Investment Banking Essays (Examples)

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Investment Banker Plan Traveling Throughout

Words: 1233 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1883360

" Investment banking is not for the weak minded or the soft hearted and I must continue to develop my emotions towards this way of thinking.

I know there is much more to learn in the realm of investment banking. The profession itself demands knowledge of more than just business and economic jargon. Good investors know how to spot trends and cycles that others cannot do as easily. This ability, to more or less predict the future, must continually be honed in order to become successful at this profession. Keeping an open mind is absolutely imperative in sustaining a solid development towards understanding and success in this field. Practicing entertaining new ideas, that may seem strange or odd at first should be kept in mind when approaching new subjects for the first time.

Where I Am Going: Short- and Long-Term Plans

My first priority is to finish my MBA program…… [Read More]


Casparie, J. (2007). What Exactly is an Investment Banker? Entrepreneur, 12 June 2007. Retrieved from

King, M. (2012). How to get into investment banking. The Guardian UK, 20 April, 2012. Retrieved from banking

Rosenthal, J. (2013). Who wants to be an investment banker? The Economist, 21 Nov 2012. Retrieved from wants-be-investment-banker

Stephenson, D. (2012). A Career in Investment Banking: Worth the Investment? Firmex, 3 Oct 2012. Retrieved from worth-the-investment/
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Investment Strategies Investment Recommendations for

Words: 1446 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85279422

Failing to contribute the maximum amount to this retirement plan is simply giving up on free money; by doubling his current contribution of three percent, Chris would actually be tripling the amount added to the 401(k) each year due to the employer's matching policy. This account is also earning an estimated eight percent annually, not far behind the 9.5% the stock market is expected to earn, and the money in the 401(k) remain far more liquid with the ability to borrow up to 50% of the value at any given time, and at a rate lower than a mortgage and significantly lower than a secure personal loan (though funds must be repaid within five years). This strategy will build both short- and long-term growth to a much higher level without impacting the ability to have an emergency fund or purchase a home.

As the Nicholsons have short-term goals that are…… [Read More]

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Investment Policy the Time Frame

Words: 1231 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27403635

Part Two

At 35 years, all equities will be purged from the portfolio to maximize safety (10% corporates, 70% Treasuries, 20% cash). This means that the fund will generate an average return of (0.48+2.31+.1) = 2.89%

Using Excel, it is determined that the value of the portfolio when John and Mary retire and Paul enters assisted living needs to be $5,775,134. With that level, the portfolio will have money until Paul turns 85, at which point the portfolio will no longer have value. The assumption here is that the payments for the assisted living around going to be held in cash, so there is a need for 20% of the portfolio to be cash, and much of the rest is Treasuries so that it is liquid. Maturities will need to be staggered so that there is a current portion reaching maturity each year, to avoid having to sell below par,…… [Read More]

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Investment Strategy Report Index Beatrix

Words: 6691 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48354018

9% for the past seven years (Index Mundi, 2009). An inflation rate of 2% per annum shall be assumed for our future cash flows model, the additional 0.1% reflecting a desire for conservativeness in our estimates.

Karl's pension pays him 80% of his current salary, which is not expected to increase in the final three years. The pension benefit is indexed to inflation. e will assume a 30% tax rate for both pre- and post-retirement income.

The couple is breaking even at present, with a surplus of €264 expected for 2010. This assumes minimal work for Beatrix, so anything she works above and beyond the €15,000 threshold will allow the couple to save more money for their retirement. ith no raises and no additional work from Beatrix, the couple will run a small deficit for their last two working years.

In retirement, the couple will not make enough money to…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Ibbitson, R.; Xiong, J.; Kreitler, R.; Kreitler, C. & Chen, P. (2007). National savings rates guidelines for individuals. Journal of Financial Planning. April 2007.

Index Mundi. (2009). Germany Inflation Rates. Index Mundi. Retrieved November 16, 2009 from 

McClure, B. (2009). Modern portfolio theory: An overview. Investopedia. Retrieved November 16, 2009 from

No author. (2009). German government bonds. Bloomberg. Retrieved November 16, 2009 from
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Investment Expenditures Represent the Corporate

Words: 1000 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40962724

By lowering interest rates, the government lowers the threshold of expected return for capital investments, thus making more investments economically viable. However, such supply side initiatives are weighed by firms against the potential income. If the economic outlook - that is to say the expected demand - is poor, such that the expected return will still not exceed the cost, then the investment will not be undertaken.

In speaking with a local FedEx station manager, investment decisions are typically made at head office in Memphis. The decisions are based on expectations of future demand. Most capacity decisions at FedEx involve land and building acquisitions (new stations) or airplane leases. Thus, they are typically made on the basis of long-term demand projections. These relate to specific measures such as long-term economic growth of the region, population growth of the region and other long-term macroeconomic indicators.

The timing of decisions, however, can…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Piana, Valentino. (2001). Investment. Economics Web Institute. Retrieved March 26, 2009 at 

MacDonald, Nadia Tempini. (1999). Macroeconomics and Business. Cengage Learning. Retrieved March 26, 2009 at

Cunningham, Ralph. (2008). FedEx Boss Presses for Business Tax Changes. International Tax Review. Retrieved March 26, 2009 at
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Investment Management After Holding a

Words: 2195 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68273513



Man Group





Marks & Spencer Group










Morrison (Wm) Supermarkets









Old Mutual










Petrofac Ltd.










andgold esources Ltd.





eckitt Benckiser Group





eed Elsevier





esolution Ltd.










io Tinto





olls-oyce Holdings





SA Insurance Group










Sage Group




Sainsbury (J)










Schroders (Non-Voting)





Severn Trent





Smith & Nephew





Smiths Group




1.1…… [Read More]


Evans, J & Archer, S (1968) Diversification and the Reduction of Dispersion: an Empirical Analysis. The Journal of Finance . 23 (5): 761-767.

Chandra, P. (2008).Investment Analysis (3rd Edition).Tata McGraw-Hill Education. UK.

Investopedia (2012). Beta. Investopedia. ULC.

Mase, B. (2007), the Impact of Changes in the FTSE 100 Index. Financial Review, 42(3): 461 -- 484.
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Investment Management Analysis Both the

Words: 3178 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60703660

This would play a role in helping to bring the Czech Republic into the EU in 2004. The effect that this would have on the Prague Stock Exchange is that it would cause it to rise to 1,940. At which point, it would have a severe down trend economy during 2008 and into 2009. The only difference is: that the various reforms and economic policies that the government was using at the time, helped to contribute to mitigating the effects of the slowdown (as the economy would experience a less severe economic contraction of 3.4%). ("Czech Republic")

The price movements of the Slovak equity market in the last 10-15 years

The ratislava Stock Exchange was founded in 1991 and has been in operation since 1993. ("asic Information") Like what occurred in the Czech Republic the Slovak stock market went through two bear markets that would last until 1998 -- 1999.…… [Read More]


"Basic Information." Bratislava Stock Exchange. 2010. Web. 24 Apr. 2010

"Czech Republic." State Department. 2009. Web. 24 Apr. 2010

"History of the Exchange." Prague Stock Exchange. 2009. Web. 24 Apr. 2010
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Investment Enhancement Modern Portfolio Theory

Words: 1498 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31706290

These types of investments are often illiquid, so the investor needs to view them as long-term investments. However, the lack of liquidity also means that for the most part they have low levels of correlation with the broad market.

Derivatives are another possibility, and their potential impact on the portfolio will be discussed in the next question. They can either increase risk or decrease risk, depending on the type of derivative and how it is used.

Overall, the impact of alternative investments is to reduce the degree to which the portfolio is subject to the equity and fixed income markets. Alternative investments are often used as an ancillary component of the portfolio, to reduce the portfolio's overall volatility but with the hopes that returns will not suffer as a result.

3. Derivatives can be used for a couple of different purposes in a portfolio. The first is to increase leverage…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

De Santis, R. & Sarno, L. (2008). Assessing the benefits of international portfolio diversification in bonds and stocks. European Central Bank working paper. Retrieved May 6, 2010 from

Driessen, J. & Laeven, L. (no date). International portfolio diversification benefits: Cross-country evidence from a local perspective. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved May 6, 2010 from

Lhabitant, F. (2000). Derivatives in portfolio management: Why beating the market is easy. EDHEC. Retrieved May 6, 2010 from 

Schweizer, D. (2008). Portfolio optimization with alternative investments. European Business School. Retrieved May 6, 2010 from, D.pdfYavas, B. (2007). Findings indicate that co-movements among the U.S., Germany and Japan markets are significant. Pepperdine University. Retrieved May 6, 2010 from
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Investment Patterns Among the Sexes

Words: 2421 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17753029

74). This dearth of information was likely caused by a reluctance to examine investment decisions on the part of investors themselves; nobody likes finding out that their "thought-out" considerations are not any more accurate than gut choices, and in fact, those gut choices likely had more influence than all of their mental work.

In the last decade, however, strides have been made in the study and analysis of investment behavior, revealing surprising details about what goes in to making stock trades. The first important work in the study of individual investment behavior was the realization that human beings do not always act rationally in regards to financial decisions, because according to the previously quoted Brad Barber and his co-author Terrance Odean, "the field of modern financial economics assumes that people behave with extreme rationality, but they do not" (Barber & Odean, 1999, p.41). Although "differences in investor literacy about financial…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barber, Initials, & Odean, Initials. (1999). The courage of misguided convictions. Financial Analysts Journal, 55(6), 41-55.

Dhar, R, & Zhu, N. (2006). Up close and personal: investor sophistication and the disposition effect. Management Science, 52(5), 726-740.

Grinblatt, M, & Keloharju, M. (2001). What makes investors trade?. The Journal of Finance,

56(2), 589-616.
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Investment Report and Analysis Harley-Davidson

Words: 4166 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58498009

Harley-Davidson Retail Sales and Deliveries

Source: Seeking Alpha (2007)

Over the past four years, account receivable growth has outpaced sales and the result is there is more inventory on dealer's lot than at any time in the history of HOG. The analysis states: "If the additional dealer inventory build was taken out of Harley's EPS from the previous two years and shipments evenly distributed throughout the quarters then Harley would have reported $3.41 last year and $3.14 in 2005 or a full $1.00 less of EPS over the past two years. Without dealer build, HOG would have reported net income without inventory build of $891 MM in 2006 and $838 MM in 2005 versus $889 MM in the base year 2004 placing the current P/E of the firm at an estimated 18x versus the current 15.6x. " (Seeking Alpha, 2007)

Accounts Receivable Trends Over Past Four Years

Source: Seeking Alpha…… [Read More]


Harley-Davidson Reports 2007 Third Quarter Results - Harley-Davidson Inc. (2007) Form 8-K (Current Report Filing) Filed 10-24-07 for the period Ending 10-19-07. Online available at  recent MSN Money report relates that Harley-Davidson related on December 21, 2007 that it would announce its fourth quarter 2007 financial results before market hours on Friday, January 25, 2008.

Harley-Davidson, Inc. Web-Cast Conference for Friday, January 25, 20089. (2007) MSN Money Online available at

Hog (Harley-Davidson) Analysis (2007) Financial News and Investments. 6 October 2007.

Harley Davidson Inc. HOG (NYSE) (2007) Reuters News - Key Developments. 30 Dec 2007. Online available at
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Investment Spending Is Very Significant Because it

Words: 1128 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83195027

Investment spending is very significant because it is an essential ingredient in economic development and growth. The decrease in the level of investment spending may cause a recession. Most recessions occur as a result of fall in investment spending (Paul & Krugman, 2007). Swings in investment spending are very dramatic than those in customer spending. eduction in consumer spending is normally a result of a progress that starts with a slump in investment spending. The most significant factors that determines investment spending are the rate of interest and anticipated future real GPD. To understand the kind of reasoning, first there is a need to note that planned investment spending is the investment spending that firms intend to pass through over a given period, in contrast to investment spending that happen but is not planned (William & Greene, 2008). Planned spending on investment projects is negatively the same as the interest…… [Read More]


William H. Greene, Econometric Analysis, 5th Edition, Pearson Education, 2008, Table F3.1, U.S. Investment Data, 1968-1982

Paul R. Krugman, Robin Wells, Kathryn Graddy, Economics: European Edition, Worth Publishers, 2007

N.E. Savin and Kenneth J. White, The Durbin-Watson Test for Serial Correlation with Extreme Sample Sizes or Many Regressors, Econometrical, Vol. 45, No. 8 (Nov., 1977), pp. 1989-1996

R.W. Farebrother, The Durbin-Watson Test for Serial Correlation when there is no Intercept in the Regression, Econometrical, Vol. 48, No. 6 (Sep., 1980), pp. 1553-1563
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Investment Assets

Words: 1933 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96104418

Investments Assets


A stock is a share of ownership in a company, representing a claim on the company's assets and earnings. The importance of being a shareholder is that the investor has a claim on assets and is entitled to a portion of the company's profits, which may be paid out in the form of dividends (Stock basics, 2011).

There are positive and negative aspects to stock ownership. One such positive is that the shareholder is protected by limited liability, that is, he or she is not personally liable if the company is not able to pay its debts. Owning stock means that, no matter what, the maximum value an investor can lose is the value of the investment. Another advantage of owning common stock is that shares are highly liquid for the most part, with many stocks traded daily (Stock basics, 2011).

One of the risks of becoming…… [Read More]

Reference List

Bond basics: What are bonds? (2011). Investopedia. Retrieved May 10, 2011, from 

Folger, J. (2011). Investing in the metals markets. Retrieved May 13, 2011, from 

McGrath, J. (2011). How do bonds work? How Stuff Works website. Retrieved May 10, 2011, from 

Mutual funds: What are they? (2011) Investopedia. Retrieved May 10, 2011, from
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Investment Demand

Words: 493 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97002717

Investment Demand

usinesses experience profit cycles implying that market fluctuations are inevitable in an economy. Market demand plays a crucial role in the profitability of an enterprise and consequently affects the investment trend. A profitable firm is more likely to invest money to improve production facilities or to extend its business into other domains. Investors will analyze the profitability of any undertaking and only if the expected revenue is greater than the cost of capital will they invest in the project. Keynesian theory also states that the Marginal efficiency of Capital is inversely related to investment. "[t]o induce new investment 'the rate of return over cost must exceed the rate of interest'. [Richard C.. Johnsson] For all businesses profit is the ultimate motivation and any new venture is undertaken only if the internal rate of return is above the cost of capital defined by the prevailing rate of interest. Hence…… [Read More]


J. Bradford DeLong, From Investment Demand to the IS Curve: Low Interest Rates," Accessed on June 7th 2004, 

Richard C.B. Johnsson, 'The Liquidity-Trap Myth', Accessed on 7th June 2004,
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Investment Decision Duncombe Village Golf

Words: 313 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96744619

Using values found in a table of factors for calculating the present value of a dollar; the periods one through four have the following present value factors:

Year One= .9259

Year Two= .8573

Year Three= .7938

Year Four= .7350

Next these factors are multiplied individually by the net cash flow generated by the investment in each period.

Year One= $500,000

Year Two= $450,000

Year Three= $350,000

Year Four= $320,000

The multiplication calculation reveals the discounted cash flow values:

Year One= $500,000*.9259= $462,950

Year Two= $450,000* .8573= $385,785

Year Three= $350,000* .7938= $277,830

Year Four= $320,000*.7350= $235,200

The total sum of the cash flows net present value is $1,361,765; as such the net present value as compared to the overall investment of $1,200,000 is positive $161,765, and therefore the projected rate of return on this investment is greater than the eight percent cost of capital, and the investment…… [Read More]


Marshall, D. & McManus, W. (1996). Accounting: What the Numbers Mean.

Third Edition. McGraw Hill.
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Investment and Money Management

Words: 2952 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44940978

Investments are the assets or items purchased with the anticipation to generate the income in the future. In the economic sense, investments refer to the goods and services purchased and not consumed today for the purpose of generating wealth in the future. Similarly, going to a university or building a factory to produce goods and services are the examples of investments. Within a financial environment, investors purchase assets with the hope that they will appreciate in the future, thus, creating wealth for the investors. Examples of investment in the financial circle include purchasing of stocks, or real estate property with the anticipation that they will appreciate in the future. Despite the benefits that can be derived from the investment purpose, the investment is not something an individual can take lightly. Investors are to implement a careful planning to reap the benefits of an investment. Typically, an investor can lose his…… [Read More]


Costa, D. (2011). The Portable Private Banker Investing Efficiently through Mutual Funds and ETFs. UK. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Morningstar (2014). Exchange Traded Funds, Morningstar website. Avaliable from: 

Morningstar (2014). ProShares Ultra Nasdaq Biotechnology BIB, Morningstar website. Avaliable from:
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Investments a Low Payout on Investments Makes

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40795675


A low payout on investments makes sense at certain times and in certain circumstances. Individuals or entities that receive a lower payout are oftentimes doing so to address issues such as higher tax rates and a deferred tax liability. If the investor's tax rate from income is lower than the tax rate for capital gains, then it makes complete sense to take a lower rate of payout because it saves the investor money on taxes.

Another reason for accepting a lower yielding investment from a business viewpoint is that it can decrease the amount of capital that needs to be raised for certain projects or investments. As one recent study determined "there is extensive literature in corporate finance on the proper way to incorporate flotation costs in the determination of project net present values (NPV)" (Simonds, 2006, p. 25). If a company's flotation costs can be lowered through the…… [Read More]


Economist, (2006) Instant returns, Vol. 381, Issue 8498, pp. 80

Simonds, R.R.; (2006) Income capitalization, flotation costs, and the cost of capital, Journal of Property Tax Assessment and Administration, Vol. 3, Issue 4, pp. 23 -- 29
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Investments Stock Selection on March 9 2009

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6409660

nvestments: Stock Selection

On March 9, 2009 the stock market settled on a 12-year closing low with the Dow Jones ndustrial Average (DJA), a barometer of the economy and stock market trajectory, closing at 6,547.05. (Twin, A. March 9, 2009). The precipitous plunge for the DJA from an "all-time high of 14,164.53" (Twin, A. October 9, 2007) reached on October 9, 2007 marked the timeline of the country's worst recession since the Great Depression. From the historic lows however, the market has rebounded dramatically closing at 12,105.78 on February 23, 2011, a gain of over 75% from the March lows ( February 23, 2011). The vicissitudes of the stock market over the past three plus years limn the debate over whether an investor who is risk averse would choose to invest in a stock market in which all stocks rise and fall together, or a market in which individual stocks…… [Read More]

Investors are marked by two extremes, the active investor who tracks, analyzes, and disseminates information on the companies in their investment portfolio, the economy, and global financial news which may influence the direction of their stock investments. At the other extreme is the investor who is socking away their five percent contribution with company match into their 401K. This investor cedes to expert portfolio managers, or trusts in the long run upward trend of equities as defined in index funds: S&P 500, Wilshire, and DJIA. While there are investors at both extremes the vast majority fall at some point on the spectrum, engaged but not able to fully commit the time or resources to portfolio management.

In this context the risk-averse investor will likely fall in with the preponderance of investors who have investment portfolios but are not actively managing them. The investor's portfolio may have individual stocks, mutual funds, or index funds. Which leads to the question, which environment would an investor desire to be in to attain their goal of reduced risk concomitant with acceptable return? The answer ironically comes from the same source, yet at bifurcated ends of an investment philosophy.

Warren Buffett considered the world's most accomplished and successful investor for over fifty years posits that a risk-averse individual could reach their investment objectives in either economic environment. In 2009, Warren Buffett entered into an agreement to purchase the remaining shares of Burlington Northern Railroad which his firm Berkshire Hathaway did not already own. His rationale for the purchase was simple "I basically believe this country will prosper and you'll have more people moving more goods 10 and 20 and 30 years from now, and the rails should benefit; it's a bet on the country, basically" (Crippen, A. November 3, 2009). This statement defines an investment strategy which suggests that over the long-term the stock market will generally move higher, the rising tide lifts all boats metaphor. Yes, stocks will fall, sometimes dramatically, across
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Investment the Main Fundamental Difference

Words: 344 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44016568

So, the financial obligation of futures is potentially very large. Thus, the risk in futures is larger than for options where the premium represents the maximum amount that a purchaser of an option can lose. The gain on an option can be realized by exercising the option when it is in the money (For a call option, when the option's strike price is below the market price of the underlying asset. And for a put option, when the strike price is above the market price of the underlying asset), going to the market and taking the opposite position, or waiting until expiration and collecting the difference between the asset price and the strike price. In contrast, gains are attributed to the futures accounts of the parties at the end of every trading day.


Options and futures.

What is the difference between options and futures? Investopedia.… [Read More]


Options and futures.

What is the difference between options and futures? Investopedia.
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Investments Including Risks and Investing

Words: 997 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70241991

(Steward, 2008, ¶ 15).



To explore the thesis, introduced at the start of the paper, the writer addresses the question: Do the investment risks that customers of conventional banks and financial houses may experience differ from those customers of sharia compliant financial institutions may encounter? During this segment of the research paper, the writer relates relevant information to Investing (Including Risks)


Contemporary Considerations

Investing (Including Risks)


Sukuk depict one type of bonds that meet the sharia requirement that interest cannot be charged or received. Sukuk often work so that those who hold them as investments are entitled to a share of the profits of the company that issued the sukuk.

Contemporary Considerations


A. Analytical summary

1. Investing (Including Risks)

2. Investments

3. Contemporary Considerations

B. Thesis reworded

C. Concluding statement


Adam, N.J. & Thomas, A. (2004). Islamic bonds:…… [Read More]

Wecker, M.. (2010). The promise of Islamic banking and finance. The Arab-American News

Retrieved September 28, 2010 from HighBeam Research:
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Law of International Banking

Words: 6320 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44268359

Regulation of anks

anks are an important aspect of any modern economy. They provide financing for commercial businesses, access to payment systems and a variety of financial services for the economy as a whole. The integral role that banks play in the national economy is demonstrated by the need for and practice of banking regulation and as part of the lessons learnt from the recent global financial crisis, provides a government safety net to compensate depositors when banks fail thus providing depositor protection.[footnoteRef:1] One of the main reasons why banking regulation is vital is because of systemic risks; the risk that financial difficulties at one or more banks spill over to a large number of other banks or the financial system as a whole. Systemic risks were traditionally bank -- based. ank regulators traditionally focused on systemic risk in the banking sector while securities regulators traditionally focused on investor protection…… [Read More]


Allen, F. And Douglas, G. 2000. Comparing Financial Systems. MIT Press: Cambridge. MA.

Barth, J.R.., Caprio, G. And Levine, R. 2001. "Banking Systems Around the Globe:

Do Regulations and Ownership Affect Performance and Stability?" In Prudential Supervision: What Works and What Doesn't, ed. Frederic S. Mishkin. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL.

Boyd, J.H., Chun, C. And Smith, B.D. 1998. Moral Hazard Under Commercial and Universal Banking. Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking. 30: 426-468.
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USB and Investment in SDGs

Words: 2800 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51055427

History of UBS Organization

UBS is a publicly company incorporated in Switzerland that operates in the global banking and financial services sector. While the organization's principal offices were initially in Zurich, it is currently co-headquartered in Zurich and Basel. This public company was initially founded as Union Bank of Switzerland in 1856 i.e. more than 150 years ago. Following the company's merger with Swiss Bank Corporation in 1998, UBS stopped being a figurative abbreviation of the company. In essence, UBS is no longer considered as the firm's representational abbreviation but as a stand-alone name for this organization. Since its inception, the company has experienced tremendous growth and profitability across all its operations largely because of strategic business policies and practices including mergers and acquisitions like the 1998 merger with Swiss Bank Corporation.

The profitability and success of this company has also been supported by its increased expansion to new regions…… [Read More]


Acton, G 2016. Swiss Bank UBS Sees Third-quarter Net Profit Plunge 60% Year-on-Year, CNBC, viewed 20 May 2017,

Alba et al. 2015. Private Sector Investment and Sustainable Development, Sustainable Finance, viewed 20 May 2017,

Eccles, R.G. & Serafeim, G 2013. A Tale of Two Stories: Sustainability and the Quarterly Earnings Call, Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, vol. 25, no. 3, pp.66-77.

Epstein-Reeves, J 2012. What is 'Creating Shared Value'? Forbes, viewed 20 May 2017,
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The Failure of Hedge Fund as a an Investment Vehicle

Words: 1228 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39270060

Long-Term Capital Management

The Failure of Long-Term Capital Management

The Long-Term Capital Management is a popular term relating to hedge funds that experienced massive failure. The fund was initially a success from the time it was launched accumulating over $100 billion in just three years (Yang, 2014). It became highly attractive on Wall Street for everyone because of the astounding profits it made. Despite being run by highly experienced personalities like professors and finance experts, their performance turned sour in 1998 (Yang, 2014). Banks that were giants in the American banking industry were facing a loss of over $1 trillion because of their demise (Yang, 2014). The problem of LCTM occurred and accelerated so quickly that in less than twelve months, $4.4 billion that was part of the $4.7 billion capital had vanished. LCTM was on the verge of collapsing towards the end of 1998, and if it did then,…… [Read More]


Amadeo, K. (2016). What Was the Long-Term Capital Management Hedge Fund Crisis?. The Balance. Retrieved 31 May 2017, from 

Jorion, P. (1999). The Story of Long-Term Capital Management. Investment Review. Retrieved 31 May 2017, from 

Rimkus, R. (2016). Long-Term Capital Management. Econ crises. Retrieved 31 May 2017, from 

Yang, S. (2014). The Epic Story Of How A 'Genius' Hedge Fund Almost Caused A Global Financial Meltdown. Business Insider. Retrieved 31 May 2017, from
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Investment Management in the Financial Sector The

Words: 2651 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83751308

investment management in the financial sector. The paper highlights the world's present macroeconomic situation. It further details the macro economic situation and the way it affects investment decisions in several investors. In addition, the paper describes a sample investment programme and provides critical decisions to investors as well as investment vehicles used by the investment moguls. The paper summarises practical exercises in compound investment management growth and the use of capital investment.

Investment management is an important part of the global financial sector, which is key in financing vast business empires. Investment management is incorporated under state laws employing several individuals and creating revenue to key players in the financial market. It is the management of several securities and assets to meet specific objectives for the benefit of the investors. The products used known as investment vehicles can be of minimal risks such as government bonds; carry high risks such…… [Read More]


Development Policies and Anaysis Division. (2012). World Economic Situation and Prospects. Retrieved May Friday, 2012, from 

B.P.Eregha. (2010). Interest Rate Variation and Investment Determination in Nigeria. International Business Management Journal, 41-46.

Blume, M. (1978). Inflation and Capital Markets. Cambridge: Ballinger.

Contrarian Investor's Journal. (2008, July 6). Effects of inflation on value of investment. Retrieved May Friday, 2012, from
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Investment and Economic Development

Words: 3216 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87675139

Private Sector Investment and Economic Development

Investment and economic development

The ole of Private Sector investment in Economic Development

In the past few decades there has been overwhelming support for growth and development rooted in private investments and market-oriented strategies. A move from public sector driven growth has come as result of the need to reduce the widening gap in the balance of payment account, increasing public debt, rising inflation rate, growing foreign debt fundamentally falling living standards. There has been a shift from the need for large public corporations undertaking productive activities in an economy owing to the realized inefficiency in resource allocation. Corruption and misappropriation of public funds is observable owing to the lacking need to optimally reap benefit from the investment. Unlike in the public sector, private sector investment guarantees optimal productive activities, efficient allocation of productive resource, technological advancements to reduce cost and increase productivity (Dao,…… [Read More]


DAO, M.Q. 2008. The Impact of Investment Climate Indicators on Gross Capital Formation in Developing Countries. The Journal of Developing Areas, 42, 155-163.

GROSSMAN, G.M. & HELPMAN, E. 1994. Endogenous innovation in the theory of growth. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8, 23-44.

HARRISON JR., W., HORNGREN, C.T. & WILLIAM, C.T. 2012. Financial accounting 9th edition., U.S.A., Prentice Hall

JORGENSON, D. 1971. Econometric Studies of Investment Behavior: A Survey. Journal of Economic Literature, 9, 1111.
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Investment Projects the Success of

Words: 927 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62579315

Determining the ranking of mutually exclusive projects is another step used by firms in the decision making process. Investments are determined on an annual basis by a business's board in agreement with and limited by the company's spending budget for the year. Once the capital budgeting and sensitivity analysis reports are complete on all projects, the projects are then reviewed on additional factors such as overall purpose within the company, and are ranked from best to worst (Bacon, 1977). Those projects that fail to meet certain numerical hurdles are simply eliminated from the list and not considered by an investment board. Some decisions may be close to certain numerical hurdles but also have other overarching reasons for acceptance. Some examples may include investments for improvements in compliance with legislation. These investments must be done regardless of their overall worth, and typically are more beneficial to a company if done sooner…… [Read More]


Bacon, Peter (1977). The Evaluation of Mutually Exclusive Investments. Financial Management. Vol 6.2, 55-58.

Barney, Dwayne; Danielson, Morris (2004). Ranking Mutally Exclusive Projects: The Role of Duration. The Engineering Economist. Vol 49.1, 43-61.

Mills, Geofrey (1996). The Impact of Inflation on Capital Budgeting and Working Capital. Journal of Financial and Strategic Decisions. Vol 9.1, 79-87.

Pannell, D.J. (1997). Sensitivity analysis of normative economic models: Theoretical framework and practical strategies. Agricultural Economics. 16, 139-152.
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Investment Banker Is a Person Working for

Words: 566 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69535516

investment banker is a person working for an investment bank. Investment banks finance both public and private companies. They arrange for debt financing and they can help put together equity deals as well. A startup company will often seek partnerships with investment bankers in order to secure the financing needed to expand or to make acquisitions. Investment bankers do not normally work with companies that only have an idea.

The stock market is a secondary market where equities are traded. A company does not turn to the stock market per se to acquire capital. The company gets its equity financing from an investment banker, who may then place the shares on the stock market. The company only sees money from the issue of the stock -- the price on the stock market does not go to the company. Investors on the stock market, however, have votes on aspects of the…… [Read More]

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Investment and Risk Are the

Words: 1532 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5284092

After the economic Collapse, precious metals like Gold and Silver have become the safe heaven investment for the investors. Investors know that they will get a high return by investing in these precious metals. The performance of the Gold can be judged from the below mentioned Gold graph.

The red line indicated that the Gold has completed almost a 100% ride in just 3 years because of the intentions of the people to get out their money from other investment option and park in the precious metals. There are risk provisions attached with the investment in these precious metals. Actually the price of the precious metals has been overbought now after the factor of safe heaven investment associated with it. Cautious must be taken by the investors while taking a buying position in the precious metal's investment. Tool like performance indicator of the precious metal will be used by the…… [Read More]


Chance, D & Brooks, R (2009), Introduction to Financial Institutions, Prentice Hall Publications

Chisholm, A, (2010), Introduction to Financial Instrument, Pearson Group Publications

Donald, J, (2004), Commodity Prices and Precious Metals Analysis, Oxford University Publications
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Investment Banker

Words: 609 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29737141


There are several issues to consider when selecting an investment banker for an IPO. First of all, the respective bank (or the banker himself) needs to have an established track record that can be proven with concrete figures and performance thresholds. It is important to have relevant data to back assumptions that guarantee the bank's relevance in the industry, particularly in terms of previous successful IPOs and connections in the field. Another important issue will be the investment bank's capabilities: does it have sufficient resources to properly handle an IPO?

At the same time, it is important for the investment bank to match the profile of the company undertaking the IPO: it is useful to have an investment bank that understands the particularities of the business, not only of the financial perspective on things. It will thus also be able to build easier connections related to the IPO in…… [Read More]


1. Lainee, Francois, Plantier, Eric. 2006. Selecting (an) Investment Bank(s) for the Initial Public Offering of a Venture Capital-backed Company. An EVCA Venture Capital Committee Paper. On the Internet at Last retrieved on July 24, 2014
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Investments in Human Resource Programs

Words: 371 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23895552

Value (NPV) Process for a Company's Human Resource Program Investments

Company Memo

Re: Instructional Document: Evaluating Needs Present Value (NPV) process for HR Resource program's investments

We have implemented a new Needs Present Value analysis process that will be used on all current and future HR projects as of Thursday, 12/25/2003. Please become familiar with the NPV pamphlets provided and if you have additional questions, contact me at extension 9999.

NPV is an approach used in capital budgeting where the present value of cash inflow is subtracted from the present value of cash outflows. If the NPV of a prospective project is positive, then it should be accepted. However, if it is negative, then the project probably should be rejected because cash flows are negative.

Simple Example:

The changing value of money over time is easily seen in the classic bank savings account.

If someone deposits $100 in a bank…… [Read More]

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Banking and the Current Fiscal

Words: 1661 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70964429

They could not foresee the housing market falling as it did, and the number of foreclosures it would create, and so, they aggressively continued to pursue the market when they should have been cutting back. The top executives left the company, but they were not fired, in fact, Killinger retired, comfortably it would seem. The customers of the bank, especially those with mortgages, are the ones who really will suffer in the long-term. The bank will rebound, but those with foreclosed homes never got the chance for a bailout, and so, they lost everything, while the executives and leaders of the bank are not charged with any wrongdoing. Luckily, the American taxpayers did not suffer, either, because JP Morgan Chase financed the takeover and the continuing operations of the bank.

In conclusion, WaMu's failure came about due to a number of reasons. They invested far too heavily in the sub-prime…… [Read More]


Adler, Joe, and Hopkins, Cheyenne. "FDIC's 'Big One': Long Prelude Gave Way to a Sudden End." American Banker, 29 Sept. 2008, Vol. 173, Issue 188.

Cocheo, Steve. "Kerry Killinger Builds His Dream Bank." ABA Banking Journal 93.8 (2001): 22.

Editors. "Washington Mutual, Inc." New York Times. 27 Sept. 2008. Business, 1.

Ivy, Bob and Shen, Linda. "Washington Mutual Hobbled by Increasing Defaults on Option ARMs." 15 Sept. 2008. 11 Dec. 2008.
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Stock Exchange Investment

Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31208359

Investment Strategy

When the market crashes, turns bearish, or severely corrects, investors not only lose objective things such as money, they also lose the sustaining functions of which the investing process (and/or money, which may psychologically represent self-esteem, independence, power, etc.) has been the source. That means, in addition to objectively not having the money to buy that new house or car, self-esteem drops, and the investors capacity to calm themselves down is diminished, motivation wanes, confidence is shaken, and vitality ebbs. A down market represents an injury to our total sense of self and all the functions that sustain it. In a general way it represents a hope or fantasy lost.

For the young investor, with a large amount of earning power remaining in his life, the ups and downs of the market are small obstacles to the long-term objective of amassing a financial nest egg on which to…… [Read More]


Block Sandra. Stable value funds low-cost, reliable investments., USA Today, 11-30-1998, pp 20A.

McEwen David, Best to find out your risk tolerance., The Daily News (Taranaki, New Zealand), 10-08-2001, pp 6.

Luke, Robert. Staff, Step 1: Investors should evaluate tolerance for risk Finance professor's quiz helps determine the asset allocation each individual is most comfortable with.., The Atlanta Journal and Constitution, 04-03-2000, pp S26.
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Commodity Investment Instruments

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68925004

Investment Instruments

An upsurge of The recent increasing interest in commodity investing is has driving en the development of investment instruments that accommodate the needs ofavailable for investors looking for exposure to commodity prices. Historically, direct exposure to the commodity market has been seen as complicated and often too costlyexpensive for the average investor. However, there are now instruments that offer investors a cheap and easy, inexpensive access to directly exposure to commodity price movements.

This section will explore This part will look more into the different instruments available to investors, and discuss commonly held paradigms about their advantages and disadvantages. This discussion is intended e purpose is to providegive the average investor with more complete and detailed better information about of the instruments well available, before they investing in the commodity market. In this paper, Sseven instruments are discussed in this paper, as follows: Futures contracts, stocks, options, exchange…… [Read More]

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Opportunities to Improve Relationship Banking at Al

Words: 4847 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36667476

Opportunities to Improve elationship Banking at Al ajhi Bank

In an increasingly globalized and competitive marketplace, many banking professionals today are faced with the need to develop informed and timely responses to changes in consumer demand, as well as fluctuations in the global economy that can have a positive or negative effect on investments. In affluent nations, this need has become especially pronounced as billion-dollar deals are routinely involved, and bankers working relationship banking operations stand to assist banks in attracting and retaining wealthy private and highly fluid commercial enterprises as long-term clientele. The enormous amounts of money that are involved make it important to formulate such responses in ways that add value to the banking operation including providing a competitive advantage. In some banks, relationship banking at this level is termed "privilege banking" or "prime account management," but the common feature of these business units is targeting high net…… [Read More]


About Us. (2012). Al Rajhi Bank. Retrieved from


Constantinides, G.M., Harris, M. & Stulz, R.M. (2003). Handbook of the economics of finance.

Boston: Elsevier/North-Holland.
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Shadow Banking on the International Level

Words: 1641 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2478417

Shadow Banking on the International Level

A definition of international shadow banking

International shadow banking is a term that originated from pre-recessionary period in 2007 and was popularised in pose recession period. The term invited the attention of financial experts and researchers towards the emergence of non-banking entities playing banking role. Hence, the Financial Stability Board (FSB) formally identified their existence and role by defining the term shadow banking system (Pozsar et al., 2012).

It regarded non-banking entities as intermediaries in the financial system but external to the banking system. It is not only because they perform banking activities, but also because they perform certain other activities which are not part of the banking system. The definition was considered as valid and readily accepted (Pozsar et al., 2012).

No objection was raised upon the point that there are certain entities which are not banks but playing an active role in…… [Read More]


Pozsar, Z. et al. (2012). Shadow Banking. Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Staff Reports. Taken from:

FSB. (2012a). Strengthening Oversight and Regulation of Shadow Banking: A Policy Framework for Addressing Shadow Banking Risks in Securities Lending and Repos. Taken from:

FSB. (2012b). FSB Publishes Initial Integrated Set of Recommendations to Strengthen Oversight and Regulation of Shadow Banking. Taken from:

FSB. (2012c). FSB Publishes Initial Integrated Set of Recommendations to Strengthen Oversight and Regulation of Shadow Banking. Taken from:
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Shadow Banking Failure of Regulation During the Sub-Prime Crisis

Words: 2890 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57764477

shadow banking system, its role in the subprime mortgage crisis, and failures of regulation within the shadow banking system. The term "shadow banking system" was coined by PIMCO's Paul McCulley in 2007 (Spanos, 2012) and refers to a banking system that includes financial intermediaries that are involved in creating credit across the global financial system, whose functions are not subject to regulatory oversight (Investopedia, 2012). The question has been debated as to whether shadow banking meets the definition of true banking. Given that the two systems perform similar functions, including credit intermediation and maturity transformation, the two should be considered parallel systems (Noeth and Sengupta, 2011).

The term shadow banking is used to describe any provision of credit taking place outside of the traditional deposit-funded lending system. This definition includes institutions that range from pawnbrokers and consumer finance companies to securities dealers as well as firms that issue corporate bonds.…… [Read More]

Reference List

Armstrong, R., 2010. Q+A -- Regulating the shadow banking system. Fox Business. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 April 2012].

Beckworth, D., 2010. "Deposit insurance" for the shadow banking system. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 April 2012].

Drum, K., 2012. The shadow banking system speaks: It's not time for austerity yet. MotherJones. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 April 2012].

Hsu, J. And Moroz, M., 2009. Shadow banks and the financial crisis of 2007-2008. Research Affiliates LLC. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 April 2012].
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Alternative Investment Vehicles Have Been Using by

Words: 3136 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92173206

alternative investment vehicles have been using by the investors to reduce the risk and maximize the profit. In this paper, we will discuss alternative investments opportunities and reducing the risk of portfolio by using the stock index future. Buying or selling the stocks is highly risky because of weak economic conditions. Investors should include various types of assets in the portfolio so that portfolio will not suffer the impact of a decline of any one security. For example; if an investor uses stocks and bonds in his/her portfolio, if stock price decline due to market fall then, the bonds would get higher return and it will eliminate the risk of decline. In the portfolio management it says that "not putting all eggs in one basket," it means investor should not invest in only one asset; they should construct the portfolio containing various types of assets. Thus, the portfolio must be…… [Read More]


Sushant, Portfolio management, "Tips for diversifying your portfolio," retrieved through; 

Hedged your portfolio using stock index future (2002), published by Chicago Mercantile Exchange (pp-1, pp23).

"The Case for Hedge funds," Tremont Advisors Inc. & Tass Research, 3rd edition, Feb 2003 (pp 9)

Absolute Returns: The Risks and Opportunities of Hedge Fund Investing," byAlexander M. Ineichen, published by John Wiley & Sons, 2002,-Page 36.
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Role of Private Investment on

Words: 14411 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 672069

This also implies inadequacies in fiscal sustainability, which influences investments in private sectors.

The second channel happens through the level, composition and quality involved within the public investment, which shows the level at which the public investment replaces the private investments (Schmidt- Hebbel, Serven, & Solimano, 1996).

The final channel regards the level of taxation on the corporate earnings and the rules applicable in depreciations.

There have been arguments that fiscal policy and public expenditure reduces the private investments in two different manners. These include increasing the interest rates or lowering the private funds involved in financing the investments.

According to the neoclassical theory, the interest rate is also an imperative variable in finding the level of investment. Consequently, it results into a negative effect because it upsurges the interest payable in investments. Concurrently, McKinnon and Shaw, contends that this is likely to cause a positive relationship between the investment…… [Read More]


Shrestha, M.B. (2005), "ARDL Modelling Aproach to Cointegration Test," Proceedings of the 46th Annual Conference of New Zealand Association of Economists, Paper

No. 13, Wellington, July 2005.

Keynes, J.M. (1936). General Theory on Employment, Interest and Money., London,

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Capital Investment Planning and Budgeting

Words: 1325 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26641655

Capital Investment and Budget Planning

Capital and Investment Budget Planning

For all governments, long-term expenses are something they must deal with. This is to ensure that the continuing needs of an area are met through facilitating economic growth and addressing the demands of the general public. To fully understand this process requires examining the capital and investment budget planning process. This will be accomplished by comparing the city of Toronto's budget presentation with the 8 step method and carefully analyzing this model. Together, these elements will highlight how administrators are able to account for spending on large projects and ensure that there is enough funding to meet these needs every single year.


Compare Toronto's capital budget presentation with the eight step model

For the most part, the city of Toronto is following the eight step model to highlight the long-term needs of the area between 2009 and 2018. Some…… [Read More]


2009 to 2013 Recommended Capital Budget and Plan. (2008). City of Toronto. Retrieved from:

Capital Assets. (n.d.)

Brooks, R. (2009). Financial Management and Core Concepts. Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
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Psychological View of Investment &

Words: 1828 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44339313

" (Grabel, 2004) Good institutions serve as the basis for economic growth due to right market-based and market-guided incentives being created which include those stated in this study and specifically: (1) rule of law; (2) competitive markets; (3) low taxation (4) noninflationary monetary policies; and (5) free trade. (2002) Good institutions serve to "Foster other cultural patterns of conduct, hard work, savings and industriousness, honesty and trustworthiness, creativity, and self-responsibility. These are the bases of the wealth of nations." (Easterly, 2002; as cited in: Ebeling, 2002) These tools are helpful in avoiding and mitigating economic risks in development.


Easterly, W (2002) the Elusive Quest for Growth: An Economists Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics (Cambridge, MIT Press) Chapter 2

Krueger, a.O (1998) Why Trade Liberalization Is good for Growth, Economic Journal 108

Demetriades, P. And Hussein, K.A (1996) Does Financial Development Cause Economic Growth? Time-Series Evidence From 16 Countries,…… [Read More]


Easterly, W (2002) the Elusive Quest for Growth: An Economists Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics (Cambridge, MIT Press) Chapter 2

Krueger, a.O (1998) Why Trade Liberalization Is good for Growth, Economic Journal 108

Demetriades, P. And Hussein, K.A (1996) Does Financial Development Cause Economic Growth? Time-Series Evidence From 16 Countries, Journal of Development Economics 51, pp387-411.

Grabel, I. (2003) International Private Capital Flows and Developing Countries, in H-J. Chang (ed.) Rethinking Development Economics, London: Anthem Press.
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Trade and Investment

Words: 901 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55204237

Investment and Trade Over the Next 30 Years

Perhaps the most notable trend in recent economic history has been the falling-away of the influence of the G7 nations of United States, Japan, Germany, ritain, France, Canada and Italy and the explosion of economic clout in the developing world (What is the G7, 2012, Wise Geek). All eyes are looking to China, in terms of the trending of trade and investment patterns. China is the world's largest potential market, and still has untapped growth in terms of its vast consumer marketplace. That is why the Chinese economy is often seen as a barometer of the health of global demand. For example, in the last quarter, "trade was a net drag on growth last year as the world's second biggest economy turned in its slowest rate of expansion since 2009, at 9.2 per cent, with each quarter's growth in 2011 successively weaker…… [Read More]


Edwards, Nick. 2012. China surprises with March trade surplus. The Globe and Daily Mail.

Viewed 24 Apr 2012 at

Greenblatt, Alan.2011. As Europe ages, its economies look vulnerable. NPR. Viewed 24 Apr

2012 at
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Credit Risk in Banking in Agreement With the Basel Accords

Words: 13816 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65664414

Credit isk Management

Banks are an important part of the economy of any nation. Traditionally, the banks operate as financial intermediaries serving to satisfy the demand of people in need of various forms of financing. Through this, banks enable people to purchase home and businesses to expand. These financial institutions therefore facilitate investment and spending that are responsible for fueling the growth of the economy. In spite of their vital role in the economy, they are nevertheless prone to failure and just like other types of businesses, they also go bankrupt. Unfortunately, the failure of banks can have many and significant implications than any other type of business. As witnessed during the great depression, and in recent times following the global economic crisis and recession, the stability or lack of it in the banking system could trigger economic epidemics that would impact millions of people. With respect to this, it…… [Read More]


Bank for International Settlements (BIS). (2001). Consultative Document -- Overview of The New Basel Capital Accord. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision.

Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (1988) "International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards" (

Benston, G.J. (1998) "Regulating Financial Markets: A Critique and Some Proposals." Hobart Paper no. 135. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.

Blundell-Wignall, A., Atkinson, P. And Roulet, C. (2013). Bank Business Models and the Basel System: Complexity and Interconnectedness. OECD Journal: Financial Market Trends, Issue 2.
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Venezuelan Banking Sector - Bbva

Words: 2819 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18074344

This would then imply an increased on-the-job satisfaction, generated by a reduction in stress and organizational pressure. The increased satisfaction on the job materializes in increased performances and an increased support in helping the bank reach its overall objectives.

Aside from the direct impacts upon the satisfaction of the customers, the benefits of introducing the newer technological advancements have also resulted in more efficient communications. This was available between company representatives and shareholders, customers, employees, as well as communities.

Future benefits of the investment are also likely to materialize in the following years. As such, the $95 million funds allocated to the modernization of BBVA Banco Provincial would increase the number of customers. It would also imply that the current customer base becomes more loyal, ensuring as such constant and reliable corporate incomes. More specifically, the investments in technology are expected to increase the sector of private loans by 27%…… [Read More]


Bakos, J.Y., Treacy, M.E., June 1986, Information Technology and Corporate Strategy: A Research Perspective, MIS Quarterly, pp. 107-119

Fuentes, H., Grifell-Tatje, E., Perelman, S., November 27, 2005, Product Specialization, Efficiency and Productivity Change in the Spanish Insurance Industry, Ecole de Gestion de'l Universite de Liege

March 11, 2008, Fitch Special Report: Venezuelan Banking Sector Expands, Faces Challenges, Business Wire, New York

April 25, 2008, Venezuela Commercial Banking Report Q1 2008, Business Wire, Dublin
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Contrarian Investment Strategies Over the

Words: 26080 Length: 73 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63152795


This is significant because it shows how some critics of contrarian investing will often point to the various instances of speculation and assume that it is contrarian investing. In some cases the psychology of consumers can become so extreme, that the definition of what is speculative expands greatly. As a result, using contrarian investing in conjunction with other indicators / tools can help prudent investors and traders, be able to identify when the market condition are becoming more extreme.

Contrarian Indicators and Tools

When using the different contrarian indicators / tools in conjunction with one another, you can begin to see how this strategy can be used, to effectively determine if the market conditions are overbought or oversold. There are number of different tools that can be utilized to indentify major changes that are occurring in the trend of a stock or the market averages. These would include: headlines…… [Read More]


"3M Historical Prices," Yahoo Finance,

"3M Reports First Quarter Results," 3M,

"3M Reports Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2008 Results," 3M, 

"American Depository Receipt." Investopedia,
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Ethics Values Social Responsibility Bailout of Banking

Words: 2576 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77183960

Ethics, Values, Social esponsibility

Bailout of Banking Industry in United States

Ethical Compliance by Banking Industry

It is quite common in American history that government comes for the rescue of companies and organization in the time of financial crisis. General motors' acquisition was one such example where saving GM meant saving the nation. When Government takes measure for the welfare of any segment of the economy, it then becomes responsibility of the organizations that they comply with social responsibility and ethical standards so that it should respond to its social character and use the benefits provided by the government in the honest fashion. The recent bailout of banking sector by U.S. government, and the misappropriation and misuse of these funds, have raised a big question mark on the compliance to ethical standards by the bank.

United States government has a long history of bailing out its financial institutions. Some of…… [Read More]


Amadeo, K. (2012). What Exactly Was the Bank Bailout Bill? retrieved from

Applebaum, B. (2009). Financial Rescue I.G. Says Banks Funneled TARP Aid to Various Expenses, The Washington Post, Retrieved from 

Congressional Budget Office. (2010), Report on the Troubled Asset Relief Program -- November 2010, Retrieved from

Davis, M. (2009). Top 6 U.S. Government Financial Bailouts, Retrieved from
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Convenience Banking Bb& t - Convenience

Words: 2868 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17480843

Another issue worth mentioning is that prior to the acquisition of 2007, the BB&T employees were already being offered training programs in convenience banking. The programs were basically revolving around the techniques which would be implemented by the organization. In this order of ideas, the most focus was placed on the De Le ue coin counting machine and the Datacard 150i instant issue debit card machine. Employees were taught how to operate, maintain, balance and audit the according operations. Emphasis was also placed on the elationship Bankers in reference to the new account bounding process including free gifts and the efer-a-Friend process. The improvement plan sees the continued training programs which teach staff members how to most efficiently operate the new systems and how to explain their benefits and functionality to the customers. Also, BB&T should remain channelled on the emergent changes affecting the market and the industry and should…… [Read More]


2009, BB&T Corporation, Hoovers, -- /free-co-factsheet.xhtmllast accessed on February 9, 2009

2009, Website of the BB&T Corporation, accessed on February 9, 2009

2007, InSite Communicating Within, BB&T Insite

Coastal Federal Bank Unveils the Carolina's Most Convenient Bank, PR Newswire
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History of Swiss Banking in

Words: 2877 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3277343

The asylum automatically granted under the Swiss constitution was denied for those seeking it for religious reasons. y 1942, only 9,150 foreign Jews were legally resident in Switzerland, an increase of just 980 since 1931. It was the Swiss government that requested the German government to help it identify Jews by stamping all Jewish passports with a prominent letter "J," following the Nuremberg acts in 1935. "y 1942, acting at the behest of Switzerland's establishment and the majority of its people, its authoritarian police apparatus was dedicated to keeping the country 'pure' and to saving it from being 'overrun with Jews'." Until 1942, the working Jewish community in Switzerland was forced by the government to support Jewish refugees.

The other side of the German interest in Switzerland's banks was related to the business of Germany and the looting of conquered countries. y 1941, Germany had exhausted all of its foreign…… [Read More]


Bazyler, Michael J. Holocaust Justice: The Battle for Restitution in America's Courts. New York: New York University Press, 2003.

Borowiec, Andrew. "World's leaders gather in Geneva." The Washington Times.

Bower, Tom. Nazi Gold. New York: Harper Collins, 1997.

Clarke, William. "Nazi Gold: The Role of the Central Banks - Where Does the Blame Lie?" Central Banking, Volume VIII Number 1. Summer 1997. April 22, 2005. .
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Marketing in Banking the Topic Being Researched

Words: 1936 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96208134

Marketing in Banking

The topic being researched for this doctoral work is marketing in the banking industry. Before delving into the research too much for this topic, the researcher will first enumerate the goals that are to be attained. These goals, as also suggested by the parameters of the assignment, include meeting proper validity and reliability standards, avoiding bias, not posing hypotheses or ideas that are self-fulfilling prophecies or that have desired answers on the part of the researcher. There is also the consideration of using critical reasoning and strong logic skills so as to avoid making conclusions that are not supported by the evidence and/or that are completely contradicted by that same evidence (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010).

eliability & Validity

eliability and validity are two hallmarks of any good research and they must both be satisfied for the research outcomes to have any staying power or good ongoing reputation…… [Read More]


Leedy, P.D., & Ormrod, J.E. (2010): Pages 1-8, 28-35

Morris, F. (2009, October 2). Enforcing the Law - Eight Years Later. New York Times.

Retrieved August 18, 2013, from

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U S Banking Financial Sector Legislation in

Words: 2448 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73033002

190). The Act also helped to create a "too-big-to-fail" mindset (Walter, 2004) that would have profound implications during the economic downturn of 2008 and beyond.


Why did you include this piece of legislation in your list? The Act is described by Sammin (2004) as being "the biggest revision in financial services law since the Great Depression" (p. 653).

iegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994


What were the problems/conditions giving rise to the legislation? apid consolidations among the nation's banks were creating the potential for diverting needed banking resources from communities (ose, 1997).


What were the major provisions of the Act? The iegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994 (hereinafter "the Act") contained the following major provisions:

A. Bank holding companies that are adequately capitalized and managed can acquire a bank anywhere in the United States one year after this law is enacted.…… [Read More]


Alexander, K., Dhumale, R. & Eatwell, J. (2006). Global governance of financial systems: The international regulation of systemic risk. New York: Oxford University Press.

Coustan, H., Leinicke, L.M., Rexroad, W.M. & Ostrosky, J.A. (2004). Sarbanes-Oxley: What it means to the marketplace; from support to apprehension, accounting professionals express their thoughts. Journal of Accountancy, 197(2), 43-44.

Feinberg, R.M. & Reynolds, K.M. (2010). An examination of entry and competitive performance in rural banking markets. Southern Economic Journal, 76(3), 624-625.

Gup, B.E. (2003). The future of banking. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
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Mobile Microfinance Mobile Banking in

Words: 839 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86947651

Among the more obvious reasons is the simple elimination of overhead and initial construction costs for new bank branches. Though such costs are shared by all banking customers, it requires a sizeable initial investment on the part of the bank, and customers might not be plentiful enough to make the sharing of these costs feasible for either potential customers or the banks. With mobile banking, not only are the overhead costs of a physical branch eliminated, but many transactions can actually be conducted without any contact between the customer and bank personnel. This further eliminates costs associated with branch banking while allowing more affordable access to more complex services.

This reduction of overhead costs is observable in other forms of branchless banking, as well, as can clearly be seen in the massive reduction in costs when point-of-sale third party agents were introduced to the microfinance arena (CGAP a 2009). Additional…… [Read More]


CGAP a (2009). "Mobile banking: Overview." Accessed 13 November 2009.

CGAP b (2009). "Technology: Project profiles." Accessed 13 November 2009.

WorldBank. (2008). "Mobile banking to transform microfinance." Accessed 13 November 2009.,,contentMDK:21765683~pagePK:64257043~piPK:437376~theSitePK:4607,00.html
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Long-Term V Short-Term Investments Short-Term

Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83805782

Both short-term investments and long-term investments have advantages and disadvantages. One of the main advantages that short-term investments have is their potential for quick growth as they are only expected to last a couple of weeks to a few months. These types of investments allow a company to have more control over their money. On the downside, short-term investments carry a higher risk and have demonstrated a higher rate of fluctuation as compared to long-term investments (Mussi, 2007).

An advantage of long-term investments is that they have the ability to "gain small amounts of money over a long period of time. The slow-but-steady pace of long-term investments allow for a much greater degree of stability and a much lower risk than short-term investments (Mussi, 2007). Long-term investments that benefit from this growth and stability include savings and retirement funds as these investments mature over the years. Because these types of…… [Read More]


The ASPIRA Association. (n.d.). Short-Term and Long-Term Investment Options: Facilitators

Manual. Retrieved 17 July 2012, from

CNN Money. (2012). Investing your money basics. Retrieved 17 July 2012, from

Long-term investments. (2012). Investopedia. Retrieved 17 July 2012, from
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Global Financial Investment Globalization Has

Words: 2193 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96124904

The success rates of this venture are increased as investors are willing to risk their money in the hope of increased gains. Otherwise put, shareholders "can accept downside risks because they fully share the upside as well" (Dynamic Equity, 2002). egardless of the sources used in contracting the necessary money, the organization would still have to retrieve a minimum of $40 million revenues during the first year in order to be profitable.

7. Exchange ate isk

Some managers at the Wilson Company argued that the organization should contract its loans in enminbi, or the Chinese currency. The measure would, according to them, help the company protect itself against currency exchange risks. Considering that the company comes to disregard this suggestion, the situation would present itself as follows:

the exchange rate is of one M to 0.2 USD, meaning basically that a United States dollar can be purchased for 5 enminbis…… [Read More]


Fabozzi, F.J., Peterson, P.P., 2003, Financial Management and Analysis, 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN: 0471234842

Hull, J.C., 2003, Options, Futures and Other Derivatives, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0130091448

Roworth, G., 2005, The 7 Keys to Business Success, Buzzle, last accessed on May 18, 2009

Walesh, S.G., 2003, Managing and Leading: 52 Lessons Learned for Engineers, ASCE Publications, ISBN 0784406758
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Opportunity to Make an Investment

Words: 1373 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79767541

Present Value

Price of bond= 0.385543*1000 +6.144567*100= $385.54.64+$614.45

Price of bond= $1,000

So, price of bond B. is $1,000 b. For market interest rate equal to 12%:

Price for bond a:

Market interest rate is equal Coupon rate is equal Face value Frequency Number of years to maturity Number of Periods Discount rate annually Discount rate per period n, periods r, per period 12%

10% $1,000 Annual 20-20-12.00% annual 12.00% 20-12.00%

Now we need to calculate PVIF and PVIFA.

For calculation of PVIFA (i, n) and PVIF I is equal to 20 periods and n=12%

PVIF= 1/(1+0.12)^20

PVIF=0. 103667

PVIFA= (1- 1/(1+.12)^20)/.12


Price of bond= 0.103667*1000+7.469444*100=$851

Price of bond a = $851

Price of bond B:

Market interest rate is equal Coupon rate is equal Face value Frequency Number of years to maturity Number of Periods Discount rate annually Discount rate per period n, periods r, per period 12%…… [Read More]

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Aztec's Capital Investment Company Overview

Words: 2788 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15554400

Thus, the paper provides the following recommendations on the strategies that the company will use to prepare its 3-year financial plan to achieve its corporate objectives.

First, Aztec needs to rely more on the share capital as source of fund than raising fund from the bank loan. Loan capital is the fund borrowed from the bank while the share capital represents the funds raised by selling shares to the public. Typically, share capital should be clearly a preferred option of raising fund because the company only liable to pay dividends for such funds which is only between 2 and 3% of the market value of the equity per annum. On the other hand, loan capital is a borrowed fund that has a fixed interest which a company should pay no matter its financial conditions.

Aztec would enjoy several advantages from raising fund from the share capital. First, the company will…… [Read More]


Afonso, a. (2009). Determinants in using of capital investment appraisal methods: Evidence from the field. Department of Production and Systems University of Minho.

Barclays (2012).UK Hospitality and Leisure Sector outlook Third quarter 2012. Corporate Banking, Barclays Bank PLC.

Businessweek (2012). Compass Group Plc (CPG:London). Bloomberg. UK.

Clarke, P.J. (2002). Account Infor for Managers. Cengage Learning EMEA.
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Finance Investments and the Irrelevance Proposition the

Words: 758 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67436206


Investments and the Irrelevance Proposition

The expected rate of return on an investment is calculated by taking the expected return and dividing it by the amount invested. If there is a return of $6 on an investment of $100 the rate of return is 6%.

When a customer states they are unhappy with this return, and it is suggested that they borrow $90 to help pay for the investment, which has an interest rate of 4%, the broker is suggesting that the investor goes from an unleveraged position where there is no borrowing, to a highly leveraged position, where there is a high level of borrowing.

Looking at the effect this will have on the investment the first consideration is to look at the investment itself; if the investor borrows $90 and invests $10 of their own, there is still a total investment of $100, and the return for…… [Read More]


Baye Michael, (2007), Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Miller, M. H, (1991), Financial Innovations and Market Volatility, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers
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UK Saudi Direct Investment for British

Words: 1372 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24531062

Though this research will not provide all necessary data for such a project to be undertaken, it will explore the issue form a side and perspective not often utilized, shedding light on an essential yet often-overlooked aspect of the foreign trade relationship.

esearch Methods

Qualitative research is perhaps not the first thing thought of when conducting a trade analysis, but its importance to a proper understanding of the trade relationship cannot be overstated. Such research and analysis requires that the situation be examined in its human terms in addition to the numeric values and inferences drawn from quantitative research and analysis. In determining the perceived motivations and barriers to direct investment, this research will essentially be attempting to analyze and predict responses to changing business situations, and such research almost necessarily takes on a qualitative form (Bavdaz 2009). The predictive value of the proposed qualitative research is, in this instance,…… [Read More]


Bavdaz, M. (2009). "Conducting research on the response process in business surveys." Statistical Journal of the IAOS 26(1/2), pp. 1-14.

Diefenbach, T. (2009). "Are case studies more than sophisticated storytelling?: Methodological problems of qualitative empirical research mainly based on semi-structured interviews." Quality & Quantity, 43(6), pp. 875-894.

MOFA. (2003). "Saudi-British Relations." Ministry of foreign affairs. Accessed 6 March 2010.

Lavery, B. (2005). "World Business Briefing | Europe: Britain: Saudi Prince Buys the Savoy." NY Times 20 January, pp. 6.