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In the preface to eflect and elate, McCornack (2010) claims to offer a "fresh perspective on interpersonal communication," (viii). Admittedly when I read this, I balked. Certainly every textbook claims to be "fresh," and besides, people have been communicating with each other since the time of Neanderthal grunting. What could I possibly learn about communication from a textbook? After keeping an open mind and giving the book a chance, though, my initial cynicism waned. I began to appreciate what McCornack was trying to achieve with eflect and elate, which was to fill in the gaps that many other textbooks on communication leave empty. The informal and personal tone of the textbook helped to engage me, and the "self-help"-style exercises did as the author suggested and encouraged genuine self-awareness. Before reading eflect and elate, I would not have thought it possible to write a textbook that was at once…
King, D. (2000). Four principles of interpersonal communication. Retrieved online: http://www.pstcc.edu/facstaff/dking/interpr.htm
McCornack, S. (2010). Reflect and Relate. Bedford/St. Martin's.
Interpersonal and 'Gendered' Communication in the Workplace Setting
The movie, "Adam's Rib," effectively illustrates differences in interaction and communication between males and females. The conflict in the movie, which stems from the seemingly biased and sexist view of the society against Amanda onner's client illustrates how females are generally viewed more complex and difficult to interact with than males. Moreover, the film illustrates audio-visually the dynamics of communication among males and females, particularly in the courtroom setting. The conflict in the movie is not a fictional work of art. Indeed, conflict between males and females in the workplace setting is prevalent, particularly in a supposedly neutral community such as academic institutions. Despite the objective image illustrated by educational institutions, male-female dichotomies are abounding in the workplace setting, whether it is among student-instructor or instructor-instructor relationships.
One particular example is the conflict experienced by a female and a male academic instructor,…
Ash, B. (1996). Tallahassee Democrat. Salt Lake Tribune.
Hartley, P. (1999). Interpersonal Communication. New York: Routledge.
Honeycutt, J. (2000). Cognition, Communication, and Interpersonal Relationships. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Grand Theory in Nursing
Classification of nursing theories
Nursing theories are classified into there broad categories. These theories are grand theories, middle-range theories and situation specific theories. Grand nursing theories are very broad in scope and present general propositions and concepts in the nursing discipline. The theories at this level give both a reflection and provide insights that are useful in the nursing practice but they are not designed to be used as empirical testing tools. This gives a limit to the grand theories when it comes to giving directions, explanations and predictions of nursing in specific situations. The grand theories have the intention of being pertinent to all instances in the field of nursing. One such Grand theory as will be used in the context of this paper is the interpersonal theory whose main theorist or proponent behind it is Hildegard E. Peplau.
Second are the Mid-range…
Antipuesto, J.(2008). Nursing Theory and Theorists. Retrieved September 13, 2014 from http://nursingcrib.com/news-blog/nursing-theory-theorists/
Olin, J.(2011). 7 Nursing Theories to Practice By. Retrieved September 13, 2014 from http://www.rncentral.com/blog/2011/7-nursing-theories-to-practice-by/
Habel, M. (2010).Nursing Theory. Retrieved September 13, 2014 from http://ce.nurse.com/ce632/nursing-theory/coursepage/
Shakeel, J. (2010). Theories of Nursing. Retrieved September 1, 2014 from http://www.ehow.com/about_5484488_theories-nursing.html
An extremely important aspect to take into account in terms of the impact of IM on interpersonal relationships is the age-group of the user. As mentioned briefly above, the younger generation is more at home with this technology and therefore their interpersonal relationships are less adversely affected than older users, who have become used to a more offline mode of communication. In other words, the younger users will tend to have already adapted their relationships to the prevalent mode of communication and to the conventions of instant messaging. Added to this are other variables, such as cultural and social norms that promote or support these new mean of communion. Smith (2006) summarizes this point concisely: "...theory suggests that the apparent change of one's communication skills in any context depends on the society that the individual was raised or educated in through his or her child and young adult years..." (Smith…
Biocca, F., Harms, C., Burgoon, J. (2003). Toward a MoreRobust Theory and Measure of Social Presence: Review and Suggested Criteria. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 12(5), 456-480.
Bonka S. Quinn a., Kraut R., Kiesler S. And Shklovski I. Teenage
Communication in the Instant Messaging Era. Retrieved August 16, 2007, at http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/~kraut/RKraut.site.files/articles/Boneva04-TeenCommunicationInIMEra.pdf
Grinter, R., & Palen, L. (2002). Instant Messaging in teen life. Proceedings of the 2002 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work. Retrieved August 12, 2007, at http://portal.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=587082&type=pdf&coll=Portal&dl=ACM&CFID=29733676&CFTOKEN=51420973 .
Neither Paul nor Frank ever recognized that this was the principal source of their mutual rivalry, resentment, and antagonism. In fact, to hear either of them discuss their relationship, one would think that the main issue between them is that Frank is meticulously neat and fastidiously clean whereas Paul is notoriously sloppy.
While those characterizations are completely accurate, they are not the source of conflict within their interpersonal relationship. Their respective differences in that regard need not necessarily cause interpersonal conflict; in their case, they do because their respective preferences and comfort zones became the battlefield for their underlying mutual resentment created by the way that their father pitted them against one another in lashing out against them. Just as their father retaliated against each of them indirectly and in emotional ways without ever actually expressing his anger over their relationship with (or perceived "favoritism") toward her, so did Paul…
Aronson, E., Wilson, T., and Akert, R. (2008). Social Psychology. New York:
Blair, G. (2007). Groups that Work. Washington, DC: IEEE Press.
Branden, N. (2008). The Psychology of Self-Esteem. New York: Bantam.
Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) and its theory, techniques, application, strengths, weaknesses or other related topics are: the article by Souza et al. (2016) that examines the effects of IPT on treatment-resistant depression in adults, and the article by Markowitz, Lipsitz and Milrod (2014) that examines the relevant literature available on the impact of IPT on anxiety disorders.
Both articles provide assessments of the theory of IPT, which is that IPT provides a short-term treatment for individuals in need of psychological treatment. Its aim is to assist the individual in regaining functioning day-to-day abilities. The application typically takes between twelve and sixteen weeks and the theory upon which it is based is the idea that how the individual relates to others has a significant impact on his mental health. Thus, the concept that guides Interpersonal Psychotherapy is that relationships and how they are perceived, interpreted, developed and maintained is of critical importance…
Imbalances were most evident in three relational areas: decision-making, emotional involvement, and equity. A higher percentage of both men and women stated that men usually made more of the decisions, were less emotionally involved, and usually experienced "the better deal." Lastly, male dominance -- but not equality of power between genders -- was found to be linked with greater romantic relationship longevity. It seemed that the higher the relative degree given by the respondents to the male (rather than the female partner of the dyad), the lower the consequential rate of relationship dissolution (Felmlee, 1994).
An imbalance of power may promote the actual solidity of a relationship, but this has been much less often researched than other conclusions. The previous findings that inequalities in power are linked to unhappiness, psychological distress, and disagreement mean that power imbalances will raise the likelihood that a relationship would fail; however, no distinctions were…
Allensworth, N. (1998). Social penetration: a description, research, and evalutation.
Retrieved on 18 November 2007 at http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED403615&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED403615
Bucher, E. (2006). Relationship dissolution planning (nuptial agreements part 1).
DeVito, J.A. (1995). The Interpersonal Communication Book. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers.
Although not all of Davis' relational maintenance strategies are communication based, many of them are primarily work-it-out and have-it-out but also reintegration ceremonies. Davis did not empirically test his observations.
Braiker and Kelley (1979) were interested in understanding the role that conflict plays in relationship development. Employing a social exchange approach to relational maintenance, Braiker and Kelley conceptually defined maintenance as communication behaviors engaged in by members of the couple to reduce costs and maximize rewards in the relationship. Maintenance behavior was operationally defined using items primarily measuring communication with one's partner about the relationship (also included one item measuring self-disclosure and one item measuring willingness to change behavior). Thus, Braiker and Kelley also focus on metacommunication as a relational maintenance strategy.
Braiker and Kelley (1979) concluded that maintenance strategies change meaning over time, with maintenance behavior serving to increase interdependence and love in the earlier stages of development…
Ayres, J. (1983). Strategies to maintain relationships: Their identification and perceived usage. Communication Quarterly, 3-1, 62-67.
Baxter, L.A., & Dindia, K. (1990). Marital partners' perceptions of marital maintenance and repair strategies. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 187-208.
Braiker, H.B., & Kelley, H.H. (1979). Conflict in the development of close relationships. In R.L. Burgess & T.L. Huston (Eds.), Social exchange in developing relutionships (pp. 135-1-68). N ew York: Academic Press.
Canary, D.J., & Stafford, L. (1992). Relational maintenance strategies and equity in marriage. Communication Monographs, 59, 243-267.
elationship Problems Support Group
Support groups are usually created to bring together individuals facing similar problems or issues such as relationship problems. The concept behind the formulation of a support group is that members can get help for their issues through talking with others in a similar situation. In this case, relationship problems support group exist so that people facing relationship issues can share their experiences and advice each other on how to handle them. Support groups help individuals deal with their problems through providing better ways of coping and making members feel less isolated as they make important connections with others in the same situation. While relationship problems support groups are not group therapy sessions, they help members to deal with relational issues through providing emotional support and shared experiences.
A support group is basically defined as a gathering of individuals who share similar interests or concerns…
Mayo Clinic Staff. (n.d.). Support Groups: Make Connections, Get Help. Retrieved August 22, 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/support-groups/art-20044655
Peretti, A.G., Martins, P.P.S. & Guanaes-Lorenzi, C. (2013). The Management of Social Problems Talk in a Support Group. Psicologia & Sociedade, 25. Retrieved from http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-71822013000500012
"Relationship Support Group."(n.d.). Divorce Dialogue. Retrieved August 22, 2016, from http://www.divorcedialogue.com/relationship-support-group-home.php
Sroufe et al. (2000). 5 Relationships, Development, and Psychopathology. In Handbook of developmental psychopathology (2nd ed). Arnold J. Sameroff, Michael Lewis, and Suzanne M. Miller (Eds). Retrieved August 22, 2016, from http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/attachment/online/sroufe_rel_pathology.pdf
relationship of a salesperson with his customers. The authors have tried to formulate what factors into this relationship. The main focus is the right type of attitude and interaction between the sales person and the customer, which helps to build a long-term relationship between the two.
'Do communicator characteristics such as similarity and expertise, which have typified the short-term transaction perspective of previous sales research, contribute to sustaining an enduring relationship? How important are relational behaviors such as cooperative intentions, contact intensity, and mutual disclosure in building and maintaining long-term relations?' (Crosby, Evans, & Cowles, 1990)
However, the whole of the paper is based on how the customer looks at this relationship. A model has been made which helps to make it easier to understand the intricacies of a services salesman.
'The model is tested in the context of the agent policy holder relationship involving life insurance. By selecting relationship…
Crosby, L.A., Evans, K.R., & Cowles, D. (1990). Relationship Quality in Services Selling: An Interpersonal Influence Perspective. Journal of Marketing, 68-81.
Graham, J.R. (1997). The Subtleties of Selling Services. ABA Banking Journal .
Kasper, H., Helsdingen, P.V., & Vries Jr., W.D. (1999). Services Marketing Management: An international Perspective. New York: Wiley.
In this process, the principles of Grounded Theory Analysis were utilized. Primary coding categories were used in the analysis of the interview transcripts, as well as the identification of a range of significant themes. These were then organized into a formal codebook. The coding of the transcripts also led to new themes and modifications were made to the findings on this basis, where it was deemed to be appropriate.
hat kind of statistical analysis was used?
Chi-square analyses were used to examine differences and deviances in the reason why men feel emotionally close to women vs. men.
as the hypotheses supported?
One of the main aims of the study was to determine and evaluate the adequacy of men's relationship in terms of fulfilling emotional needs. There were a number of central concerns that were investigated through the interviews. These were; whether men share emotionally closer relationships with women or men;…
ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA: definition of loyalty. October 18, 2007. http://www.worldfreeinternet.net/archive/arc3.htm
Love: the crucial issue in psychotherapy. October 18, 2007. http://web.clas.ufl.edu/ipsa/journal/2001_casonato01.shtml
Social Exchange Theory. October 18, 2007. http://psychology.about.com/od/sindex/g/socialexchange.htm
Self-Disclosure. October 18, 2007. http://www.abacon.com/commstudies/interpersonal/indisclosure.html
Most people have had relationships that began with promise but ended badly. This is certainly the case with myself, and in my case, I can think of one popular song that always reminds me of the optimistic beginning and disastrous end of a certain relationship. This song is "Billie Jean," a well-known and bestselling single by the late Michael Jackson from his 1983 album Thriller -- which still ranks among the best-selling albums of all time. Many people will remember the slow and ominous chord progression of the song's opening, or the memorable video which introduced America to the "moonwalk," Jackson's signature dance move. What is most interesting to me is the way in which the song follows Knapp's classic ten stages of relational development. This is apparent from the song's opening, where the singer and a young woman meet as strangers in a social situation, in the…
Interpersonal Conflict in Film
An expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from others in achieving their goals. (Wilmot and Hocker, 2001)
Interpersonal conflict arises when there is a difference of perception between the interdependent parties. For a conflict to arise the two sides must communicate to each other about the existence of the problem and make an effort towards resolving the issue. Hence, communication plays not only an important but the very basic role during interpersonal conflicts, as without communication there can be no solution.
There are a few problems that are observed to arise in interpersonal conflict situations (Satir, 1998). The first problem that is encountered during such situation is that both parties will ignore the issue. This is very harmful in the way that avoiding confronting the issues at hand can lead up to greater problems…
Satir, V. (1998). The New Peoplemaking, Mountain View, CA: Science and Behavior Books.
Wilmot, W.W., & Hocker, J.L. (2007). Interpersonal Conflict. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Interpersonal Conflict in Film
American Beauty (Spacey, Bening and Birch) is a 1999 Film with many interpersonal conflicts that are never resolved. Basically a comedy and drama about Lester Burnham's mid-life crisis but also showing the personal crisis of every other major character, the movie shows a father-daughter conflict between Lester and Jane Burnham that could have been resolved. Communication, time and their common characteristics are three factors that could have resolved Lester's and Jane's interpersonal conflict, if Lester had lived longer.
Everybody in Lester Burnham's life, including Lester and his daughter, Jane, think that he is a "loser." The conflict between them is shown early in the movie, at dinner. Lester, Carolyn and Jane Burnham are having their family dinner at home, Lester asks about Jane's school day and she eventually says sarcastically, "It was spectacular." Then, when Lester discusses his job problem and Jane does not seem interested,…
American Beauty. Dir. Sam Mendes. Perf. Kevin Spacey, et al. 1999. DVD.
Interpersonal conflict is a daily part of human existence," ("Resolving Interpersonal Conflicts," n.d.). The hard part is learning how to resolve interpersonal conflicts, because they are inevitable. One of the reasons television shows are popular is that they mirror the genuine interpersonal conflicts that people have in their daily lives. This can be seen on the television show Modern Family, which depicts several interpersonal conflicts. One conflict that is developed early in the show is between Mitch and his father Jay. Mitch is gay, and although his father pretends to be fine with it and accepting of his son, his homophobia comes to the surface during the wedding planning. When Mitch mentions some problem he is having with deciding on the decor of the wedding, Jay gets impatient and says, "Why do you guys have to do this, anyway?" His outburst signals the deeper-rooted antagonism Jay had been harboring all…
Interpersonal Efficacy -- Using Empathetic Listening
Empathetic listening is a form of listening that takes into account more than just the words spoken. Empathetic listening involves a more holistic approach to listening and communication in general. Empathetic listening is sometimes also called active listening. It is a type of listening where the meaning of a communication lies in the verbal and non-verbal cues. Empathetic listening is a technique of listening that requires that the listener follow the words of the speaker and understand the intent behind the words, as well as the aspects involved during the delivery of the words. To empathetically listen without much practice is pretty strenuous and requires substantial concentration. Empathetic listening requires self-control on behalf of the listener because very often while people are speaking, the people who are listening have thoughts that they want to express that are directly related to statements made…
Bookbinder, PhD, L.J., & Johnson, J. (2006) Empathy, Listening Skills & Relationships. Available from: www.touch-another-heart.com. 2012 August 20.
At first, there won't be any mental disorder, just issues with behaviors such as eating and sleeping. Then during the phase of intersubjective relatedness, the focus switches to controlling, sharing, or influencing the subjective experience of self and others. At this stage, if caregivers are not emotionally attuned enough to the infant, problems may arise such as depression. If they are only attuned when the infant behaves a certain way, this may lead the child to start forming a false self in order to please others. There can also be misattunements between caretaker and child, in which one or the other misreads emotional cues and responds inappropriately. And it's very important for a caregiver's attunement to be authentic.
There are also four types of self-experience: social, private, disavowed, and "not me." Disavowed refers to the parts of self the child learns not to share, and the "not me" experience is…
Stern, Daniel. The Interpersonal World of the Infant. Basic Books, 1985.
Friendship can sometimes be a very strong connection and can last for a lifetime precisely because there are always people with common interests that feel the need to communicate with each other.
Another important type of relationship in my life is that with my teachers and colleagues. Education is also an important environment for developing relationships. For me, teachers and colleagues are significant because they help establish my personality on a professional level. School is the context where the individual develops significantly, while acquiring skills and knowledge. The teachers are therefore very important for the development of an individual. For me, teachers have often served as guidance and even as role-models. A teacher can open new horizons for me, as he or she is able to influence and feed my personality and my view of the world. The colleagues on the other hand are also important as they can sometimes…
Klohen, Eva C. & Shanghong Lao. (2003) "Interpersonal Attraction and Personality." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 85. No 4, 709-722.
Although the 'rules' of interpersonal attraction, or the mysterious process and reasons that we are attracted to certain individuals and not to others, are often obfuscated by romantic language, the authors of this article attempt to clarify the data that does exist as to whether opposites do indeed attract, or if we seek someone like ourselves, someone like our ideal self, and if security of reciprocal attachment is more important than other factors in attachment.
One of the most interesting studies cited early on by the authors, and critical in shaping the dynamics of their own study, is a personality evaluation of different attraction patterns, as performed by Bartholomew and Horowitz. This study attempted to break down different attachment styles and patterns into four different categories,…
How has the media age influenced personal selling? Please provide examples to illustrate your discussion. Have electronic media made it more difficult for salespersons to persuade audience members?
The media age has transformed the nature of personal selling. Consumers have access to a wealth of information about the products and services available to them: from broad Google searches to browsing through customer reviews on specific vendor websites or on Consumer eports (Chapter 14). Social media also enhances the ability of the consumer to acquire information about products, as friends share information about their experiences with a product, service, or brand. A more educated consumer challenges the personal sales representatives to be able to answer questions and be completely honest with the answers.
New media has also altered the actual practice of personal selling. Sales representatives have at their disposal a wealth of possibilities for reaching consumers: from emails…
Causes elationships to Fall Apart
It happens to us all -- that moment when our knees get weak from the sight of someone else; that split second that it seems like nothing else in the entire world matters; that instant when all seems right in the world, and we hope and pray that it never changes. Most everyone remember those beginning stages in a relationship where everything in the universe is absolutely, irrevocably, fearlessly perfect, right? So how do all of those feelings, thoughts, moments of pure bliss take a gut wrenching nose dive for the worse? Why do people fall out of love? How do people go from being love drunk to those month long purging sessions to rid themselves of the toxins that once were our former soul mates? It happens, even to the best of us, even to those of us who attempt to make every wrong…
Baxter, L.A., & Braithwaite, D.O. (2008). Interpersonal communication: evolving interpersonal relationships. Los Angeles: Sage Publications. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=aaD9iVgxpE4C&oi=fnd&pg=PR13&dq=Interpersonal+communication+:+evolving+interpersonal+relationships&ots=sI36504Nzv&sig=WLjMoUxRflWxRn6YTf7Hkbfhghg#v=onepage&q&f=false
Harvey, J.H., & Wenzel, A. (2001). Close romantic relationships: maintenance and enhancement. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=knWespEJEncC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=Close+romantic+relationships+:+maintenance+and+enhancement&ots=Cqv3DKeRC5&sig=Ik894HW_i7oiC5nQUrr8A1uR4LA#v=onepage&q&f=false
Kalbfleisch, P.J. (1993). Interpersonal communication: evolving interpersonal relationships. Hillsdale, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Effects of similarity on interpersonal attraction
The aim of the various researches carried out on how individuals interact and form either positive or negative relationships. To fully investigate these issues, Bryne (1961) highlighted the need to acquire knowledge about the various independent variables. Majorly, Bryne (1961) contends that the functional and physical distance influences interpersonal attraction and interactions in general. Another variable is the environment, which should be conducive to allow and encourage interaction and lastly, individual properties that stimulate responses from other individuals from other similar interactions they may have encountered previously. The main problem however that was been investigated by the various researchers aimed at finding out the impact of similar attitudes to attraction and the reasons for these impacts (Bryne, 1961, pg.713).
Two factors ultimately influence interpersonal attraction after the initial interaction has been established. These factors have been identified punishment and mutual reward. Therefore, attraction…
Batchelor, T.R. & Tesser, A (1971) Attitude Base as a Moderator of the Attitude Similarity-Attraction Relationship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol.19, No.2, 229-236
Byrne, B. (1961) Interpersonal Attraction and Attitude Similarity. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. Vol.62, No.3, 713-715
Byrne, D., Griffitt, W., Stefaniak, D. (1967) Attraction and Similarity of Personality Characteristics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol.5, No.2, 82-90
Stroebe, W., Insko, C.A., Thompson, V.D., Layton, B.D. (1971) Effects of Physical Attractiveness, Attitude Similarity, and Sex on Various Aspects of Interpersonal Attraction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol.18, No.1, 79-91
LEADERSHIP, INTERPERSONAL SKILLS, DECISION-MAKING research paper prepared for the staff of New Jersey Publishing Corporation
Improving Leaders and Interpersonal Relationship
ritten, Oral, Listening, Perception)
Organization and Planning
This research paper analyzes the effect of leadership skills providing direction, interpersonal skills in interacting with others and decision making.
It includes oral communication skills, written business communication, and perception skills important in analyzing problems and proposing solutions.
Final component deals with organizational change and self-designing change management.
The research paper will be the basis of a proposal for a seminar workshop to enhance staff knowledge of such qualities as leadership and ability to interact with others for the enhancement of the capabilities of the staff.
To counteract dire predictions in the globalized world, leadership, interpersonal relationship and decision-making in the corporate world should undergo enhancement, strengthening and change in design
The process takes careful analysis, outlining of problems…
Andrews, Deborah C. And William D. Andrew. Business Communication. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1988.
Blake, Robert R., Jane Srygley Mouton and Ann Adams McCause. Change by Design. Massachusetts: Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1991.
Brzezinski, Zbignew. Out of Control. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993.
Ewald, Helen Rothschild and Rebecca E. Burnett. Business Communication. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1997.
Personal Team elationships
There is a difference between team-building and teamwork. The first focuses most on building the group and the second on the processes and functions that make groups successful (Ingram, David, 2011)
In many business settings we often focus on the first and then assume the working together will come naturally. We often assume that having others around is enough to ensure that person interests or agendas don't predominate. But what happens when we cannot focus on the team itself or the building of that team? Then we have to focus on how people work together, including on interpersonal relationships that really determine if the decision-making processes function as we want.
One of the key issues of two people working productively always centers on listening and mutually understanding what each wants, what each hears and what each expects will result. This is how groups or individuals can make…
Ingram, David (2011), What is the difference between team building & team work, The Houston Chronicle, retrieved October 6, 2011 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/difference-between-team-building-teamwork-10981.html , para 4.
Building Relationships Outside the Team
Leadership Training and Its elationship to Communication Skills, Self-Esteem, and Problem Solving Skills among Youth
Transformational leadership remains a critical phenomenon as described through behavioral components such as inspirational motivation, idealized influence, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation. Idealized influence is the first element and is reflected based on the conceptualization by transformational leaders who behave in a manner that allows them appear as role models among their followers. Such individuals are respected, trusted, and admired (Olive, Gottfried, Guerin, Gottfried & eichard, 2011). Followers relate with the leaders with the aim of emulating them.
Children's attachment style is normally attributed to parental factors or parenting style. Attachment styles are well formed at early ages even though they are predictive of outcomes for future leadership. Early life shows that bonds developed by infants with caregivers vary between from an insecure to secure attachment styles. The relationship identifies diverse infant attachment styles which…
Day, D.V. (2011) Integrative perspectives on longitudinal investigations of leader development: From childhood through adulthood. The Leadership Quarterly 22-561 -- 571.
Gottfried, A.E., Gottfried, A.W., Reichard, R.J., Guerin, D.W., Oliver, P.H., & Riggio, R.E. (2011). Motivational roots of leadership: A longitudinal study from childhood through adulthood. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(3), 510 -- 519.
Mortensen, J., Lichty, L., Foster-Fishman, P., & Warsinske, K. (2014). Leadership through a Youth Lens: Understanding Youth Conceptualizations of Leadership. Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 42, No. 4, 447 -- 462
Murphy, S.E., & Johnson, S.K. (2011) The benefits of a long-lens approach to leader development: Understanding the seeds of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly 22. 459 -- 470.
Those individuals who are most likely to idealize their partners are those who are also most likely to be disappointed. It also seems to be the case that those most likely to idealize their partners are those who are most likely to move quickly from engagement (or an equivalent but less formal relationship) to marriage. Such a quick trip from first date to the altar is often a very poor choice in the long run, as summarized below:
Waller... assumed that courting couples are generally blissful, optimistic lovers who, in order to sustain their romance, draw attention to their desirable qualities, suppress thoughts and behaviors that might weaken their romance, and try to see the best in the other person. After they are married, however, spouses may no longer be as motivated to "put their best foot forward" to impress their marriage partners; moreover, the intimacy of marriage makes sustaining…
Flowers, B. (2007). The limits of a technical concept of a good marriage: Exploring the role of virtue in communication skills. Journal of marital and family therapy 27(3), 327-340.
Larson, J.H. (2000). Should we stay together? A scientifically proven method for evaluating your relationship and improving its chances for long-term success. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Marazziti, D. & Canale, D. (2004). Hormonal changes when falling in love. Psychoneuroendocrinology 29, 931 -- 936.
Niehuis, S. (2006). Organization of partner knowledge, its effect on passion, and the mediating effect of idealization. North American Journal of Psychology 8:33-46.
Moral Theory and Virtue Ethics
How is virtue ethics different from the other theories of ethics that you have studied so far?
The other theories of ethics argue that morality results from an act, thus they tend to focus on the impact. This implies that a moral act will bring the highest level of happiness for the highest number of people. In contrast, virtue ethics considers morality as the result of character or identity of a person and not a reflection of the act. It means that some characteristics are virtues. Individuals with these virtues are moral and their actions only reflect their inner morality (MacKinnon, 2012).
According to Aristotle, what is the difference between intellectual and moral virtues?
Intellectual is the first principle governing human acts. Other laws only exist to obey intellectual in various ways. Those who obey intellectual without any contradiction are body limbs because they are…
MacKinnon, B. (2012). Ethics: Theory and contemporary issues, concise edition. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning
Vaughn, L. (2013). Contemporary moral arguments: Readings in ethical issues. New York: Oxford University Press
women come out of an abusive relationship, the negative psychological traumas they feel continue. This study makes a comparison between forgiveness therapy (FT) and alternative therapy (AT)-assertiveness, anger validation and interpersonal skill building for women who have been abused emotionally and had been separated permanently from their romantic partner or spouse for up to two years or more. A total of 20 women in Midwest city who were abused psychologically made up the participants. Psychological abuse from one's spouse characterizes a very agonizing infidelity, which often leads to very serious depressing psychological results for the partner who has been abused. There are reports of both standard deviations and mean scores for every measure at pretest, posttest, as well as follow-up for everyone in the forgiveness therapy group and both pretest and posttest for everyone in the alternative therapy group. This represents the first research for the demonstration of the efficacy…
Reed, G.L., & Engright, R.D. (2006). The effect of forgiveness therapy on depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress for women after spousal emotional abuse. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 74(5), 920.
relationship and development of child's personality -- developmental theories in Integrative psychotherapy and their use by working with clients
The foundation of our daily lives is created on the relationships that we have with other people. This contact with others, a feeling of reverence it produces and the relational needs it satisfies are all the requirements for us. Our capability to make complete contact with others is frequently disturbed as we confront the unavoidable sufferings of life, either large or small. Psychological dysfunction will result if contact decreases and relational needs get curtailed. Through a method called Integrative Psychotherapy, people can revive their capability to uphold real relationships and improved psychological health. The integrative psychotherapy is based on oger's client-centered therapy, Berne's transactional analysis, Perls Gestalt therapy, Kohut's self-psychology, and also the contributions of British object-relations theorists. (Erskine; Moursund; Trautmann, 1999)
Integrative psychotherapy involves a practice of psychotherapy…
Erskine, Richard G; Moursund, Janet; Trautmann, Rebecca. (1999) "Beyond Empathy - A Therapy of Contact-In Relationship" Brunner/Mazel. Retrieved from http://integrativetherapy.com/book-empathy.html Accessed on May 12, 2005
Erskine, Richard G; Moursund, Janet. (1998) "Integrative Psychotherapy in Action" Gestalt Journal Press. Retrieved from http://integrativetherapy.com/book-integrative.html Accessed on May 12, 2005
Erskine, Richard G. "Introjection, Psychic Presence and Parent Ego States: Considerations for Psychotherapy" Institute for Integrative Psychotherapy. Retrieved from http://integrativetherapy.com/article-introjection.html Accessed on May 12, 2005
Erskine, Richard G; Trautmann, Rebecca. "Resolving Intra-psychic Conflict: Psychotherapy of Parent Ego States" Institute for Integrative Psychotherapy. Retrieved from http://integrativetherapy.com/article-resolving.html
Other techniques are those listed as:
Opening space for recovery and taking it slow
Compliments and statements of affection
Writing positive requests for the future
It is important that the couple become able to schedule pleasant times in spite of the depression cycle such as higher activity task of cycling, walking, etc. Furthermore challenging the belief systems in the depression are vital and then to fill that void with ": positive constructions and narratives" about the situation. The CTR or "Challenge Test Reward" is a technique utilized for transforming through challenge of a self-critical belief through generation of an alternative positive belief to replace the old negative belief with self-rewarding dialogue resulting from this technique when accomplished. (Author of Ibid p. 431)
Communication and Problem Solving:
It is imperative that the therapist provide the client with communication and problem solving skills for dealing with the depression. These skills may be…
Beach, S et al. (1990) Depression in Marriage a Model to Etiology and Treatment. New York: Guilford.
Family Therapy: Concepts, Process and Practice. Wiley Publishers
Dishion, Thomas and Patterson, Gerald (1999) Model Building in Developmental Psychopathology: A Pragmatic Approach to Understanding and Intervention. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology Vol. 28 No. 4, 502-512.
Changing elationships in Late Adulthood
Late adulthood is often mistakenly viewed as a time of relaxation, where everything slows and an individual's life becomes more consistent and less stressful. In reality, late adulthood is a time of great change. Individuals retire, children move away, lifestyles alters significantly, and social ties decline. Most significantly, a person's relationships change significantly in late adulthood. This includes relationships with siblings, spouses, friends, children, and grandchildren. By considering these relationships and how they change, it will be shown that late adulthood is far from being a time of reduced stress. It may become a time of reduced stress if the individual makes the transition successfully, but the actual process of transition involves many significant changes.
One of the significant changes that occurs during late adulthood is that individuals often become more involved with their siblings. Stark and Hall (1988) suggest that this is partly…
Berk, L.E. (2004). Development through the lifespan. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Butler, R.N. (1968). The life review: An interpretation of reminiscence in the aged. In B. Neugarten (Ed.), Middle age and aging (pp. 486-496). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Goldberg, E. (2002). "A healthy retirement." AORN Journal, 76(5), 873-874.
Keith, P.M., & Schafer, R.B. (1985). Equity role strains and depression among middle-aged and older men and women. In W.A. Peterson & J. Quadagno (Eds.), Social bonds in later life: Aging and interdependence (pp. 37-49). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
The purpose of effective communication is to co-ordinate efforts towards achieving team goals, enhancing quality of meetings for information to be shared, decisions collectively made, and for there to be shared understanding about the tasks to be performed. A necessary component of team work is establishing shared meaning of the work, and appropriate means of delivering high quality consumer care (Borrill et.al, 2000).
Effective healthcare centers heavily rely on effective communication for them to live up to their missions. Productivity at the workplace improves when information flawlessly flows from one level to another. It leads to more tasks completed, consequently leading to the fulfillment of goals. In the workplace too, effective communication usually has a positive effect on employee performance through increased morale, higher retention rates and the overall productivity at the workplace. According to Aramyan (2015), it also leads to reduced misunderstandings, increased empowerment and truthfulness, as well as…
For instance, when a needed to resolve personal issues, the manager understood him and supported him by allowing flexible schedules and even reduced amounts of work when possible.
Apathy: Apathy is situated at the opposite pole from love, but they are somehow similar in the meaning that they are seldom found in the workplace. The modern working environment tries to resolve such issues and find solutions to remove such strong feelings. In the given situation, it could be said that the friend of the dissatisfied employee manifested apathy towards the management. These feelings were however of short duration, based on the impulse of supporting a and also on previous negative experiences with the manager.
Aggression towards the other: In the current scenario, most of the aggressive behavior was revealed by the supporting friend B. However he did not become involved in direct disputes, he would reveal flashes of…
Bion, W.R., Experiences in Groups, New York: Basic Books, 1961
Schutz, W., FIRO: A Three Dimensional Theory of Interpersonal Behavior, New York: Rinehart and Winston Inc., 1958
2003) Men and women: Becoming together. Intimate artners. (pp. 389-397).
This article stated that gender is ultimately a mystery that cannot be solved scientifically. Men and women can, however, come together in love and sex. Love increases this mystery.
Although gender is not a science, we can see obvious differences in gender. Thus results love between men and women.
Lewis, C.S. (1988) The four loves. Retrieved from http://duquesne.docutek.com/eres
This article spoke of need-love and gift-love. Gift-love is what moves people to work and plan for the future of their children. Need-love is what drives a child to run to his or her mother. Need-love is necessary for forgiveness.
It is obvious that need-love is necessary for a relationship, but perhaps the best relationships integrate gift-love as well.
The National Marriage roject. (2009, February) The state of our unions 2008: The social health of marriage in America. Retrieved from http://www.virginia.edu/marriageproject…
Popenoe, David. (2004) Top ten myths of divorce. Retrieved from http://duquesne.docutek.com
Wilcox, W.B. (2009) The evolution of divorce. National affairs, 81-94. http://www.virginia.edu/marriageproject/pdfs/Wilcox_Fall09.pdf
eadership and Solitude
When talking about effective and compelling leaders in education and other important social fields most people tend to envision a certain type of individual. This individual is usually envisioned as a very social, affable, outspoken and extroverted person. William Dereziwics challenges and questions this character perception of leadership in his article titled earn To Be Alone With Your Thoughts. This article presents a clear connection that exists between leadership and solitude, Dereziwics supports his opinion about leadership by commenting and discussing several situations where solitude directly results in leadership. He also talks about social and media interaction and how this conflicts with leadership. Derecziwics begins his article by stating that solitude is necessary for leadership, he says that this is so because solitude allows a person to think and critically analyze. Derecziwics states that it is very difficult to become an effective leader for someone who is…
Leadership is a very important element in virtually all fields of employment, especially in education. Therefore, it is also very important to establish quality and effective leadership at the head of an organization or entity in order for it to be successful and accomplish its organizational goals. In her article titled What is Quality Leadership?, Misty Laucour explains and defines how delegation and empowerment are important as leadership strategies. She explains that it is important for leaders to delegate responsibilities to employees or members of an organization while at the same time empowering those individuals. Lacours states that leaders can empower individuals by allowing them to take part in the decisions making process, thus creating an environment where the quality of work goes up due to good employee morale. Lacour lists that following actions as vital to the empowerment of follower: " (a) effectively match people to assignments; (b) engage all in active listening; (c) engage in purposeful actions based on goals and vision; (d) focus on growth and opportunities, not failures; (e) encourage others to think critically"(Lacour).
Taking into account what is presented in the article one would have to agree with Lacour's assessment of what quality leadership really is. Our contemporary society is one that is heavily influenced by Democracy, in this type of social and political atmosphere people in general are encouraged to be involved and make decisions. Our society is not one where dictatorship is accepted, that is to say that people do not like being told what to without having any sort of input. It has been proven that the most effective workers and members of an organization are those that are happy and have good morale. In order for good employee morale to be established empowerment of the followers should be present, this way they can feel important and significant in the overall process, thus creating a more productive and effective atmosphere.
Lacour, M., et. al., What is Quality Leadership?. Academic Leadership v. 8 no. 3 (Summer 2010) p. 320-1
Brand Equity and Customer Purchasing Behavior
Taking into account the numerous modifications witnessed in the marketing milieu- viz. The accessibility to plethora of knowledge through various electronic devices, the emergence of modern methods of buying, the ability of the companies to use technology to target consumer more specifically, getting a feel of customer tendencies is still more difficult. Purchasing activities is the sequence of choice and actions of individuals occupied in procuring and consuming the same. An enterprise must evaluate its purchasing activities. Purchaser's responses to the marketing technique of the enterprise put an enormous influence on the achievement of the enterprise. The marketing perception highlights that an enterprise must build up a unique blend of marketing initiatives that makes the customers happy, and hence the urgency to evaluate the substance, the place, the time and the purchasing pattern of consumers and by way of addressing this, marketing personnel can…
Aaker, David A. 1996. "Measuring Brand Equity across Products and Markets" California Management Review. Volume: 16; No; 2; pp: 43-47
AMR Research Report. 2004. "POS Data: The Beginning of DDSN for Consumer Products Manufacturers" February.
Anderson, J.C; Cleveland, G; Schroeder, R. 1989. "Operations Strategy: A Literature Review" Journal of Operations Management. Volume: 8; No: 1; pp: 56-64
Baker, M. 2000. Marketing Management and Strategy" Macmillan Business.
Acknowledging the validity of that position can be a beginning. In this particular case, while the freeloader's situation was clearly unjustified, the host did not establish any boundary lines. In such a situation, the rules were not clear and misunderstandings can certainly happen. Blowing up at the offending party was not justified and was an overreaction ("Interpersonal conflict and," 2011). It is the opinion of this author that by acknowledging this, apologizing for the overreaction and then pointing out the wrong on the other side last is a good way to defuse the situation and start going in the right direction.
To follow up, empathy can then be used as a tool to help bridge the gap. Using an "I" statement such as "I feel pretty upset " rather than "You have made me feel very upset" can aid in this defusing. Then, by stroking the person's ego, finding more…
Abigail, R.A., & Cahn, D.D. (2010). Managing conflict through communication . (4th Ed. ed.). New
York, NY: Allyn & Bacon.
Interpersonal conflict and effective communication. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.drbalternatives.com/articles/cc2.html .
These suppositions allow the researcher to view the world from a certain perspective while ignoring other perspectives. The researcher in this study assumes that his subjects are logical human beings who have a rationale point-of-view. Their thinking is valid and reasonable and their approach is more or less along the lines of scientific thinking. In addition, we assume that commonsense thinking and scientific thinking are more or less identical in nature. With these assumptions in mind, we take a post-positivism philosophical foundation; as in line with Trochim (2000) post-positivism is the outright denial of positivism (which argues that the laws of the nature are perfunctory and therefore deductive reasoning can be the only suitable approach to comprehend nature) and presupposes that day-to-day human and scientific reasoning are more or less the same and in order to understand reality, researchers have to use not only deductive but also inductive reasoning (Trochim,…
Bailer UF, Frank GK, Henry SE et al. (2005). Altered brain serotonin 5-HT1A receptor binding after recovery from anorexia nervosa measured by positron emission tomography. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 1032-1041.
Bloks H, Hoek HW, Callewaert I et al. (2004). Stability of personality traits in patients who received intensive treatment for a severe eating disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192, 129-138.
Bulik CM, Klump KL, Thornton L. et al. (2004). Alcohol use disorder comorbidity in eating disorders: a multicenter study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 1000-1006.
Byrne, B. (2000) Relationships between Anxiety, Fear Self-Esteem, and Coping Strategies in Adolescence. Adolescence. 35. 137.
Interpersonal Conflict in Past Year
Varying interests, scarcity of resources or divergent opinions will always result in interpersonal conflicts. Such conflicts may be expressed in different ways including word of mouth, signs and gestures or through silence (212books).
I have an older brother named Charles. We have been very close since childhood. When our parents divorced back then he was there for me and I regarded him like a father figure. He always made sure I did the right thing and would also help me sort out my problems. He guided me throughout childhood and adolescence and helped me to get into the university am currently in. We like every other siblings out there always had small disagreements but things never got out of hand not until early 2012 when I became very close to my brother and his girlfriend at that time (Yoojung). Yoojung was a Korean native and…
212 books. (n.d.). Conflict and Interpersonal Communication. In A Primer on Communication Studies.
Moyer, M. (2015, November 2). Examples Of Interpersonal Conflict Help You Assess. Retrieved from My Interpersonal: http://www.myinterpersonal.com/examples-of-interpersonal-conflict.html
Relationship Marketing and Its Impact on Consumer Behavior
Research Questions & Sub-questions
Research Design & Methodology
Organization of Study
his report explores Customer Relationship management. In [articular the investigation seeks to understand the impact of relationship Marketing and Its Impact on Consumer Behavior. his issue has proven problematic for businesses because many do not have the ability to form effective relationships with customers. his deficiency costs companies customers and profits. he report sought to present effective ways to better customer relations at the business level. More specifically, the investigation saught to determine how businesses can determine what their customers really need and how will meeting these needs affect the customers' behavior? A review of the literature suggest the customers are effected by the attitudes of employees that they come into contact with. he attitude of a saleclerk can often have an impact on a customers decision to do…
These relationships can be with co-workers, with casual acquaintances, with spouses, and with many others. Even though they have these relationships very few of them are committed and close in nature (Clark, 1990). More of them are much more open and lacking a commitment that would really be needed to have a close personal relationship with someone (Clark, 1990). Because many of the relationships in their personal lives are not close and committed it is difficult to understand how businesses can actually expect these same individuals to hold close and committed relationships with a particular company (Clark, 1990). Some consumers have argued that the amount of requests that they receive for improving relationships between customers and businesses is so staggering that people find them meaningless (Clark, 1990).
Some people indicate that they receive as many as 10 mailings from various companies every single day and if they ever leave on vacation the accumulated amount of these offers is so great that they end up throwing them away instead of opening them and looking to see if there is something really worthwhile inside (Johnson, Johnson, & Maruyama, 1983). In other words, so many companies seem interested in marketing a relationship that their efforts become meaningless because they do not offer anything unique to the consumer (Johnson, Johnson, & Maruyama, 1983). Even those companies that do offer something that may be unique and valuable to a particular consumer often do not get any benefit from marketing to them. The benefit is never realized because there are so many other pieces of marketing given to these consumers that they do not take the time to read them and look for the value contained in all of the meaningless mail (Johnson, Johnson, & Maruyama, 1983).
Because so many companies flood individuals with advertisements regarding their relationships, some believe that it really makes no difference which company
Technical, interpersonal, and conceptual skills
Interpersonal skills entail knowing how to interact with others. No employee desires to have a boss who is inconsiderate or rude or one who has poor human skills. All these could reduce productivity and employee morale. Managers with effective human skills tend to have subordinates who have positive attitudes and strong desires to increase productivity. Managers are always expected in any organization to have harmonious relationships with those below them like supervisors, peers, and subordinates (Yukl, 2012).
Conceptual skills refer to an individual's aptitude to formulate ideas. These skills include formulating abstractions, thinking creatively, understanding issues, solving problems, and analyzing complex situations. Within the business context, these skills are viewed as integral prerequisites for top executive positions. Conceptual skills differ from technical skills and interpersonal skills. The three types of skills assume vital roles for certain purposes and in certain situations. However, conceptual skills…
Phillips, D. T (1993). Lincoln on Leadership: Executive Strategies for Tough Times. Warner Books, Inc.
Yukl, G.A. (2012). Leadership in Organizations. 8th Ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education
Disintegrating elationships Between Organizational Leaders and Employees
Organizational leadership behavior towards employees can significantly affect their perception of the workplace, and contribute to the organization high performance and most essentially create and maintain a proper organizational culture that lead to the success of the organization . The good health of the organization depends greatly on the relationship between leaders and employees. However, the relationship that exists between organizational leaders and employees are failing at a high rate in today's workplaces and the reasons for this are not clear. Leaders in organizations have a tendency to use employees in the time of the organizational needs and them to simply ignore the employee's commitment and their potential. Committed employees should be rewarded with committed organizational leadership. Critical in organizational leadership interaction with employees is communication. Communication keeps employees informed and results in a feeling of connectedness and inclusiveness in the organizational operations,…
Abrrow, H.A., Ardakani, M.S., Harooni, A. & Pour, H.M. (2013, July). The Relationship Between Organizational Trust and Organizational Justice Components and Their Role in Job Involvement in Education. International Journal of Management Academy, 1(1), 25-41.
Albrecht, S.L. (2010). Handbook of employee engagement: perspectives, issues, research and practice. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Broner, S. (2009). Employees' perceptions of leaders' attitudes and employee retention: a quantitative study on perceived attitudes. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest LLC.
Creswell, J.W.(2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches .(2nd ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
eciprocal relationship can be simply defined as a relationship in which the two parties make an association on the basis of mutual privileges, emotions etc. There are different relationships between people and they influence their emotional development. These reciprocal relationships influence a person's life till the end of time. As far as children are concerned, their learning is mainly dependent on the engagement of family as it is the members of the family that enhance a child's experiences and family well being. Family engagement is responsible for the continuous, mutual and strong association between children and other adult members of the family (Bell and Wolfe, 2004).
When a child is of six months, he/she develops a sense of identity and agency. This whole growth mechanism is responsible for the transformation of his/her infancy-related associative original secondary emotions to the advanced levels. This system is focused on the first stable and…
Bell, M., and Wolfe, C. (2004). "Emotion and Cognition: An Intricately Bound Developmental Process," Child Development, Vol. 75, No. 2, 366 -- 70.
Social-Emotional Development in Young Children. (2012). Michigan.gov. Retrieved August 18, 2013, from http://www.michigan.gov/documents/Social_Emotional_Development_in_Young_Children_Guide_88553_7.pdf
Wilson, R.L. (2003). The Emotional Life of Children. Wagga, NSW: Keon Publications.
Ken and Jane
How do you perceive Jan's effort to convince Ken to forgive her? Based on what you have learned in this chapter, suggest two ways she might more effectively seek Ken's forgiveness.
She could have used a time based intervention to talk about the instance further when the conversation would have not been as heated. If they both had a chance to calm down then the conversation might have went smoother. Another tactic Jan could have tried would be to apologize and to address Ken's concerns so that it could be formed into a win-win. For example, Jan could have said that she was sorry if she did ruin his chances with the girl, but she would try to help him find an even more suitable match.
What are two nonverbal cues used by Jan. What are two nonverbal cues used by Ken? In what ways…
For the first several years of one's life, their mother and father are their world. These first relationships occur at a time when the tiny human is learning the basic of their environment and how to respond to it. A child learns much of their early actions by imitating the role models around them. The relationship that exists between a child and each of their parents will set the tone for how they deal with other relationships that they encounter throughout their life.
In Chapter One we discover that our hero has "issues" with his paternal and his maternal relationship. These relationships overshadow almost any other conflict in the story at this time. It is apparent through Stephen's interactions with Mulligan and Haines that he did not have a strong paternal figure to model. He reacts in a rather passive manner. One must remember that this chapter takes place in…
Joyce, James. Ulysses. Hans Walter Gabler (ed). Random House. June, 1986.
ATTACTION, SEX, LOVE, & ELATIONSHIPS
Attraction, love, sex, and relationships are fundamental to human condition. Each individual human is separate and distinct from every other one, yet there are numerous aspects to the human experience that every human shares -- attraction, love, sex, and relationships are prime examples of commonalities shared among the human race. Science(s) have demonstrated that sexual attraction and the desire for close relationships form and manifest in humans very early on their development, often before children have reached school age. With reference to several psychological, academic resources, the paper aims to explain some of the key components of sex, love, attraction, and relationships.
Key Components to Attraction, Sex, Love, & elationships
While attraction, love, sex, and relationships remains quite a substantial mystery to many people, there are professional and researchers in areas such as psychology where they are making headway toward a comprehensive understanding of…
Baumeister, R.F, & Leary, M.R. (1995) The Need to Belong: Desire for Interpersonal Attachments as a Fundamental Human Motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497 -- 529.
Fisher, PhD, H.E., Aron, PhD, A.A., Masher, D., Li, PhD, H., & Brown, PhD, L.L. (2002) Defining the Brain Systems of Lust Romantic Attraction, and Attachment. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31(5), 413 -- 419.
Gillath, O., Mikulincer, M., Birnbaum, G.E., & Shaver, P.R. (2008) When Sex Primes Love: Subliminal Sexual Priming Motivates Relationship Goal Pursuit. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1057 -- 1070.
Gonzaga, G.C., Turner, R.A., Keltner, D., Campos, B., & Litmus, M. (2006) Romantic Love and Sexual Desire in Close Relationships. Emotion, 6(2), 163 -- 179.
This, perhaps, has made me more of an avid listener that is eager to appreciate what others have got to say rather than being a high decibel demagogue that would neither brook any resistance nor would tolerate any dissidence, however mild that may be.
Thus, the very essence of communication, which is nothing but a means of encouraging and stimulating others to share their views while attempting to skillfully shepherd them to veer around towards the speaker's perspectives, and the form it would finally acquire, is heavily influenced by the speaker's personal behavioral traits.
Listening as a Potent Tool for Effective Communication
We must have heard numerous times the exhortation, "Listen carefully, I don't want repeat myself," in some form or the other but in our excessive eagerness to make ourselves heard, we have ignored such requests and pleas and put an unceremonious end to many a potentially enriching communication.…
Carbonell, M. (2005). Extreme personality makeover: How to develop a winning Christ-like personality to improve your effectiveness! . Blue Ridge, GA: Uniquely You Resources.
Donahue, M.C. (1996, December 1). How active is your listening? (communication technique; includes advice for managing anger) . Current Health 2, a Weekly Reader Publication, pp. 23-25.
Frisk, B. (2007, May 11). Effective Listening a Forgotten Art That Can Open Many Doors. Daily Herald, p. 12.
Madrigal, D., & McClain, B. (2001, August). The secret of active listening. Tactical Response, pp. 50-52.
The questionnaires for the purpose of this particular study were completed by 179 participants. The gender preference breakdown of the participants included 60 lesbians, 45 heterosexual females, 39 heterosexual males and 37 gay males (Harkless, Blaine, 2005).
When the study was completed and the data went through analysis it was found that gay men and lesbian women reported a higher degree of post relationship involvement with their former partners than heterosexual couple members reported occurring.
The data reflect how inclusion of sexual orientation can broaden understandings of gender differentiated phenomena beyond more traditional gender-only based accounts (Harkless, Blaine, 2005)."
The study questionnaire asked general demographic data and then moved into couple and gender specific questions. The questions required the participants to acknowledge their relationship with their former partner including whether or not they maintained emotional ties, sexual ties or other types of contact with the former partner. The questionnaire also…
Agnew, C.R., Loving, T.J., & Drigotas, S.M. (2001). Substituting the forest for the trees: Social networks and the prediction of romantic relationship state and fate. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 1042-1057.
Anderson, P.A., Elroy, S.V., Guerrero, L.K., & Spitzberg, B.H. (1995). Romantic jealousy and relational satisfaction: A look at the impact of jealousy experience and expression. Communication Reports, 8, 77-85.
Attridge, M. (1994). Barriers to dissolution of romantic relationships. In D.J. Canary & L. Stafford, Communication and relational maintenance. (pp. 141-164) San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Inc.
Baxter, L.A. (1982). Strategies for ending relationships: Two studies. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 223-241.
Hitch and Interpersonal Conflict
Hitch is a 1995 film by Andy Tennant in which the development of interpersonal communication is developed and utilized to establish and cultivate romantic relationships between people that would otherwise not interact. In the film, Alex "Hitch" Hitchens, portrayed by Will Smith, helps men to overcome interpersonal communication barriers. While Hitch is successful in helping others, he finds that a lack of communication, and the obfuscation of his profession, cause interpersonal conflicts to arise between himself and Sara Melas, played by Eva Mendes, a gossip columnist with whom Hitch begins to have a relationship with.
In the film, Hitch makes a living helping men like Albert Brennaman, a mild-mannered accountant, establish communication channels with women like Allegra Cole, a celebrity and client of the accounting firm Brennaman works for. Hitch contends that 60% of communication is body language, 30% is tone, and 10% is what one…
nursing client relationships and how the study is a valid research for practitioners. It has 26 sources in Harvard Style.
esearch titles must be limited to fifteen words. In this case the author has exceeded the limitation by one count which is negligible. The importance of relevance of the title to the body of the research is that it must collaborate with the core study area. In the first line the author has already specified the relationship of the nurse-client at the beginning and categorizes it as a "partnership" whereas the title of the study must not reveal the results or even the anticipated results.
Authors and Abstracts
The authors T. Hostick and F. McClelland both the authors indicate in their abstract that the article aim in establishing nursing behavior when they are engaged in a nurse-client relationship. The abstract though is limited in expressing the content of the study…
Hostick, T. & McClelland, F. 2002, Partnership: a co-operative inquiry between Community Mental Health Nurses and their clients. 2. The nurse-client relationship. Journal of Psychiatry and Mental Health Nursing 9, 111-117.
Beyea, S.C. 1997, Research utilization begins with learning to read research reports, Research Corner, AORN, February. Accessed on 29-9-2003 at http://www.aorn.org/journal/research/rc297.htm
Author not available, 2003, Reading Nursing Research to Critique a Study and to Summarize Findings for Use in Practice, Available at http://classes.kumc.edu/son/NURS460smith/460critiquingreseach.html
Forchuk, C. 1989, Establishing a Nurse-Client Relationship. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing vol.27,no.2. Available at http://willmar.ridgewater.mnscu.edu/library/338271.htm
The Good News is that righteousness is not a demand upon the sinner but a gift to the sinner. The sinner simply accepts the gift through faith" (hitford 2005). Luther's emphasis on the individual's reception of that Good News fueled his skillful promotion of Bibles written in the language of the people in an accessible translation and his disdain for the abstruse philosophy of theologians such as the Scholastic Thomas Aquinas. Although a highly literate and educated man, Luther did not believe that rationalization and reason could lead one to Christ, only God. Additional philosophizing added nothing to the truth that could only be found in the actual words of the Bible.
As is evidenced in Chaucer, in medieval society there had long been simmering a strong dislike of clergymen who appeared to use their office for financial gain, rather than as an exercise of piety: "The poor resented the…
Hooker, Richard. "Reformation: Martin Luther." 1996. Updated 1999. World Civilizations.
Kries, Steven. "Lecture 5: The Catholic Reformation." History Guide. 2002.
Revised 2004. http://www.historyguide.org/earlymod/lecture5c.html
This was a clear gap in the research that was examined. The proposed research study will attempt to fill this gap by examining the importance of the adult child and parent relationship and its affect on the physical body.
A number of different study methods were found amongst the studies in the literature review. Many of the studies that examined the use of psychotherapy with the treatment of a condition used a comparative study method. Clinical trials used a comparative study method in most cases. However, studies that were found to be theoretical in nature tended to use either a qualitative interview method or quantitative study methods.
No single method of study was found to be more prevalent in the group studied during the literature review. The method selected was highly dependant on the subject matter and the research question being asked in the study. no single method…
Baranek, G. (2002). Efficacy of Sensory and Motor Interventions for Children with Autism.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 32 (5): 397-422).
Birditt, K., Miller, L., Fingerman, K., and Lefkowitz, E. (2009). Tensions in the parent and adult child relationship: Links to solidarity and ambivalence. Psychol Aging. 24(2):287-95.
Burkhardt a, Rudorf S, Brand C, Rockstroh B, Studer K, Lettke F, & Luscher K. (2007). When
" (Giovacchini, 1996, pg. 2)
According to Giovachinni research into the psychodynamics of individuals in their experience of current adjustments and symptom formation is "much more interesting and fulfilling than monitoring surface behavior. processes are innately fascinating and their study creates dimensions and viewpoints that expand our appreciation of the versatility of the psyche as our in-depth understanding is increased, in itself, an aesthetic experience." (Giovacchini, 1996, pg. 2) Unconscious motivation is the "essence of the intrapsychic focus..." which serves to transform patients into "interesting human beings rather than the passive recipients of pharmacological ministrations. How the treatment procedures fits into the therapeutic relationship is taken into account, enabling patients to pursue autonomy and mastery of their emotions." (Giovacchini, 1996, pg. 2)
The work of Halil entitled: "Personality and Coping: A Multidimensional Research on Situation and Dispositional Coping" (2004) states that coping is defined "as a constantly changing cognitive and…
Intrapsychic (2008) Definition - Biology Online available at http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Intrapsychic
Intrapsychic (2008) Definition - the Free Library. Online available at http://www.thefreedictionary.com/intrapsychic
Giovachinni, Peter L. (1996) Intrapsychic Focus Can Have Lasting Benefits for Patients. 1996, December 1, Psychiatric Times, Vol. 13, No. 12. Online available at http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/display/article/10168/49006?pageNumber=2
Halil, EKSI (2004) Personality and Coping: A Multidimensional Research on Situational and Dispositional Coping. 2004 Egitim Danishmanligi ve Arastirmalari Iletisim Hizmetleri Tic. Ltd. Sti. (EDAM)
"A well-written, widely publicized, strictly enforced fraternization policy won't prevent office romances from developing. It will, however, make life a lot easier, and less litigious, for you when you have to deal with it" (eh, 2010).
Amble, B., 2007, Office politics the biggest cause of stress, Management Issues, http://www.management-issues.com/2007/1/18/research/office-politics-the-biggest-cause-of-stress.asp last accessed on October 29, 2010
Bailey, J., omantic and sexual relationship can cause workplace stress -- a word from the office, Ezine Articles, http://ezinearticles.com/?omantic-and-Sexual-elationships-Can-Cause-Workplace-Stress-A-Word-From-the-Office&id=1920949 last accessed on October 29, 2010
Bowers, T., 2007, Love (gone bad) in the office, Tech epublic, http://blogs.techrepublic.com.com/career/?p=152 last accessed on October 29, 2010
Fennel, A., 2003, omantic relationship at work: does privacy trump the dating police? All Business, http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/careers/1077844-1.html last accessed on October 29, 2010
Kernesten, D., 2000, Office romances can be risky, rewarding, Work elationships, http://www.workrelationships.com/site/articles/officeromancerisk.htm last accessed on October 29, 2010
eh, F.J., 2010, Office romance, About, http://management.about.com/cs/people/a/Officeomance.htm last accessed on October…
Amble, B., 2007, Office politics the biggest cause of stress, Management Issues, http://www.management-issues.com/2007/1/18/research/office-politics-the-biggest-cause-of-stress.asp last accessed on October 29, 2010
Bailey, J., Romantic and sexual relationship can cause workplace stress -- a word from the office, Ezine Articles, http://ezinearticles.com/?Romantic-and-Sexual-Relationships-Can-Cause-Workplace-Stress-A-Word-From-the-Office&id=1920949 last accessed on October 29, 2010
Bowers, T., 2007, Love (gone bad) in the office, Tech Republic, http://blogs.techrepublic.com.com/career/?p=152 last accessed on October 29, 2010
Fennel, A., 2003, Romantic relationship at work: does privacy trump the dating police? All Business, http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/careers/1077844-1.html last accessed on October 29, 2010
Teenage Girls Involved in Abusive Dating elationships
Aggression in teenage dating leading to physical, emotional and psychological damage is a social problem not only because of its effects on the teenagers but also because of its prevalence.
Howard and Qi Wang (2003) report figures from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention showing that overall the prevalence of non-sexual courtship violence ranges from 9% to 65%, depending on the definitions and research methods used. Howard and Qi Wang's study reported "almost one in ten of the 9th- through 12th-grade females who participated in the 1999 Youth isk Behavior Survey reported being a victim of physical dating violence (i.e., had been hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose) within the past year." Further studies and figures report that about one in five of adolescent girls has experienced dating violence. Some of the physically abusive behaviors perpetrated in dating include being scratched,…
Bush, Vanessa. (2002). A thin line between love and hate: dating violence strikes one in every five teenage girls. Essence November 2002. Retrieved November 7th,2003, from www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1264/7_33/96384286/print.jhtml.
Gillies-Bradley & Wagner Tammy L. (2003). When love hurts. Briarpatch, 32(2), 18-19.
Howard, Donna E. & Qi Wang, Min. (2003). Risk profiles of adolescent girls who were victims of dating violence. Adolescence Spring 2003. Retrieved November 7th,2003, from www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2248/149_38/103381757/print.jhtml.
James, William H., West, Carolyn, Deters, Karla Ezrre, Amigo, Eduardo. (2000). Youth dating violence. Adolescence Fall 2000. Retrieved November 7th, 2003, from www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2248/139_35/68535843/print.jhtml
An E (emergency room) job is both prestigious and requires hard work; it affords individuals a chance to save fellow human beings' lives and build a fruitful career. Of all nursing jobs, the most challenging and interesting is, perhaps, a job as an E nurse. In the fast-paced E environment, nurses need to know how patients belonging to different age groups, right from just-born babies to aged individuals, are to be assessed and treated. Time management skills are an important requirement for emergency room personnel. E staff -- whether nurses or physicians -- must be genuine, confident, and experienced professionals. A job at pharmaceutical firms guarantees a healthcare worker a promising career and grants him/her indispensable experience. There are some doctors who join these companies for practicing medicine and caring for staff safety and health. These physicians receive training in public health, rehabilitative medicine or occupational safety and…
Euro Med Info. (n.d.). Interdisciplinary collaboration, patient education. Retrieved from Euro Med Info: http://www.euromedinfo.eu/interdisciplinary-collaboration-patient-education.html/#wrap
Gardner, D. B. (2005). Ten Lessons in Collaboration. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 10(1).
Leggat, S. G. (2007). Effective healthcare teams require effective team members: defining teamwork competencies. BMC Health Serv Res, 7(17).
Norman, G. V. (2008, April 11). Interdisciplinary Team Issues. Retrieved from University of Washington: https://depts.washington.edu/bioethx/topics/team.html
enhance ou ability to engage in meaningful intepesonal elationships cannot be ovestated. This is moe so the case at the familial level, whee thee is a geat need to maintain mutual positive elations. Being social animals, human beings lagely thive on intepesonal elationships. Sound undestanding of the need fo maintenance and development of intepesonal elationships is theefoe not only necessay but also beneficial.
Smith, S.M. & Kampfe, C.M. (1997). Intepesonal Relationship Implications of Heaing Loss in Pesons who ae Olde. The Jounal of Rehabilitation, 63(2), 15-26.
One of the most impotant components of effective and fuitful intepesonal elationships is listening. In addition to being a sign of inteest and concen, listening is of geat impotance when it comes to the povision of appopiate feedback -- sound intepesonal elationships especially at the familial level ae founded on the pope matching of esponses to the situation. The authos of this paticula aticle…
references used by the authors in seeking to support their assertions are relatively outdated. This could affect the applicability of findings to modern situations.
There is need to familiarize oneself with the various concepts relating to not only the development but also the maintenance of interpersonal relationships. This way, one can easily come up with strategies meant to enrich and enhance relationships. Careful reading of the articles presented herein is therefore of great significance in the further development of one's professional capabilities.
Staff Development Plan
Staff development is central to the quality performance of activities in any organization. In order for an institution to achieve its goals and objectives, a clear staff development plan is necessary in order to set priorities and initiate a common spirit of all the staff members. This study examines the necessity of a key staff development plan in an envision higher learning institution. The study explores the importance of staff development to the quality of higher education. Currently, many higher learning institutions do not consider the necessity of proper staffing and development as a key to quality performance. Instead, these institutions fail to achieve their goals or objectives, and consequently low quality of higher education.
Higher education institutions highly depend on people to deliver their missions and objectives. In this regard, the quality of staff and the motivation they receive from the institution's management highly influences their…
World Bank. (1994). Higher Education: The Lessons of Experience. Washington DC
Blackwell, R. (2003). Towards Strategic Staff Development in Higher Education. Berkshire:
Mukherjee, H. & Jasbir, S. (1993). Staff Development Approaches in Higher Education:
Learning from Experience. London: Common Wealth Secretariat.
1998 novel About a Boy addresses the gamut of human relationships within the context of post-modern life. ill and Marcus are unlikely friends. A generation gap apart, they seem to have little in common until they start to bond. ill Freeman is 36 years old, and a kid in many ways. He lies so that people will like him, and does not have a job because of his inheritance. Marcus is a 12-year-old boy whose mother is depressed and whose peers are bullied; Marcus seems destined toward stunted emotional growth and development until he meets ill. ill likely sees himself in Marcus, which is why their friendship was meaningful to both parties. The fact that their relationship becomes transformative and helps the two of them grow offers hope that all people can come to appreciate their quirks, preserving individuality while maintaining healthy relationships. About a Boy is therefore about the…
Hornby, Nick. About a Boy. New York: Riverhead, 1998.
Different experts have defined emotional intelligence in their own ways. In the following paragraph, I will share some definitions with you.
According to Mayer and Salovery (1997), emotional intelligence is the capacity to reason about emotions and increase the thinking level. Bar-on (1997) on the other side, gives a simple definition by saying that emotional intelligence is to effectively understand each other, relate to them and adapt the immediate surroundings. Another definition was given by Marques in 2007 states that emotional intelligence is an "an ability to recognize the meanings of emotion & their relationships and to reason and problem solve on the basis of them."
All these definitions have one thing common; which is to understand and know each other's emotions by enhancing and broadening the thinking level. Both of you need to be emotionally intelligent if you want to make a successful lifetime relationship, especially you Jeff. You…
Bar-on R (1997). Development of the BarOn EQ-i: A measure of emotional and social intelligence. Paper presented at the 105th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association Chicago.
Cozby, P.C. (1973). Self-disclosure: A literature review. Psychological Bulletin, 79, 73-91.
Gottman, J. (1999). The Seven Principles for Making Marriage Work. Crown Publishers. New York Times.
Holman, T., & Li, B. (1997). Premarital factors influencing perceived readiness for marriage. Journal of Family