Nursing theories are classified into there broad categories. These theories are grand theories, middle-range theories and situation specific theories. Grand nursing theories are very broad in scope and present general propositions and concepts in the nursing discipline. The theories at this level give both a reflection and provide insights that are useful in the nursing practice but they are not designed to be used as empirical testing tools. This gives a limit to the grand theories when it comes to giving directions, explanations and predictions of nursing in specific situations. The grand theories have the intention of being pertinent to all instances in the field of nursing. One such Grand theory as will be used in the context of this paper is the interpersonal theory whose main theorist or proponent behind it is Hildegard E. Peplau.
Second are the Mid-range theories which have a narrower scope as compared to grand theories. They are often used to bridge the gap that exists between grand theories and the actual nursing practice. They are only concerned with a specific area of interest within the discipline of nursing. They give propositions and concepts at a level that is lower when it comes to abstraction and at the same time hold a promise for an increase in theory-based research as well as nursing practice strategies (Shakeel, 2010).
Nursing Practice theories are most limited when it comes to their scopes as well as their level of abstraction. They are only developed to be used within specific range of nursing situation. They address only particular problems that patients have since they are the least abstract compared to other nursing theoretical frameworks. The nursing practice theories give a framework for inventions in nursing, outcome predictions and the impact that the nursing practice has.
Nursing theories are significant in that they effectively describe, predict and explain the nursing phenomena as it is today. They give a foundation to the practice of nursing, help in the generation of further knowledge and give an indication of the direction nursing should take in the future. They help in making decisions on what is know and what one needs to know. They are also used to enable nurses to know why they are doing what they are doing (Habel, 2010).
The nursing profession has evolved greatly over time having moved from the dependence on total medical direction providing basic care into a practice that is independent with its own nursing theory and practice, distinct nursing interventions and nursing model. Nursing theories therefore have been developed by many leaders in the field of nursing and they are used to describe, develop, disseminate and put into use present knowledge when it comes to nursing. The theories provide foundation to the nursing practice and help in the generation of more knowledge and give direction of nursing in the future. There are several nursing theories that have been developed over time.
Interpersonal theory by Hildegard Peplau
This is a grand theory that is based on psychodynamic nursing that uses an understanding of an individual's behavior to help other people identify their difficulties. It applies the principle of human relations and is based on the fact that a patient normally has a felt need (Antipuesto, 2008).
This theory has several terms that relate to it; first the person who is described as an individual that tries to reduce the anxieties that are brought about by needs and lives in an unstable equilibrium. The purpose of the nurse is to help the individual to identify their anxieties and felt difficulties.
The second concept is health which refers to the forward movement of an individuals personality and human processes geared towards creative, productive, personal, constructive and community living.
Thirdly is the environment which in this theory is referred to as the existing forces that are outside the individual or the organism in the cultural context.
The final concept is nursing which is defined as an interpersonal process that is significant and therapeutic which functions cooperatively with other people in order to make health a possibility. It also involves problem solving.
This theory defined nursing as an interpersonal process of therapeutic interactions between a sick person/one that needs health services and a nurse who is especially educated so as…