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Today's contemporary society, as evidenced in this research is much more open to interracial relationships than were previous generations. It appears that the biggest disadvantage to interracial relationships are the children which are born from these marriages and partnerships in that these children often do not feel either 'black' or 'white' or 'white' or 'Hispanic' and so forth. Today's young people report a high percentage of individuals who have dated interracially and who are open to this type of dating. The issue as pointed out in the work of Jayson (2006) with these individuals is not the common 'color' but the common 'interests ' of individuals that results in interracial relationships. These relationships, as shown by this study are extremely difficult to maintain due to societal pressures and issues.
The conclusions of this study include the conclusion that anyone entering into an interracial relationship should be properly informed of…
Alouise, Nacy John (1998) Interracial Marriages and the Effects on Children. The University of Dayton School of Law. Online available at http://academic.udayton.edu/race/04needs/s98alouis.htm
Black, White, Cuban and Asian (2008) Interracial Marriage, Dating and Love. Online available at http://www.angelfire.com/super2/beme0/
Bratter, Jenifer and Eschbach, Karl (2005) What about the Couple? Interracial Marriage and Psychological Distress. Social Science Research Vol. 35, Issue 4 December 2006.
Cheng, Simon (2007) Under and Beyond Constraints: Resource Allocation to Young Children from Biracial Families. American Journal of Sociology Vol. 112 No. 4. Abstract available at http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/508793
This added discrimination can make it more difficult for interracial gay and lesbian couples.
Just as there has been an increase in the number of heterosexual interracial couples, there has also been an increase in the number of interracial gay and lesbian couples. A great deal of this increase is dependent on geographic location. Gay and Lesbian people living in California, and New York are much more likely to have interracial relationships because of the diversity that exists in these areas of the country.
Interracial or transracial adoption is also an issue that has received a great deal of attention in recent years. Interracial adoption has been a hot button issue because some children have been adopted into families who are not of the same racial or ethnic background (hatley et al.). Some individuals believe that it is better for children to be adopted into families in which the ethnic…
Berg, Thomas C. "Order in the Court: How Judges Should Think." The Christian Century 27 Dec. 2003: 26+.
Crawford, Franklin. New study examines interracial marriage and cohabitation patterns among America's diverse black populations. July 25, 2006 http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/july06/blacks.marry.fac.html
Henderson, Shirley. "Is Love Becoming Color Blind? Young Adults Embrace Interracial Dating." Ebony Mar. 2007: 147+.
Interracial Relationships Graph. U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/hh-fam/tabsMS-3.txt
People besides are not always aware of their motivation aside from which it is arguable whether or not prejudicial sentiments are implicit rather than conscious. Given these conditions and more, I find the study interesting but highly limited.
There are many present theses on how we control our prejudices. The MODE model, one of the most prominent, states that prejudices are controlled via automatic and controlled processes. The researchers (Towles-chwen & Fazio, 2006)) wanted to investigate these models in a real-life environment. Their focus, therefore, was on interracial sharing of rooms (boarding) in a university. Their first study was on roommates initial reaction to the other racially different boarder. Their second study was whether the boarding experience changed initial automatic prejudice. The racial attitudes of the 58 White freshmen were measured unobtrusively in both studies via a priming procedure at the beginning of the fall semester. tudents also reported their…
Knox, D. et al., (2000). Interracial dating attitudes among college students. College Student Journal, Vol 34(1), 69-71
Towles-Schwen, T. & Fazio, RH (2006) Automatically activated racial attitudes as predictors of the success of interracial roommate relationships Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 42-698 -- 705
This can help increase the tolerance and cultural awareness of future generations, which is always a positive benefit for a more progressive society.
Different types of conflict styles can also impact how individuals fair within the context of an intercultural or interracial relationship. The way many cultures handle how they deal with conflict differ dramatically from other cultures. As a result, when two individuals from different cultures come together, they may often find that they have conflict because of how each party handles conflict. An indirect conflict style is one which tends to shy away from confrontation. Many cultures utilize such conflict management styles as a way to stay neutral and not dive into a conflict that would be emotionally exhausting. For example, many Asian cultures tend to exhibit very indirect conflict management styles. Yet, these can often be misinterpreted as being indifferent, where the individual is mistakenly thought to…
Martin, J. & Nakyama, T. (2011). Experiencing intercultural communication: An introduction. (4th ed.). McGraw Hill Publishing. ISBN: 0-07-340668-6
Orbe, M. & Harris, T. (2008). Interracial communication: Theory into practice (2nd ed.). Sage Publishing. ISBN: 1-4129-5458-4
Popular culture differs from what was once referred to as "high" culture ("Popular Culture" 2000). High culture distinguished and continues to distinguish itself from popular culture by subordinating the latter. However, a tremendous shift in academia has led to the critique of both "high" and "low" culture and a subsequent merging of the two ("Popular Culture" 2000).
Also known as "mass" culture, popular culture can be considered crude even as it shapes politics and policy ("Popular Culture" 2000). According to Chito Childs & Laudone (2004), popular culture is uniquely responsible for the shaping of values, beliefs and norms surrounding interracial friendships, interracial relationships, and race relations in general. Films that depict interracial couples "tend to reinforce the existing racial hierarchy, rendering interracial relationships problematic," (Chito Childs & Laudone 2004, p. 1). Popular culture is part mirror for social realities and part shaper of those realities.
One exception to the generally…
Chito Childs, E. (2009). Fade to Black and White: Interracial Images in Popular Culture. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Chito Childs, E. & Laudone, S. 2004-08-14 "Interracial Images: Popular Cuture Depictions of Black-White Couples" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton San Francisco & Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel, San Francisco, CA, Online . 2009-05-26 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p108369_index.html
Dolby, N. (2001). Constructing Race: Youth, Identity, and Popular Culture in South Africa. Albany: SUNY Press.
al. 11). In the same way that European colonialism itself depended on a limited view of the world that placed colonial subjects under the rule of their masters, European theory was based on a view of literature and identity that had no place for the identities and literature of colonized people. Postcolonial theory is the ideal basis for this study, because in many ways the process of developing a new, hybrid identity born out of the conflicting experiences of first and second-generation immigrants is analogous to the process of developing postcolonial theory in the first place.
In particular, this paper draws most heavily on the notion of hybrid identity, a complicated subject that has arisen within postcolonial studies. The term is difficult to define precisely due to the fact that hybridity itself suggests something complicated and heterogeneous, and at the same time, "if hybrid identity is seen as formed at…
Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin. The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice
in Post-Colonial Literatures. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Ball, John. Satire and the Postcolonial Novel. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Bhabha, Homi. Nation and Narration. London: Routledge, 1990.
Male and Female Relationships in 'Calabash Parkway'
The objective of this research study is to examine the male and female relationships in the work entitled 'Calabash Parkway' written by renda Chester DoHarris published by Tantaria Press in 2005. Towards this end, this study will conduct a review of literature and specifically reviews of other writers on the work of DoHarris.
Calabash Parkway -- A Novel
The work of DoHarris (2005) entitled Calabash Parkway is written for "her undocumented sisters and brothers, many of whom, have taken great risks and made great sacrifices to enter and live in the U.S., and who prefer to languish in an 'undocumented twilight zone and die rather than remain in an economic and political ferment at home." (ook Shelf, 2008, p.2) The novel's setting is New York City and Guyana in the 1950s. It is reported that DoHarris "pours her heart in the story, assuming…
Book Review (By Emeritus Professor Frank Birgalsingh) (2010) Kaiteur News. 30 May 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.kaieteurnewsonline.com/2010/05/30/book-review-by-emeritus-professor-frank-birbalsingh/
Sukhdeo, Gokarran (2005) Calabash Parkway: A Novel by Brenda Chester DoHarris, Tantaria Press, 2005. Guyana Journal. Retrieved from: http://www.guyanajournal.com/Calabash_Parkway.html
Desperate Lives: Gyals and Gyurls in NYC: A Review of Calabash Parkway. Book Shelf. 11 June 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.guyanacaribbeanpolitics.com/books/calabash_parkway.html
It would appear that whites are willing to accept such a commitment only in the cases in which the white woman is coming from an inferior class. (Turner, 1990)
Most people today agree that the act of marriage should only depend on the two individuals that perform it, not considering their race, nationality or any other factor which can falsely influence a decision.
Jane Dabel, "A Superior Colored Man. And a Scotch Woman": Interracial Marriages in New York City, 1850-1870," International Social Science eview 80.3-4 (2005), Questia, 3 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5012453403.
Patricia Grimshaw, "Interracial Marriages and Colonial egimes in Victoria and Aotearoa/New Zealand," Frontiers - a Journal of Women's Studies 23.3 (2002), Questia, 3 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002526583.
enee D. Turner, "Interracial Couples in the South; Attitudes Are Changing on Once-Illegal Marriages of Blacks to Whites," Ebony June 1990, Questia, 3 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000122240.
obert P. McNamara, Maria Tempenis, and Beth…
Robert P. McNamara, Maria Tempenis, and Beth Walton, Crossing the Line Interracial Couples in the South (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999) 1, Questia, 3 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=15354562 .
Ursula M. Brown, the Interracial Experience: Growing Up Black/White Racially Mixed in the United States (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001) 1, Questia, 3 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101026457 .
Interracial Couples." About.com. 3 December, 2008. http://racerelations.about.com/od/racerelationships/a/interracialcoup.htm
While the chaactes ae doing battle with paents ove old coe cultual values that have gone by the wayside -- and yet the chaactes have a buning desie to be left to thei own devices, e.g., maiage and a long life togethe -- Levine wites that "Dayton's evised naative" shows that "the film does not eally want to be about any kind of acial conflict, but instead, about the ielevance of acial diffeences" (Levine, 2001, 374). It is "essential," Levine continues on page 375, to the "integationist pemise" of the film that "whiteness itself not be endeed explicitly desiable." In fact Levine points out on page 375 that the black assistant to Tillie, Doothy, has "shot hai, shot skit, and long legs," which Levine insists is fa moe typical of a female in the 1960s than Joanna, who desses moe like a woman in the 1950s.
This is Levine's way…
references to the film's meaning.
The dreams of the couple were of a world where people could fall in love and be together no matter their ethnicity or racial background. In fact there has been a great deal of progress in America (the Lecture Notes assert that "…things have changed for the better" since the film came out). Also, the Lecture Notes hit the nail on the head when pointing out that "…underlying tensions that still persist"; however, those tensions do not -- contrary to the Notes -- remain "hushed away within the national dialogue." In fact the not so subtle racist tones and themes that are alive and well in the Obama era -- he was born in Kenya; he is a Muslim; his birth certificate is phony; he is a socialist; he wants to take away gun owners' rights, etc. -- clearly show the alert observer that there are still major hurdles to get over before there is a sense of acceptance, tolerance, and welcoming for persons of color in America. Why would Tea Party members show up at town hall meetings focusing on healthcare carrying rifles, and signs that depict the president of the United States as Hitler? It is racism, clear and simple.
Lee's motion picture is largely meant to put across the confusion present in some people's lives, as it is not necessarily meant to discuss race-related matters.
Lee's film brings reform into a world that is accustomed to respecting traditions when it comes to racial stereotypes. Through watching this film, people are likely to consider that race is not important when taking into account a relationship. Factors that would normally make people feel that they belong to separate worlds can actually make them consider that they need to stay together. Lee's version of interracial relationships makes it possible for viewers to comprehend that two people can strengthen their relationship as a consequence of having society impose its discriminatory attitudes on them. At the point where their families reject them, Flipper and Angela decide to move together hoping that this would put an end to their problems and considering that it is…
Dir. Spike Lee. Jungle Fever. Universal Pictures, 1991.
, 2010). This statement, though not explanatory, probably suggests some negative history with African-American men or a positive history with white males and provides information about her beyond mere physical desire. In fact, when reading her ad, she appears to have a jaded view about relationships. She makes it clear that she is only interested in a long-term relationship. She cautions respondents not to respond to her in overtly sexual ways prior to getting to know her, even going so far as to tell them not to send photos of their penises to her. Until reading her ad, the author had not even considered that a person would respond to a personal ad by sending a picture of his penis. The entire attitude of the ad conveys a wariness that may be the advertiser's attempt to invoke the "hard to get" effect (Kassin et al., 2010)
The final ad was…
Kassin, S., Fein, S., & Markus, H.R. (2010). Social psychology. Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Anti-Miscegnation Statutes in the United States
Anti-Miscegenation Statutes in the United States
Previous to Loving v. Virginia, there were several cases on the subject of miscegenation. In Pace v. Alabama (1883), the Supreme Court made a ruling that the conviction of an Alabama couple for interracial sex, confirmed on the plea by the Alabama Supreme Court, did not disrupt the Fourteenth Amendment. Interracial marital sex was considered a felony, whereas adulterous sex ("infidelity or fornication") was just a misdemeanor. On plea, the United States Supreme Court made a ruling that the illegalization of interracial sex was not a defilement of the equal protection clause since whites and non-whites were penalized in equivalent amount for the wrongdoing of involving in interracial sex. The court did not see the need to sustain the constitutionality of the prohibition on interracial marriage that was likewise part of Alabama's anti-miscegenation law. After Pace v. Alabama,…
La Mission act together as a historical document of interracial and other lifestyle issues in today's urban environment. Although the film takes place within San Francisco and the documentary evidence cannot necessarily be applied to any other city or geographic region, La Mission does tell a story that is familiar to many Americans. Homophobia is one of the central themes of La Mission. Americans throughout the nation are challenging homophobia, which is part of what the filmmakers are trying to say. Moreover, San Francisco is a highly heterogeneous city. Yet issues related to interracial relationships are raised. These same issues play themselves out in the lives of millions of Americans who feel the residual effects of prejudice in their lives.
Che, the protagonist, embodies the complexities of life in a modern and progressive city like San Francisco. He is Latino, and therefore identifies as being a minority. This is an…
Bratt, B & Bratt, P. La Mission. Feature film.
"La Mission Lecture."
Wilson, Emily. "Benjamin Bratt & Peter Bratt Discuss Their Latino Gay Film 'La Mission.'" April 16, 2010.
Sometimes it seems that the last person to come up with an original dramatic idea was illiam Shakespeare - and we all know that he borrowed most of his ideas from other people too. So we should not expect to see much that is new in a story that is a retelling of Shakespeare's "Othello" - which is what Tim Blake Nelson's film "O" is. The film, which is certainly attractive and innovative on a purely formal level, does a generally poor job of convincing us that this is the way in which real teenagers speak. On the other hand, "Finding Forrester" (while it too has its flaws) is a far more intelligent look into what it is like to be a young black man. This paper analyzes the ways in which each of the films depicts certain subcultures of our society and the extent to which the filmmakers…
Gender and Race in Gordimer and Smith
In "Country Lovers" and "What It's Like to be a Black Girl (For Those of You Who Aren't)," Nadine Gordimer and Patricia Smith, respectively, demonstrate that issues of race and ethnicity are issues that are devoid of space and time. Gordimer focuses on the impact that apartheid has on Thebedi, a young, black girl, in South Africa, whereas Smith focuses on how American society has shaped her perception of herself due to a long history of racial discrimination. Both Gordimer's story and Smith's poem allow the reader to see how society shapes perceptions of others and perceptions of oneself based on race and ethnicity.
Gordimer has first-hand experience on the effects of apartheid as she grew up in South Africa and witnessed how people were discriminated against based upon the color of their skin. In South Africa, apartheid governed how society was structured…
She is the Good Samaritan whose attention to the victim robbed and abandoned by the roadside earned him a place in biblical history. Amy does not falter when called to aid and abet a fugitive slave, or touch a mutilated black woman, or bring new black life into the world. She drags Sethe back to life, using spider-webs to ease her back, massaging circulation into her damaged feet, and delivering her baby. Proactive Christianity provides the tension that undercuts passive emulation and dissimulation. Amy's religion is eminently present, representing her sense of urgency and agency. Sethe owes her life to Amy, who is irreversibly linked to black life, both through her own suffering and through her surname, Denver, which the grateful Sethe gives to her newborn daughter. " (Iyasere, 179)
The commentaries made by Amy Denver are also very significant: first, her call on Jesus: " Come here Jesus" when…
Iyasere, Solomon O. Understanding Toni Morrison's Beloved and Sula: Selected Essays and Criticism of the Works by the Nobel-Prize Winning author,
Philadelphia: Whitson Publishing, 2000
Morrison, Toni. Beloved. New York: Random House, 2001
The qualitatively higher level of hostility that black-white marriages face make these relationships more difficult for African-Americans, as easily seen in the lower number of blacks who outmarry, as well as for whites who marry blacks. Yancey's study illustrates that these whites who marry blacks have more visceral experiences of racism than whites who marry non-black people of color.
Whites who intermarry use their changed social status to reconsider earlier thoughts about societal views on race. Those who marry blacks, especially, may go beyond theoretical ideas, since they often have to deal with racism thrust forcefully into their lives. The findings indicate that premarital racial preparation is inadequate for informing whites of the possible ramifications of their interracial decisions. Majority group members are apt to have a difficult time understanding the total impact of being linked to a black until it occurs. Just as race is a socially constructed concept,…
Rosenfeld, Michael J. The Age of Independence: Interracial Unions, Same-Sex Unions, and the Changing American Family. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2007.
Yancey, George. Experiencing Racism: Differences in the Experiences of Whites Married to Blacks and Non-Black Racial Minorities, Journal of Comparative Family Studies 38.2, 197-213.
That day is always in your possession. That's the day you remember," (p. 97). Thus, both stories keep alive the romantic vision of love as a positive and enduring force.
The most extraordinary aspect of both of these stories is the way in which love is portrayed realistically. Love is never easy, whether between interracial couples, between parents and children, or between lovers. For example, "The worst mistakes I've made have been the ones directed by sweet-natured hopefulness," suggests that love is often over-idealized (Baxter, p. 80). In Feast of Love, marital infidelity is dealt with and so are other forms of betrayal including the perceived betrayal of death. Similarly, death is dealt with deftly in Secret Life of Bees. hen May commits suicide, the grieving process is an extraordinary expression of love by her sisters and also by Lily and Rosaleen. As Lily states, "People who think dying is…
Feast of Love. (2007). Robert Benton (Director). Portland, or
The Secret Life of Bees.
Separate the Races?
One of the most prevalent themes explored in James Weldon Johnson's The Autobiography of an Ex-Coloured Man is the ramifications of miscegenation during America's racially charged late 19th/early 20th century epoch. Johnson's work highlights the daily vicissitudes that are a direct consequence of the taboo social mixing of African-Americans and Caucasians. Originally engendered as one of the many unforeseen products of this country's chattel slavery period, interracial coitus would go on to greatly alter the lives of all participants involved -- spanning across gender, color and age distinctions -- and produce a remarkable number of perverse situations for all parties.
This thesis particularly applies to the progeny of affairs of miscegenation -- the children who often endured a sense of alienation and isolation that distances them from being unconditionally accepted by both races, African-American and Caucasian (Williams 1987, 141). In the following quotations, the narrator…
Johnson, James Weldon. The Autobiography of an Ex-Coloured Man. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1973.
Haley, Alex. The Autobiography of Malcolm X New York: Ballantine Books, 1964.
Williams, Chancellor. The Destruction of Black Civilization. Chicago: Third World Press, 1987.
Jones, LeRoi. Home. New York: William Morrow & Co., 1966.
American and Chinese Business Cultures
Though there is no universally accepted definition, culture denotes a set of values, beliefs, traditions, practices, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a given group of people (odrigues, 2009). Culture defines a people's way of life -- how they do things, communicate, behave, relate with one another, and so forth. Culture theory, especially Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory, illustrates that cultures tend to vary from country to country or region to region (Hofstede, 2001). These differences imply that norms, behaviors, attitudes, and other elements of culture differ across countries or regions. For instance, the culture of Americans tends to differ from that of the Chinese, Africans, or Arabs.
Culture permeates every aspect of society -- from organization and social relationships to communication and business. Business is especially influenced by culture. Culture affects how organizations are structured and managed, how employers relate with employees, how decisions are…
Alon, I. (2003). Chinese culture, organizational behavior, and international business management. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.
Althen, G. (2003). American ways: A guide for foreigners in the United States. 2nd edition. US: Intercultural Press.
Cook, G. (2012). The influence of national culture on American business people -- managerial implications for central Europe. Central European Business Review, 1(2), 46-51.
Geert-hofstede.com. (n.d.). Country comparison. Retrieved from https://geert- hofstede.com/united-states.html
The Margarita Case Study: An Application of Adlerian Theory and Therapeutic Techniques
Margarita is a twenty-six-year-old Puerto ican woman who has lived in the United States since she was a teenager and is married to a thirty-six-year-old African-American male. The couple has two children, a three-year-old boy and a one-year-old girl, and Margarita has also recently been accepted into law school following earning her MBA. Both members of the couple hold prominent positions in their community. ecently, Margarita has been prone to bouts of depression and fits of inexplicable rage against her husband, including one incident in which she threatened her husband with a knife. No actual violence has occurred, according to Margarita, and she herself cannot explain why she has these outbursts against her husband -- she only knows that she feels a sense of relief after they occur.
The relationship between Margarita and her husband is…
Adler Graduate School. (2011). The theory and application of Adlerian psychology. Accessed 13 March 2011. http://www.alfredadler.edu/overview/adlerian.htm
Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. New York: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Eischens, A. (1998). The dilemma of the only child. Accessed 13 March 2011. http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/eischens2.html
Hazan, Y. (2001). About the psychotherapy of Adler. Accessed 13 March 2011. http://www.centroadleriano.org/publicaciones/ABOUT%20THE%20PSYCHOTHERAPY%20OF%20ADLER.pdf
These findings suggest that rap may affect society in several ways. For example, how adolescent whites perceive rap may impact their support for race-based policies such as Affirmative Action as they grow older and become more politically involved. Further, to the extent that rap helps to promote interracial relationships, cross-racial social networks resulting from rap may increase employment opportunities for blacks and other non-whites (97).
However, state Thompson and Brown, another scenario is just as plausible. Since so many of the studies on racial attitudes and rap music have been cross-sectional, it is possible that over time the relationship between whites' opinions on rap music and racial attitudes may change. It is feasible that as the average young adult white rap supporters get older, have a family, and begin a career, the relationship between their opinions of rap music and their perceptions of blacks and support for liberal values may…
Aaron, C. 1998..Black Like Them. Spin Magazine
Farley, C. 1999..Hip-Hop Nation. Time, February 8.
Goff, J.R. 2002. Close Harmony. Greenboro: University of North Carolina Press.
Jackson-Brown, I. 1990. Developments in black gospel performance and scholarship.
Despite the more commercial and thrilling aspect of this film, Lee retains his trademarks, from close-up shots to his signature floating shot and infusion of music and athletic iconography.
Lee continues to infuse his films with social and political commentary. Although he has not made as many feature films in recent years as he did in the past, he continues to produce and direct works that focus on social issues, as well as the black experience. Although Lee may be outspoken at times, his viewpoints and socio-political beliefs have not changed during the course of his career. His ability to retain his identity in an ever changing world have made Lee a truly unique director.
Jungle Fever. Dir. Spike Lee. United States: 40 Acres & a Mule Studios, 1991.
Jungle Fever explores the concept of interracial relationships and how they are viewed by the community. The film, like…
Bollag, Brenda. "NY Independent Cinema at Cannes: Jim Jarmusch's "Down by Law" and Spike
Lee's "She's Gotta Have it." Film Quarterly, Vol. 40, No. 2 (Winter, 1986-1987), pp. 11-
13. JSTOR. 21 April 2012.
Diawara, Manthia and Kolbowski, Silvia. "Homeboy Cosmopolitan." October, Vol. 83 (Winter,
Fenimore is responsible for having provided the public with an adventurous history of the old American landscape.
In spite of the fact that James Fenimore Cooper has been born in New Jersey, his father decided to move the whole family to an area around Otsego Lake, near New York, a place where he owned some land. This presented James with the chance of coming across a vast forested territory where Indian tribes roamed free.
James's father had attempted to give the boy a good education, but he had not been enthusiastic his boys academic achieving, as the latter was dismissed from Yale and later resigned from the navy. The reason for his resignation had been that he wanted to spend more time with his wife, Miss Susan De Lancey. Consequent to several divergences he and his wife had over his writing style vs. his capabilities, with the latter mocking him,…
1. Dennis Ian, "The Worthlessness of Duncan Heyward: A Waverley Hero in America," Studies in the Novel 29.1 (1997).
2. Fenimore Cooper James, the Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757 (Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1957)
3. Lamberton Becker May, "Introduction How This Book Came to Be Written," the Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757 (Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1957) 5.
4. Pitcher Edward W., "The Beaver and His Cousin in Cooper's the Last of the Mohicans," ANQ8.2 (1995): 11.
God created man and woman, it can never be one without another, woman comes to complete man and vice versa. They are so different and when they come together they become complete. True love means feelings that spring from the bottom of the soul, and also means forgiveness for the other, and understanding each other's temptations and frailties, it has nothing to do with physical attraction.
According to one of the reviews on the IMD site "In a sense the Darwinian nature of the human animals depicted here is correct, and on that level director Jocelyn Moorehouse is having a good laugh on all of us. Her assertion is that what human really practice is "serial monogamy," an insight from evolutionary psychology increasingly accepted these days. Her answer to the vexing question, "Can men and women be friends?" is clearly no. From a woman's point-of-view -- and this film is…
http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0113347/usercomments.Last retrieved on December 10, 2006 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/How_to_Make_an_American_Quilt.Last retrieved on December 10, 2006 http://www.quilt.com/History/QuiltingBee.html.Last retrieved on December 10, 2006
However, by exercising its own version of "religious freedom," the university is discriminating against a sector of society it should serve.
This is not to say that the university and its personnel do not have the right to exercise whatever religious views appeal to them most. However, such religious freedom should not be exercised to the detriment of the religious freedoms of others. No person or entity has the right to impose his or her views on others, or to deny the rights of certain persons based on their own beliefs and cultural practices. Hence, while the university has the right of religious freedom, it should not allow this right to become a policy that discriminates against others. Religious freedom, like religion itself, should be a private choice. Bob Jones has made it a public one, and therefore does not serve its public. In this way, the institution does not…
Hope Leslie Strong Female Characters of the 17th Century
Strong Female Characters in Sedgwick's Hope Leslie
The United States has not always been a free space for strong female characters. In fact, in its earliest stages, most women were confined to very strict gender rules and restrictions. That is definitely true in the case of the Puritan culture that settled in the North East in the 17th century. Catharine Maria Sedgwick's Hope Leslie presents a surprisingly strong and independent female protagonist who fights for what she believes in and against the constraining gender norms of the very conservative Puritan culture in the early days of the Massachusetts colony. This represents a connection between the American idea of independence and individualism and women's role in American history. Sedgwick is also standing up against the gender norms face d in her own era with such a strong female lead.
The novel itself…
Pelegri, Teresa Requena. "Bringing Out Censored Stories and Reassessing the Past in Catharine Maria Sedgwick's Hope Leslie." Coolabah. Vol. 3. 2009.
Sedgwick, Catharine Maria. Hope Leslie: Or, Early Times in the Massachusetts. Harper Brothers.
Diversity in the United States
Diversity has contributed to America's culture ever since the country was founded. In the beginning, the country consisted of various immigrant groups who brought their individual beliefs, religious practices, unique craftsmanship and inventiveness from all over the world. The United States was considered a melting pot because of its inherent diversity due to the vast immigrations from all over the world. However, even despite the vast amount of immigration and the concept of the melting pot, the country has always had to struggle to appreciate the advantages that diversity has provided for the country. Inequality and racism has been a persistent issues with the American society.
Today the country is still struggling with similar problems despite the fact that major struggles for equality have manifested. Diversity in the United States today includes many more different types of groups who are still struggling for their acceptance…
Keita, G. (2007, April). U.S. diversity breakthroughs and challenges. Retrieved from American Psychological Assoication: http://www.apa.org/monitor/apr07/itpi.aspx
Leweling, V. (1997, May). Official English and English Plus: An Update. Retrieved from Center for Applied Linguistics: http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/lewell01.html
United States Census Bureau. (2008, August 14). An Older and More Diverse Nation by Midcentury. Retrieved from United States Census Bureau: https://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/population/cb08-123.html
Educational Inequality Along acial Lines
The role of education in the American society cannot be overemphasized. Education plays an important role in equipping students with knowledge and skills for transforming their life and the society at large. Also, the education system instills appropriate values, behaviors, and attitudes in students, making them useful members of the society. Nonetheless, while education is important, it tends to reinforce the existing social inequality, particularly along racial lines. Funding inequalities and learning outcomes between schools from privileged backgrounds and those from unprivileged backgrounds attest to this. This paper examines inequality in education along racial lines. The paper specifically focuses on four aspects: the role of education from two sociological perspectives; the role of funding in producing educational inequality along racial lines; America's cultural diversity (in terms of race, gender, ethnicity and class) and the educator's role in promoting cultural diversity; as well as an anti-racist…
Duncan, G., & Murnane, R. (2014). Restoring opportunity: the crisis of inequality and the challenge for American Education. Boston: Harvard Education Press.
Farley, J. (2012). Majority-Minority Relations. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching: theory, research, and practice. 2nd ed. New York: Teachers College Press.
Parrillo, V. (2009). Diversity in America. 3rd ed. Los Angeles: Pine Forge Press.
In ode to get beyond such shallow viewpoints, they need to meely use such diffeences as the stating point fo thei conception of people fom othe ethnicities, and actually get beyond that bing about an impovement in inteacial elations.
As such, it is extemely inteesting to note how sociological concepts of standpoint theoy and systems of pivilege typify many of the esponses that Chistenson had to opinions and statements voiced by othe men in the video. Fo the most pat, Chistenson's esponses eithe contained an element of ignoance o outight disbelief to many of the social baies and misconceptions that the men of colo spoke about. These poclivities of Chistenson can widely be ationalized via standpoint theoy, which poses the notion that people's system of beliefs is geatly affected by the social goup they ae a pat of. Moeove, this theoem places a fai amount of emphasis on hegemony, a…
references within this article, he explains how people tend to follow those who are in authority, and also display the tendency to not desire to deviate from the norm. Doing so within the social context of interracial relations, for instance, would require regarding people with less power and privilege in a manner in which there is social equality -- which is a character trait that is not generally part of human nature, which tends to follow an established tradition. Meyer's article implies that nice people would rather go along and do what everybody else is doing, adhering to any authority figures along the way, that deviate and actually think for themselves and treat people differently as a result. This article denotes all the more reason why it is important to merely use the differences in various ethnic groups as a starting point for the nature of interracial relations.
In summary, there is a plentiful amount of evidence that denotes that there are pronounced differences afforded to people of different social standings. Privilege theory and standpoint theory indicate that these differences can account for the bulk of the way that people view and, ultimately, treat other people. Johnson's first two chapters in his manuscript confirm the degree of privilege afforded to those of historical majority groups in the U.S. Meyers' indicates that people will tend to conform to such unfair treatment of others -- unless they make a conscious decision to only use ethnic differences as a starting point, not ending point, for the basis of treatment between races.
However, while I see that Boy Scouts has helped develop my empathy and my planning ability, I know that I continue to struggle with my ability to frame concepts for a group. Servant leadership is not about asserting power, but about developing rightful authority. ather than force a group to do the leader's bidding, a servant leader's role is to persuade people to follow the leader's path. However, it is not really the leader's path that he asks people to follow. On the contrary, because a servant leader listens to people, respects all members of the group, and considers short- and long-term consequences, the path that the servant leader proposes should be one that is best for the group. Of course, that path may not seem best to the group because of competing interests, short-term worldview, or the fact that every plan is going to have pluses and minuses for…
Bennis, W., and Thomas, R. (2007). Leading for a lifetime: how defining moments shape leaders of today and tomorrow. Boston: Harvard Business Press.
Cress, C., Collier, P., and Reitenauer, V. (2005). Learning through serving: a student guidebook for service-learning across the disciplines. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.
Greenleaf, R. (2002). Servant leadership: a journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press.
Komives, S., and Wagner, W. (2009). Leadership for a better world: understanding the social change model of leadership development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Blues music however did not cross racial lines, with the majority of famous blues musicians still residing in New Orleans and various other well-known black music entertainment venues of the South.
Gospel music has been an African-American church tradition with influences from traditional African music and especially prevalent during the slavery era. Later (most likely because of those particular ignominious associations and all they implied, especially in the South) gospel music was strongly discouraged within mainstream society and actively suppressed.
Similarly, blues music represented a blending of black musical traditions with a centuries-long history originating from the earliest days of American slavery. Sammy Davis Jr. And Nat King Cole, were and remain today among the best-known of early black entertainers within the (then) up-and-coming rock 'n roll genre of the 1940's. Each had a heavy influence upon Elvis himself.
Obviously, though, the blending of Southern musical traditions was not started…
African-American Musical Tradition." (June 9, 1998). Retrieved January 9, 2007,
From: http://www.questia.com/html .
Bane, Michael. White Boy Singin' the Blues: The Black Roots of White Rock.
Harmondsworth, Eng: Penguin, 1982.
Uncle Tom characters were common in both white and black productions of the time, yet no director before Micheaux had so much as dared to shine a light on the psychology that ravages such characters. By essentially bowing to the two white men, Micheaux implied that Old Ned was less than a man; an individual whittled down to nothing more than yes-man and wholly deprived of self-worth. At this point in the history of black films, with some of the most flagrant sufferings of blacks exposed to the American public, the only logical path forward that African-Americans could take was to begin making cogent demands to improve their collective social situation.
Slowly, black characters in film took on greater and more significant roles in film. Sidney Poitier was one of the most powerful film stars of the mid twentieth century. In roles like the 1950 film by…
Finlayson, R. (2003). We Shall Overcome: The History of the American Civil Rights
Movement. Lerner Publications Company, Minneapolis, MN.
King, Jr., M. And Jackson, J. (1963). Why We Can't Wait. Signet Classic, New York,
Undocumented tudents Equity to in-tate Tuition:
Reducing The Barriers
There exist policy ambiguities and variations at federal, state, and institutional levels related to undocumented student access to and success in higher education and this has created problems for these students. This study investigated specific policies and procedures to provide the resources and capital to assist undocumented students as well as reviewed key elements of showing the correlation of these difficulties with ethnic identity in access and equity to higher education that would help eliminate student's frustration. The study also illustrated that there is no accountability system surrounding the success of undocumented student's postsecondary education divide significant structure. Three research questions guided the study; a) Without the fundamental requirements met how will undocumented students achieve their goal to attain a degree, and seek a rewarding career? b) Is it unjust to extradite an illegal alien who has been living a constructive…
Scott, W.R. (2004). Institutional theory: Contributing to a theoretical research program. Retrieved from http://icos.groups.si.umich.edu/Institutional%20Theory%20Oxford04.pdf
Spickard, P. (2007). Almost all aliens: Immigration, race, and colonialism in American history and identity. New York, NY: Routledge.
Taylor, E. (2009). The foundations of critical race theory in education: An introduction. In E. Taylor, D. Gillborn & G. Ladson-Billings (Eds.), Foundations of critical race theory in education (pp. 1-13). New York, NY: Routledge.
Hope Leslie: Or, Early Times in the Massachusetts by Catharine Maria Sedgwick. Specifically, it will contain a critical analysis of the text. "Hope Leslie" is a romantic novel that sheds light on Puritanical views of the time, and involves two young heroines who both love the same man. This novel indicates the differences between Hope, a young New England Puritan, and Magawisca, a young Native American Pequod. They both love Everell Fletcher, and they certainly both are deserving of his love. That Hope ends up with Everell is romantic, but it is also quite representative of the time this novel was written, where there was still a sharp division between the Native Americans (savages) and the New England Puritans. This novel illustrates that division, and a society that was unwilling to accept racial differences in their relationships, and in their lives.
Written in 1827, "Hope Leslie" is the story of…
Bardes, Barbara A. And Suzanne Gossett. "Catharine Maria Sedgwick (1789-1867)." Georgetown University. 2004. 14. Dec. 2004.
Barnett, Louise K. The Ignoble Savage: American Literary Racism, 1790-1890. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1975.
Cagidemetrio, Alide. "A Plea for Fictional Histories and Old-Time 'Jewesses'." The Invention of Ethnicity. Ed. Sollors, Werner. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. 14-43.
Welcome Table" (Walker) short story "Country Lovers" (Gordimer) intoduction literature class. The directions state developing a thesis a comparative paper, a comparision works deeper insight topic paper.
Racism has often been used as a principal theme in a series of writings, as writers intended to intensify this topic with the purpose of emphasizing the wrongness of this particular act. Alice Walker and Nadine Gordimer have both gotten actively engaged in discussing this subject in their works. "The Welcome Tab" and "Country Lovers" deal with attitudes that white people often employ as they interact with black people and they both focus on accurately depicting thinking expressed by dominant communities in the U.S. and, respectively, in South Africa, during the early 1900s. Even with this, while Walker goes at depicting an old African-American woman with the most probable purpose of inducing pity-related feelings into her readers, Gordimer goes further and uses a…
These are some of the changes that have greatly blurred the boundaries observed by the institution of marriage (Wood, 2011, p. 31).
7. Better family life
With an increase in the rates of cohabitation, there has been an improvement in the family life. People in cohabitation have the same chances of having children these days as married couples. In the past, cohabitation was thought to be a trial period before the couple opts to get married. These days the number of married couples having children is the same as that of cohabiting couples. The survey for the past year has recorded that 38% of the couples have children and these rates are the same as the couples in cohabitation (Wu, 2000, p. 20).
There are a less number of people these days who believe in the institution of marriage. There is an increase in the belief that the children must…
Barlow, a. (2005). Cohabitation, Marriage and the Law: Social Change and Legal Reform in the 21st Century. Hart Pub.
Cochrane, G.M. (2010). Do We Need a Cohabitation Agreement: Understanding How a Legal Contract Can Strengthen Your Life Together? John Wiley and Sons.
Great Britain: Law Commission. (2006). Cohabitation: the financial consequences of relationship breakdown; a consultation paper (overview), Issue 179 of Consultation paper. The Stationery Office.
Nazio, T. (2008). Cohabitation, Family and Society: European Experiences, Volume 36 of Routledge Advances in Sociology Series. Routledge.
True Meaning of Snow
David Guterson is the young, American author of Snow Falling on Cedars which heavily consists of human nature and human emotions. Snow Falling on Cedars, narrates the trial of a Japanese man accused of murdering a white man in the post-orld ar II era. Throughout this literary work, Guterson uses elements of nature: land, trees, water and especially snow, as literal and metaphorical tools to develop and resolve conflicts.
David Guterson uses the same aspects and characteristics of nature in two different ways. First he describes in visual detail the literal or actual effects that elements of nature have on the characters in the novel. But more importantly Guterson uses nature to convey substantial and symbolic meaning in the lives of the characters in the story.
One of the elements of nature that Guterson uses as a tool to develop the conflicts in Snow Falling on…
Guterson, David. Snow Falling on Cedars. New York: Vintage Books, 1994. 75-428.
"Snow Falling on Cedars." Kirkus Reviews. 24 Mar. 2005 < .
Snow Falling on Cedars. Sparknotes. 24 Mar. 2005 .
I do not feel that the state should be allowed to draft marriage terms that do not adequately protect the liberty and equality of each spouse. I believe that cultures of the world are slowing moving towards a global culture that embraces liberty and equality through globalization and advances of information technologies. In fact, this point seems evident in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 16 of this document states (the United Nations, N.d.):
(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
(3) the family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection…
Exploring Constitutional Conflicts. (N.d.). The Right to Marry. Retrieved from Exploring Constitutional Conflicts: http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/righttomarry.htm
The United Nations. (N.d.). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Retrieved from the United Nations: http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml
Younus, F. (2013, January 28). Why Ban Cousin Marriages? Retrieved from Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/faheem-younus/why-ban-cousin-marriages_b_2567162.html
ecruiting Methods on Cultural Diversity
The Effects of ecruiting Methods on Cultural Diversity
Maintaining cultural diversity in an organization can lead to innovation and an increased competitive advantage in the marketplace. In the past, the term cultural diversity referred to differences in race or religion. Now, the term cultural diversity means much more than that. As the uniqueness of each individual is recognized, the term cultural diversity has grown to encompass many factors about a person and their background. Cultural diversity is no longer delineated by major lines of color and national origin. This research will explore the effects of human resources on cultural diversity within an organization.
Cultural Diversity and the Workforce
acial diversity issues have increased in importance since the Civil ights Movement of 1964. It was recognized that white, Caucasian, males still constituted the majority in the workforce. Until that time, the select group was treated as…
Avery, D.R. & McKay, P.F. (2006). Target practice. An organizational impression management approach to attracting minority and female job applicants. Personal Psychology.
Chrobot-Mason, D. & Leslie, J.B. (2003). The role of multicultural competence and emotional intelligence in managing diversity. 32 (3): 269-263.
Cox, T. (1993). Cultural diversity in organizations: Theory, research and practice. San Francisco,
CA: Berrett-Koehle Publishers, Inc.
Proposal for Study: Is society causing biracial children to struggle with their identity?
hen forming their identity, children seek to look, act, feel, and mimic significant people in their social environment. "In his book Youth and Identity, Erickson relates ego identity and self-esteem to racial identity. He states that ambiguous messages about one's race may place a person at risk for developing what he referred to as a 'negative identity'" (Oka, 1994, p. 3). The possibility of negative identity is a controversial topic regarding biracial children. Opponents of interracial marriage argue that interracial couples are jeopardizing the futures of their children, as there is a possibility that biracial children will not be accepted by either culture and this rejection will lead to personal problems.
Some studies have found that it is more likely for interracial children to experience difficulties related to a poor self-identity, such as gender confusion,…
Beswick, Richard (1990) Racism in America's schools. ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management: ED 320-196.
Cole, Michael & Cole, Sheila (1993) The development of children (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Scientific American Books, 339-369.
Hoskins, Nichele (1996). Mixed-race couples, children brave racism. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.startelegram.com/news/doc/1047/1:Metro73/1:Metro73101296.htm
Oka, Julie Mari (1994). Self-concept and parental values: Influences on the ethnic identity development of biracial children. Thesis, San Jose State University.
Lawrence v. Texas (2003) and McLaughlin v. Florida (1964)
While McLaughlin v. Florida (1964) is often hailed as a significant case with regard to the constitutional status of interracial intimacy - particularly non-marital; many regard Lawrence v. Texas (2003) an important case as far as same-sex marriages are concerned. This text reviews both cases.
In the case of Lawrence v. Texas (2003), law enforcement officers were responding to a private residence disturbance when they made an unexpected entry into Lawrence's apartment and found him engaging in a sexual act with another man. The said act was consensual and both individuals were past the age of the majority. Lawrence and his partner (by the name Garner) were promptly arrested. It is important to note that at the time, Texas laws forbade deviate sexual intercourse, such as that between two individuals of the same gender. Specifically, "Texas law banned homosexual sodomy…" (Schmalleger…
Schmalleger, F. & Hall, D.E. (2014). Criminal Law Today (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall:
"I seek to discern the different analytical techniques Aristotle brings to bear on the problem of what justice is" (Allen, 2004). What is interesting to be noticed is that even in the beginning of the book, when presenting the racial segregation at the high school in Little ock, Allen does not turn to religion to explain or condemn the practice, but to the social principles of the Greek philosopher (Morris, 2006).
Some of these principles promoted by Aristotle and used by Danielle Allen could be succinctly presented as follows:
fluidity of our conceptual universe the power / or lack of power of persuasion the art of generating trust the difference between means and intentions friendship and justice - "if men are friends, there is no need for justice between them whereas merely to be just is not enough - it is also necessary to be friends" (Allen 2004 quoting Aristotle)…
Allen, D., 2004, Talking to Strangers: Anxieties of Citizenship Since Brown V. Board of Education, University of Chicago Press
Morris, L., 2006, Talking to Strangers: Anxieties of Citizenship, Journal of American History
2008, the Institute for Advanced Study, http://www.ias.edlast accessed on December 4, 2008
2005, Danielle Allen, John M. Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs at Ashland University, http://www.ashbrook.org/events/colloqui/2005/allen.htmllast accessed on December 4, 2008
Same Sex Marriage
The legalization of same-sex marriage may be one of the most controversial social issues in the modern American political climate, and, in fact, throughout the Western world. While it may seem as if this highly polarizing issue has come out of nowhere, cultural norms about homosexuality and the acceptability of same-sex romantic relationships have always existed. Some societies have been accepting of same-sex relationships, others have violently condemned them, but there have always been cultural norms about sexually appropriate behavior. What is new is the legal battle over these cultural norms. The civil rights advances in the 1960s and 1970s, which successfully challenged the cultural norms that allowed for discrimination against some minority groups, led to changes in the legal environment, making legalization of same-sex marriage a possibility when it was outside of consideration years before. Also new is the fact that the development of privacy laws…
Callahan, J. (2009). Same sex-marriage: Why it matters- at least for now. Hypatia, 24(1), 70-
Denike, M. (2007). Religion, rights, and relationships: The dream of relational equality.
Hypatia, 22(1), 71-91.
Moore shared this insight with other children's-book writers, librarians and editors, including Elinor Sinette, Franklin Folsom, Mary Elting Folsom, Frances Keene, Stanley Faulkner and Sylvia Faulkner" (Kohl, 1991).
Later on the Council on Interracial Books for Children was founded by Moore and they made it their cause to highlight the flaws in the text books. The council not only supported reform but it also became an example of an interracial organization. They started their work with the Interracial Books for Children Bulletin as a platform to highlight issues of treatment of minorities in textbooks and library books. Later workshops, public meetings and the Bulletin were used to augment the cause. This and other such organization made public the stereotypes and biases portrayed in the text books. They not only criticized writers but they also blamed publishers for encouraging books that supported a racist stance. Due to their efforts a moderate…
Graner, P., Lacava, P., & Simpson, R. (2004). The No Child Left Behind Act: Challenges and Implications for Educators. Intervention in School & Clinic, 40 (2), 67+.
Kohl, H. (1991). Staying Alive. The Nation. 252(14): 495+.
Mississippi Masala, "Do the Right Thing" and "Scarface."
Over the years, Hollywood and independent filmmakers have taken the 'American identity' and given audiences an opportunity to view the multi-faceted ethnicity of community-based ethics and interracial harmonies - or lack thereof. America has become a melting pot of cultures and beliefs that have had to fight off social stereotypes and fight against anglo-conformity.
Directors like rian De Palma, Mira Nair and Spike Lee have taken their audiences into the heart of ethnic racism in communities and the struggle some cultures face in order to survive against 'Americanization' and the paradox of achieving their 'American Dream'.
In De Palma's remake of "Scarface," the 1980 Mariel boat lift from Cuba formed the backdrop and set the stage for Tony Montana's desire to gradually manifest his destiny that eventually leads to his self-destruction.
Drawing on historical fact involving the North Miami refugee camps, including…
Do the Right Thing Dir. Spike Lee. Written by Spike Lee.
Perfs. Danny Aiello, Spike Lee, John Turturro. Film. 1989.
Mississippi Masala Dir. Mira Nair. Written by Sooni Taraporewala.
Perfs. Denzel Washington, Sarita Chodhury, Roshan Seth. Film. 1991
Like many other positions that have been presented in opposition to gay marriages, this argument is also largely defective. In the past, several studies have clearly demonstrated that children of heterosexual couples are no different from children raised in a same-sex marriage setting. In one such study, "no differences were found between children raised by heterosexual or same-sex parents in the following four areas: Cognitive development, psychological adjustment, gender identity, or sexual preference partners" (Fiona 36). For this reason therefore, same-sex couples can also "bear" children via adoption and proceed to raise them in a familial environment that is no different from that of a heterosexual couple. As ardle, Strasser, Duncan, and Coolidge note, in some ways, i.e. when it comes to appreciating the diverse world in which we live in, children of same-sex parents could be better off than those from heterosexual households (37).
Approximately 4 decades ago,…
Fiona, Tasker. "Same-Sex Parenting and Child Development: Reviewing the Contribution of Parental Gender." Journal of Marriage and Family 72.1 (2010); 35-40. Print.
Hallowell, Billy. "Be Legal? Supreme Court Tackles This Key Question Today." The Blaze. N.p., 27th March 2013. Web. 14th April 2013 < http://www.theblaze.com/stories/2013/03/27/does-the-constitution-require-that-gay-marriage-be-legal-supreme-court-tackles-this-key-question-today/ >.
Knox, David, and Caroline Schacht. Choices in Relationships: An Introduction to Marriage and the Family. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.
Starr, V. Hale, and Mark McCormick. Jury Selection. 4th ed. New York: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business, 2012. Print.
Black, White, Jewish
Black, White, and Jewish -- the Source of All Rebecca Walker's Angst?
Rebecca Walker's memoir Black, White, and Jewish, is subtitled "Autobiography of a Shifting Self." Walker states that is a woman who is most comfortable "in airports" because they are "limbo spaces -- blank, undemanding, neutral." (3) In contrast, because of her multi-racial and multi-ethnic identity, she is both never 'neutral' and also never quite 'of a color.' nly in airports to the rules of the world completely apply to her as well as to the rest of the world, Walker states -- and even then, this statement has an irony, given the recent events and controversies over airport racial profiling that occurred after the book's publication. The book does on to describe, with great poignancy, the author's perceived difficulty of living with a dual, often uncomfortable identity of whiteness and blackness, of Jewishness and 'gentileness.'…
One might ask Walker, however, if this sense of alienation from one's own parents, from one's own past identity, even one's own ancestry, is a condition of a multi-racial and mixed religious background, or a product of American adolescence? But the conventional existence eventually chosen by her father suggests that a White man can return to the mainstream after spurning all these things as a rite of adolescent passage, while Walker cannot. Walker's physical appearance forces her into a continual existence of protest, whether she chooses to conform or not. Even her mother's bohemian existence is chosen, and offers the comfort of ancestry, even an enslaved one.
How constructed, however, one might ask is the idea of ancestry and connection? The unbroken line between African-Americans might itself, one say, be a construction, a tracing together between various Africans who were enslaved centuries ago. An African-American immigrant from Haiti might be 'read' the same by white eyes as one from South Carolina, causing a sense of identity diffusion because of societal mis-reading, as one cannot always see Rebecca Walker's Jewishness upon her. Making a social argument about the destructive legacy of the 1960's from hurt, from the depression and parental and personal conflict that seems to be characteristic of American adolescence is difficult. Individuals of different sexualities, of conflicted relationships even with homogenous paths might make the same argument of placenessness, of existing in a space they must create, rather than find. Although Rebecca Walker's book is a powerful personal testimony, it does not quite hold up -- nor perhaps should it aspire to -- as a sociological document. It is written, as the author admits, with emotion and in her own blood, and cannot admit the alternative perspectives of other American twenty and thirty-somethings undergoing similar identity crisis.
But unlike the identity crisis of leaving and returning to the bosom of the family, Walker has no family to return to -- her parents are divorced and have returned from their respective crisis of identities, into the bosoms of their own ethnic identities. They have been changed and perhaps improved by their heightened cultural exposure. But after her own rebellion, Rebecca Walker has no place to comfortably rest and return to -- except, ironically, the airport, she might say. "I am flesh and blood but I am also ether," she states at the end of her work. She attempts to create anew rather than return to ancestors, like her parents, and this re-creation is a constant source of consternation.
In fact, the language specifically includes all people in an effort to create a place where all people are free. A law that infringes upon the rights of a citizen to be free is a law that must be changed.
The second part of the 14th amendment upon which the ban on gay marriage infringes is the right to property. Married couples share a great number of benefits not available to persons without a certificate of marriage. One of these benefits falls under the heading of Estate Planning. A married person inherits a portion of the spouse's estate after the spouse dies. A married person also receives an exemption from estate and gift taxes if property is given or left to the spouse. Gay couples are not allowed to receive these benefits in most states, because they are not allowed to be married in most states (NOLO).
Another property benefit…
Mathabane, Gail. "Gays face same battle interracial couple fought." USA Today. 25 Jan.
2004. Web. 17 Mar. 2010.
Olson, Theodore B. "The Conservative Case for Gay Marriage." Newsweek. 18 Jan.
2010: 68 -- 70. Print.
However, how can one marry someone who they don't love? Isn't it wrong to keep two consenting adults from uniting under the act of marriage? It is almost as if the government obliges gay people to marry people that they are not attracted to in order to receive the legal marital benefits. This is, in fact, wrong, as it virtually means that the marriage institution would become perverted by people who would only marry because of interest.
According to Franke (2006), "the U.S. Supreme Court found laws that criminalized same-sex sex unconstitutional in Lawrence v. Texas." Gay people have found a precedent in the case, as they consider that the Supreme Court case Brown vs. The Board of Education is very similar to the one presently under discussion. The 1954 case involved the establishment of separate public schools for white and for black children, arguing that these institutions had been,…
1. Boykin K. "Your Blues Ain't like Mine: Blacks and Gay Marriage," the Crisis Jan.-Feb. 2004
2. Franke K.M. "The Politics of Same-Sex Marriage Politics," Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 15.1 (2006)
3. Lewin, E (1998). Recognizing Ourselves: Ceremonies of Lesbian and Gay Commitment. New York: Columbia University Press.
4. Murdoch J. Price D. (2001). Courting Justice: Gay Men and Lesbians V. The Supreme Court (New York: Basic Books
There are many reasons for accepting the rights and legitimacy of gay couples to marry. The most important of these is the right to personal freedom. The misunderstanding that homosexual stereotypes project are an element that prevents the understanding of gay marriage.
idstrup. K. Gay Marriage: The Arguments and the Motives. 2004. Accessed February 9, 2005. http://www.bidstrup.com/marriage.htm
Card. O.S. Homosexual "Marriage" and Civilization. Accessed February 12, 2005. http://www.ornery.org/essays/warwatch/2004-02-15-1.html
DEUNKING STEREOTYPES: AOUT GAY & LESIAN RELATIONSHIPS. Accessed March 6, 2005. http://www.geocities.com/WestHollywood/Heights/5883/debunking.html
Gay Marriage. Pew Forum.2005. Accessed March 6, 2005. http://pewforum.org/docs/index.php?DocID=39
Kolasinksi. a. The SECULAR CASE AGAINST GAY MARRIAGE. 2004. Accessed February 9, 2005. http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1082190/posts
Same-sex couples deserve exactly the same benefits and protections under the law as everyone else. Accessed March 6, 2005. http://www.soyouwanna.com/site/pros_cons/gaymarriage/gaymarriage3.html
Shell, S.M. The Liberal Case against Gay Marriage. 2004. Accessed February 12, 2005. http://www.thepublicinterest.com/archives/2004summer/article1.html
Wright, M. In Favor of Gay Marriage. 2003. Accessed…
Bidstrup. K. Gay Marriage: The Arguments and the Motives. 2004. Accessed February 9, 2005. http://www.bidstrup.com/marriage.htm
Card. O.S. Homosexual "Marriage" and Civilization. Accessed February 12, 2005. http://www.ornery.org/essays/warwatch/2004-02-15-1.html
DEBUNKING STEREOTYPES: ABOUT GAY & LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS. Accessed March 6, 2005. http://www.geocities.com/WestHollywood/Heights/5883/debunking.html
Gay Marriage. Pew Forum.2005. Accessed March 6, 2005. http://pewforum.org/docs/index.php?DocID=39
Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum, Instruction and Methods Projects
This beginning chapter delineates education to the young children with special needs. In particular, early childhood special education mirrors impact and acclaimed practices resultant from the special education and early childhood fields. In the present, emphasis that is laid on early childhood does not encompass whether these young children can be provided with special needs service in typical settings but focus is rather on how the design of these inclusive programs can be most efficacious. Therefore, taking this into consideration, it is necessary to have early intervention for children with disabilities. However, an important element that is delineated in the chapter is that in as much as these children have special needs, they ought not to be treated in a dissimilar manner. The programs of early intervention for kids and preschoolers with special needs have to be centered on the similar…
Blackwell, W. H., & Rossetti, Z. S. (2014). The Development of Individualized Education Programs. Sage Open, 4(2), 2158244014530411.
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2011). Inbrief: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from: http://developingchild.harvard.edu/index.php/resources/multimedia/videos/inbrief_series/inbrief_science_of_ecd/
Cook, R. E., Klein, M. D., Chen, D. (2012). Adapting Early Childhood Curricula for Children with Special Needs, 8th Edition. New York: Prentice Hall.
Edutopia. (2007). Smart Hearts: Social and Emotional Learning Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.edutopia.org/social-emotional-learning-overview-video
According to the logic of the procreation argument, California should refuse to sanction any marriage unless the individuals involved are both willing and able to conceive. With respect to the "opening door" argument, opponents of Proposition 8 point out that incest, underage marriage, and bestiality are all prohibited by criminal laws for objective public policy reasons. Finally, the suggestion that gay marriage will "define" marriage is as preposterous as the concern that interracial marriage will have that effect. Unlike incestuous, underage, or bestial types of relationships that victimize one of the individuals involved, gay marriage between consenting adults does not involve victimizing either of the individuals involved.
Furthermore, heterosexual marriages are sanctioned by law completely irrespective of any measure of quality of the relationship; marriages typically last less than a decade in the U.S. And more than half of them end in divorce. Likewise, both sexual infidelity and domestic violence…
Jordan has not been honored by naming any street or postal holidays. She was respected and recognized by her own milestones; as she designed modern Harlem with . Buckminster Fuller, had coffee with Malcolm X, received suggestive teachings from Toni Cade Bambara, acted with Angela Davis in a film, and authored an opera with John Adams and Peter Sellars. Irrespective of so much achievements there was no 'Day' named after June Jordan. She was the awarded author of about two dozen books, a great American poet known both for creativity and collections and was one of most critical activists and teachers who have not yet been recognized. This paper is a good testimony to know her better. (June Jordan- www.randomhouse.com)
Jordan is all-inclusive as a poet, essayist, reporter, dramatist, academician, cultural and political activist, however above all she is an inspirational teacher both in words and actions and is considered…
Brown, Kimberly N. (1999) "June Jordan (1936- )." Contemporary African-American Novelists: A Bio-Bibliographical Critical Sourcebook. Ed. Emmanuel S. Nelson. Westport, CT: Greenwood. pp: 233-37.
Busby, Margaret. "June Jordan" June 20, 2002. The Guardian. pp: A4-A5
Carpenter, Humphrey; Prichard, Mari. (1984) "Oxford Companion to Children's Literature" New York: Oxford University Press.
Jackson, Agnes Moreland. "June Jordan (b. 1936)" Retrieved from http://college.hmco.com/english/heath/syllabuild/iguide/jordan.html Accessed on 12 October, 2004
The most important social policy response to this article is to ensure that the adoptions are carried out with the best interests of the children in mind. In Ethiopia, Guatemala and other places, there has been accusations that adoptive children have been "harvested" from their birth parents, so this must be guaranteed not to have happened. Another important social policy response is to provide resources to white parents with adopted black children so that they can better understand how to help their children deal with the black experience in America. If such adoptions are going to increase, the best way to address the social problems that can arise from white parents being unable to prepare their adopted children for the discrimination they may face is to educate the parents on how to help their children make their way in the world, given that additional complication.
If I was a public…
Peet, J. (2010). More prospective parents are seeking orphans from abroad. The Sunday Star-Ledger. April 4, 2010. In possession of the author.
Figue 1. Demogaphic composition of the United States (2003 estimate).
Souce: Based on tabula data in Wold Factbook, 2007 (no sepaate listing is maintained fo Hispanics).
Fom a stictly pecentage pespective, it would seem that Asian-Ameicans do not epesent much of a theat at all to mainsteam Ameican society, but these mee numbes do not tell the whole stoy of couse. Fo one thing, Asian-Ameicans ae one of the most divese and fastest gowing goups in the United States today (Hong, Kim & Wolfe, 2005). Accoding to Alvaez and Kimua (2001), studies have documented time and again that, consistent with thei histoical teatment, Asian-Ameicans continue to be the tagets of acially motivated popety vandalism, vebal haassment, theft, physical assaults, and in some instances, homicide; futhemoe, othe studies have confimed that a pesistent patten diving anti-Asian violence is the peception of Asian-Ameicans as foeignes who pesent an economic, academic, social, and/o…
Due to skills and abilities
4. Based on what you know and believe, would you agree or disagree with the following statements?
Racism in America is no longer a problem for Chinese-Americans.
Racism in America is no longer a problem for women and minorities
Likewise, the Institute of Agriculture required a quorum of two-thirds of its members for voting purposes and for the balancing of votes according to the size of the budgetary contributions (owett, 1970). While this analysis of these early forms of public international unions is not complete, it does suggest that they were beginning to identify the wide range of interests involved in modern international commerce and what was required to mediate disputes rather than war over them. According to owett (1970), despite the growing body of research into the history and purpose of international public unions, the authorities have not reached a consensus on their classification; however, the constitutional developments and innovations made by the public unions are important considerations for policymakers today because they presaged those made by contemporary inter-governmental organizations (owett, 1970).
In the first instance, the trend towards permanence of association was distinct, no matter whether…
Armstrong, D., L. Lloyd and J. Redmond. 2005. International Organization in World Politics, 3rd ed. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
Avruch, Kevin, Peter W. Black and Joseph A. Scimecca. Conflict Resolution: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Bar-Siman-Tov, Yaacov. 2004. From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bell, Lynda S., Andrew J. Nathan and Ilan Peleg. 2001. Negotiating Culture and Human Rights. New York: Columbia University Press.
United States Supreme Court ruling on same sex marriage. The paper also examines how that decision impacted management policy decisions in terms of public safety administration. An examination of the ruling's overall impact on public policy is also given. eactions on the ruling are given in the end.
Background knowledge on same sex marriage
For the majority of Americans, the matter of same sex marriage may have first come to their knowledge when it burst into the political limelight in late 2003. At this time, Massachusetts' highest court ruled that the state had no authority or grounds on which to deny lesbian and gay couples the right to marriage. In the next few months after the ruling in the state same sex marriage ceremonies were conducted in many counties and cities across the United States (U.S.) including mass weddings in the city of San Francisco. This brought a lot of…
Archibald, C. (2014). Is Full Marriage Equality for Same-Sex Couples Next? The Immediate and Future Impact of the Supreme Court's Decisions in United States v. Windsor. Valparaiso University Law Review, 48(3), 695-713. Retrieved, from http://scholar.valpo.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2341&context=vu
Brewer, P., & Wilcox, C. (2005). Same-Sex Marriage and Civil Unions. Public Opinion Quarterly, 69(4), 599-616. Retrieved, from http://poq.oxfordjournals.org/content/69/4/599
Bruggeman, K. (2015, June 26). NationalJournal.com. Watch These Two GOP Presidential Candidates After the Supreme Court's Gay Marriage Decision - NationalJournal.com. Retrieved August 22, 2015, from http://www.nationaljournal.com/2016-elections/supreme-court-gay-marriage-republican-presidential-jindal-kasich-20150625
Flores, A. (2015). Examining Variation in Surveying Attitudes on Same-Sex Marriage: A Meta-Analysis. Public Opinion Quarterly, 79(2), 580-593. Retrieved, from http://poq.oxfordjournals.org/content/79/2/580.abstract
(Coleman et al., 2006) there are more significant differences between race and ethnic groups in beliefs about intergenerational assistance than are expected by chance the differences are not large. As expected, White European-Americans perceive that less help should be given to older adults than is true of African-Americans and Asian-Americans. Unexpectedly, European-Americans and Latinos rarely differ in their beliefs about intergenerational assistance. When differences exist among the three minority groups, it is typically because African-Americans and Asian-Americans perceive that more help should be given to older family members than Latinos. The family plays a unique role in forming and sustaining intimate relationships; however, there have been notable changes in the family in the past 50 years. As marriages are being delayed, birth rates are decreasing, and maternal employment, divorce, cohabitation, and births to single mothers are increasing, the course of intimate relationships is becoming more diverse and less stable and…
Bean, R.A., Crane, D.R., & Lewis, T.L. (2002). Basic research and implications for practice in family science: A content analysis and status report for U.S. ethnic groups. Family Relations, 51, 15-21.
Bramlett, M.D., & Mosher, W.D. (2001). First marriage dissolution, divorce, and remarriage: United Stales (Advanced Data from Vital and Health Statistics No. 323). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Chadiha, L.A., Veroff, J., & Leber, D. (1998). Newlywed's narrative themes: Meaning in the first year of marriage for African-American and White couples. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29, 115-130.
Coleman, M., Ganong, L.H., & Rothrauff, T.C. (2006, December). Racial and Ethnic Similarities and Differences in Beliefs about Intergenerational Assistance to Older Adults After Divorce and Remarriage. Family Relations, 55(5), pp. 576-587.
In the latest episode, they were required to wear a traditional Dutch costume. One type of challenge required contestants to swim across a cold body of water on a windy afternoon and play golf the way the locals do it. Most contestants endured this in their fight to stay in the game. Another challenge required the contestants to eat salted herring with onions after performing a Dutch folk dance. And even though the thought of eating the salted herring was revolting to one contestant, he still did so as he wanted to still be in the game. They have to overcome their fears and to ignore their discomforts in order to stay in the show.
I guess this is partly why people like watching this show; it shows people who are willing to do almost everything in order to stay in the game. The personalities of the contestants also contribute…
"Getting Along in the U.S.: Some Customs and Culture Tips." The University of Arizona. Web. 8 November 2009. < http://www.cesl.arizona.edu/custom.html >
Godard, Ellis. "Reel Life: The Social Geometry of Reality Shows." Survivor Lessons: Essays on Communication and Reality Television. Ed. Matthew Smith and Andrew Wood. North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. Publishers, 2003. 73-95. Print.
Stephens, Mitchell. History of Television. Web. 7 November 2009.