity to inform sides of a dialogue, promoting free exchange of ideas, or discussing why one form of pornography is allowed but not another). This paper will show why Internet censorship can be interpreted in both positive and negative ways depending on the perspective that one adopts (whether one is pro-Statist or…

Works Cited

Bitso, Constance. "Internet Censorship In South Africa: A Brief Expose Of Negative and Positive Trends." South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science 80.1 (2014): 41-51. Academia Search Complete.

Carr, Madeline. "Internet Freedom, Human Rights and Power." Australian Journal of International Affairs 67.5 (2013): 621-637. Academia Search Complete.

Casavant, L., Robertson, J. "The Evolution of Pornography Law in Canada."

Parliament of Canada, 2015.

Internet Privacy for High School Students
Words: 12595 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31900441
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Internet Privacy for High School Students

The unrestrained stream of information is conceived necessary for democracies and market-based economies. The capability of the Internet to make available the vast quantity of information to practically everyone, irrespective of their locations thus entails large benefits. The Internet provides access to the greatest libraries of the world to the students even in the smallest towns and permit the medical specialists to analyze the patients situated about thousands of miles away. The attribute of interactivity of the Internet fosters communication and personal and political expression. The Internet also assists to make the economies progress as it enhances the ease, speed and cost effectiveness with regard to the collection, compilation and delivery around the world to the multiple extent. The electronic commerce will decline the business costs as companies are able to take the benefits of enhanced access to customers, products and suppliers worldwide along…

References

Baskin, Joy Surratt; Surratt, Jim. "Student Privacy Rights and Wrongs on the Web" School Administrator. Vol: 35; No: 2; pp: 102, 114-116

Beth Givens, (February 2000) "Privacy Expectations in a High Tech World" Computer and High Technology Law Journal. Retrieved from  http://www.privacyrights.org/ar/expect.htm  Accessed on 14 April, 2005

'Board Policy with Guidelines Date Subject: Student Technology Acceptable Use Policy" (17 July, 2001) North Sanpete School District Policy. Number V-30. Retrieved from http://www.nsanpete.k12.ut.us/~nshs/nslibrary/accuse.html Accessed on 14 April, 2005

Brooks-Young, Susan. (November-December, 2000) "Internet usage update" Today's Catholic Teacher. Vol: 17: No: 2; pp: 53-56

Anonymity on the Internet
Words: 1257 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51267260
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Anonymity in the Internet

Anonymity on the Internet

Limit anonymity for Internet critics- by Edward Wasserman (Journalism Ethics)

I agree with the standing decision of channeling providers of network services to strengthen the way they manage information that the users publish. This suggests that privatized Internet censorship should be done by companies providing network services. All service providers across the world must responsibly restrict access to a wide variety of illegal content described broadly and enacted in order to restrict hate speech. This should reflect the position of the official government: it must incorporate information, which the government considers very politically sensitive. This move was made to strengthen efforts of increased pressure suppressing private companies to limit the further use of search engines, social media, and key online other tools.

Additionally, companies must be able to provide the virtual private networks evading the great boundaries of identification policy on expansion…

Chinese Internet Culture Decades After the Reforms
Words: 1760 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51116937
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Chinese Internet Culture

Decades after the reforms of Deng Xiaoping known as the "Four Modernizations," "a focus on development of agriculture, industry, science and technology and the military" (The University of Michigan. N.D.); China in 2011, grapples with the multiple dilemmas of internet information access, personal freedom, and government control over content. The rise of digital media, web access, and information availability over the past two decades has spread around the globe encompassing the world's second largest economy. As economic freedom continues to slowly evolve in China, so too does the call from its citizens for unfettered access to internet technology and content become more pervasive. The Chinese internet culture is particularly fascinating due to this inherent dichotomy between government control over content and individual demands for information access. How China's leadership confronts the challenges of information dissemination will be critical to China's long-term economic, social, and political future.

March…

References

Bristow, M. (June 8, 2010). China Defends Internet Censorship. BBC News. Retrieved January 4, 2011 from  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8727647.stm 

Carr, D. (March 28, 2010). Not Creating Content. Just Protecting it. The New York

Times. Retrieved January 4, 2011 from  http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/29/business/media/29carr.html?_r=1&ref=sergeybrin 

CNN: Larry King Live. (June 5, 2005). Encore Presentation: An Interview with Richard

Use of Content Filters on Internet in High School
Words: 14424 Length: 42 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61344044
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Internet has grown exponentially since its first introduction to the public. The precursor to the Internet was the ARPANET. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the Department of Defense (Carlitz and Zinga, 1997) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) were the primary creators of the ARPANET. Subsequently however, efforts from private entities and universities have helped develop the network infrastructure, as it exists today. "The goals of ARPA's 'Resource Sharing Computer Network' project were to develop the technology for and demonstrate the feasibility of a computer network while improving communication and collaboration between research centers with grants from ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO)." (Press, 1996) J.C.R. Licklider of MIT undertook groundbreaking work in developing computer interactivity. Later, he implemented his vision though time-sharing systems-affordable interactive computing. The effort of the NSF also helped to distribute the features of this new networking capability to all major universities and research…

Bibliography

Ansari, Asim, Skander Essegaier, and Rajeev Kohli. "Internet Recommendation Systems." Journal of Marketing Research 37.3 (2000).

Bannan, Karen J. "Clean It Up." PC Magazine 20.16 (2001).

Beguette, Glenda, et al. Internet Content Filtering and Cipa Legislation. 2002. Available: http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/tsullivl/469Sp02/filtering.html. June 26, 2005.

Bell, Bernard W. "Filth, Filtering, and the First Amendment: Ruminations on Public Libraries' Use of Internet Filtering Software." Federal Communications Law Journal 53.2 (2001): 191-238.

U S Government Should Not Regulate the Internet
Words: 2199 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86424
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U.S. government should not regulate the Internet. One important reason is that it would go against the nations' right to freedom of speech. The government has used a number of reasons to support its quest for regulation, such as protecting children, yet it has ignored the fact that there are other methods to control harmful and illegal material online without hindering the Internet's growth and capabilities.

This paper will show that it would be impossible for any single government or nation to completely regulate the Internet, because by nature, the Internet is resistant to control and regulation.

The Internet was created by the defense-related ARPANET project, which was a communications tool for the United States government in the late 1960's linking a decentralized system of computers that could resist a nuclear attack (Copeland, et al.). Today, this tool, which was once viewed as little more than an emergency fallback system,…

Works Cited

Clinton: Technology is the answer." 16 July 1997. CNET News.com. Nov. 18, 1998. Retrieved Dec. 2 at  http://www.news.com/News/Item/0,4,12492,00.html 

Copeland, Johanna. Pinter, Edward, Witmeyer, John. Internet Regulation. Ford Marrin Esposito Witmeyer & Gleser, 2002.

Family-Friendly Internet Access Act of 1997. Thomas - U.S. Congress on the Internet. Nov 18, 1998. Retrieved Dec. 2 at http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z-c105:H.R.1180:

Greenfeld, Karl Taro. "Meet the Napster." Time Oct. 2, 2000, pp. 60-73.

Strategic Plan Our Business Is an Internet
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69217876
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Strategic Plan

Our business is an Internet sales business. Mission, vision and values contribute to defining what that business is, who its target market is and how the business model is going to work. As Radtke (1998) notes, every organization has a purpose for being. That purpose drives most of what the organization does. Thus, the mission statement should provide a clear sense of mission for the company to follow. In creating an online retailer, the mission statement should read something like this:

"Our mission is to provide luxury goods and high-end service to wealthy customers around the world, using an online sales model."

A mission statement like that tells all the stakeholders of the company what we do, who our customers are and how we are going to do it. The mission statement needs to have that level of clarity in order that it continues to guide the organization's…

Internet Site
Words: 1022 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67975442
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censorship of the Internet, especially of pornographic materials, is a topic that can be easily resolved is being naive. This is a complicated issue with enough gray areas to be thoroughly debated and to demand that comprehensive information from both sides be studied. Freedom of speech has always been a thorny subject, and it becomes no easier when considering the Internet that can be accessed by individuals of all ages and backgrounds from around the world.

Most of the websites dealing with this topic are slanted in one way or another based on the political, religious or moral stance of the URL's authors. It is refreshing, then, when a writer takes a stab at equally presenting arguments for and against online pornographic censorship. The website "Pornography and the Internet in the United States" (http://www.slais.ubc.ca/courses/libr500/fall1999/www_presentations/c_hogg/print.htm) was written by Charles Hogg as part of an assignment for Library Studies 500: Foundations of…

Bibliography and Checklist."

Website visited 22/4/03.

A www.unc.edu/cit/guides/irg-49.html.

Internet or The Network of
Words: 2448 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55928678
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As it may be inferred from the examples above, the U.S.A. is the leader when talking about online campaigns. Other countries' experiences may look poor in comparison with the American giant even if we invoke the cases of famous European democracies like Germany.

First of all, this country has a parliamentary system which explains why the parties and not the candidates are those who maintain sites. Therefore, Americans enjoy a more personal virtual relationship while Germans are only entitled to a rather collectivist approach. Despite having access to contact information, biographies, details about platforms, the party is the one which counts to a higher degree. ut this seems to be the only major difference between the two countries' web sites as their main goal is providing information, an aim that has received the highest rank from Germans, on a four-point scale.

Still, unlike American candidates who are beginning to understand…

Bibliography

1. Bandler, J., Bulkeley, M., 2004. Dean Campaign Made Payments To Two Bloggers, The Wall Street Journal, [Online], Available at  http://users2.wsj.com/lmda/do/checkLogin?mg=wsj-users2&url=http%3A%2F%2Fonline.wsj.com%2Farticle%2FSB110566243803425942.html ,[2006, December 17].

2. Brownlow, M., 2006. What is email marketing?, Email Marketing Reports, [Online], Available at http://www.email-marketing-reports.com/intro.htm,[2006, December 17]

3. Caldwell, F., 2001. E-Voter Institute Study Shows the Emergence of E-Politics, [Online], Available at  http://www.gartner.com/resources/103000/103066/103066.pdf ,[2006, December 17].

4. DeYoung, B., 1988. What's Relationship Marketing?, Journal of Extension, [Online], Available at  http://www.joe.org/joe/1988fall/a9.html ,[2006, December 17].

Internet on Society the Internet
Words: 2380 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17801454
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"

Lutge-Smith, T.)

There are various expert views and statistics to support the positive influence of the Internet on education. A survey conducted by Pew Internet & American Life indicates that 86% of U.S. college students use the Internet. The study states that students perceive the Internet as essential to their academic lives. "While close on 80% of college students in the United States claim that the medium has had a positive impact on their college academic experience, about 73% use the Internet more than the library for research." (ibid) According to Draves, online learning is being increasingly recognized as a valid learning delivery system. "The number of part time students in higher education, to name just one educational system, now outnumbers full time students. The number of colleges offering online courses last year soared to over 1,000, and the number is growing. Online graduate programs and certificate programs have…

Bibliography

Ebo, Bosah, ed. Cyberghetto or Cybertopia?: Race, Class, and Gender on the Internet. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998.

Hurlbert, W. Business Blogs Are Catching on 2005. Accessed May 4, 2005

Jones, G. Ask the Expert. May 6, 2005.  http://www2.cio.com/ask/expert/2000/questions/question1307.html?CATEGORY=5&NAME=Customer%20Relationship%20Management 

Lutge-Smith, T. How the Internet will change society: new predictions. May 7, 2005.  http://www.klixxx.com/archive/internetsociety.shtml

Internet and Its Impact on Our Lives
Words: 2828 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88203949
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Sociology and the Internet

The rise of the Internet has been one of the most significant events of the recent past. It has effected society in a massive range of ways, with few people being unaffected by the Internet. The following paper will consider how the Internet has impacted society from a social psychology perspective. With this focus, it will be shown that the Internet has impacted the way people interact with information, has given people greater control over their own lives, has increased the social support available to people, has impacted media and communication, and has created greater censorship issues.

The Internet has resulted in a major change in how people respond and interact with information. Hammerich and Harrison describe the online reader saying,

Online readers are in a big hurry. esearch shows that they hop, skip, and jump over text; avoid fluff such as promotional writing, logos, and…

References

Graham, A., & Davies, G. Broadcasting, Society and Policy in the Multimedia Age. Luton: University of Luton Press, 1997.

Hammerich, I., & Harrison, C. Developing Online Content: The Principles of Writing and Editing for the Web. New York: Wiley, 2002.

McQuail, D. Audience Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1997.

Meyrowitz, J. "The Separation of Social Space from Physical Place." The Media Studies Reader. Eds. Tim O'Sullivan & Yvonne Jewkes. London: Edward Arnold Ltd., 1997.

Internet Privacy
Words: 5412 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 82789036
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Filter Bubble

A Review of hat the Internet Is Hiding From You

This paper reviews the book, The Filter Bubble: hat the Internet is Hiding from You, by Eli Pariser. The purpose of this paper is to analyze this book in an attempt to determine where the future of the internet is headed. The Filter Bubble begins with an overview of how Google began customizing its search results for intent users in 2009 and the results of that customization. The author hypothesizes that the future of the net is personalization. This is the undertone of the entire work. Follow up pieces by the Economist, including several supporting articles, suggest that personalization is indeed the future of the internet. These articles, while not cited by page number as they are online, do show that personalization is occurring. This however, is leading to decreased privacy over the web. This is a primary…

Works Cited

Alexander, Christopher, Sara Ishikawa, and Murray Silverstein.. A Pattern Language: Towns, buildings, construction. New York: Oxford University Press. 1977.

Battelle, John. The Search: How Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. New York: Portfolio, 2005.

"Black hates, grey hairs. A shake-up in the hacker underground and fresh attacks suggest change is coming up to computer security." Aug 6, 2011. The Economist. Retrieved:  http://www.economist.com/node/21525372 

"Breaching the great firewall. Home-grown micro blogs are succeeding where Twitter failed."

Department of Censorship the Internet and Schools
Words: 985 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39291110
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Censorship, the Internet, and Schools

Describe two implications for schools from the CIPA policy rulings, and two reasons for opposition to the policy

The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) was legislated in the year 2000, obliging public schools and libraries to set up specific technology that restricts internet access to graphic depictions that are indecent, child pornography, or detrimental to minors (Finsness, 2008). One of the implications of these policy rules is that it infringes on intellectual freedom. This is in the sense that it goes against the First Amendment, as intellectual freedom is the right of every person to seek as well as receive information from all perspectives devoid of limitation. Secondly, there is the implication of impacting the capability of students to gain access to information they require for school (Finsness, 2008). Being in a fast-paced technological area and with students having to attain such skills for writing…

References

Batch, K. R. (2014). Fencing Out Knowledge: Impacts of the Children's Internet Protection Act 10 Years Later. American Library Association, Policy Brief No. 5.

Finsness, L. S. (2008). The implications of internet filters in secondary schools (Doctoral dissertation, UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA).

Flowers, B. F., & Rakes, G. C. (2000). Analyses of Acceptable Use Policies Regarding the Internet in Selected K -- 12 Schools. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32(3), 351-365.

Hu, Q. (2004). To Censor or Not to Censor at the School Library. State University of New York.

Opening an Internet Cafe in
Words: 4210 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59196205
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The net result is a growing digital divide in the secondary and tertiary cities of India, overlooked for Internet access, making the prospect of creating an Internet cafe in secondary, and often less expensive cities, more difficult.

The ADSL launch across India has been abnormally slow, and cable modem access is concentrated in the most wired cities and regions of the world, yet paradoxically there has not been a reduction in pricing of services due to government regulations. The nation-wide roll-out of ADSL throughout the most wired and affluent regions of India has been abnormally slow, hampered by the lack of infrastructure needed to complete the last mile cabling and integration across legacy telecommunications networks. This has led to a high growth rate in broadband adoption, specifically in the area of cable modem access, with 69% of all of India's cable access customers being in the Global High Income segment.…

References

AT Kearney (2006) -- Global Retail Development Index (GRDI). Emerging Market Priorities for Global Retailers. Accessed from the Internet on April 22, 2007 from location:  http://www.atkearney.com/shared_res/pdf/GRDI_2006.pdf 

Economist (2005) - "India: Business Environment at a Glance," Economist Intelligence Unit (18 April 2005).

Icon Group International (2000) - "Marketing and Distribution in India," Executive Report on Strategies in India (2000).

Glaser (2003) - Indian Cities on Verge of Restricting Access to Cyber Cafes. USC Annenberg Online Journalism Review. April 12, 2003. Accessed on April 22, 2007 from location: http://www.ojr.org/ojr/glaser/1070576918.php

Chip Censorship Vchip Significance
Words: 2391 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7676598
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Parents who are predisposed to limit children's exposure to violence will do so as a matter of course. Parents who don't feel that way, will not. Therefore, if parents can't be relied upon to police their children, then society must- because what social order wants to have violence-overloaded children heaving their criminal behavior upon it?

In the mid-1950's a Senate sub-committee began to investigate the "sources of the moral rot at the core of an otherwise flourishing postwar America," (Knox, 4). This committee looked at the comic book industry, movies, and particularly at television. While these efforts did little to nothing to curb interest in subjects considered to be anti-American, or "immoral," it does show the depth of time and effort that has been spent on this issue - at every level. However, over the course of time, television has become more liberal rather than less. So, in response, the…

References

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2007). Children and TV Violence. Online. Internet. Avail:

 http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_and_tv_violence.Acc : 12 Oct, 2007.

Duncan, P. (2006). Attractions to Violence and the Limits of Education. The Journal of Aesthetic Education. 40:4; 21-38.

Hornaday, a. (Aug 6, 2006) Parents Fret About Children's Entertainment. The Washington Post. Sunday Arts, N01.

Liberation vs Control in Cyberspace
Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68574002
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Liberation vs. Control in Cyberspace

Deibertt, Ronald & Rafal Rohozinski. "Liberation vs. control: The future of cyberspace."

Journal of Democracy, 21.4 (2010): 43-56

The Internet is a paradox. On one hand, You Tube and Twitter have been widely credited with creating a more open and liberated world, and giving rise to the Arab Spring and other global pro-democracy movements. Yet while the Internet facilitates communication, it also allows for a greater degree of control of ideas through surveillance. "Even in democratic countries, surveillance systems penetrate every aspect of life, as people implicitly (and perhaps unwittingly) consent to the greatest invasion of personal privacy in history" (Deibertt & Rohozinski 2010: 44). What is unique about the Internet is the degree to which people are complicit in sharing information, enabling themselves to be observed, not its 'liberated' aspects: users are completely unaware of the degree to which they are laying their lives…

Groups that have good intentions are often unaware of that websites can be used to propagate social malware attacks, and have few controls to prevent such abuses. "The advocacy group Reporters Without Borders unknowingly propagated a link to a malicious website posing as a Facebook petition to release the Tibetan activist Dhondup Wangchen" (Deibert & Rohozinski 2010: 54). Using the screen of a reputable group or even a government website can be a convenient screen for a hacker.

A nuanced understanding

The Internet is not inherently good or bad nor is it essentially 'free' by its very nature. Those who would behave in a coercive manner, whether criminals, governments, or corporations, can use the Internet just as easily to engage in surveillance and stifle freedom as it is for advocates of democracy to use it as a vehicle for liberation. The Internet is much more highly regulated than would appear on the surface, and one of its great dangers, in contrast to other forms of speech, is that users are not always aware of how and if they are being controlled, and by whom (Deibert & Rohozinski 2010: 56).

Social Media and the Red Shirt Revolution
Words: 4791 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 84158194
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Social Media and the ed Shirt evolution

Most scholars are in conflict with regard to the subject of revolution in the age of social media. Until now, revolution has been considered a top-down process. In Thai situation, things might have been different. The ed Shirt evolution in Thailand was one of the first of the "Twitter" revolutions, that is one that was fueled by social media and Web 2.0 technology. Since then, other revolutions have come as well. The lone citizen is now no longer on their own. The dissident in Chiang Mai now can commiserate with their brother or sister in Tahrir Square and plan revolution on a country to country or even on a global basis. Even as this writer types up a dissertation proposal, demonstrators coordinate strategy on a global basis to protest corporate greed. It is with this in mind that this study looks back at…

References

Bailey, M and Labovitz C (2011). Censorship and Co-option of the Internet Infrastructure. Ann Arbor,

MI: University of Michigan. p1-14.

Bajpai, K and Jaiswal, A (2011). A Framework for Analyzing Collective Action Events on Twitter.

Lisbon, Portugal: Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference. p1-10.

Ethical Challenges in International Business
Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38607783
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Leaving the Chinese market would mean, that company could take a major loss and it may affect the competitiveness of the firm in the global marketplace. That being said, this action would deal with the ethical dilemma, but at a high price. Working behind the scenes with the Chinese government, could mean that company officials, can slowly influence public policy on human rights. Where, government officials will not feel the public pressure to change. This could help to address the ethical dilemma. However, if these concerns are addressed in the wrong way, this could outrage the government. At which point, they could impose severe restrictions on the company.

Select the most appropriate action and justify it.

The most appropriate action that the company could take would be to: work from behind the scenes with the Chinese government. Where, there would be an emphasis on addressing this issue in non-confrontational way.…

Bibliography

Censorship in China. (2010). Amnesty International. Retrieved from  http://www.amnestyusa.org/business-and-human-rights/internet-censorship/page.do?id=1101572 

Who We Are. (2010). Amnesty International. Retrieved from  http://www.amnesty.org/en/who-we-are 

Maloney, L. (2008). Globe Trekkers. Multi-Family Executive. Retrieved from http://www.multifamilyexecutive.com/development/globe-trekkers-us-firms-expand-overseas.aspx

ACLU V Reno A Definitive Victory for
Words: 1937 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11702321
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ACLU v Reno:

A definitive victory for free speech

The First Amendment in the United States of America's Constitution is perhaps the hallmark of what current President ush refers to continually as our "freedom." It represents the fundamental difference between America and so many other countries that do not offer their citizens rights to freedom of speech, religion and the press.

Specifically, the First Amendment of the United States Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of religion and freedom of expression without government interference. See U.S. Const. amend. I. Within that, the concept of freedom of expression consists of the rights to freedom of speech, press, assembly and to petition the government for a redress of grievances, and the implied rights of association and belief. The Supreme Court and the lower courts interpret the extent of the protection afforded to these rights. The Supreme Court has interpreted the First Amendment…

Bibliography

ACLU v. Reno

Legal Information Institute, 2005

ACLU Press Release, 1996

Congresswoman Nan Hayworth Summit Court
Words: 553 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 26047299
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My brother has been unemployed for two years. He is not a moocher -- he works odd jobs and takes care of our ailing grandmother. But the economy in upstate New York has suffered a lot as the result of the financial meltdown. While the bankers on Wall Street continue to get richer and richer, ordinary people continue to struggling with the effects of their corrupt ways. Don't get me wrong -- I love what capitalism can do for us -- everything we take for granted today. But we a capitalist system that works for everybody.

Consider that real wages have flatlined since the 1970s, while the wealth of the richest 1% keeps growing exponentially. We want wage equality and equal rights for all Americans, not just wealthy ones. We want corporate money out of politics. Consider that the Supreme Court rulings that corporations are people (What?

) and that…

Functions of Leadership Are Described
Words: 4688 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79238998
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Leading

The leadership style at McDonald's relies on the three legs of the stool. For the most part, the innovation and vision part of the leadership process is with McDonald's head office, while the more autocratic style comes through the suppliers and the owner/operators, whose job it is to undertake the actions that will allow the company to implement strategy. The company has its own leadership school that helps to ensure all senior managers -- and many lower-level managers as well -- are trained in the leadership functions. Thus, there is a high level of congruence between the leadership training that different McDonald's leaders receive. This allows for the managers to work together better, but it also facilitates management at McDonald's all adhering to the same culture, and the same values.

Controlling

McDonald's is a pioneer in control. The company believes strongly in measurement as a means of helping to…

References:

Burrows, P., Grover, R., & Green, H. (2006). Steve Job's Magic Kingdom. New York. Business Week, February 6, 2006, Issue 3970,-page 62, retrieved on November 10, 2010 at:  http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_06/b3970001.htm 

David, Leonard. (2010). Commentary: The Last Pitchamn. Business Week online, June 10, 2010, retrieved November 10, 2010, at:  http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/10_25/b4183004440240.htm 

Koehn, Nancy F.. Fortune, 11/23/2009, Vol. 160 Issue 10, p110-114. Retrieved on June 1, 2012, at:  http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=1&hid=107&sid=538e793e-0fab-49ae-8e00-a24024452940%40sessionmgr113&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&an=45693823 

Wilson, J. (2010). Wanted: inspirational leaders. Business Week. Retrieved June 1, 2012 from  http://www.businessweek.com/managing/content/mar2010/ca2010039_438836.htm

Privacy for High School Students
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Internet: Privacy for High School Students

An Analysis of Privacy Issues and High School Students in the United States Today

In the Age of Information, the issue of invasion of privacy continues to dominate the headlines. More and more people, it seems, are becoming victims of identity theft, one of the major forms of privacy invasion, and personal information on just about everyone in the world is available at the click of a mouse. In this environment, can anyone, especially high school students, reasonably expect to have any degree of privacy? High school students, after all, are not protected by many of the same constitutional guarantees as adults, but their needs for privacy may be as great, or greater, than their adult counterparts. To determine what measure of privacy, if any, high schools students can expect at home and school today, this paper provides an overview of the issue of…

References

Alarming Number of Teens Addicted to the Internet. (2001, February 1). Korea Times, 3.

Albanes, R., Armitay, O., Fischer, B., & Warner, J. (1998). Marijuana, Juveniles, and the Police: What High-School Students Believe about Detection and Enforcement.

Canadian Journal of Criminology, 40(4), 401-20.

Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Information Technology IT and Society
Words: 2434 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 14559883
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Blogs and social networking have altered our daily usage of the Internet and the World Wide Web. Of that, we can be certain. But how exactly has this change evolved, and what specific effects is it having on Internet and Web usage patterns around the world? This paper addresses the history of blogs and social media, and shows their state of development now. This brief introduction will segue into a discussion of the various personal and professional applications for both blogging and social media. Additionally, sections on political applications and implications will round out the discussion on how social media and blogging have changed the ways people communicate and receive information. Finally, it would be remiss to ignore the confluence of hardware, software, coding, applications, and protocols that have led to revolutions in the ways people use their digital devices. Tablets and smartphones are the physical manifestations of the changes…

References

Barnes, S.B. (2006). A privacy paradox: Social networking in the United States. First Monday 11(9).

Boyd, D. (n.d.). Friends, Friendsters, and MySpace Top 8: Writing Community Into Being on Social Network Sites. CiteSeer. Retrieved online:  http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.79.5665 

Bryant, T. (2006). Social software in academia. Educase Quarterly. 2. 2006.

DiMicco, J., Millen, D.R., Geyer, W., Dugan, C., Brownholtz, B. & Muller, M. (2008). Motivations for social networking at work. In Proceedings of the 2008 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work. Pp. 711-720.

Mental and Phsyical Health Effects
Words: 2208 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7864555
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" (Wagner, 2000, p. 6)

As an almost limitless tool for advertisement, though some self censorship has recently occurred as more and more people reduce ad time by restricting adware and popup ads on their computer systems, the internet can ad to the most vile of physical, social and mental health state, especially in the young and impressionable.

For these reasons and more, it makes sense for everyone -- especially for children and young adults -- to consider how advertising can affect four basic types of health. First, it can affect our physical health. We may learn about a healthy practice or vitamin, but may also be prone to engaging in unhealthy activities, lulled by media depictions of glamorous smokers and drinkers, as well as by direct ads for tobacco and alcohol. Second, advertising can affect our emotional health by delivering media-imposed definitions of beauty, sexuality, maturity, and problem-solving. Advertising…

References

Fox, R.F. (2001, November). Warning Advertising May Be Hazardous to Your Health: Ads Pose a Threat to Physical, Emotional, Social, and Cultural Well-Being. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 130, 62-77.

Gattiker, U.E. (2001). The Internet as a Diverse Community: Cultural, Organizational, and Political Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Harris, L.M. (Ed.). (1995). Health and the New Media: Technologies Transforming Personal and Public Health. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hatfield, T.H., & Erbeck, G.W. (1997). The Internet: Legitimate Educational Tool or Giant Electronic Sandbox?. Journal of Environmental Health, 59(8), 19-25.

Global Media
Words: 1874 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45318100
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Censorship and Freedom of the Press

In 2009, Frank ainimarama, the self-appointed Prime Minister of Fiji said that freedom of speech causes trouble and is to blame for his country's political turmoil (AC News, 2009). This is only a small portion of controversial remarks and actions made by ainimarama surrounding the announcement made by President Iloilo stating the abrogation of Fiji's constitution, the dismissal of the judiciary, and the deferral of democratic elections until 2014 (Puppet show, 2009). Iloilo's decision, given its relationship to ainimarama's interim regime, which took power in a coup in 2006, being declared illegal by ruling of the Court of Appeals demanding that a neutral leader replace ainimarama immediately with dissolution of the existing government and elections to commence as soon as possible (Puppet show).

ainimarama expressed his grievance towards this decision by the Court and did not hesitate to ignore it as he showed up…

Bibliography

ABC News. (2009). Retrieved from  http://abcnews.go.com/ 

Alley, R. (2010). Fiji Under Bainimarama. Journal of Pacific History, 45(1), 145-153. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.

Dikotter, Frank. (1996, Winter). Culture, race, and nation: The formulation of national identity in 20th century China. International Affairs, 49(2), 592.

Evans, M. (2011). Exacerbating social cleavages: The media's role in Israel's religious-secular conflict. Middle East Journal, 65(2), 235-251.

Google and China Google Is
Words: 1418 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21349835
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Control over information access in a society is like control anything else, whether it is opium or food safety. Google's use of directing Google.cn users through to Google.co.hk is "fundamentally politically subversive," as Mr. David M. Lampton says. It an abuse of the principle that underlies Hong Kong's governance of "one country, two systems," (New York Times) and was an aggressive attack on Chinese sovereignty.

The counter-argument is that China should allow Google to keep its search engine open in Hong Kong so that Chinese mainlanders can have access to the breadth of information on par with what the rest of the world can access. This is the only way that China can engage in commerce with other countries. Google already posesses a third of China's search engine market share, and if Google just disappears, loyal Googlers will experience a setback in business operations. Google's exit from China could be…

Works Cited

"Baidu.com." Alexa.com: The Web Information Company. <  http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/baidu.com > Updated Accessed 22 April 2010.

Chi, Jin, and Lamb, Megan,. "China Mobile, Google Launch Cooperation: Creating Leading Mobile Search Service in China." Press release. Posted 1/04/2007 2. Accesed 17 April 2010 at 5:48pm PST. © Google, Inc.

Drummond, David, SVP. The Official Google Blog: Insights from Googlers into our products, technology, and the Google culture. "A new approach to China." Blog post. Posted1/12/2010 03:00:00 PM . Accessed 17 April 2010, 5:56pm PST. © 2009 Google, Inc.

Google Investor Relations. "Google Announces First Quarter 2010 Financial Results." 4/15/2010. Accessed 17 April 2010.

IT Ethics -- Annotated Bibliography Bowie Norman
Words: 2227 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 44165756
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IT Ethics -- Annotated Bibliography

Bowie, Norman E. (2005). Digital Rights and Wrongs: Intellectual Property in the Information

Age. Business and Society Review, 110(1), 77-96.

Norman Bowie takes great pains in his peer-reviewed article to point out what is legal an what is not legal when it comes to recording / taping from television and from the Internet. In fact Bowie uses an illegal issue (downloading music from the Internet)

to present a moral issue: young people and students know it is illegal to download copyrighted music and movies, but they don't see it as immoral.

While Bowie zeros in on students and young people for their lack of morality vis-a-vis getting copyrighted music for free, his overall argument goes further than that copyright laws are justified when protecting "artistic creativity." He points to the fact that between

1999 and 2005, "...downloaders…reduced industry revenues by at least $700 million" and…

Licensing and Laissez Faire in Viewing the
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Licensing and Laissez Faire

In viewing the case study at hand, one can begin to fully understand the pros and cons of occupational licensure in viewing each in the context of the study. Occupational licensure -- the requirement that one obtain a license from a recognized authority in order to engage in any occupation -- restricts entry into the field of medicine as noted within the case study at hand (Shaw, 2010, p. 157). In viewing the pros and cons of such licensure, one can see that the debate largely comes down to one of economics vs. safety concerns.

In first understanding the pros of such occupational licensure, one can understand -- and oftentimes be relieved -- by the fact that professionals in fields that follow licensing standards have therefore asserted themselves to be capable of practicing within their field at a level which has been deemed acceptable by the…

References

Shaw, William. (2010). Licensing and laissez faire, in Business ethics: a textbook with cases, 7th ed. pp. 157-159. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. Print.

Shaw, William. (2010). Yahoo in China, in Business ethics: a textbook with cases, 7th ed. pp. 196-198. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. Print.

Case Study Analysis

Reform of the United Nations
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United Nations, the Unwanted Nobodies and this tells you much about its status in the world.

The UN has been implicated in a good deal of corruption and scandal. It has been said to be political, to be bigoted, to evidence cowardice and fail its responsibilities, to misappropriate its resources, and to misuse judgment. These have been only a few -- and the weakest -- of the accusations leveled against this not particularly effective institution.

The UN has failed, time and again, to intervene in major world crisis when it was most needed. ather than stand their ground with Egypt for instance during the six-day war, it deserted the region, and it demonstrated this same behavior time and again during the African genocides. Similarly, too, the UN showed its ineffectiveness during the crisis with Iraq, becoming a puppet in the hands of France and ussia who tried to use it…

References

americans-world.org . Americans and the World: a source of comprehensive information on U.S. public opinion http://www.americans-world.org/digest/global_issues/un/un1.cfm

Charter of the UN

 http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter7.shtml 

Kim R. Holmes, Assistant Secretary of State, "The Challenges Facing the United Nations Today: An American View," address to the Council on Foreign Relations, October 21, 2003, at www.cfr.org/publication.php?id=6451#.

Google in China Case Study
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Google in China

Globalization Studies:

The Google Company in China

Globalization has taken the wold by stom, one could say. In today's society, one can watch evolutions unfold as they do so in the Middle East, can communicate with a peson in a emote Afican village, and can even open a business acoss seas. The latte case happened when the Google conglomeate decided to patne with one of the moe closed counties in the wold: China. This pape will discuss this mege based on the case study "Closing Case," and will analyze legal, cultual, ethical challenges that the tansition pesented, the oles that host govenments played in this opeation and the stategic and opeational challenges faced in the tansition.

Some call the "Google in China" mission a failed opeation, stating "Google had oiginally hoped that the Chinese would appeciate its compomise and tacitly toleate Google's quiet pessue to elax [such…

references to the notorious Tiananmen Square massacre of democratic protestors that occurred in 1989." Many thus complained of degraded service, but Google maintained its position that it had to service the Chinses population as best it could. [4: Information from the Case Study provided ]

Eventually, it became a reality for the company that it could not operate under such ridiculous constraints and decided to leave the country, surprising both its internal employees, but not the Chinese government who had already hacked the company's sensitive information.

Mayhem the Ancient Romans Had
Words: 2362 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7113851
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On the other hand, parents are not the only ones who should feel responsible for the caliber of popular entertainment. At some point, the media industry must look inward and decide what kind of role it can or will take in the society. Because the media will be concerned primarily with the bottom line, we must, however, forgive any industry that chooses consciously to air and market violent media. When that media is aimed directly at children, though, a line has been crossed. The entertainment industry can and should be self-regulated regarding the promotion of violent video games, films, and television shows. Based on the fact that media violence potentially contributes to the public health issues that Bok addresses in Mayhem: increased fearfulness in the society; increased appetite for more media violence; desensitization to violence; and increased levels of aggression, the media industry and parents alike need to shoulder some…

Banning Books in High School
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Banning Books in High School

Book Banning and Censorship

Social groups, including religious organizations, parents, and school administration among others, make decisions daily about what material will become a part of the regular school curriculum and what material will be excluded. Many decisions are made based on the educational value of text books and other learning material. However, many decisions are unfortunately made without educational potential in mind, but rather on the basis of what is considered to be profane or proper based on the opinions of certain people that feel they have the moral authority to make such decisions. American schools have always been built on the principle that children must be protected from that which is inappropriate for them to see, hear, or experience. "American schools have been pressured to restrict or deny students access to books or periodicals deemed objectionable by some individual or group on moral,…

People Often Base Their Actions
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This was because, for some stories, they were forced to use less professional correspondents to cover stories that were on a more national scale.

13. Among this list, newspapers and magazines are the most credible because they strive for objectivity and accuracy, at the same time as they possess the most amount of content. Television news programs are second only because they lack the same level of depth. The other sources should be highly questioned before using as a legitimate source. The internet possesses the best information among all of the rest, but must be evaluated on a site-by-site basis.

14. I have found two sources that indicate that controversial television ads negatively influence the behavior of children. However, there are also a handful of other resources arguing that the influence of ads upon individuals is relatively minute.

15. hetoric tends to vastly influence people's opinions and attitudes. However, statements…

References

Anderson, Craig L. et al. (2003). "The Influence of Media Violence on Youth." Psychological Science in the Public Influence, Vol. 4, No. 3, Dec. Page 81.

Ayeni, Dr. Olugbenga Christopher. (2004). "ABC, CNN, CBS, FOX, and NBC on the Frontlines." Global Media Journal.

Bushman, Brad J. And Craig A. Anderson. (2001). "Media Violence and the American Public." American Psychologist, June/July.

Damer, T. Edward. (2001). Attacking Faulty Reasoning. Belmont: Wadsworth.

Status of a Newspaper The
Words: 2627 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15608122
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This is also reflected in the view that there is a lot of difference between a high school senior and a college freshman. egarding the world of student journalism, the U.S. Court of Appeals has also agreed with this view. This is reflected in the campus newspaper theft which was not taking place till the beginning of the 1990s. This is now a regular source of trouble for college student media. (Trends in College Media)

At the same time, this has not reflected in the quality of college newspaper, and some of them are of excellent quality. Let us look at some college newspapers for this purpose. One of them, namely the Boston College Chronicle has worked on the recently concluded papal conclave and also tried to inform the audience about what the world can hope from the new Pope. Certainly this information when they appear in a college magazine…

References

Censorship of College Student Newspapers. Administrative Censorship of the College Press. Retrieved at  http://www.collegefreedom.org/report5.htm . Accessed on 28 April, 2005

CSU, Northridge Newspaper Silenced. 11 May, 1989. Retrieved at  http://www.totse.com/en/conspiracy/institutional_analysis/papcensr.html . Accessed on 28 April, 2005

Davisson, John. GSEU Strikers Return to the Classroom. 25 April, 2005. Retrieved from www.columbiaspectator.com/- 32k Accessed on 28 April, 2005

Glaser, Dale; Collins, King. Review of Eagle and the Controversy of 1996-1997. Retrieved from www.greenmac.com/eagle/Updates/Up2.html. Accessed on 28 April, 2005

Protecting Children Online Like Any
Words: 789 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75990392
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Imposing a sort of "rating system" on the Internet interferes with the freedom of expression. Such software could also violate a youth's right to a wide variety of information (Reilly 2001).

Finally, many critics question the effectiveness of such filtering technologies.

Some charge that filtering technologies have a tendency to "overblock" sites. In high schools, for example, some children complain increased difficulty in conducting research on topics like breast cancer and safe sex. Another reported difficulty conducting a search on the term "Mars exploration," because the letters formed the forbidden term "sex." These difficulties interfere with the intent of sharing information over the Internet (Reilly 2001).

Overriding concerns

Critics do have valid concerns, and were able to articulate these all the way to the Supreme Court. The Court, however, rightly ruled that filtering technology remains an effective solution to keeping children away from violent, pornographic or otherwise dangerous content. The…

Works Cited

Reilly, Rob. 2001. "Government Efforts to Protect Children from Online Pornography Are Ineffective."

James Torr, ed. Current Controversies Series. San Diego: Greenhaven Press

Teens, Technology, and Drugs: An Inside Look; How Technology Is Hooking Teens Up With Drugs." 2006. PR Newswire. July 18.

Policy & Privacy Lamb Gregory
Words: 1108 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84439161
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While Swindle's solution is a start, more thought is needed in addressing privacy issues over an international Internet.

Smith, Sylvia. 2006. "Neutrality' backers fear Net censorship." Journal-Gazette. July 17: page 1.

Smith's article raises other concerns regarding government regulation -- that of restricting price increases for telephone companies, the cable industry and Internet Service Providers. These providers have argued that restricting how much they can raise their fees will compromise the development of the technology, and may pave the way for unequal access to information technology. Cyber-businesses, on the other hand, argue that if Congress takes a "hands-off" approach, these private companies are in a position to monopolize access to the Internet, and to practice censorship.

For consumer advocates and cyber-businesses, the solution should be a government-instituted policy of "net neutrality." Instead of addressing the fee issues, there should be a law specifically stating that service providers could regulate access…

Roach's article takes a look at an ongoing debate regarding the differences between government regulation on regular internet traffic and the kind of access needed for users in higher education. Current legislation gives law enforcement access to communication traffic, under stringent legal conditions and constraints. Librarians and other researchers in higher education, however, argue that access rules should be different for the academe, in order to ensure academic freedom.

This article recognizes the rapid changes in information technology, and many academics and librarians have been quick to use the medium for their own research. While the medium has its advantages, it also brings the researchers outside of the academe, which has a strong tradition of freedom. Such freedom is necessary to ensure that an academic could conduct research without social or political repercussions. For example, severe constraints on research and development would occur if a researcher could face jail time or worse for their beliefs. Similar issues could plague a writer who is crafting a novel that could be deemed "subversive," such as George Orwell's 1984.

Given these larger issues, the coalitions of universities, librarians and researchers are right in asking Congress to recognize their different needs. Law enforcement officials certainly have a legitimate need for wiretaps and other methods of monitoring communications traffic. However, the perceived needs to strengthen national security should not come at the expense of rights that this country already holds dear - those of freedom of expression, freedom of information and, as Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis once stated, "the right to be let alone."

Leni Riefenstahl Ethics
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Leni Riefenstahl. The writer explores the topic of Riefenstahl and her unethical art. The writer examines the catastrophic consequences and her lack of integrity that lead to horror for millions. There were nine sources used to complete this paper.

Leni Riefenstahl: Her Unethical Art and The Catastrophic Consequences

The reign of Adolf Hitler is one that history will never forget. Under his terrorist reign of terror millions of people died. Those who did not die suffered from the loss of loved ones, loss of privacy and loss of financial stability. It was a time in which the world was introduced to the dangerous side of charismatic politics. While there were many who were fooled in the beginning by Hitler's manipulation tactics they soon learned his true motivations and spent the rest of their lives working to unseat the inhumane dictator. There is one person however, who admired him from the…

JANE SUMNER / Staff Critic, The Riefenstahl riddle: At age 100, famed Germanfilmmaker Leni Riefenstahl still stirs an enigmatic cocktail of emotions., The Dallas Morning News, 08-18-2002, pp 1C.

John Anderson, Leni Riefenstahl, Film's Queen of Denial., Newsday, 03-16-1994, pp 65.

Author not available, THE WONDERFUL HORRIBLE LIFE OF LENI RIEFENSTAHL; DIE MACHT DER BILDER., Magill's Survey of Cinema, 06-15-1995.

Privacy and Surveillance
Words: 613 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 41130505
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Blog

Bennett, Jessica. "Should Facebook Ban Sexist Pages?"

Misogyny is alive and well online; the nternet provides just another forum in which bigots can express their views. n "Should Facebook Ban Sexist Pages," Jessica Bennett (http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2011/11/05/should-facebook-ban-sexist-pages-the-reality-of-misogyny-online.html) suggests that female bloggers can control the discourse by raising awareness about the presence of misogyny and working to correct the underlying social problems that spawn it in the first place. n many online forums, misogynists can hide behind the cloak of anonymity that the nternet provides. Even when identities are exposed, as on Facebook, sexism remains rampant. As Bennett puts it, "Facebook is just a newer version of the same old problem," (p. 2).

While Bennett fails to effectively address the central question she poses in the title of her blog post, other authors tackle the subject well. For instance, Brendan O'Neill of The Telegraph (http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/brendanoneill2/100115868/the-campaign-to-stamp-out-misogyny-online-echoes-victorian-efforts-to-protect-women-from-coarse-language/) accuses all those who would view censorship…

In the peer-reviewed online journal First Monday ( http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/3086/2589 ), Eszter Hargittai notes that young users of Facebook are savvier about protecting their privacy than is commonly feared. However, Facebook has been under a lot of scrutiny lately, related to the site's privacy options and default settings. According to an article appearing in the online Wall Street Journal, ( http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204224604577030383745515166.html  ) "Facebook Inc. is close to a settlement with the U.S. government over charges that it misled users about its use of their personal information, the latest sign of widening public concern over privacy in the digital age." Hargittai champions personal responsibility and empowerment: which is far more useful in preventing privacy breaches than government intervention.

With a new Facebook phone ( http://www.itworld.com/it-managementstrategy/227281/facebook-phone-buffy-privacy-slayer ), set to reach markets, consumers are understandably suspicious about the pervasiveness of the social networking tool. Just how far are we willing to allow social networking to monitor our interests, beliefs, and ways of life? Facebook presents an interesting conundrum: we get more out of our Facebook interactions and friendships if we share more about ourselves; yet the more we share, the more of our lives becomes free fodder for marketing companies.

Savvy users of Facebook, like the young men and women participating in Hargittai's study, know how to restrict who sees what on their Facebook profile. It is up to the individual to make the privacy setting changes that are most appropriate to the user. Instead of crying about how a company wants to make money, Facebook members should learn about the Web tools they use on a daily basis.

Emergence of the Hollywood Production Code and the PCA
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emergence of the Hollywood Production Code and the PCA

Motion pictures production codes emerged in the 1930's and referred to as the Hays codes after ill hays who was the censor chief at Hollywood during this time. The production codes governed the production of motion pictures in the United States by major studios at the time. The motion pictures production code can be referred to as a set of moral censorship rules that governed the motion picture industry. The codes were adapted by the Motion Pictures Association of America in 1930, commenced enforcing the code in 1934 and deserted them in 1968. The association then adapted Motion Pictures Association of Americas film rating systems which are effective to date. The work of the association was to determine what was morally acceptable in the content produced by American production studios. The code of ethics protected the public audience from images that…

Work cited

Doherty, Thomas P. Hollywood's Censor: Joseph I. Breen and the Production Code Administration. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. Print.

Kiszely, Philip. Hollywood Through Private Eyes: The Screen Adaptation of the American Private Detective Novel During the Studio Era. Oxford: Lang, 2003. Print.

Phillips, Kendall R. Controversial Cinema: The Films That Outraged America. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Praeger, 2008. Print.

Google China in Today's World a Code
Words: 694 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11615186
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Google China

In today's world, a code of ethics is vitally important to navigate the complex systems that make up society and business. In business particularly, a code of ethics serves as a guideline for maintaining good relationships with customers and business partners. Where the appropriate ethical viewpoint becomes murky, a clear code of ethics can assist in decision making, especially where business relationships are concerned. In the case of Google's 2010 announcement that it was likely to leave China, there were several cases of murky ethical waters to navigate. This is not only so of its direct business relationship with the host country, China, but also the one with its worldwide customers and other interested parties. While Google may have had sound ethical grounds for its announcement, the way in which it handled the aftermath of the announcement might be considered somewhat rocky where ethics are concerned.

According to…

References

Acohido, B. (2010, Jan. 13). Google stops short of fingering China for cyber attacks. USA Today. Retrieved from:  http://content.usatoday.com/communities/technologylive/post/2010/01/googles-statement-stops-short-of-fingering-chinese-government-for-cyber-attacks/1#.T2MvcxHxrYQ 

Efrati, A. And Chao, L. (2012, Jan. 12) Google Softens Tone on China. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from:  http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203436904577155003097277514.html

Effects Mainstream Social Media Today's Children
Words: 1902 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10387507
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Children and Media

Technology surrounds everything that children participate in nowadays. From using computers to watching television, the media influences children in just about every activity that they are a part of. The mainstream and social media have had a great impact on the behavior of children, as they are consistently exposed to numerous forms of the media at all times. As technology advances and children are more and more prone to watching television and participating in activities over the Internet, children will always be affected by how the media is presented to them. It can be difficult to shelter children from the growing media influence, however, the effects of this phenomenon on both the psychological and cognitive development of children need to be analyzed and considered (Christakis & Zimmerman, 2009).

Social life has been completely revolutionized due to the existence of the Internet and the development of social media.…

References:

Anderson, D.R. & Hanson, K.G. (2009). Children, media, and methodology. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1204-1219.

Bargh, J.A. & McKenna, K.Y.A. (2003). The internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychology. 55, 573-590.

Chau, C. (2010). YouTube as a participatory culture. New Directions for Youth Development. 2010(128), 65-74.

Christakis, D.A. & Zimmerman, F.J. (2009). Young Children and media: Limitations of current knowledge and future directions for research. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1177-1185.

Why Facebook is Banned in China
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Facebook is still banned in China, which took initiatives in 2009 to quell any sort of protest or governmental opposition sparked by social media sites like Facebook. Facebook is not the only Western site to be banned in China. Moreover, it has essentially a lookalike Chinese competitor known as Renren, which is a social media site that operates just like Facebook but complies with the Chinese government’s regulations with regard to the filtering of content posted on the site (Darwell, 2012). China’s government is very concerned about regulating content published on the Internet since this is such an impactful platform for communicating and spreading information in the Digital Age. For a government that wants total control of every aspect of the country’s life, allowing Facebook to have the freedom to come in and allow users to post whatever content they want without regulating or filtering it would be like allowing…

Microsoft V Google a Comparative
Words: 2673 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26772821
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Baker (2006) reports that Google has worked hard to balance its entrance into the restrictive media market that is China with its own values. Baker defends this balance by reporting that "the company's contention that it believes it furthers its mission more by being present in China than it does by not is at least a rational response to a set of unpalatable choices." (Baker, 1) Other sources have not been as forgiving, arguing instead that Google's censorship of its search returns according to the demands of the Chinese government is active participation in the repression of information freedom. This denotes that even where a company presents itself as desiring to behave in a responsible and socially conscious way, a certain scale of success can make this an increasingly difficult achievement.

Microsoft has received similar criticism for its attempts at entering into the Chinese software market. However, the bulk of…

Works Cited:

Amaria, K. (2007). Giving and Reaping… Microsoft's CSR Offensive. Digicom 4 Social Change.

Baker, M. (2006). Google's Growing Pains. Mallenbaker.net.

China CSR. (201). Google Faces Corporate Social Responsibility Problem in China. ChinaCSR.com.

Cockaday, J. (2004). CSR, Google and Philanthropy. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

Significant Difference Blogs and Im Have Made on Business Communications
Words: 2238 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78885366
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Blogs on Business Communications

Business communications is a field that has drawn the interest of theorists and practitioners interested in improving the results of communication within the business activity. Communications in business has significantly evolved and changed throughout the decades. Business communications is also influenced by technological advancements. The Internet has improved the way individuals communicate in their business or private lives.

Therefore, technology plays an important role in the development of business communications. This refers to the quality of communications, but also to its efficiency. The impact of successful communication can be mostly observed on the success of the company or organization in case. In order to be successful, companies must focus on improving their communication style (Nielsen, 2013). This means that they must invest in technology developments, but also in the know how required in order to efficiently use these technologies in their attempt to improve communication.

Blogs…

Reference list:

1. Nielsen, L. (2013). Importance of Communication in the Business World. Retrieved July 28, 2013 from  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/importance-communication-business-world-2877.html .

2. The Benefits of Instant Messaging for Your Business (2013). National Federation of Independent Business. Retrieved July 29, 2013 from  http://www.nfib.com/business-resources/business-resources-item?cmsid=54733 .

Media and Violence Contradicting Causes
Words: 4155 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68376205
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A in millions)

Current in millions)

Provided by Federal ureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006. www.whitehouse.gov/goodbye/3ae6b1ac94aa97e6650780f280890a7c81100e47.html"

CHART: National Correctional Populations

National Correctional Populations

The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.

A in millions)

Current million in millions)

Provided by ureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics riefing Room, 2006)

More Statistics

Violence in the Media

Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. ig World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)

41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).

56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)

Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend…

Bibliography

Alter, Jonathan. "Moving Beyond the Blame Game. (Panel Discussion)," Newsweek, May 17, 1999.

Beyer, John. "PERSPECTIVE: How movie and TV violence hits children; Is there too much violence on television and is it time to curb it? John Beyer, director of the organization mediawatch-uk argues that media viol," Birmingham Post, March 21, 2007.

Chatfield, Joanne E.. "Influence of Media Violence on Children." American Family Physician, February 15, 2002.

Children's Hospital Boston. "Teen-Rated Video Games Loaded With Violence;

Adults on Secured Online Environments
Words: 12910 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48598250
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Next, the researcher will conduct a query of the computer awareness of education administrators, teachers, parents, and students in the New Orleans school district, then evaluation of documented data will provide a research base of the required elements needed to consider while developing a framework that can be used as a guide by educational leaders and parents for the protection of children at school and at home. esearch areas will include law enforcement agencies, various information systems security sites that provide security solutions that can be implemented in schools and in the home, other avenues of research will include interviews with a multitude of technical personnel proficient in hardware, software and network technology utilized for computer security.

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this dissertation is to provide recommendations from experienced practitioners of detailed, hands on instruction or guides that even the computer illiterate parent or senior caregiver can use to…

References

Atkinson, E.N. (1995). Interactive dynamic graphics for exploratory survival analysis. The American Statistician, 49(1), 77.

Barker, C., & Groenne, P. (1996). Advertising on the World Wide Web. [online]. Available: http://www.samkurser.dk/advertising/research.htm[1998, April 6].

Bever, T.G., Smith, M.L., Bengen, B., & Johnson, T.G. (1975). Young viewers' troubling response to TV ads. Harvard Business Review, 54, 109-120.

Cai, X., & Gantz, W. (2000). Online privacy issues associated with Web sites for children. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44(2), 197.

Entrepreneurial Leadership the Two Entrepreneurial
Words: 1516 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 43119817
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Lastly, I would just like to know what approaches are out there. Everybody has his or her own idea, but I want to know what works for other people. Some will argue against any serious ethical principles at all, some will make ethics a central part of their company. For me, I know that I have to choose a market-based approach, so I am definitely curious to learn about the different theories and models that can help me not only know more, but contextualize that knowledge better.

orks Cited:

Kwek, G. (2010). Google Street View controversy takes a bizarre twist. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://www.smh.com.au/technology/technology-news/google-street-view-controversy-takes-a-bizarre-twist-20101125-18814.html

Carmody, T. (2012). Google co-founder: China, Apple, Facebook threaten 'open web'. ired/CNN. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://edition.cnn.com/2012/04/16/tech/web/google-sergey-brin/

Entrepreneur. (2008). Anita Roddick. Entrepreneur Magazine. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/197688

Entrepreneur. (2008). Larry Page and Sergey Brin. Entrepreneur Magazine. Retrieved April…

Works Cited:

Kwek, G. (2010). Google Street View controversy takes a bizarre twist. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from  http://www.smh.com.au/technology/technology-news/google-street-view-controversy-takes-a-bizarre-twist-20101125-18814.html 

Carmody, T. (2012). Google co-founder: China, Apple, Facebook threaten 'open web'. Wired/CNN. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from  http://edition.cnn.com/2012/04/16/tech/web/google-sergey-brin/ 

Entrepreneur. (2008). Anita Roddick. Entrepreneur Magazine. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from  http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/197688 

Entrepreneur. (2008). Larry Page and Sergey Brin. Entrepreneur Magazine. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from  http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/197848

Securing the Electronic Transfer Securing
Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 38772049
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Essentially, securing the electronic frontier is very critical because of the potential harms that cyber crime and fraud cause to individual, businesses and nations as a whole.

One of the effective strategies that could be employed to secure the electronic frontier is the collaboration of the government with the private and public organizations. Increasing number of governments has implemented method to secure the electronic frontier without success. Since corporate organizations are more equipped to counter IT threats than the government, a collaboration of the government with organizations will be more effective.

Moreover, the international organizations such as the United Nations should also play effective roles in securing electronic frontier. The United Nation should make a law to ensure that all member nations are obliged to secure electronic transfer in their respective nations since lack of cross-border treaties for data sharing is creating havoc to corporate organizations. Essentially, some countries such…

Reference

Berkowitz, B. & Hahn, R.W. (2003).Cyber-security: Who's Watching Store? Issue of Science and Technology.

Goel, S. (2011). Cyberwarfare: Connecting the Dots in Cyber Intelligence. Communications of the ACM. 54 (8): 132-140.

Rosenzweig, P. (2012). The International Governance Framework for Cybersecurity. Canada-United States Law Journal.37 (1).

Communications Media
Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56247823
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War coverage-Media obsession

To argue about the role of media in our lives would be only redundant since we already know and acknowledge the influence of media over our perception of the world. How the various news media including newspapers, television, radio and more recently Internet affect our thinking and shape our perception requires some close analysis of the way these agencies gather and present news. There is an interesting process that works behind the seemingly simple task of news presentation. For one the media is almost always biased regardless of how they defend their impartiality. We must remember that journalists are capable of molding our perception because they have a certain hidden agenda and if they were unbiased in their opinion, they would have had little impact on our thinking. In an unbiased news piece, it is up to the viewer or reader to decide whom he would side…

References

Stuart Allan, News Culture. Open University Press: Buckingham 1999

William V. Kennedy, The Military and the Media: Why the Press Cannot Be Trusted to Cover a War.: Praeger Publishers. Westport, CT. 1993.

The Washington Times. Lynch, West and Common Sense. November 23, 2003. B05.

Christopher Hanson, American Idol: The Press Finds the War's True Meaning. Columbia Journalism Review. Volume: 42. Issue: 2. July-August 2003, 58+.

Counter-Terrorism and Social Media Freedom vs Security
Words: 5692 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49775496
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Counter-Terrorism and Social Media: Freedom vs. Security

The United States prides itself to being the most democratic nation of the world, with the highest respect for the human being, for its values, norms, and dreams. At the same time, before 9/11, it was also considered to be one of the safest nations of the world. The attacks on the World Trade Center towers, in particular pointed out that there are gaps in security and that even the United States represent a vulnerable target. Since then, the security measures have been seriously increased, in certain areas of expertise; security rules have been created if they did not exist. All these measures fueled a constant debate on whether the security that has been increased affects or not the liberties and freedoms of the American population.

On May 1st 2011, Osama bin Laden has been announced dead by the U.S. President, arack Obama…

Bibliography

CNN Wire Staff. (2011) "Bin Laden killing caps decade-long manhunt." CNN Asia.  http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/05/02/bin.laden.dead/index.html?hpt=T2 

Cook, Martin L. (2001) Ethical Issues in Counterterrorism Warfare. Department of Command, Leadership, and Management. U.S. Army War College. May 3, 2011 http://ethics.sandiego.edu/Resources/PhilForum/Terrorism/Cook.html

Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Michigan Dept. Of State Police v. Sitz. 1990.  http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0496_0444_ZS.html 

Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Terry v. Ohio. 1967. May 3, 2011  http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0392_0001_ZS.html

Ethics in Cyberspace
Words: 3444 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30889949
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Ethics in Cyberspace

Summary of the Book- the Ethics of Cyberspace by Cees Hamelink

Cees Hamelink is not new in the field of study of the principles relating to the communicating world and their association with civil liberties of mankind. Hamelink has accumulated his skills and views on all fields of communication and authored a book on the ways that most of the democratic society need to be resorted to in order to systematize the cyberspace. Hamelink, in his previous publications, attempted to evaluate the products, system and institutions of traditional industries vis-a-vis the morality of the people and liberty of mankind with a view to identifying these industries firmly and intentionally amidst as well as accountable to the civil society worldwide. He proved both of them to be essential. The book asserts of the facts that the control of the cyberspace worldwide should be guided by the public necessity…

References

Cerf, Vint; et; al (2003). "Who Rules the Net: Internet Governance and Jurisdiction" Cato

Institute.

Edgar, Stacey L. (1997) "Morality and Machines: Perspectives on Computer Ethics, Jones and Bartlett Publications"

Featherstone, M; Burrows, R (1995) "Cyberspace, Cyberbodies, Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment" London. Sage.

Shoulder So Who Is Reading
Words: 926 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87316301
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"

Is the author clear in her objective? I would say she is absolutely certain of what she is talking about. Her intended audience is the average American who has recently been bombarded with threats of intrusion. The average American however is not living in constant fear, as government wants us to believe. Citizens are intelligent and aware enough to understand the limits of fear, the scope of government's authority and the impact of unnecessary intrusion.

What makes the essay better than other similar opinion pieces is author's dispassionate stance on the issue. She has the same concerns as everyone else but has presented them very objectively as to make the argument based more on logic than passion alone. The government has lately become very intrusive and not everyone welcomes this unwanted monitoring. In fact, most people resent it deeply because not only does it violate their constitutional rights, it…

References

Gelsey, Zara, Humanist, WHO'S READING OVER YOUR SHOULDER

Sep/Oct2002, Vol. 62 Issue

Media Institutions and Regulations
Words: 1753 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84474612
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Media Institutions and Regulations:

A Discussion on the Twitter Phenomenon

Words change meaning all the time. Take, for example, awful. Today, it means something terrible, but it used to mean filled with awe (aweful). In this case, a different spelling has led to a different interpretation. Yet sometimes, the same word may mean the same exact thing, only in a completely different context. This refers to the example of Twitter. Traditionally, twitter as a verb meant to utter a succession of small, tremulous sounds, as a bird or to talk lightly and rapidly, especially of trivial matters. In this day and age, however, a mention of twitter will conjure up images of the phenomenon that the technological age has brought about. Yes, twitter can still mean trivial talk, even in this technological context, but most likely, it will refer to the information network that connects friends to coworkers and even…

"Beyond the dippy lingo, the idea that something intelligent, something worthy of mindshare, might occur in the space of 140 characters -- Twitter's parameters were set by what would fit in a text message on a phone -- seems unlikely. But it was clear […] the primary news platform was Twitter, with real-time annotation of the panels on stage and critical updates about what was happening elsewhere at a very hectic convention." [9: Carr, David. "Why Twitter Will Endure." New York Times, 2010.  http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/03/weekinreview/03carr.html  ]

A further perusal of this particular article reflects further opinions, though similar ones, including the fact that the history of the internet suggests "cool" website that go in and out of style, and Twitter is one of those rare ones that are more likely to stay in style than go in and out.

Traditional media outlets are changing all over the world. From Facebook, to Twitter, to Flick, to Linkedin and many others, the new generation is putting its stamp on the vast landscape of information, its retrieval and dissemination. This is important to note, because this change comes with positives and negatives, some of which can harm humanity. However, it is also important to note the progress and the continuation of it, and promote such media outlets for the benefit of advancement.

Ledge Short Story by Lawrence Sargent Hall
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Ledge Hall

Lawrence Sargent Hall's short story, The Ledge, is characterized by a devastating emotional pull, compelling prose, and vivid characterization. The Ledge won the O. Henry Award and been included in a number of anthologies. hile Hall's literary career was marked by great success of The Ledge and other writing, he also had successful academic, public service and naval careers.

Lawrence Sargent Hall's life was marked by his notable academic career, his services in the navy, and his writing career. Born in 1915 April 23, 1915, in Haverhill, Massachusetts, Hall graduated from Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine in 1936. He then went on to teach from 1935-1938 at Deerfield Academy at Deerfield, Massachusetts. After his tenure at Deerfield, Hall obtained his Ph.D. from Yale in 1941. He then taught at Yale in 1946, and in Ohio University in Athens from 1941-1942. In 1946, he became a professor of English…

Works Cited

Bernard, Andre. 2004. Best Stories of the Century? Not Quite, but Close Enough. New York Observer. |27 July 2004.  http://www.newyorkobserver.com/pages/story.asp?ID=1159 

Bowdoin Anthologies. Lawrence Sargent Hall Papers, 1938-1993. 27 July 2004.  http://library.bowdoin.edu/arch/mss/lshg.shtml 

May, Charles and Magill, Frank N. 2004. The Ledge. In: Masterplots II: Short Story Series, Volume 4. Salem Press, p. 2309.

Hall, Lawrence Sargent. The Ledge. Available online at  http://www.bilinguist.com/data/hy03/messages/112644.html

Metrics Implementation and Enforcement Security Governance
Words: 2896 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 53677677
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Metrics, Implementation, and Enforcement (Security Governance)

How can you determine whether there has been a malware outbreak?

The threat situation today has become more dangerous than in the past. Security and safety threats have been increasing in an alarming rate; there are more than 70,000 brand new bits of malware recognized daily. Well-funded cybercriminals have been currently making advanced malware that has been made to bypass present security options by launching prior to the operating-system and then evading antivirus defence (Mitre, 2012). Consequently, danger vulnerability has hit unprecedented degrees that need a brand new method of security and safety. With built-in security and safety options from McAfee as well as Intel, one might gain an additional layer of safety that is effective aside from the operating-system to avoid attacks instantly whilst successfully managing security over to a system of endpoints. These revolutionary options gather world-class processor chip technologies from Intel…

References

McAfee Labs (Q1 2012).

Intel IT Centre. (2012). Planning Guide: Preventing Stealthy Threats with Next-Generation Endpoint Security -- A Proactive Approach from Intel and McAfee. Intel IT and McAfee.

Mitre. (2012). Standardizing Cyber Threat Intelligence Information with the Structured Threat Information eXpression (STIX). Mitre Corporation.

Jones, D.R. (2011). Managing Cyber Threats Risk Management & Insurance Solutions. Roach Smith and Howard Burton.