Interpersonal Relationship Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Interpersonal Communications Issue Scenario Background

Words: 2550 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59973865

Neither Paul nor Frank ever recognized that this was the principal source of their mutual rivalry, resentment, and antagonism. In fact, to hear either of them discuss their relationship, one would think that the main issue between them is that Frank is meticulously neat and fastidiously clean whereas Paul is notoriously sloppy.

While those characterizations are completely accurate, they are not the source of conflict within their interpersonal relationship. Their respective differences in that regard need not necessarily cause interpersonal conflict; in their case, they do because their respective preferences and comfort zones became the battlefield for their underlying mutual resentment created by the way that their father pitted them against one another in lashing out against them. Just as their father retaliated against each of them indirectly and in emotional ways without ever actually expressing his anger over their relationship with (or perceived "favoritism") toward her, so did Paul…… [Read More]

References

Aronson, E., Wilson, T., and Akert, R. (2008). Social Psychology. New York:

Longman.

Blair, G. (2007). Groups that Work. Washington, DC: IEEE Press.

Branden, N. (2008). The Psychology of Self-Esteem. New York: Bantam.
View Full Essay

Interpersonal Psychotherapy and Anxiety

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95131033

Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) and its theory, techniques, application, strengths, weaknesses or other related topics are: the article by Souza et al. (2016) that examines the effects of IPT on treatment-resistant depression in adults, and the article by Markowitz, Lipsitz and Milrod (2014) that examines the relevant literature available on the impact of IPT on anxiety disorders.

Both articles provide assessments of the theory of IPT, which is that IPT provides a short-term treatment for individuals in need of psychological treatment. Its aim is to assist the individual in regaining functioning day-to-day abilities. The application typically takes between twelve and sixteen weeks and the theory upon which it is based is the idea that how the individual relates to others has a significant impact on his mental health. Thus, the concept that guides Interpersonal Psychotherapy is that relationships and how they are perceived, interpreted, developed and maintained is of critical importance…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Relationship Dissolution Ecdriesbaugh Relationship Dissolution

Words: 2992 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8620041

Imbalances were most evident in three relational areas: decision-making, emotional involvement, and equity. A higher percentage of both men and women stated that men usually made more of the decisions, were less emotionally involved, and usually experienced "the better deal." Lastly, male dominance -- but not equality of power between genders -- was found to be linked with greater romantic relationship longevity. It seemed that the higher the relative degree given by the respondents to the male (rather than the female partner of the dyad), the lower the consequential rate of relationship dissolution (Felmlee, 1994).

An imbalance of power may promote the actual solidity of a relationship, but this has been much less often researched than other conclusions. The previous findings that inequalities in power are linked to unhappiness, psychological distress, and disagreement mean that power imbalances will raise the likelihood that a relationship would fail; however, no distinctions were…… [Read More]

References

Allensworth, N. (1998). Social penetration: a description, research, and evalutation.

Retrieved on 18 November 2007 at http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED403615&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED403615

Bucher, E. (2006). Relationship dissolution planning (nuptial agreements part 1).

DeVito, J.A. (1995). The Interpersonal Communication Book. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers.
View Full Essay

Relationship Maintenance Theories Have Been

Words: 2123 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71857030

).

Although not all of Davis' relational maintenance strategies are communication based, many of them are primarily work-it-out and have-it-out but also reintegration ceremonies. Davis did not empirically test his observations.

Braiker and Kelley (1979) were interested in understanding the role that conflict plays in relationship development. Employing a social exchange approach to relational maintenance, Braiker and Kelley conceptually defined maintenance as communication behaviors engaged in by members of the couple to reduce costs and maximize rewards in the relationship. Maintenance behavior was operationally defined using items primarily measuring communication with one's partner about the relationship (also included one item measuring self-disclosure and one item measuring willingness to change behavior). Thus, Braiker and Kelley also focus on metacommunication as a relational maintenance strategy.

Braiker and Kelley (1979) concluded that maintenance strategies change meaning over time, with maintenance behavior serving to increase interdependence and love in the earlier stages of development…… [Read More]

References

Ayres, J. (1983). Strategies to maintain relationships: Their identification and perceived usage. Communication Quarterly, 3-1, 62-67.

Baxter, L.A., & Dindia, K. (1990). Marital partners' perceptions of marital maintenance and repair strategies. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 187-208.

Braiker, H.B., & Kelley, H.H. (1979). Conflict in the development of close relationships. In R.L. Burgess & T.L. Huston (Eds.), Social exchange in developing relutionships (pp. 135-1-68). N ew York: Academic Press.

Canary, D.J., & Stafford, L. (1992). Relational maintenance strategies and equity in marriage. Communication Monographs, 59, 243-267.
View Full Essay

Relationship Issues Support Group

Words: 1817 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18945161

elationship Problems Support Group

Support groups are usually created to bring together individuals facing similar problems or issues such as relationship problems. The concept behind the formulation of a support group is that members can get help for their issues through talking with others in a similar situation. In this case, relationship problems support group exist so that people facing relationship issues can share their experiences and advice each other on how to handle them. Support groups help individuals deal with their problems through providing better ways of coping and making members feel less isolated as they make important connections with others in the same situation. While relationship problems support groups are not group therapy sessions, they help members to deal with relational issues through providing emotional support and shared experiences.

Historical Context

A support group is basically defined as a gathering of individuals who share similar interests or concerns…… [Read More]

References

Mayo Clinic Staff. (n.d.). Support Groups: Make Connections, Get Help. Retrieved August 22, 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/support-groups/art-20044655

Peretti, A.G., Martins, P.P.S. & Guanaes-Lorenzi, C. (2013). The Management of Social Problems Talk in a Support Group. Psicologia & Sociedade, 25. Retrieved from http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-71822013000500012

"Relationship Support Group."(n.d.). Divorce Dialogue. Retrieved August 22, 2016, from  http://www.divorcedialogue.com/relationship-support-group-home.php 

Sroufe et al. (2000). 5 Relationships, Development, and Psychopathology. In Handbook of developmental psychopathology (2nd ed). Arnold J. Sameroff, Michael Lewis, and Suzanne M. Miller (Eds). Retrieved August 22, 2016, from http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/attachment/online/sroufe_rel_pathology.pdf
View Full Essay

Relationship of a Salesperson With His Customers

Words: 1628 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27938828

relationship of a salesperson with his customers. The authors have tried to formulate what factors into this relationship. The main focus is the right type of attitude and interaction between the sales person and the customer, which helps to build a long-term relationship between the two.

'Do communicator characteristics such as similarity and expertise, which have typified the short-term transaction perspective of previous sales research, contribute to sustaining an enduring relationship? How important are relational behaviors such as cooperative intentions, contact intensity, and mutual disclosure in building and maintaining long-term relations?' (Crosby, Evans, & Cowles, 1990)

However, the whole of the paper is based on how the customer looks at this relationship. A model has been made which helps to make it easier to understand the intricacies of a services salesman.

'The model is tested in the context of the agent policy holder relationship involving life insurance. By selecting relationship…… [Read More]

References

Crosby, L.A., Evans, K.R., & Cowles, D. (1990). Relationship Quality in Services Selling: An Interpersonal Influence Perspective. Journal of Marketing, 68-81.

Graham, J.R. (1997). The Subtleties of Selling Services. ABA Banking Journal .

Kasper, H., Helsdingen, P.V., & Vries Jr., W.D. (1999). Services Marketing Management: An international Perspective. New York: Wiley.
View Full Essay

Relationships of Family Members Who Work in

Words: 1765 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55036340

relationships of family members who work in the same family business, focusing but not restricted to, the conflicts they undergo.

A significant percentage of the private sector is comprised of family business. Family business has its own dynamic propelled by a shared family history, personal values, and intimate knowledge of their own concerns amongst other factors. Given that the family operates harmoniously, they have an ease of communication, which propels their business, but, most importantly, they are unanimously committed to long-term goals and are highly motivated to succeed. The harmonious family imbues the family business with shared objective and vibrancy enabling success. Conflict, on the other hand, has a tendency to creep into the business and, ultimately, dissolve that too. As reverse, conflict, originated by business concerns, can dissolve the harmonious glue of the family structure. It is, therefore, important for both family and business, and, ultimately, for the importance…… [Read More]

Sources

Barker, RT, Rimmler, GW & Moreno, E (2004) Family business members' narrative perceptions: values, succession, and commitment Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, 34, 291 -- 320

Dumas, C. (1989). Understanding of Father-Daughter and Father-Son Dyads in Family-Owned Businesses Family Business Review Volume 2, Issue 1, 31 -- 46

Davis, P. & Stern, D. (1981) Adaptation, Survival, and Growth of the Family Business: An Integrated Systems Perspective Human Relations, 34, 207-224

Karatas-Ozkan, M. et al. (2011). Women in Turkish family businesses: Drivers, contributions and challenges International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 11 203-219
View Full Essay

Relationship Friendship and Love the

Words: 2405 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39682302

In this process, the principles of Grounded Theory Analysis were utilized. Primary coding categories were used in the analysis of the interview transcripts, as well as the identification of a range of significant themes. These were then organized into a formal codebook. The coding of the transcripts also led to new themes and modifications were made to the findings on this basis, where it was deemed to be appropriate.

hat kind of statistical analysis was used?

Chi-square analyses were used to examine differences and deviances in the reason why men feel emotionally close to women vs. men.

as the hypotheses supported?

One of the main aims of the study was to determine and evaluate the adequacy of men's relationship in terms of fulfilling emotional needs. There were a number of central concerns that were investigated through the interviews. These were; whether men share emotionally closer relationships with women or men;…… [Read More]

Works Cited

ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA: definition of loyalty. October 18, 2007. http://www.worldfreeinternet.net/archive/arc3.htm

Love: the crucial issue in psychotherapy. October 18, 2007. http://web.clas.ufl.edu/ipsa/journal/2001_casonato01.shtml

Social Exchange Theory. October 18, 2007. http://psychology.about.com/od/sindex/g/socialexchange.htm

Self-Disclosure. October 18, 2007. http://www.abacon.com/commstudies/interpersonal/indisclosure.html
View Full Essay

Interpersonal Paradigms in the Emergency Department

Words: 3208 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23138996

ange Nursing Theories

As a profession, nursing presents many challenges. Indeed, it is one of the most stress inducing jobs in the world, not only in terms of the physical toll and long hours, but also because of the emotionally exhausting nature of the work. For this reason, personnel turnover tends to be high and there is a general shortage of nursing personnel at hospitals. Because of the vital nature of the profession to the healthcare field and to humanity in general, many researchers have addressed the problem of high personnel turnover in the nursing profession, as well as factors like leadership, work efficiency and interpersonal relationships.

Of all the work environments within the nursing profession, the Emergency oom is probably the most stressful, which also leads to high personnel turnover. One approach towards a resolution is to find ways of enhancing nursing staff satisfaction. Increased satisfaction at work would…… [Read More]

References

Hopwood, C.J., Wright, A.G.C., Pincus, A.L. (2013, Jun.) The interpersonal core of personality pathology. Journal of Personality Disorders. 27(3). Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3675800/ 

Hwang, T.G., Younsuk, L., and Hojung, S. (2011, Jul. 1). Structure-oriented vs. process-oriented approach to enhance efficiency for emergency room operations: what lessons can we learn? Journal of Healthcare Management. 56(4). Retrieved from:  http://www.biomedsearch.com/article/Structure-oriented-versus-process-approach/271594394.html 

Lin, B.Y-J., Hsu, C-P.C., Juan, C-W., Lin, C-C., Lin, H-J., and Chen, J-H. (2011). The role of leader behaviors in hospital-based emergency departments' unit performance and employee work satisfaction. Social Science & Medicine. 72. Retrieved from: www.elsevier.com/locate/socscimed.

Lipsitz, J.D. And Markowitz, J.C. (2013). Mechanisms of change in interpersonal therapy. Clinical Psychology Review. 33.
View Full Essay

Personal Application of Knapp's Relationship Development Model

Words: 2243 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49607960

Interpersonal Relationship

Most people have had relationships that began with promise but ended badly. This is certainly the case with myself, and in my case, I can think of one popular song that always reminds me of the optimistic beginning and disastrous end of a certain relationship. This song is "Billie Jean," a well-known and bestselling single by the late Michael Jackson from his 1983 album Thriller -- which still ranks among the best-selling albums of all time. Many people will remember the slow and ominous chord progression of the song's opening, or the memorable video which introduced America to the "moonwalk," Jackson's signature dance move. What is most interesting to me is the way in which the song follows Knapp's classic ten stages of relational development. This is apparent from the song's opening, where the singer and a young woman meet as strangers in a social situation, in the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Interpersonal Conflict in Film

Words: 560 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35010599

Interpersonal Conflict in Film

Interpersonal Conflict

An expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from others in achieving their goals. (Wilmot and Hocker, 2001)

Interpersonal conflict arises when there is a difference of perception between the interdependent parties. For a conflict to arise the two sides must communicate to each other about the existence of the problem and make an effort towards resolving the issue. Hence, communication plays not only an important but the very basic role during interpersonal conflicts, as without communication there can be no solution.

There are a few problems that are observed to arise in interpersonal conflict situations (Satir, 1998). The first problem that is encountered during such situation is that both parties will ignore the issue. This is very harmful in the way that avoiding confronting the issues at hand can lead up to greater problems…… [Read More]

References

Satir, V. (1998). The New Peoplemaking, Mountain View, CA: Science and Behavior Books.

Wilmot, W.W., & Hocker, J.L. (2007). Interpersonal Conflict. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
View Full Essay

Interpersonal Conflict

Words: 893 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56121395

Interpersonal Conflict in Film

American Beauty (Spacey, Bening and Birch) is a 1999 Film with many interpersonal conflicts that are never resolved. Basically a comedy and drama about Lester Burnham's mid-life crisis but also showing the personal crisis of every other major character, the movie shows a father-daughter conflict between Lester and Jane Burnham that could have been resolved. Communication, time and their common characteristics are three factors that could have resolved Lester's and Jane's interpersonal conflict, if Lester had lived longer.

Everybody in Lester Burnham's life, including Lester and his daughter, Jane, think that he is a "loser." The conflict between them is shown early in the movie, at dinner. Lester, Carolyn and Jane Burnham are having their family dinner at home, Lester asks about Jane's school day and she eventually says sarcastically, "It was spectacular." Then, when Lester discusses his job problem and Jane does not seem interested,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Beauty. Dir. Sam Mendes. Perf. Kevin Spacey, et al. 1999. DVD.
View Full Essay

interpersonal conflict television'show

Words: 747 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82865468

Interpersonal conflict is a daily part of human existence," ("Resolving Interpersonal Conflicts," n.d.). The hard part is learning how to resolve interpersonal conflicts, because they are inevitable. One of the reasons television shows are popular is that they mirror the genuine interpersonal conflicts that people have in their daily lives. This can be seen on the television show Modern Family, which depicts several interpersonal conflicts. One conflict that is developed early in the show is between Mitch and his father Jay. Mitch is gay, and although his father pretends to be fine with it and accepting of his son, his homophobia comes to the surface during the wedding planning. When Mitch mentions some problem he is having with deciding on the decor of the wedding, Jay gets impatient and says, "Why do you guys have to do this, anyway?" His outburst signals the deeper-rooted antagonism Jay had been harboring all…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Interpersonal Effectiveness

Words: 745 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72176150

Interpersonal Efficacy -- Using Empathetic Listening

Interpersonal Effectiveness

Empathetic listening is a form of listening that takes into account more than just the words spoken. Empathetic listening involves a more holistic approach to listening and communication in general. Empathetic listening is sometimes also called active listening. It is a type of listening where the meaning of a communication lies in the verbal and non-verbal cues. Empathetic listening is a technique of listening that requires that the listener follow the words of the speaker and understand the intent behind the words, as well as the aspects involved during the delivery of the words. To empathetically listen without much practice is pretty strenuous and requires substantial concentration. Empathetic listening requires self-control on behalf of the listener because very often while people are speaking, the people who are listening have thoughts that they want to express that are directly related to statements made…… [Read More]

References:

Bookbinder, PhD, L.J., & Johnson, J. (2006) Empathy, Listening Skills & Relationships. Available from: www.touch-another-heart.com. 2012 August 20.
View Full Essay

Interpersonal World of the Infant

Words: 1465 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58487168

At first, there won't be any mental disorder, just issues with behaviors such as eating and sleeping. Then during the phase of intersubjective relatedness, the focus switches to controlling, sharing, or influencing the subjective experience of self and others. At this stage, if caregivers are not emotionally attuned enough to the infant, problems may arise such as depression. If they are only attuned when the infant behaves a certain way, this may lead the child to start forming a false self in order to please others. There can also be misattunements between caretaker and child, in which one or the other misreads emotional cues and responds inappropriately. And it's very important for a caregiver's attunement to be authentic.

There are also four types of self-experience: social, private, disavowed, and "not me." Disavowed refers to the parts of self the child learns not to share, and the "not me" experience is…… [Read More]

References

Stern, Daniel. The Interpersonal World of the Infant. Basic Books, 1985.
View Full Essay

Relationships the Classification of Relationships

Words: 600 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74306679

Friendship can sometimes be a very strong connection and can last for a lifetime precisely because there are always people with common interests that feel the need to communicate with each other.

Another important type of relationship in my life is that with my teachers and colleagues. Education is also an important environment for developing relationships. For me, teachers and colleagues are significant because they help establish my personality on a professional level. School is the context where the individual develops significantly, while acquiring skills and knowledge. The teachers are therefore very important for the development of an individual. For me, teachers have often served as guidance and even as role-models. A teacher can open new horizons for me, as he or she is able to influence and feed my personality and my view of the world. The colleagues on the other hand are also important as they can sometimes…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Interpersonal Attraction

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30224690

Interpersonal Attraction

Klohen, Eva C. & Shanghong Lao. (2003) "Interpersonal Attraction and Personality." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 85. No 4, 709-722.

Although the 'rules' of interpersonal attraction, or the mysterious process and reasons that we are attracted to certain individuals and not to others, are often obfuscated by romantic language, the authors of this article attempt to clarify the data that does exist as to whether opposites do indeed attract, or if we seek someone like ourselves, someone like our ideal self, and if security of reciprocal attachment is more important than other factors in attachment.

One of the most interesting studies cited early on by the authors, and critical in shaping the dynamics of their own study, is a personality evaluation of different attraction patterns, as performed by Bartholomew and Horowitz. This study attempted to break down different attachment styles and patterns into four different categories,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Interpersonal Persuasion

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10132634

Interpersonal Persuasion

How has the media age influenced personal selling? Please provide examples to illustrate your discussion. Have electronic media made it more difficult for salespersons to persuade audience members?

The media age has transformed the nature of personal selling. Consumers have access to a wealth of information about the products and services available to them: from broad Google searches to browsing through customer reviews on specific vendor websites or on Consumer eports (Chapter 14). Social media also enhances the ability of the consumer to acquire information about products, as friends share information about their experiences with a product, service, or brand. A more educated consumer challenges the personal sales representatives to be able to answer questions and be completely honest with the answers.

New media has also altered the actual practice of personal selling. Sales representatives have at their disposal a wealth of possibilities for reaching consumers: from emails…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Causes Relationships to Fall Apart it Happens

Words: 2039 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71941888

Causes elationships to Fall Apart

It happens to us all -- that moment when our knees get weak from the sight of someone else; that split second that it seems like nothing else in the entire world matters; that instant when all seems right in the world, and we hope and pray that it never changes. Most everyone remember those beginning stages in a relationship where everything in the universe is absolutely, irrevocably, fearlessly perfect, right? So how do all of those feelings, thoughts, moments of pure bliss take a gut wrenching nose dive for the worse? Why do people fall out of love? How do people go from being love drunk to those month long purging sessions to rid themselves of the toxins that once were our former soul mates? It happens, even to the best of us, even to those of us who attempt to make every wrong…… [Read More]

References

Baxter, L.A., & Braithwaite, D.O. (2008). Interpersonal communication: evolving interpersonal relationships. Los Angeles: Sage Publications. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=aaD9iVgxpE4C&oi=fnd&pg=PR13&dq=Interpersonal+communication+:+evolving+interpersonal+relationships&ots=sI36504Nzv&sig=WLjMoUxRflWxRn6YTf7Hkbfhghg#v=onepage&q&f=false

Harvey, J.H., & Wenzel, A. (2001). Close romantic relationships: maintenance and enhancement. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=knWespEJEncC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=Close+romantic+relationships+:+maintenance+and+enhancement&ots=Cqv3DKeRC5&sig=Ik894HW_i7oiC5nQUrr8A1uR4LA#v=onepage&q&f=false

Kalbfleisch, P.J. (1993). Interpersonal communication: evolving interpersonal relationships. Hillsdale, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum.

http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=HWLXu63TQWQC&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=Engaging+theories+in+interpersonal+communication+:+multiple+perspectives&ots=-C4Hjy8hzt&sig=DphRi4xnkfdGngCGYySqXh8Ubmw#v=onepage&q&f=false
View Full Essay

Effect of Similarity on Interpersonal Attraction

Words: 1579 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28034221

Psychology

Effects of similarity on interpersonal attraction

The aim of the various researches carried out on how individuals interact and form either positive or negative relationships. To fully investigate these issues, Bryne (1961) highlighted the need to acquire knowledge about the various independent variables. Majorly, Bryne (1961) contends that the functional and physical distance influences interpersonal attraction and interactions in general. Another variable is the environment, which should be conducive to allow and encourage interaction and lastly, individual properties that stimulate responses from other individuals from other similar interactions they may have encountered previously. The main problem however that was been investigated by the various researchers aimed at finding out the impact of similar attitudes to attraction and the reasons for these impacts (Bryne, 1961, pg.713).

Two factors ultimately influence interpersonal attraction after the initial interaction has been established. These factors have been identified punishment and mutual reward. Therefore, attraction…… [Read More]

References

Batchelor, T.R. & Tesser, A (1971) Attitude Base as a Moderator of the Attitude Similarity-Attraction Relationship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol.19, No.2, 229-236

Byrne, B. (1961) Interpersonal Attraction and Attitude Similarity. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. Vol.62, No.3, 713-715

Byrne, D., Griffitt, W., Stefaniak, D. (1967) Attraction and Similarity of Personality Characteristics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol.5, No.2, 82-90

Stroebe, W., Insko, C.A., Thompson, V.D., Layton, B.D. (1971) Effects of Physical Attractiveness, Attitude Similarity, and Sex on Various Aspects of Interpersonal Attraction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol.18, No.1, 79-91
View Full Essay

Technology on Personal Relationships the

Words: 13203 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85885493



In many ways, students live both in the land-based or physical world as well as in the virtual world; leading what some considers parallel lives.

Helliwell & Putman (2004) posit that social networking sites may offer an avenue for the development of greater social capital which may serve to further reinforce students' likelihood of integrating Facebook and other social media sites into their regular routines. A suggestion made as to the possible reason for the purported decline in mature interpersonal relationships is social media and advances in technology Helliwell & Putnam, 2004.

The following study will build a base of knowledge regarding several popular social media sites including Facebook, and examine the role social media plays in a college students' development and interpersonal relationships.

Technology has revolutionized and transformed the way in which people relate in one another and in this way it has greatly impacted the communication between people.…… [Read More]

References

Anstey, S. (1999). Online Personal Relationships. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.

Arnett, J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the Twenties. American Psychologist, 55(1), 469-480.

Balnaves, M., & Caputi, P. (2001). Introduction to quantitative research methods: an investigative approach. London: SAGE.

Bargh, J., & McKenna, K. (2004). The Internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychology, 55(1), 573-590.
View Full Essay

Leadership Interpersonal Skills and Decision-Making

Words: 2408 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67696534

LEADERSHIP, INTERPERSONAL SKILLS, DECISION-MAKING research paper prepared for the staff of New Jersey Publishing Corporation

Improving Leaders and Interpersonal Relationship

Communication Skills

ritten, Oral, Listening, Perception)

Organization and Planning

This research paper analyzes the effect of leadership skills providing direction, interpersonal skills in interacting with others and decision making.

It includes oral communication skills, written business communication, and perception skills important in analyzing problems and proposing solutions.

Final component deals with organizational change and self-designing change management.

The research paper will be the basis of a proposal for a seminar workshop to enhance staff knowledge of such qualities as leadership and ability to interact with others for the enhancement of the capabilities of the staff.

Executive Summary

To counteract dire predictions in the globalized world, leadership, interpersonal relationship and decision-making in the corporate world should undergo enhancement, strengthening and change in design

The process takes careful analysis, outlining of problems…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Andrews, Deborah C. And William D. Andrew. Business Communication. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1988.

Blake, Robert R., Jane Srygley Mouton and Ann Adams McCause. Change by Design. Massachusetts: Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1991.

Brzezinski, Zbignew. Out of Control. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993.

Ewald, Helen Rothschild and Rebecca E. Burnett. Business Communication. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1997.
View Full Essay

Effects of Outside Interference With the Therapeutic Relationship

Words: 1927 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15862546

Therapeutic elationship

An Analysis of the Potential Detrimental Effects of Interference with the Therapeutic elationship

Virtually any type of treatment setting requires an effective therapeutic relationship to succeed. Therefore, this research paper will examine the potential detrimental effects on the client and the therapeutic relationship when an outside person interferes with the therapy in general, and the following two scenarios in particular: 1) the patient's family, friend, or significant other(s) do not refrain from intervening in the therapeutic relationship once it has begun; and, 2) once the patient develops an affectionate relationship with the therapist, the family member, friend, or significant other develops jealousy and attempts to destroy or undermine the therapeutic relationship. To this end, a discussion of what steps practitioners can take when these events interfere with the therapeutic relationship is followed by a summary of the research and recommendations for clinicians in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion…… [Read More]

References

Adam, E., Egeland, B., Korfmacher, J., & Ogawa, J. (1997). Adult attachment: Implications for the therapeutic process in a home visitation intervention. Personality and Social

Psychology Review, 1(1), 43.

Andolphi M., & Angelo C. (1988). Towards constructing the therapeutic system. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 14(3), 237-47.

Carroll, K.M., Connors, G.J., Dermen, K.H., Diclemente, C.C., Frone, M.R., & Kadden, R.
View Full Essay

Therapeutic Relationships Within the Medical

Words: 967 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86828533

The goals are what the client hopes will happen because of the care needed -- and the bond the specifics that need to be met in order to meet those goals (iddowson, 2010, 83).

The Transference/Countertransference Section -- ithin this section of the therapeutic relationship, transference and countertransference are phenomenons in which feelings between the client and caregiver are directed and redirected to one another. This has been part of clinical psychology since Jung, and may be both harmful or positive. ithin the caregiver model, it is usually heightened empathy for the patient, with the client, a feeling of greater emotional bonding to the caregiver than that of a professional relationship (iener, 2009).

The Real Relationship -- This is the ideal outcome, the real or personal relationship between client and caregiver. It may, of course, include deception on the part of the caregiver or therapist depending on the actuality of…… [Read More]

Watson, J. (1997). The Theory of Human Caring: Retrospective and Prospective. Nursring Science Quarterly, 10(1), 49-52.

Widdowson, M. (2010). Transactional Analysis: 100 Key Points and Techniques. New York: Taylor and Francis.

Wiener, J. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship: Tranference, Countertranference. Austin, TX: Texas a&M Univeristy.
View Full Essay

Personal Team Relationships There Is a Difference

Words: 583 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70602120

Personal Team elationships

There is a difference between team-building and teamwork. The first focuses most on building the group and the second on the processes and functions that make groups successful (Ingram, David, 2011)

In many business settings we often focus on the first and then assume the working together will come naturally. We often assume that having others around is enough to ensure that person interests or agendas don't predominate. But what happens when we cannot focus on the team itself or the building of that team? Then we have to focus on how people work together, including on interpersonal relationships that really determine if the decision-making processes function as we want.

One of the key issues of two people working productively always centers on listening and mutually understanding what each wants, what each hears and what each expects will result. This is how groups or individuals can make…… [Read More]

REFERENCES:

Ingram, David (2011), What is the difference between team building & team work, The Houston Chronicle, retrieved October 6, 2011 from  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/difference-between-team-building-teamwork-10981.html , para 4.

1

Building Relationships Outside the Team
View Full Essay

Leadership Training and Its Relationship to Communication

Words: 3299 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 887032

Leadership Training and Its elationship to Communication Skills, Self-Esteem, and Problem Solving Skills among Youth

Transformational leadership remains a critical phenomenon as described through behavioral components such as inspirational motivation, idealized influence, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation. Idealized influence is the first element and is reflected based on the conceptualization by transformational leaders who behave in a manner that allows them appear as role models among their followers. Such individuals are respected, trusted, and admired (Olive, Gottfried, Guerin, Gottfried & eichard, 2011). Followers relate with the leaders with the aim of emulating them.

Children's attachment style is normally attributed to parental factors or parenting style. Attachment styles are well formed at early ages even though they are predictive of outcomes for future leadership. Early life shows that bonds developed by infants with caregivers vary between from an insecure to secure attachment styles. The relationship identifies diverse infant attachment styles which…… [Read More]

References

Day, D.V. (2011) Integrative perspectives on longitudinal investigations of leader development: From childhood through adulthood. The Leadership Quarterly 22-561 -- 571.

Gottfried, A.E., Gottfried, A.W., Reichard, R.J., Guerin, D.W., Oliver, P.H., & Riggio, R.E. (2011). Motivational roots of leadership: A longitudinal study from childhood through adulthood. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(3), 510 -- 519.

Mortensen, J., Lichty, L., Foster-Fishman, P., & Warsinske, K. (2014). Leadership through a Youth Lens: Understanding Youth Conceptualizations of Leadership. Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 42, No. 4, 447 -- 462

Murphy, S.E., & Johnson, S.K. (2011) The benefits of a long-lens approach to leader development: Understanding the seeds of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly 22. 459 -- 470.
View Full Essay

Premarital Relationships How Do They

Words: 4763 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15530479

Those individuals who are most likely to idealize their partners are those who are also most likely to be disappointed. It also seems to be the case that those most likely to idealize their partners are those who are most likely to move quickly from engagement (or an equivalent but less formal relationship) to marriage. Such a quick trip from first date to the altar is often a very poor choice in the long run, as summarized below:

Waller... assumed that courting couples are generally blissful, optimistic lovers who, in order to sustain their romance, draw attention to their desirable qualities, suppress thoughts and behaviors that might weaken their romance, and try to see the best in the other person. After they are married, however, spouses may no longer be as motivated to "put their best foot forward" to impress their marriage partners; moreover, the intimacy of marriage makes sustaining…… [Read More]

References

Flowers, B. (2007). The limits of a technical concept of a good marriage: Exploring the role of virtue in communication skills. Journal of marital and family therapy 27(3), 327-340.

Larson, J.H. (2000). Should we stay together? A scientifically proven method for evaluating your relationship and improving its chances for long-term success. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Marazziti, D. & Canale, D. (2004). Hormonal changes when falling in love. Psychoneuroendocrinology 29, 931 -- 936.

Niehuis, S. (2006). Organization of partner knowledge, its effect on passion, and the mediating effect of idealization. North American Journal of Psychology 8:33-46.
View Full Essay

Moral Arguments and Ethical Issues in Relationships

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68308689

Moral Theory and Virtue Ethics

How is virtue ethics different from the other theories of ethics that you have studied so far?

The other theories of ethics argue that morality results from an act, thus they tend to focus on the impact. This implies that a moral act will bring the highest level of happiness for the highest number of people. In contrast, virtue ethics considers morality as the result of character or identity of a person and not a reflection of the act. It means that some characteristics are virtues. Individuals with these virtues are moral and their actions only reflect their inner morality (MacKinnon, 2012).

According to Aristotle, what is the difference between intellectual and moral virtues?

Intellectual is the first principle governing human acts. Other laws only exist to obey intellectual in various ways. Those who obey intellectual without any contradiction are body limbs because they are…… [Read More]

References

MacKinnon, B. (2012). Ethics: Theory and contemporary issues, concise edition. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning

Vaughn, L. (2013). Contemporary moral arguments: Readings in ethical issues. New York: Oxford University Press
View Full Essay

Progression of Committed Romantic Relationships

Words: 2370 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72633415



A particular area of interest for Baxter and Bullis (1986) is the manner in which couples recollect the turning point in their relationship, and how well those recollections match up with one another. After interviewing hundreds of couples whose relationships had declined or disintegrated, the researchers found that only 54% of the couples attributed their relationships downfall to the same turning point. Misaligned perceptions of many types are, in fact, a major cause of conflict and failure in committed romantic relationships.

Inconsistent Perceptions

esearch on self-interpretation suggests that individuals might embellish their personal virtues to make up for perceived faults. In a study by Greenberg & Pyszczynski, (1985) individuals were confronted with the knowledge that another person knew of a serious fault in their characters. These threatened individuals then emphasized their many virtues in domains unrelated to this fault, presumably in an attempt to reaffirm themselves in this critical other's…… [Read More]

References

Acker, M., & Davis, M.H. (1992). Intimacy, passion and commitment in adult romantic relationships: A test of the triangular theory of love. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 9, 21-50.

Acitelli L.K. (1998). When spouses talk to each other about their relationship. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 5, 185-199.

Amato, P.R. (2007) Transformative processes in marriage: Some thoughts from a sociologist. Journal of Marriage and the Family.69, 305-309

Baxter L.A. (1988). Dialectical perspective on communication strategies in relational development. In S. Duck, D. Hay, S. Hobfoll, W. Ickes, & B. Montgomery (Eds.), Handbook of personal relationships: Theory, research, and interventions (pp. 257-273). Chichester, England: Wiley.
View Full Essay

Women Come Out of an Abusive Relationship

Words: 807 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11423493

women come out of an abusive relationship, the negative psychological traumas they feel continue. This study makes a comparison between forgiveness therapy (FT) and alternative therapy (AT)-assertiveness, anger validation and interpersonal skill building for women who have been abused emotionally and had been separated permanently from their romantic partner or spouse for up to two years or more. A total of 20 women in Midwest city who were abused psychologically made up the participants. Psychological abuse from one's spouse characterizes a very agonizing infidelity, which often leads to very serious depressing psychological results for the partner who has been abused. There are reports of both standard deviations and mean scores for every measure at pretest, posttest, as well as follow-up for everyone in the forgiveness therapy group and both pretest and posttest for everyone in the alternative therapy group. This represents the first research for the demonstration of the efficacy…… [Read More]

Reference

Reed, G.L., & Engright, R.D. (2006). The effect of forgiveness therapy on depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress for women after spousal emotional abuse. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 74(5), 920.
View Full Essay

Creative Thinking for Interpersonal Isues

Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35825060

Affective creativity may be argued as a primary tool in the resolution of interpersonal issues, more important than cognitive creativity, or cognitive learning. To consider how and why this is, the concept of affective creativity will be considered, and its role in resolving interpersonal issues discussed.

Different forms of creativity exist, frequently divided into two types of creativity. The first is associated with the technology things, resulting in outputs such as inventions, new scientific theories, and works of art (Sarnoff & Cole, 1983). The second type of creativity is the generation of new responses to daily challenges, essential for personal growth (Sarnoff & Cole, 1983. Vargiu (1973), categorises these as cognitive creativity and affected creativity. The cognitive creativity elements include the basic knowledge required for creativity, as well as specific knowledge in relevant fields, combined with the open-mindedness. The affective elements are intangible, and include aspects such as curiosity, humour,…… [Read More]

References

Amabile, T. (1989). Growing up Creative. New York: Crown.

Kolb, A, Koilb, D, Passarelli, A, Sharma, G, (2014), On Becoming an Experiential Educator, Simulation Gaming, 45 (2), 204-234

Sarnoff, D, Cole, H, (1983), Creativity and Personal Growth, Journal of Creative Behaviour, 17(2) 95-102

Simonton, D, (2012), Teaching Creativity, Current Findings, Trends, Controversies in the Psychology of Creativity, Teaching of Psychology, 39 (3) 217-222
View Full Essay

Relationship and Development of Child's Personality --

Words: 1765 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21206330

relationship and development of child's personality -- developmental theories in Integrative psychotherapy and their use by working with clients

The foundation of our daily lives is created on the relationships that we have with other people. This contact with others, a feeling of reverence it produces and the relational needs it satisfies are all the requirements for us. Our capability to make complete contact with others is frequently disturbed as we confront the unavoidable sufferings of life, either large or small. Psychological dysfunction will result if contact decreases and relational needs get curtailed. Through a method called Integrative Psychotherapy, people can revive their capability to uphold real relationships and improved psychological health. The integrative psychotherapy is based on oger's client-centered therapy, Berne's transactional analysis, Perls Gestalt therapy, Kohut's self-psychology, and also the contributions of British object-relations theorists. (Erskine; Moursund; Trautmann, 1999)

Integrative Psychotherapy:

Integrative psychotherapy involves a practice of psychotherapy…… [Read More]

References

Erskine, Richard G; Moursund, Janet; Trautmann, Rebecca. (1999) "Beyond Empathy - A Therapy of Contact-In Relationship" Brunner/Mazel. Retrieved from  http://integrativetherapy.com/book-empathy.html  Accessed on May 12, 2005

Erskine, Richard G; Moursund, Janet. (1998) "Integrative Psychotherapy in Action" Gestalt Journal Press. Retrieved from  http://integrativetherapy.com/book-integrative.html  Accessed on May 12, 2005

Erskine, Richard G. "Introjection, Psychic Presence and Parent Ego States: Considerations for Psychotherapy" Institute for Integrative Psychotherapy. Retrieved from  http://integrativetherapy.com/article-introjection.html  Accessed on May 12, 2005

Erskine, Richard G; Trautmann, Rebecca. "Resolving Intra-psychic Conflict: Psychotherapy of Parent Ego States" Institute for Integrative Psychotherapy. Retrieved from  http://integrativetherapy.com/article-resolving.html
View Full Essay

Relationships That Influence Relationship Functioning

Words: 1372 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94989498

Other techniques are those listed as:

Opening space for recovery and taking it slow

Compliments and statements of affection

Writing positive requests for the future

It is important that the couple become able to schedule pleasant times in spite of the depression cycle such as higher activity task of cycling, walking, etc. Furthermore challenging the belief systems in the depression are vital and then to fill that void with ": positive constructions and narratives" about the situation. The CTR or "Challenge Test Reward" is a technique utilized for transforming through challenge of a self-critical belief through generation of an alternative positive belief to replace the old negative belief with self-rewarding dialogue resulting from this technique when accomplished. (Author of Ibid p. 431)

Communication and Problem Solving:

It is imperative that the therapist provide the client with communication and problem solving skills for dealing with the depression. These skills may be…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Beach, S et al. (1990) Depression in Marriage a Model to Etiology and Treatment. New York: Guilford.

Carr, Alan

Family Therapy: Concepts, Process and Practice. Wiley Publishers

Dishion, Thomas and Patterson, Gerald (1999) Model Building in Developmental Psychopathology: A Pragmatic Approach to Understanding and Intervention. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology Vol. 28 No. 4, 502-512.
View Full Essay

Relationships in Late Adulthood

Words: 2368 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35889364

Psychology

Changing elationships in Late Adulthood

Late adulthood is often mistakenly viewed as a time of relaxation, where everything slows and an individual's life becomes more consistent and less stressful. In reality, late adulthood is a time of great change. Individuals retire, children move away, lifestyles alters significantly, and social ties decline. Most significantly, a person's relationships change significantly in late adulthood. This includes relationships with siblings, spouses, friends, children, and grandchildren. By considering these relationships and how they change, it will be shown that late adulthood is far from being a time of reduced stress. It may become a time of reduced stress if the individual makes the transition successfully, but the actual process of transition involves many significant changes.

One of the significant changes that occurs during late adulthood is that individuals often become more involved with their siblings. Stark and Hall (1988) suggest that this is partly…… [Read More]

References

Berk, L.E. (2004). Development through the lifespan. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Butler, R.N. (1968). The life review: An interpretation of reminiscence in the aged. In B. Neugarten (Ed.), Middle age and aging (pp. 486-496). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Goldberg, E. (2002). "A healthy retirement." AORN Journal, 76(5), 873-874.

Keith, P.M., & Schafer, R.B. (1985). Equity role strains and depression among middle-aged and older men and women. In W.A. Peterson & J. Quadagno (Eds.), Social bonds in later life: Aging and interdependence (pp. 37-49). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
View Full Essay

Relationship between effective communication and productivity

Words: 1142 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49596771


The purpose of effective communication is to co-ordinate efforts towards achieving team goals, enhancing quality of meetings for information to be shared, decisions collectively made, and for there to be shared understanding about the tasks to be performed. A necessary component of team work is establishing shared meaning of the work, and appropriate means of delivering high quality consumer care (Borrill et.al, 2000).

Effective healthcare centers heavily rely on effective communication for them to live up to their missions. Productivity at the workplace improves when information flawlessly flows from one level to another. It leads to more tasks completed, consequently leading to the fulfillment of goals. In the workplace too, effective communication usually has a positive effect on employee performance through increased morale, higher retention rates and the overall productivity at the workplace. According to Aramyan (2015), it also leads to reduced misunderstandings, increased empowerment and truthfulness, as well as…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Interpersonal Process & Strategy Framework

Words: 1129 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12712770

For instance, when a needed to resolve personal issues, the manager understood him and supported him by allowing flexible schedules and even reduced amounts of work when possible.

Apathy: Apathy is situated at the opposite pole from love, but they are somehow similar in the meaning that they are seldom found in the workplace. The modern working environment tries to resolve such issues and find solutions to remove such strong feelings. In the given situation, it could be said that the friend of the dissatisfied employee manifested apathy towards the management. These feelings were however of short duration, based on the impulse of supporting a and also on previous negative experiences with the manager.

3. Aggression

Aggression towards the other: In the current scenario, most of the aggressive behavior was revealed by the supporting friend B. However he did not become involved in direct disputes, he would reveal flashes of…… [Read More]

References

Bion, W.R., Experiences in Groups, New York: Basic Books, 1961

Schutz, W., FIRO: A Three Dimensional Theory of Interpersonal Behavior, New York: Rinehart and Winston Inc., 1958
View Full Essay

Interpersonal Communication and Intimacy

Words: 1925 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29898314

2003) Men and women: Becoming together. Intimate artners. (pp. 389-397).

This article stated that gender is ultimately a mystery that cannot be solved scientifically. Men and women can, however, come together in love and sex. Love increases this mystery.

Although gender is not a science, we can see obvious differences in gender. Thus results love between men and women.

Lewis, C.S. (1988) The four loves. Retrieved from http://duquesne.docutek.com/eres

/download.aspx?docID=12758&shortname=lewis.DF

This article spoke of need-love and gift-love. Gift-love is what moves people to work and plan for the future of their children. Need-love is what drives a child to run to his or her mother. Need-love is necessary for forgiveness.

It is obvious that need-love is necessary for a relationship, but perhaps the best relationships integrate gift-love as well.

The National Marriage roject. (2009, February) The state of our unions 2008: The social health of marriage in America. Retrieved from http://www.virginia.edu/marriageproject…… [Read More]

Popenoe, David. (2004) Top ten myths of divorce. Retrieved from http://duquesne.docutek.com

/eres/download.aspx?docID=4304&shortname=myths_of_divorce_1.htm

Wilcox, W.B. (2009) The evolution of divorce. National affairs, 81-94. http://www.virginia.edu/marriageproject/pdfs/Wilcox_Fall09.pdf
View Full Essay

Interpersonal Skills

Words: 738 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84892189

eadership and Solitude

When talking about effective and compelling leaders in education and other important social fields most people tend to envision a certain type of individual. This individual is usually envisioned as a very social, affable, outspoken and extroverted person. William Dereziwics challenges and questions this character perception of leadership in his article titled earn To Be Alone With Your Thoughts. This article presents a clear connection that exists between leadership and solitude, Dereziwics supports his opinion about leadership by commenting and discussing several situations where solitude directly results in leadership. He also talks about social and media interaction and how this conflicts with leadership. Derecziwics begins his article by stating that solitude is necessary for leadership, he says that this is so because solitude allows a person to think and critically analyze. Derecziwics states that it is very difficult to become an effective leader for someone who is…… [Read More]

Leadership is a very important element in virtually all fields of employment, especially in education. Therefore, it is also very important to establish quality and effective leadership at the head of an organization or entity in order for it to be successful and accomplish its organizational goals. In her article titled What is Quality Leadership?, Misty Laucour explains and defines how delegation and empowerment are important as leadership strategies. She explains that it is important for leaders to delegate responsibilities to employees or members of an organization while at the same time empowering those individuals. Lacours states that leaders can empower individuals by allowing them to take part in the decisions making process, thus creating an environment where the quality of work goes up due to good employee morale. Lacour lists that following actions as vital to the empowerment of follower: " (a) effectively match people to assignments; (b) engage all in active listening; (c) engage in purposeful actions based on goals and vision; (d) focus on growth and opportunities, not failures; (e) encourage others to think critically"(Lacour).

Taking into account what is presented in the article one would have to agree with Lacour's assessment of what quality leadership really is. Our contemporary society is one that is heavily influenced by Democracy, in this type of social and political atmosphere people in general are encouraged to be involved and make decisions. Our society is not one where dictatorship is accepted, that is to say that people do not like being told what to without having any sort of input. It has been proven that the most effective workers and members of an organization are those that are happy and have good morale. In order for good employee morale to be established empowerment of the followers should be present, this way they can feel important and significant in the overall process, thus creating a more productive and effective atmosphere.

Lacour, M., et. al., What is Quality Leadership?. Academic Leadership v. 8 no. 3 (Summer 2010) p. 320-1
View Full Essay

Relationship Between Brand Equity and Customer Purchasing Behavior

Words: 11492 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4783955

Brand Equity and Customer Purchasing Behavior

Taking into account the numerous modifications witnessed in the marketing milieu- viz. The accessibility to plethora of knowledge through various electronic devices, the emergence of modern methods of buying, the ability of the companies to use technology to target consumer more specifically, getting a feel of customer tendencies is still more difficult. Purchasing activities is the sequence of choice and actions of individuals occupied in procuring and consuming the same. An enterprise must evaluate its purchasing activities. Purchaser's responses to the marketing technique of the enterprise put an enormous influence on the achievement of the enterprise. The marketing perception highlights that an enterprise must build up a unique blend of marketing initiatives that makes the customers happy, and hence the urgency to evaluate the substance, the place, the time and the purchasing pattern of consumers and by way of addressing this, marketing personnel can…… [Read More]

References

Aaker, David A. 1996. "Measuring Brand Equity across Products and Markets" California Management Review. Volume: 16; No; 2; pp: 43-47

AMR Research Report. 2004. "POS Data: The Beginning of DDSN for Consumer Products Manufacturers" February.

Anderson, J.C; Cleveland, G; Schroeder, R. 1989. "Operations Strategy: A Literature Review" Journal of Operations Management. Volume: 8; No: 1; pp: 56-64

Baker, M. 2000. Marketing Management and Strategy" Macmillan Business.
View Full Essay

Interpersonal Conflict From Chapter One

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27066138

Acknowledging the validity of that position can be a beginning. In this particular case, while the freeloader's situation was clearly unjustified, the host did not establish any boundary lines. In such a situation, the rules were not clear and misunderstandings can certainly happen. Blowing up at the offending party was not justified and was an overreaction ("Interpersonal conflict and," 2011). It is the opinion of this author that by acknowledging this, apologizing for the overreaction and then pointing out the wrong on the other side last is a good way to defuse the situation and start going in the right direction.

To follow up, empathy can then be used as a tool to help bridge the gap. Using an "I" statement such as "I feel pretty upset " rather than "You have made me feel very upset" can aid in this defusing. Then, by stroking the person's ego, finding more…… [Read More]

References

Abigail, R.A., & Cahn, D.D. (2010). Managing conflict through communication . (4th Ed. ed.). New

York, NY: Allyn & Bacon.

Interpersonal conflict and effective communication. (2011). Retrieved from  http://www.drbalternatives.com/articles/cc2.html .
View Full Essay

Relationship of Eating Disorders Self-Esteem

Words: 6071 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52017394

These suppositions allow the researcher to view the world from a certain perspective while ignoring other perspectives. The researcher in this study assumes that his subjects are logical human beings who have a rationale point-of-view. Their thinking is valid and reasonable and their approach is more or less along the lines of scientific thinking. In addition, we assume that commonsense thinking and scientific thinking are more or less identical in nature. With these assumptions in mind, we take a post-positivism philosophical foundation; as in line with Trochim (2000) post-positivism is the outright denial of positivism (which argues that the laws of the nature are perfunctory and therefore deductive reasoning can be the only suitable approach to comprehend nature) and presupposes that day-to-day human and scientific reasoning are more or less the same and in order to understand reality, researchers have to use not only deductive but also inductive reasoning (Trochim,…… [Read More]

References:

Bailer UF, Frank GK, Henry SE et al. (2005). Altered brain serotonin 5-HT1A receptor binding after recovery from anorexia nervosa measured by positron emission tomography. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 1032-1041.

Bloks H, Hoek HW, Callewaert I et al. (2004). Stability of personality traits in patients who received intensive treatment for a severe eating disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192, 129-138.

Bulik CM, Klump KL, Thornton L. et al. (2004). Alcohol use disorder comorbidity in eating disorders: a multicenter study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 1000-1006.

Byrne, B. (2000) Relationships between Anxiety, Fear Self-Esteem, and Coping Strategies in Adolescence. Adolescence. 35. 137.
View Full Essay

How I Resolved an Interpersonal Conflict in the Past Year

Words: 782 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19814174

Interpersonal Conflict in Past Year

Varying interests, scarcity of resources or divergent opinions will always result in interpersonal conflicts. Such conflicts may be expressed in different ways including word of mouth, signs and gestures or through silence (212books).

I have an older brother named Charles. We have been very close since childhood. When our parents divorced back then he was there for me and I regarded him like a father figure. He always made sure I did the right thing and would also help me sort out my problems. He guided me throughout childhood and adolescence and helped me to get into the university am currently in. We like every other siblings out there always had small disagreements but things never got out of hand not until early 2012 when I became very close to my brother and his girlfriend at that time (Yoojung). Yoojung was a Korean native and…… [Read More]

References

212 books. (n.d.). Conflict and Interpersonal Communication. In A Primer on Communication Studies.

Moyer, M. (2015, November 2). Examples Of Interpersonal Conflict Help You Assess. Retrieved from My Interpersonal: http://www.myinterpersonal.com/examples-of-interpersonal-conflict.html
View Full Essay

Study of Relationship Marketing and Its Impact on Consumer Behavior

Words: 4930 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26831999

Relationship Marketing and Its Impact on Consumer Behavior

Research Questions & Sub-questions

Research Design & Methodology

Organization of Study

Secondary Research

his report explores Customer Relationship management. In [articular the investigation seeks to understand the impact of relationship Marketing and Its Impact on Consumer Behavior. his issue has proven problematic for businesses because many do not have the ability to form effective relationships with customers. his deficiency costs companies customers and profits. he report sought to present effective ways to better customer relations at the business level. More specifically, the investigation saught to determine how businesses can determine what their customers really need and how will meeting these needs affect the customers' behavior? A review of the literature suggest the customers are effected by the attitudes of employees that they come into contact with. he attitude of a saleclerk can often have an impact on a customers decision to do…… [Read More]

These relationships can be with co-workers, with casual acquaintances, with spouses, and with many others. Even though they have these relationships very few of them are committed and close in nature (Clark, 1990). More of them are much more open and lacking a commitment that would really be needed to have a close personal relationship with someone (Clark, 1990). Because many of the relationships in their personal lives are not close and committed it is difficult to understand how businesses can actually expect these same individuals to hold close and committed relationships with a particular company (Clark, 1990). Some consumers have argued that the amount of requests that they receive for improving relationships between customers and businesses is so staggering that people find them meaningless (Clark, 1990).

Some people indicate that they receive as many as 10 mailings from various companies every single day and if they ever leave on vacation the accumulated amount of these offers is so great that they end up throwing them away instead of opening them and looking to see if there is something really worthwhile inside (Johnson, Johnson, & Maruyama, 1983). In other words, so many companies seem interested in marketing a relationship that their efforts become meaningless because they do not offer anything unique to the consumer (Johnson, Johnson, & Maruyama, 1983). Even those companies that do offer something that may be unique and valuable to a particular consumer often do not get any benefit from marketing to them. The benefit is never realized because there are so many other pieces of marketing given to these consumers that they do not take the time to read them and look for the value contained in all of the meaningless mail (Johnson, Johnson, & Maruyama, 1983).

Because so many companies flood individuals with advertisements regarding their relationships, some believe that it really makes no difference which company
View Full Essay

Leadership Technical Interpersonal and Conceptual Skills Interpersonal

Words: 1284 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65951852

Leadership

Technical, interpersonal, and conceptual skills

Interpersonal skills entail knowing how to interact with others. No employee desires to have a boss who is inconsiderate or rude or one who has poor human skills. All these could reduce productivity and employee morale. Managers with effective human skills tend to have subordinates who have positive attitudes and strong desires to increase productivity. Managers are always expected in any organization to have harmonious relationships with those below them like supervisors, peers, and subordinates (Yukl, 2012).

Conceptual skills refer to an individual's aptitude to formulate ideas. These skills include formulating abstractions, thinking creatively, understanding issues, solving problems, and analyzing complex situations. Within the business context, these skills are viewed as integral prerequisites for top executive positions. Conceptual skills differ from technical skills and interpersonal skills. The three types of skills assume vital roles for certain purposes and in certain situations. However, conceptual skills…… [Read More]

References

Phillips, D. T (1993). Lincoln on Leadership: Executive Strategies for Tough Times. Warner Books, Inc.

Yukl, G.A. (2012). Leadership in Organizations. 8th Ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education
View Full Essay

Reciprocal Relationship Can Be Simply Defined as

Words: 1868 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42248178

eciprocal relationship can be simply defined as a relationship in which the two parties make an association on the basis of mutual privileges, emotions etc. There are different relationships between people and they influence their emotional development. These reciprocal relationships influence a person's life till the end of time. As far as children are concerned, their learning is mainly dependent on the engagement of family as it is the members of the family that enhance a child's experiences and family well being. Family engagement is responsible for the continuous, mutual and strong association between children and other adult members of the family (Bell and Wolfe, 2004).

When a child is of six months, he/she develops a sense of identity and agency. This whole growth mechanism is responsible for the transformation of his/her infancy-related associative original secondary emotions to the advanced levels. This system is focused on the first stable and…… [Read More]

References

Bell, M., and Wolfe, C. (2004). "Emotion and Cognition: An Intricately Bound Developmental Process," Child Development, Vol. 75, No. 2, 366 -- 70.

Social-Emotional Development in Young Children. (2012). Michigan.gov. Retrieved August 18, 2013, from  http://www.michigan.gov/documents/Social_Emotional_Development_in_Young_Children_Guide_88553_7.pdf 

Wilson, R.L. (2003). The Emotional Life of Children. Wagga, NSW: Keon Publications.
View Full Essay

Improving a Personal Relationship

Words: 2510 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58828298

Improving a Personal elationship

Identifying a elationship

The relationship between my husband and I crossed my mind immediately I went through the details of this project. Like most people in my place, I definitely had no way of finding out what I was letting myself in for when I got involved with him. I wouldn't blame myself; he knew just how to play his cards. Not only was he interested in all aspects of my life, but he was also keen to ensure that he completely identified with me. We shared jokes, thoughts, and interests, and later got married. However, not long after, our relationship started assuming a different form. My life partner suddenly started becoming self-centered, and non-appreciative of my point-of-view. Things just had to be done his way. At first, I thought he was simply playing his role as the 'man,' but it all changed when I came…… [Read More]

References

Adler, R.B. & Proctor, R.F. (2013). Looking Out, Looking In (14th ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning.

Kanu, A.M. (2011). Experiencing Interactive Interpersonal Communication. Bloomington: Xlibris Corporation.

Wood, J.T. (2011). Interpersonal Communication: Everyday Encounters (7th ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning.
View Full Essay

Disintegrating Relationships Between Organizational Leaders and Employees

Words: 3181 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83778048

Disintegrating elationships Between Organizational Leaders and Employees

Organizational leadership behavior towards employees can significantly affect their perception of the workplace, and contribute to the organization high performance and most essentially create and maintain a proper organizational culture that lead to the success of the organization . The good health of the organization depends greatly on the relationship between leaders and employees. However, the relationship that exists between organizational leaders and employees are failing at a high rate in today's workplaces and the reasons for this are not clear. Leaders in organizations have a tendency to use employees in the time of the organizational needs and them to simply ignore the employee's commitment and their potential. Committed employees should be rewarded with committed organizational leadership. Critical in organizational leadership interaction with employees is communication. Communication keeps employees informed and results in a feeling of connectedness and inclusiveness in the organizational operations,…… [Read More]

References:

Abrrow, H.A., Ardakani, M.S., Harooni, A. & Pour, H.M. (2013, July). The Relationship Between Organizational Trust and Organizational Justice Components and Their Role in Job Involvement in Education. International Journal of Management Academy, 1(1), 25-41.

Albrecht, S.L. (2010). Handbook of employee engagement: perspectives, issues, research and practice. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Broner, S. (2009). Employees' perceptions of leaders' attitudes and employee retention: a quantitative study on perceived attitudes. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest LLC.

Creswell, J.W.(2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches .(2nd ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
View Full Essay

Conflict Relationships Ken and Jane How Do

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93760314

Conflict Relationships

Ken and Jane

How do you perceive Jan's effort to convince Ken to forgive her? Based on what you have learned in this chapter, suggest two ways she might more effectively seek Ken's forgiveness.

She could have used a time based intervention to talk about the instance further when the conversation would have not been as heated. If they both had a chance to calm down then the conversation might have went smoother. Another tactic Jan could have tried would be to apologize and to address Ken's concerns so that it could be formed into a win-win. For example, Jan could have said that she was sorry if she did ruin his chances with the girl, but she would try to help him find an even more suitable match.

What are two nonverbal cues used by Jan. What are two nonverbal cues used by Ken? In what ways…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Ulysses Relationships in Ulysses to

Words: 4073 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31567490

For the first several years of one's life, their mother and father are their world. These first relationships occur at a time when the tiny human is learning the basic of their environment and how to respond to it. A child learns much of their early actions by imitating the role models around them. The relationship that exists between a child and each of their parents will set the tone for how they deal with other relationships that they encounter throughout their life.

In Chapter One we discover that our hero has "issues" with his paternal and his maternal relationship. These relationships overshadow almost any other conflict in the story at this time. It is apparent through Stephen's interactions with Mulligan and Haines that he did not have a strong paternal figure to model. He reacts in a rather passive manner. One must remember that this chapter takes place in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Joyce, James. Ulysses. Hans Walter Gabler (ed). Random House. June, 1986.
View Full Essay

Attraction Sex Love & Relationships Psychology Attraction

Words: 1703 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33344388

ATTACTION, SEX, LOVE, & ELATIONSHIPS

Psychology

Attraction, love, sex, and relationships are fundamental to human condition. Each individual human is separate and distinct from every other one, yet there are numerous aspects to the human experience that every human shares -- attraction, love, sex, and relationships are prime examples of commonalities shared among the human race. Science(s) have demonstrated that sexual attraction and the desire for close relationships form and manifest in humans very early on their development, often before children have reached school age. With reference to several psychological, academic resources, the paper aims to explain some of the key components of sex, love, attraction, and relationships.

Key Components to Attraction, Sex, Love, & elationships

While attraction, love, sex, and relationships remains quite a substantial mystery to many people, there are professional and researchers in areas such as psychology where they are making headway toward a comprehensive understanding of…… [Read More]

References:

Baumeister, R.F, & Leary, M.R. (1995) The Need to Belong: Desire for Interpersonal Attachments as a Fundamental Human Motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497 -- 529.

Fisher, PhD, H.E., Aron, PhD, A.A., Masher, D., Li, PhD, H., & Brown, PhD, L.L. (2002) Defining the Brain Systems of Lust Romantic Attraction, and Attachment. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31(5), 413 -- 419.

Gillath, O., Mikulincer, M., Birnbaum, G.E., & Shaver, P.R. (2008) When Sex Primes Love: Subliminal Sexual Priming Motivates Relationship Goal Pursuit. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1057 -- 1070.

Gonzaga, G.C., Turner, R.A., Keltner, D., Campos, B., & Litmus, M. (2006) Romantic Love and Sexual Desire in Close Relationships. Emotion, 6(2), 163 -- 179.
View Full Essay

Communication Techniques Interpersonal Communications Project

Words: 1399 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71086317

This, perhaps, has made me more of an avid listener that is eager to appreciate what others have got to say rather than being a high decibel demagogue that would neither brook any resistance nor would tolerate any dissidence, however mild that may be.

Thus, the very essence of communication, which is nothing but a means of encouraging and stimulating others to share their views while attempting to skillfully shepherd them to veer around towards the speaker's perspectives, and the form it would finally acquire, is heavily influenced by the speaker's personal behavioral traits.

Listening as a Potent Tool for Effective Communication

We must have heard numerous times the exhortation, "Listen carefully, I don't want repeat myself," in some form or the other but in our excessive eagerness to make ourselves heard, we have ignored such requests and pleas and put an unceremonious end to many a potentially enriching communication.…… [Read More]

References

Carbonell, M. (2005). Extreme personality makeover: How to develop a winning Christ-like personality to improve your effectiveness! . Blue Ridge, GA: Uniquely You Resources.

Donahue, M.C. (1996, December 1). How active is your listening? (communication technique; includes advice for managing anger) . Current Health 2, a Weekly Reader Publication, pp. 23-25.

Frisk, B. (2007, May 11). Effective Listening a Forgotten Art That Can Open Many Doors. Daily Herald, p. 12.

Madrigal, D., & McClain, B. (2001, August). The secret of active listening. Tactical Response, pp. 50-52.
View Full Essay

Post Break Up Relationship Lit

Words: 6657 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81182202



The questionnaires for the purpose of this particular study were completed by 179 participants. The gender preference breakdown of the participants included 60 lesbians, 45 heterosexual females, 39 heterosexual males and 37 gay males (Harkless, Blaine, 2005).

When the study was completed and the data went through analysis it was found that gay men and lesbian women reported a higher degree of post relationship involvement with their former partners than heterosexual couple members reported occurring.

The data reflect how inclusion of sexual orientation can broaden understandings of gender differentiated phenomena beyond more traditional gender-only based accounts (Harkless, Blaine, 2005)."

The study questionnaire asked general demographic data and then moved into couple and gender specific questions. The questions required the participants to acknowledge their relationship with their former partner including whether or not they maintained emotional ties, sexual ties or other types of contact with the former partner. The questionnaire also…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, C.R., Loving, T.J., & Drigotas, S.M. (2001). Substituting the forest for the trees: Social networks and the prediction of romantic relationship state and fate. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 1042-1057.

Anderson, P.A., Elroy, S.V., Guerrero, L.K., & Spitzberg, B.H. (1995). Romantic jealousy and relational satisfaction: A look at the impact of jealousy experience and expression. Communication Reports, 8, 77-85.

Attridge, M. (1994). Barriers to dissolution of romantic relationships. In D.J. Canary & L. Stafford, Communication and relational maintenance. (pp. 141-164) San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Inc.

Baxter, L.A. (1982). Strategies for ending relationships: Two studies. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 223-241.
View Full Essay

Hitch and Interpersonal Conflict Hitch Is a

Words: 660 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27862175

Hitch and Interpersonal Conflict

Hitch is a 1995 film by Andy Tennant in which the development of interpersonal communication is developed and utilized to establish and cultivate romantic relationships between people that would otherwise not interact. In the film, Alex "Hitch" Hitchens, portrayed by Will Smith, helps men to overcome interpersonal communication barriers. While Hitch is successful in helping others, he finds that a lack of communication, and the obfuscation of his profession, cause interpersonal conflicts to arise between himself and Sara Melas, played by Eva Mendes, a gossip columnist with whom Hitch begins to have a relationship with.

In the film, Hitch makes a living helping men like Albert Brennaman, a mild-mannered accountant, establish communication channels with women like Allegra Cole, a celebrity and client of the accounting firm Brennaman works for. Hitch contends that 60% of communication is body language, 30% is tone, and 10% is what one…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Nursing Client Relationships and How the Study

Words: 4324 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72371497

nursing client relationships and how the study is a valid research for practitioners. It has 26 sources in Harvard Style.

esearch titles must be limited to fifteen words. In this case the author has exceeded the limitation by one count which is negligible. The importance of relevance of the title to the body of the research is that it must collaborate with the core study area. In the first line the author has already specified the relationship of the nurse-client at the beginning and categorizes it as a "partnership" whereas the title of the study must not reveal the results or even the anticipated results.

Authors and Abstracts

The authors T. Hostick and F. McClelland both the authors indicate in their abstract that the article aim in establishing nursing behavior when they are engaged in a nurse-client relationship. The abstract though is limited in expressing the content of the study…… [Read More]

References

Hostick, T. & McClelland, F. 2002, Partnership: a co-operative inquiry between Community Mental Health Nurses and their clients. 2. The nurse-client relationship. Journal of Psychiatry and Mental Health Nursing 9, 111-117.

Beyea, S.C. 1997, Research utilization begins with learning to read research reports, Research Corner, AORN, February. Accessed on 29-9-2003 at http://www.aorn.org/journal/research/rc297.htm

Author not available, 2003, Reading Nursing Research to Critique a Study and to Summarize Findings for Use in Practice, Available at http://classes.kumc.edu/son/NURS460smith/460critiquingreseach.html

Forchuk, C. 1989, Establishing a Nurse-Client Relationship. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing vol.27,no.2. Available at http://willmar.ridgewater.mnscu.edu/library/338271.htm
View Full Essay

Theological Interpersonal and Political Roots

Words: 1349 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4025518

The Good News is that righteousness is not a demand upon the sinner but a gift to the sinner. The sinner simply accepts the gift through faith" (hitford 2005). Luther's emphasis on the individual's reception of that Good News fueled his skillful promotion of Bibles written in the language of the people in an accessible translation and his disdain for the abstruse philosophy of theologians such as the Scholastic Thomas Aquinas. Although a highly literate and educated man, Luther did not believe that rationalization and reason could lead one to Christ, only God. Additional philosophizing added nothing to the truth that could only be found in the actual words of the Bible.

As is evidenced in Chaucer, in medieval society there had long been simmering a strong dislike of clergymen who appeared to use their office for financial gain, rather than as an exercise of piety: "The poor resented the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hooker, Richard. "Reformation: Martin Luther." 1996. Updated 1999. World Civilizations.

http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/REFORM/LUTHER.htm

Kries, Steven. "Lecture 5: The Catholic Reformation." History Guide. 2002.

Revised 2004. http://www.historyguide.org/earlymod/lecture5c.html
View Full Essay

Somatic Psychology the Somatic Relationship

Words: 4540 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41758563

This was a clear gap in the research that was examined. The proposed research study will attempt to fill this gap by examining the importance of the adult child and parent relationship and its affect on the physical body.

Methodologies found

A number of different study methods were found amongst the studies in the literature review. Many of the studies that examined the use of psychotherapy with the treatment of a condition used a comparative study method. Clinical trials used a comparative study method in most cases. However, studies that were found to be theoretical in nature tended to use either a qualitative interview method or quantitative study methods.

No single method of study was found to be more prevalent in the group studied during the literature review. The method selected was highly dependant on the subject matter and the research question being asked in the study. no single method…… [Read More]

References

Baranek, G. (2002). Efficacy of Sensory and Motor Interventions for Children with Autism.

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 32 (5): 397-422).

Birditt, K., Miller, L., Fingerman, K., and Lefkowitz, E. (2009). Tensions in the parent and adult child relationship: Links to solidarity and ambivalence. Psychol Aging. 24(2):287-95.

Burkhardt a, Rudorf S, Brand C, Rockstroh B, Studer K, Lettke F, & Luscher K. (2007). When