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The fact that he was experienced in politics and learnt a lot of lessons from his predecessor's failures played an important role in securing his position. His initial ruling saw ruthless legislations and the eradication of practically all of his potential opponents. Saddam's ruling emphasized that he would not accept any kind of opposition and whoever expressed the slightest desire to contradict him was harshly punished. The few protests that emerged during his leadership ended terribly and the Halabja poison gas attack is one of the most horrible examples of his thinking. Tens of thousands of individuals died as a result of Saddam's ruthlessness. Even though it was not until 2006 when he was finally captured and executed for his crimes against humanity, it is only safe to say that the world punished him for his actions (Etheredge, 161).
The observation of the Ramadan represents one of the most important…
Etheredge, Laura, "Iraq," (the Rosen Publishing Group, 15.01.2011)
Hassig, Susan M., and Al Adely, Laith Muhmood, "Iraq," (Marshall Cavendish, 01.10.2003)
Katzman, Kenneth, "Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights," Retrieved January 21, 2013, from the Federation of American Scientists Website: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RS21968.pdf
Iraq's New Government nd Social Outcome Of War
On pril 29, 2005, officials from Iraq's six neighbors, Jordan, Syria, Kuwait, Iran, Turkey, Saudi rabia, and regional Egypt, met in Istanbul to welcome the formation of a Iraq's new government and give the emerging democratic process a boost despite regional fears of instability in the country.
fter nearly three months of haggling over key government posts, Iraq's National ssembly finally approved the country's first popularly elected government on pril 28.
Iraq's neighbors are extremely concerned that the violence in Iraq could destabilize the region and remain divided concerning Iraq's future.
The officials drafted a "communique" to be adopted by the ministers and carefully watch by the Untied States and international community, that expressed support for the new government, stressing the political integrity and sovereignty of Iraq.
Sunni-dominated neighbors, including Egypt, Jordan, and the Gulf countries, are concerned that Sunni under-representation will…
AP Online; 03 May 2005; pp.
Wagner1, Thomas. "Iraq's New Government Pledges Unity."
AP Online; 03 May 2005; pp.
The customs of the Iraq population are however, a complex mixture of Middle East elements along with Arab features. This mixture is what makes the complexity of this state and the thing that brings Iraq a very unique image. We may say at some extent that Iraq is an important Middle East state whose customs were somehow completed by Arab traditions. This way we can also answer the notorious question that enquires about whether the new customs of Iraq are indeed Arab in their thoroughness. (Tripp, 2002).
Iraq was indeed a very culture full state, famous for its customs and traditions. People used to be very preoccupied about these traditions and they were living their lives around their typical system of organization and government. We must specify that these systems which they used to lead their lives by were also unique blends of Arab ad Middle East features and they…
Hourani, Albert. (1997): A History of the Arab Peoples. New York: Fine Creative Media.
Roux, Georges. (1993): Ancient Iraq. New York: Penguin USA.
Tripp, Charles. (2002): History of Iraq. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
To be sure, one of the most significant effecters of the cultural experience in Iraq has been the stimulation of more widespread, proliferated and severe violence. This has instigated a widespread change in the experience of Iraqis, who have been subjected to one of the most dangerous periods in the nation's history. Accordingly, a study by Roberts et al. (2004) used cluster household sampling in Iraq to measure the mortality rate both before and after the 2003 invasion. The study found that "the risk of death was estimated to be 2 5-fold (95% CI 1-6 -- 4-2) higher after the invasion when compared with the preinvasion period. Two-thirds of all violent deaths were reported in one cluster in the city of Falluja. If we exclude the Falluja data, the risk of death is 1 5-fold (1-1 -- 2-3) higher after the invasion. e estimate that 98000 more deaths than expected…
Gottschalk, P. & Greenberg, G. (2005). Islamophobia. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Hoge, J.F. & Rose, G. (2005). Understanding the War on Terror. Foreign Affairs.
Iraqi News (IN). (2008). Experts assess extent of Iraq's cultural catastrophe five years after the U.S. invasion. Iraqi News. Online at http://www.iraqinews.com/culture-tourism/experts-assess-extent-of-iraqs-cultural-catastrophe-five-years-after-the-us-invasion.html?Itemid=126
Mamdani, M. (2004). Good Muslim, Bad Muslim. Random House.
His treatment of civilian casualties is caustically glib, and his support of the war is spurious and irresponsible. His insensitivity is most apparent when he claims of the war, "the people who ought to have been most affected by it, the population of Iraq itself, seemed scarcely to give it their attention," (p. 4). Keegan takes enormous liberties to make such a ludicrous assertion and without any proof. he bulk of his research was with military officials -- obviously those who had intimate knowledge of weaponry and advanced systems of defense as well as of strategic analysis. However, interviews with military officials and war experts does not provide the insiders' perspective that would be necessary to claim understanding of what it must have been like to live through the American/British invasion.
Furthermore, Keegan can barely hide his sympathy for the neo-conservative point-of-view when he writes about their "highly traditional American…
To his credit, Keegan offers some explanation of the neo-conservative ideology that formed the political background upon which the war was played out. He notes the desire to create peace in the region partly stems from the need to protect Israel. The biggest strength of the Iraq War is, however, Keegan's deft analysis of the military strategies and technologies used. Keegan details the American invasion, describing troops and divisions by name. The author also contrasts the American political position and military strategies with those of the British to provide a well-researched and comprehensive version of the story. The Iraq War is written well and can be used as an adjunct to research on the subject.
Unfortunately, Keegan's description of the Iraq War lacks a global perspective. Keegan's descriptions are narrowly focused on the American, especially the neo-conservative, perspective. The optimistic, rosy-glassed tone of the tome is disturbing at times. Moreover, the book is unlikely to leave any lasting impression on readers, who can gather the information Keegan presents from any other book written about the war. Much of what Keegan writes about is dry and factual as opposed to scholarly and lucid. As such, Iraq War is not a special treatment of the war. Keegan offers little insight into what the future of Iraq might look like or what it should look like given the complex political, religious, and ethnic conflicts in the region. The author only briefly mentions the ideological conflict that continues to plague Islam and divide Sunni and Shi'a. His treatment of the Sunni and Shi'a division and of Islam in general is overtly that of an outsider looking into what seems like a "mysterious" culture. In the Iraq War, Keegan spends too little time addressing why the Iraq War was ill conceived even if it was strategically well fought.
Keegan, J. (2005). The Iraq War: The Military Offensive, from Victory in 21 Days to the Insurgent Aftermath. Vintage.
Sumer and Akkad were the two city-states that produced the most sophisticated armies of the Bronze Age (Gabriel & Metz, 1991). The Greeks called the area Mesopotamia, meaning "the land between the two rivers," a reference to the Tigris and Euphrates basin; however, in the Bible, the region is referred to as "Shumer," the original Sumerian word for the southern part of Iraq, the site of Sumer with its capital at the city of Ur (Gabriel & Metz, 1991).
Modern social organization and therefore social conflict therefore find their collective historic basis in Iraq. According to Roux (1993), people first manifested the high degree of cooperative human effort necessary to make urban life possible in the early Sumerian cities of Eridu and Urak. Likewise, Gabriel and Metz report that these two cities "reflected the evidence of this cooperation in the dikes, walls, irrigation canals, and temples, especially the giant ziggurates,…
So much has already been said about Iraq War and the grave error that United States made by invading Iraq that it seems absurd to even suggest that this war was justified. But we must not ignore both sides of the coin. We have already discussed the anti-war arguments and have come to believe that serious judgment errors were made when United States, Britain and Australia agreed to launch military attacks against Iraq. Its now high time we looked deeper into some of the reasons Iraq was invaded to decide for ourselves whether our government did the right thing or not.
To start with, let us consider the scene in Iraq had the war not been launched. Saddam Hussein would still be the President, ruling the country with an iron hand and simply stopping at nothing. He took pride in not paying any heed to international codes and…
Arthur Borden, Saddam, the uncontainable; Any terror group could have done his bidding.(OPED) The Washington Times; 9/20/2004
David Kay: Public testimony: Key excerpts: Retrieved online 24th September 2004:
ED FEULNER, Iraq war is just and necessary The Record (Bergen County, NJ); 9/21/2004;
S. Dollar began to fall dramatically, and has continued to do so for many years. The operation Iraqi Freedom was begun a few years later, and this was when a brand new currency was introduced for these regions. This was the Dinar that was valued at $0.00007 as against the Dollar, and maybe because of the fact that this new currency has not yet been introduced to the free trade markets on the Forex, the value of the currency has remained steady and true. It is also a fact that as the Iraqi market has started opening up to outsiders and foreigners, the Iraqi economy has been demonstrating a slow and steady growth, and this also means that the value of the new currency will also increase steadily and gradually. (Investing in new Iraqi Currency?)
There are some people, who opine that the new Kuwaiti Dinar would be worth about…
Dinar Trade, Investing in your Future. Retrieved at http://www.dinartrade.com/newsAccessed on 5 June, 2005
Foote, Christopher; Block, William; Crane, Keith; Gray, Simon. Economic Policies and Prospects in Iraq. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.bos.frb.org/economic/ppdp/2004/ppdp0401.pdf . Accessed on 5 June, 2005
Investing in new Iraqi Currency? Minnesota Public Radio, News Forum. Retrieved at http://news.forum.publicradio.org/article.pl?sid=05/02/23/1042216Accessed on 5 June, 2005
Kevin. Iraqi Banks Gaining Ground. April 11, 2005. Retrieved at http://truckandbarter.com/mt/archives/cat_iraq.html. Accessed on 5 June, 2005
Since the attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Bush Administration was determined to invade Iraq. Although no weapons of mass destruction were found, the Bush administration maintained that Iraq was an active threat to the peace and security of the United States and its citizens and so felt the need to invade Iraq. The United Nations refused its support for the war on Iraq yet the Bush administration forced its way into Iraq advocating for the need to overthrow the Saddam regime and securing peace and democracy in Iraq. Unfortunately this was not the case and conditions in Iraq began to worsen even after the removal of Saddam.
The Muslims have a history of not tolerating non-Islamic powers to stay in their homelands and control or intervene in their internal affairs. Similarly the U.S. is not tolerated in Iraq by its citizens and…
The primary targets of the war are still at large, rendering all use of American and British weapon technology useless and in fact, more damaging to Iraqi civil society.
Indeed, weapon technologies are only as effective as the people who manage and use them. The American military, despite its sophisticated weapons, failed to capture Al-Qaeda because their weapons were not used strategically -- that is, weapons only become effective when they are used responsibly through careful and knowledgeable planning and with the least number of collateral damage. The lack of a clear strategy and knowledge of Middle Eastern culture, including lack of knowledge about both Afghan and Iraqi terrains, cost the U.S. with more civilian casualties than hitting on the primary and correct targets. This scenario is reminiscent of the Vietnam War, wherein the weak military strategy of the U.S. against the guerilla warfare strategy of the VietCongs resulted to…
Allen, J. (2004). "Vietnam: the war the U.S. lost." International Socialist Review. Available at: http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Asia/Vietnam_War_US_Lost.html .
Gahan, M. (2003). "War: boon or bane for defence firms." BBC News web site. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/2926435.stm .
Iraq Conflict and Esdp
The European Security and Defence Policy emerged in the wake of Kosovo Crisis when it was found that European Union essentially lacked the capabilities to play an effective role in Bosnia and later in Kosovo. This led to a collective understanding among major European powers that a better defence system was needed by the EU to address their common defence needs. With various crisis emerging and EU trying to play a significant role, it became increasingly clear in 1990s that European defence policy had serious shortcomings and no single European state alone could play an effective role in the resolution of global crisis. But the one crisis that forces European Union to give its defence policy greater weight and deeper meaning was the Iraq conflict of 2002-2003. The reason we say that is because prior to this crisis, ESDP had not yet taken the shape that…
Menon, Anand. 2004. "From Crisis to Catharsis: ESDP after Iraq," International Affairs Vol. 80, No.4 p. 631-648;
Speech by Strobe Talbott on October 7, 1999 at a conference at the Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, available at "www.state.gov/www/policy_remarks/1999/991007_talbott_london.html."
What makes me cringe even more is the continued claim that we are "liberators (Byrd, 2003)." The facts don't seem to support the label we have so euphemistically attached to ourselves (Byrd, 2003). True, we have unseated a brutal, despicable despot, but "liberation" implies the follow up of freedom, self-determination and a better life for the common people (Byrd, 2003). In fact, if the situation in Iraq is the result of "liberation," we may have set the cause of freedom back 200 years (Byrd, 2003)." agree with Byrd when he reminds the American people that our claim to have liberated the Iraqi people has actually put them in a position to have very little food, little water, destroyed towns and cities and no government to speak of.
To top it off the initial request to self-govern was stalled and ignored for many months as Bush proclaimed victory and insisted that…
Byrd, Robert (2003) Iraq War, Unprovoked Invasion of a Sovereign Nation?
Delivered on the floor of the U.S. Senate (Accessed 4-16-07)
The Honorable John Culberson
Old Executive Office Building
t seems there is very little we have done in raq that is in any way honorable. t is common knowledge, now, that there were no Weapons of Mass Destruction, and therefore precious little excuse for the war. However, it is true, also beyond question, that Saddam Hussein was a vicious and brutal dictator who kept his nation in line by virtue of excesses of every sort. One of his sons is reputed to have shredded foes in paper shredders. So perhaps the global community is better off rid of him.
None of that excuses the actions of the United States, both its top administration and its military. After exposure of their activities at Abu Ghraib Prison, and in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, their activities are very little better than the unconscionable activities of the Hussein family. Perhaps it…
If we are ever to see the abuses carried out by our military stopped and amends made, if we are ever to regain our reputation as a moral nation with high ideals, one of which is the humane and ethical treatment of all people (repeat ALL PEOPLE), then we must not confirm another Attorney General who is committed to destroying the foundation of American ideals, the U.S. Constitution, nor who ignores the demands of international law among nations of good will.
A November 11, 2004, report in The Washington Post by Dan Eggen noted the ways Gonzales, currently White House counsel, disregards and disrespects the American Way as it was once known, and the Geneva Conventions' requirements as recognized by all civilized nations. Eggen quoted Gonzales' January 2002 memo in which he "argued that the war on terrorism made the Geneva Conventions' limitations on treatment of enemy prisoners 'obsolete' and 'renders quaint some of its provisions'." He also noted that Gonzales' office "played a role in an August 2002 memo from the Justice Department's Office of Legal Counsel" that rendered the opinion "that torturing alleged al Qaeda terrorists in captivity abroad 'may be justified' and that international laws against torture 'may be unconstitutional if applied to interrogations' conducted in the U.S. war on terrorism."
In view of the abuse already conducted by U.S. forces, both in Iraq and at Guantanamo, we cannot afford to have as our chief law enforcement official a man who twists international law
6). At home, though, the media can often be co-opted by being made to feel that public opinion would be against it if it reported something other than the prevailing public sentiment. After't he 9-11 attacks, the public wanted the perpetrators and their leaders punished, so the war in Afghanistan had the support of the public. By extension, the idea of the war on terror also had support, though the parameters of that war were never clearly defined and were certainly not explained to the public. The Bush Administration made use of this support when it decided to invade Iran and suggested in many ways that this was a continuation of the war on terror and even that Saddam Hussein was responsible for 9-11. The news media did not do its job as well as it should and did not question most of these assertions until some time had passed.…
Boylan, James. "When the Press Fails: Political Power and the News Media from Iraq to Katrina." Columbia Journalism Review, Volume 46, Issue 2 (July-August 2007), 59.
Kamiya, Gary. "Iraq: Why the Media Failed." Salon.com (10 April 2007). July 22, 2008. http://www.salon.com/opinion/kamiya/2007/04/10/media_failure/ .
Kellner, Douglas. "Bushspeak and the Politics of Lying: Presidential Rhetoric in the 'War on Terror.'" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Volume 37, Issue 4 (2007). July 22, 2008. http://www.questia.com/read/5024109830?title=Bushspeak%20and%20the%20Politics%20of%20Lying%3a%20Presidential%20Rhetoric%20in%20the%20%22War%20on%20Terror%22 .
Payne, Kenneth. "The Media as an Instrument of War." Parameters, Volume 35, Issue 1 (2005). July 22, 2008. http://www.questia.com/read/5011208618?title=the%20Media%20as%20an%20Instrument%20of%20War.Smith , Sylvia a. "Media Faulted on War's Lead-up." Outside Cab le News (12 March 2008). July 22, 2008. http://outsidecablenews.blogsome.com/2008/03/12/media-faulted-on-wars-lead-up/ .
When this was accomplished, the ideal of democracy was used to justify further war. After several years of ongoing death and destruction, this ideal is increasingly shown as a product of a very idealistic imagination.
The author's argument is made all the more poignant by the non-emotional and realistic tone of his writing. The construction of his writing makes clear the discrepancy between the reality and the ideal of the war. Indeed, he uses not only his own ideas, but also adds input from other political writers and thinkers to substantiate his ideas. These elements add to the realism of his writing.
In conclusion, articles such as the one by Danner provides the American public with valuable bases for both critical and realistic thinking. The Iraq war is assuming crisis proportions. The public however has the power to end the atrocity and to restore to their world a much-needed paradigm…
" (Campo, PAGE) Such statements remind historians of colonialism, where invaders believed that their society was superior to the culture they were supplanting, while reaping significant financial rewards for doing so. However, the United States has never claimed financial gain. The real criticism of this war is the rush to get there. The United States planned to solve the Iraqi war with force of arms even while the U.N. was still working diligently to confirm whether WMD even existed in Iraq. As we all know now, they were never found, and that was the strongest and most primary reason for the war.
Campo, Juan E. "enign Colonialism? The Iraq War: Hidden Agendas and abylonian Intrigue." Harvard International Review. Volume: 26. Issue: 1, 2004.
Fuss, Toni. "Germany's Opposition to the Iraq War and Its Effect on U.S.-German Relations." Social Education. Volume: 68. Issue: 4, 2004.
Cordesman, Anthony H. Iraq and…
Campo, Juan E. "Benign Colonialism? The Iraq War: Hidden Agendas and Babylonian Intrigue." Harvard International Review. Volume: 26. Issue: 1, 2004.
Fuss, Toni. "Germany's Opposition to the Iraq War and Its Effect on U.S.-German Relations." Social Education. Volume: 68. Issue: 4, 2004.
Cordesman, Anthony H. Iraq and the War of Sanctions: Conventional Threats and Weapons of Mass Destruction. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999.
Jackson, Richard. "Between Iraq and a Hard Place: Richard Jackson Suggests That the United States Is Losing Its War on Terror." New Zealand International Review. Volume: 29. Issue: 4, 2004.
"The United States engaged in a pattern of conduct beginning in or before 1989 intended to lead Iraq into provocations justifying U.S. military action against Iraq and permanent U.S. military domination of the Gulf.
2. President ush from August 2, 1990, intended and acted to prevent any interference with his plan to destroy Iraq economically and militarily.
3. President ush ordered the destruction of facilities essential to civilian life and economic productivity throughout Iraq.
4. The United States intentionally bombed and destroyed civilian life, commercial and business districts, schools, hospitals, mosques, churches, shelters, residential areas, historical sites, private vehicles and civilian government offices.
5. The United States intentionally bombed indiscriminately throughout Iraq.
6. The United States intentionally bombed and destroyed Iraqi military personnel, used excessive force, killed soldiers seeking to surrender and in disorganized individual flight, often unarmed and far from any combat zones and randomly and wantonly killed Iraqi…
John Ashcroft's April 1, Testimony (2003) TalkLeft: The Politics of Crime 2003 April 5. Online available at http://talkleft.com/new_archives/002337.html .
Pillar, Paul R. (2006) Intelligence, Policy, and the War in Iraq. Foreign Affairs. March/April 2006. Council on Foreign Relations. Online available at http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20060301faessay85202/paul-r-pillar/intelligence-policy-and-the-war-in-iraq.html.
Tremblay, Rodrigue (2006) War Crimes and Responsibility of the Bush Administration. After Downing Street. Online available at http://www.afterdowningstreet.org/node/13670 .
Skelly, James M. (2006) American Soldiers and War Crimes in Iraq. Open Democracy. June 9, 2006. Online available at http://www.opendemocracy.net/democracy-americanpower/iraq_warcrimes_3627.jsp .
Despite high security in Baghdad, house searches, and strret patroling by the troops, the city remains pagued with violence. The current situation makes the use of miltary force as remedy for the current situation a useless option. A joint operation by Iraqi and coalition forces by the name of Operation Forward Together was also launched but jihadi elements, sectarian forces and nationalist elements continue to paly havoc with the security situation. Shiite and Sunni violent elements continue to hanut each other and resultantly inncoent people including women and children keep on losing their lives. The loss of innocent lives by the armed culprits in the daylight make people less confident of their security forces and skeptical of the seriousness on part of government.
The failure of efforts in the form of Operation Forward Together made the role of Iraqi security forces doubtful. In current situation people are unable to live…
Ghosh A. (August 2006). Baghdad Diary. Time. Vol:168 Isuue:9.
Muravchik, J. (April-May 2005).And the Walls Came Tumbling Down: The World's Last Holdout against Democracy -- the Middle East-Is Experiencing a Wave of Nascent Freedom. The American Enterprise. Vol: 16. Issue: 3.
Lowry, R. (May 9, 2005). What Went Right: How the U.S. Began to Quell the Insurgency in Iraq. National Review. Vol: 57. Issue: 8.
Teson, F. (2005). Ending Tyranny in Iraq. Ethics & International Affairs. Vol: 19. Issue: 2.
... Facing clear evidence of peril, we cannot wait for the final proof, the smoking gun that could come in the form of a mushroom cloud
Thus we conclude that President did indeed mislead the public even though the evidence clearly indicated that Saddam or Iraq were no immediate threats to national security. This is a matter of serious concern because if the head of the state deliberately tries to mislead the public, it speaks volumes about the president's leadership ethics. If we cannot trust our leaders, who should we turn to in times of genuine crisis? Weren't the president and his administration under a moral and legal obligation to tell us the truth? These are some questions that bother us today as we look back at the events preceding and following the Iraq war.
Dana Milbank and Claudia Deane, "Hussein Link to 9/11 Lingers in Many Minds," Washington…
Dana Milbank and Claudia Deane, "Hussein Link to 9/11 Lingers in Many Minds," Washington Post, September 6, 2003, p. 1.
Judis, John B., and Spencer Ackerman. 2003. The selling of the Iraq war. The New Republic, June 30.
Milbank and Deane.
Quoted in Milbank and Deane.
Iraq under the reign of Machiavelli's Prince and Socrates' Golden Guardian
"Insurgent groups in Iraq warn that democracy could lead to passing un-Islamic laws, such as permitting homosexual marriage, if the majority of people agreed to it. 'Democracy is a Greek work meaning the rule of the people, which means that the people do what they see fit. This concept is considered apostasy (abandoning what one believed in) and defies the belief in one God-Muslim's doctrine." (San Francisco Chronicle, 31 December 2004, A3).
Machiavelli's advice regarding the conflict between the Iraqi insurgents and President Bush would be explicit, regarding the governance of Iraq -- do not leave governance up to the democratic will of the people, for this will only stimulate chaos and revolt and allow minority clerics to stimulate discontent amongst fundamentalist sympathizers in Iraq. Instead, install a New, pragmatically governing Prince who will neither rule by majority rule,…
Machiavelli. The Prince. Maintained: Jon Roland of the Constitution Society
Original URL: http://www.constitution.org/mac/prince00.htm | Text Version | PDF Version. Original date: 1997 July 10 -- Updated: 2003 July 23.
Plato. Republic. Translated by Robin Waterfield. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
San Francisco Chronicle. 31 December 2004. A3).
The Kurdish uprisings since late 1960s and the war with Iran during the 80s decade have significantly destabilized the political structure of Iraq. And the recent U.S.-led military aggression in the country has not helped the situation at all. The people are in Iraq are desperately looking for restoration of normalcy. And for this reason it is important to study the situations and propose a peace plan that would stabilize the government and brings decades of conflict to an amicable end.
To begin, it is extremely important for Iraq to understand that its internal uprisings are just as damaging as external aggression, if not more. Internal conflicts have caused immense damage to Northern Iraq where Kurds have been fighting for self-determination and representation since 1960s. Over the years, through active and passive activities, Kurds have managed to carve an identity and denying this would be useless as Peter…
1. Peter W. Galbraith, "Protect the Kurds," Washington Post, August 11, 2002.
S. from the preparation and supervision of the coming elections . . . during this period, the training of Iraqi forces might, of necessity, remain a coalition task, but it ought to be monitored and supervised by the U.N." (Hoffmann & Bozo, 113)
It is clear though that at this juncture, the world community is not yet prepared to take control of the operation. The presence of U.S. forces is a reality prompted by the aggressive lead in to war and the obligations thereby created. And quite certainly, no nation or organization has stepped up to take the lion's share of responsibility which the U.S. has taken for contending with Hussein and his legacy. Thus, Obama's plan does not fully withdraw troops, instead maintaining a significant American presence that suggests the war is not truly yet ended. Accordingly, his 'exit' plan "would leave in Iraq a residual force of as…
Ewens, M. (2006). Casualties in Iraq. AntiWar. Online at http://antiwar.com/casualties/#count .
Hoffmann, S. & Bozo, F. (2006). Gulliver Unbound: America's Imperial Temptation and the War in Iraq. Rowman & Littlefield.
The Nation. (2009). Obama's Iraq Exit. Thenation.com.
Perle, R. (2002). Statement Before the House Armed Services Committee. American Enterprise Institute.
Further, the world opinion of Iraq's actions did not dissuade Saddam from his continued terrorism. Even following the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 1991, Saddam continued to use tactics considered terroristic to control the population. Additionally, Saddam allegedly continued to produce weapons of mass destruction to further control the population and to threaten the world (asuli, 2002).
While democratic nations can use military force, diplomacy, sanctions, and allegiances with other democracies to help stop terror states, these areas still may not cease their actions. If leaders have successfully implemented a terror state and the "cult of the leader" mentality, the populations of the state are unable to overthrow the dictator's power, even with the assistance of democratic nations. Thus, although Saddam has been removed from Iraq, the population is still at risk of becoming a terror state unless such leaders are kept from control. However, if the stability of the…
Galtung, J. (2002). To end terrorism, end state terrorism. Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. Obtained December 11, 2007 at http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/2002/09/20_galtung_end-terrorism.htm.
Rasuli, S. (2002). The pyramid of skulls: how Saddam Hussein came to power. International Review. Obtained December 11, 2007 at http://www.int-review.org/terr37a.html .
Michael Wood’s “Iraq: The Cradle of Civilization” offers fascinating insight into human civilization, through a narrative of the story of Iraq. Tracing Iraq from the cradle of civilization to its current state of devastation, Wood warns viewers to learn from the mistakes of the past instead of continuing to repeat them. In addition to its overarching message, “Iraq: The Cradle of Civilization” includes some incredible details about the cultural diversity within Iraq and how current customs reveal cultural continuity with the past. Some of the most amazing examples of diversity include the Mandean people, who have cultural practices that are vestiges of Christian times such as a wedding ceremony that includes a full-immersion baptism in a river they refer to as the “Jordan,” even though it is the Euphrates. There is also the Yazidi people, who worship Satan but are not what a European or American would call a Satan…
Iraq is constantly in the news today, as the war in the Middle East continues. It is important to examine specific details of Iraq in order to gain a better understanding of the country.
Iraq is officially known by four different names. These names are: "conventional long form- Republic of Iraq; conventional short form- Iraq; local long form- Al Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah; local short form- Al Iraq (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)."
Iraq occupies a total of 437,072 sq km or 271596.5 sq miles, and is "slightly more than twice the size of Idaho (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)." The country is located in the Middle East, "bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait, with geographic coordinates of 33-00 N, 44-00 E, as compared with the geographic coordinates of the United States of 38-00 N, 97-00 (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)."
In terms of physical geography, Iraq is "mostly desert with mild to cool winters and dry,…
(World Factbook- Iraq. (Accessed 29 November, 2004).
Iraq War Has Affected the U.S. Economy
Since 9/11, Americans have been defending their country. Unfortunately the war in Iraq has severely damaged the quality of life of many American citizens. Many people (Americans and otherwise) feel that the war effort has gone on long enough. In fact, it's believed that it's being dragged out, causing the American economy to suffer further. The intentions of this essay are to discuss the affect the war is having on the U.S. economy.
Many Americans are losing their homes and prices are out of control. ather than increasing the average income in order to support the cost increase throughout the United States, incomes have remained the same, if not have decreased slightly. It's hard for many Americans to find a job, so most are keeping the one they have. For the unfortunate individuals who are jobless, that means the job market is not…
Gwertzman, B. (n.d.). U.S. 'Winning' Unpopular War in Iraq, but 'Losing' Popular War in Afghanistan - Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved November 22, 2010, from http://www.cfr.org/publication/17111/us_winning_unpopular_war_in_iraq_but_losing_popular_war_in_afghanistan.html
Haass, R. (n.d.). Academic Module: War of Necessity, War of Choice - Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved November 22, 2010, from http://www.cfr.org/publication/20633/academic_module.html
Teslik, L.H. (n.d.). Iraq, Afghanistan, and the U.S. Economy - Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved November 22, 2010, from http://www.cfr.org/publication/15404/iraq_afghanistan_and_the_us_economy.html
Teslik, L.H. (n.d.). Debating the Cost of the Iraq War - Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved November 22, 2010, from http://www.cfr.org/publication/15694/debating_the_cost_of_the_iraq_war.html
In 2003 the United States President George W. ush officially declared war on Iraq to depose Saddam Hussein from power. The rationale given by the ush Administration to justify the invasion of Iraq was manifold. The U.S. Government accused the Iraqi regime of possessing and developing weapons of mass destruction. In numerous statements, the ush Administration officials also accused Saddam Hussein of harboring terrorists, including members of Al-Qaeda. And finally, the U.S. statesmen said, Iraq had abysmal human rights records and the United States, by overthrowing the regime of Saddam Hussein, would bring democracy to Iraq -- and elsewhere in the Middle East. In formulating this rationale, the ush Administration relied upon the principles of a group known as the Project for the New American Century (PNAC). The intended policies of the ush Administration in Iraq were in line with the main principle of PNAC, as stated by…
Bumiller, Elizabeth and Eric Schmitt, "On the Job and At Home: the Influential Hawks' 30-year-old Friendship Evolves," New York Times, September 11, 2002, available at . (Accessed: December 4, 2010).
Donnelly, Thomas. Rebuilding America's Defenses: Strategy, Forces, and Resources for a New Century, available at . (Accessed: December 4, 2010).
Greenhouse, Steven. "U.S. Says Iraq Appears to Resume Pullback From Kuwait Border," New York Times, 17 October 1994, p. 10.
Ikenberry, John. "America's Imperial Ambition," Foreign Affairs, Vol. 81, No. 5, (Sep./Oct., 2002).
attacks of September 11, 2001, we, as Americans learned that our country is not as invincible as we thought it to be. The United States can and has been hurt within this past year. Therefore, President George . Bush's plan to attack Iraq seems to be justifiable so that America has a lesser change of getting bombed again. And, subsequently, being weakened further. By attacking Iraq, Bush's intends to protect America and possibly keep from having furthers attacks on our country in the future. However, some disagree with Bush about going forward with his plan to attack Iraq which poses a major conflict among the nation's government. Some of the nation's leaders believe that the plan will do more harm than good. It may cause Iraq to attack America with a lot of power which could do extreme damage due to previous attacks the country. And, by attacking that country,…
Fraser, T.G. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.
Korn, David A. The making of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 242: Centerpiece of Arab-Israeli Negotiations.
Mitchell, Lena. "Locals support Bush's case for military action against Iraq." 9 October 2002 Northeast Mississippi Daily Journal http://www.djournal.com/djournal/site/articles/news/1289510.htm.
Crook, Olive. "Lets Give International Law All the Respect It Is Due." 15 October 2002. Atlantic Online http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/nj/crook2002-10-15.htm .
Psychological aspects of combat
Extreme high-stress incidents can trigger a number of possible experiences and responses including intrusive thoughts slow-motion time, sharper focus, dissociation, visual clarity and temporary paralysis. The occurrence of 'dissociation,' which is a disconnection from emotional and physical reality, might be a sign of danger for the start of post traumatic disorder or PTSD. One of the common and seldom discussed matters is the loss of bowel and bladder control that occurs during intense moments and it's also used as an exemplification by Grossman of the reluctance that people feel in talking about their natural reaction towards the fight against their condition (Grossman and Christensen, 2007).
According to some studies, there were far number of psychiatric calamities as compared to the physical casualties during the Second World War. 98 per cent of the individuals participating in the war would emotionally breakdown after no more than 60 continuous…
Grossman, D. And Christensen, L.W. (2007). On Combat: The Psychology and Physiology of Deadly Conflict in War and Peace. 2nd ed. PPCT Research Publications. Retrieved from: http://www.beyondintractability.org/bksum/grossman-on-combat
Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer S.C., McGurk, D. Cotting, D.I. & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care. New England Journal of Medicine, 351, 13-22. Retrieved from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa040603#t=articleTop
Litz, B.T. (2006). A Brief Primer on the Mental Health Impact of the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. A National Center for PTSD Fact Sheet. Retrieved from: http://www.ptsd.ne.gov/pdfs/impact-of-the-wars-in-afghanistan-iraq.pdf
Williamson, V. And Mulhall, E. (2009). Invisible Wounds: Psychological and Neurological Injuries Confront a New Generation of Veterans. Iraq and Afghanistan veterans of America. Retrieved from: http://iava.org/files/IAVA_invisible_wounds_0.pdf
Reconstruction of Iraq: UN or U.S. Responsibility?
Three years ago, the world had witnessed two significant events that determined the fate of two of the most powerful nations in the world: the World Trade Center bombing in United States, and, consequently, the U.S. offensive against Iraq in March 2002 (Gulf War II). These events have eventually led to the oust of Saddam Hussein, incumbent dictator/leader of Iraq and the temporary take-over of the United States government in the country. A clearinghouse had been conducted, where the U.S. military, along with its allies, arrested all of Hussein's Royal Army and government members.
Furthermore, a 'rehabilitation' project was formulated, where the U.S. government tried to maintain peace and security in the country while providing Iraqis with their basic needs -- food, clothing, shelter, and a secure job for everyone.
It is evident that these programs made by the U.S. government…
Bennett, B. & M. Ware. (December 2003). "Life behind enemy lines." TIME Magazine, Vol. 162, No. 23. pp. 20-8.
Brown, M.M. (November 2003). "After Iraq: Why the UN matters." United Nations Development Programme Web site. Accessed: 23 May 2004. Available at http://www.undp.org/dpa/statements/administ/2003/november/12nov03.html .
Ensor, D. & M. Mount. (May 4, 2004). "Row rages on over 'abuse' in Iraq. Cable News Network (CNN) Web site. Accessed: 23 May 2004. Available at http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/meast/05/04/iraq.international.main/index.html.
A: The handover in Iraq." (May 24, 2004). British Broadcasting Company (BBC) Web site. Accessed: 24 May 2004. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/3742383.stm .
As the end of the year slowly approaches, there is an expected transition of power by the United States and its allies to allow the Iraqi people to govern themselves. The media has tried to convince us that we as a nation have liberated the country of Iraq from one of the most brutal dictators in the world's documented history. Saddam equated to a modern day Adolf Hitler. Saddam Hussein would surely have destroyed the American way of life by using his weapons of mass destruction that he had been stock piling for years. And if that was not bad enough, Saddam was also said to have supported the efforts of Al Qaeda's terroristic network. Our nightly news and all of the media hype may actually have us as a nation beginning to believe this, ah, stuff, for the lack of a better term. The war has had…
Al Qaeda. Ed. Frontline. PBS. 12 May 2004 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/who/alqaeda.html .
BBC World News. "Oil prices set new record highs." BBC Online UK Edition. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3713281.stm .
Blood for Oil? Ed. Taylor, Jerry. March 18, 2003. CATO Institute. 12 May 2004 http://www.cato.org/dailys/03-18-03.html .
Bush Administration. "National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction." White House Release (2002) 12 May 2004 http://www.whitehouse.gov /news/releases/2002/12/WMDStrategy.pdf.
Iraq War- Why America Should Have Never Gone to War
With human rights violation reaching its peak in Iraq and with pictures of Iraqi prisoners proving that U.S. soldiers are committing worst possible war crimes, every American is facing a dilemma: should we support the government or should we not. Everyone is asking the same question, what is America's point for continuing war in Iraq? Does America need to be in Iraq, should it have launched the military attack in the first, Is America really a champion of democracy or simply another terrorist state looking for ways to terrorize weaker nations? These are the questions that are bothering every thinking soul in the world and especially in America where public opinion is sharply divided on the issue of war. Any person with even the slightest degree of humanity left in him would want America to immediately pull out its troops…
Susan Page, Convergence of factors raises costs of Iraq war; As images erode U.S. credibility, analysts watch for tipping points in opinion, USA Today; 5/13/2004;
Siddioi, Moin, Pros & Cons of 'Gulf War II'. (View from the City). African Business; 2/1/2003;
JAMES TOEDTMAN. CHIEF ECONOMIC CORRESPONDENT, HIGH COST OF IRAQ WAR White House seeks extra $25B Newsday; 5/13/2004;
Prisoner mistreatment exposes U.S. double standard in human rights, XINHUA, (China); 5/11/2004
The war in Iraq has become one of the most contentious political issues in recent years. Although many citizens of the United States originally supported sending in troops to Iraq based on the possible presence of weapons of mass destruction, currently more and more people are crying out for the return of American troops. According to the Institute for Policy Studies and Foreign Policy (IPS) report entitled "Paying the Price," over 1500 troops have been killed since the onset of the war, and over 11,300 have been wounded. Equally if not more startling are the casualties on the other side: approximately 24,000 Iraqi troops have been killed in battle but an astounding 16,000 to 100,000 innocent civilians have also had their lives taken by the war. These horrific numbers belie the potential futility of the war. Continued presence of American troops in Iraq is needless, costly to both life…
One of the main reasons to withdraw troops is the obvious strength of the Iraqi insurgency and the consequential loss of American lives. According to "Paying the Price," the insurgency soared in popularity between 2003 and 2004. In just one year, estimates rose from 5,000 fighters to 40,000 on the side of the insurgency. Essentially, the war has created hardened anti-American sentiments throughout Iraq and the rest of the Middle East. The war, rather than bolster the American cause for freedom and democracy, has instead spawned further acts of terror and inspired increasing numbers of people to take up arms against the United States. Far from being viewed as "liberators," as the Bush administration would like us to believe, Americans are often viewed as terrorists.
Bennis' report, which was written in 2003 near the beginning of the war, supports the view that the invasion was unnecessary and would lead to catastrophic consequences. For instance, Bennis notes that the Bush administration had planned early on to occupy the sovereign nation in an overt take-over. Bennis cites the obvious economic benefits to the United States of such a take-over, such as access to or control over oil reserves and their related profits throughout "Understanding the U.S.-Iraq Crisis." Most critics of the U.S. war in Iraq suggest that at least part of the motives for the invasion was to secure financial gain. The Bush administration cleverly clouded its intentions by claiming to deliver a message of freedom and liberty, to purport protecting the Iraqi people from terrorist regimes, and to promote peace. Such assertions seem laughable today in light of the current conditions in Iraq, and few can comfortably say "it was all worth it" based on the hard evidence contained in such reports as those published by the IPS.
Among the enlightening evidence supplied in "Paying the Price" and in "Understanding the U.S.-Iraq Crisis," the most astounding are the numbers of troops and civilians killed, detailed in the former report. Additionally, tracing the shifts in public opinion since the onset of war demonstrates that more people are becoming disillusioned with the policies of the Bush administration. What amazes me and many others is the still-strong support of the administration in spite of their obvious lies regarding the motives for entering the country, and in spite of the lack of real threat that Iraq had posed before the Untied States attacked, as outlined in section nine of the report by Bennis. Since it is now common knowledge that weapons of mass destruction were also never found and because no clear connection between Iraq and the September 11 attacks hasn't been established, and also because of the lack of international support in favor of the United States, our troops should be removed as soon as possible.
U.S. Invasion into Iraq:
After the 911 terror attacks, the ush Administration launched the war on terrorism in attempts to deal with the threats of global terrorism and enhance homeland security. The war on terrorism was characterized by a successful American military campaign to destroy Afghanistan's Taliban regime and interrupt the operations of the Al Qaeda terrorist network. In the aftermath of this successful mission, the United States military invaded Iraq due to its probable source of strategic surprise and the huge danger to U.S. national interests. The onset of the invasion was marked with huge debates regarding the continued use of international sanctions and the inspections by United Nation's arms to contain Iraq. These debates also focused on the denial of imports that would be helpful to Iraq in rebuilding and modernizing Saddam Hussein's military. While U.S. invasion into Iraq was geared towards fighting the threat of terrorism, it…
Baker Boys: Inside the Surge. Directed by Ken Konwiser and Written by Jon Steele. 2010.
Chatsworth, CA: Gigapix Studios, Inc., 2010. DVD.
GRANT REBECCA, 'Saddam's Elite in the Meat Grinder', Air Force Magazine, [web page]
Peace Journalist in Iraq
While it is always critical for journalists who are war correspondents (Appeals Chamber, 2002) to exercise extreme care in reporting on what they see, they still have many basic rights and obligations that need to be protected and actively defended. In this instance, many of these are directly threatened and must be addressed because they could be seen as extreme encroachments upon core Constitutional expectations. In particular, there seem to be at least the following major points that could be used as the basis for a successful defense:
There is no indication that the incident in question is of sufficient importance to justify a direct suppression of the First Amendment right to the Freedom of the Press. The fact that there is or might be a verbal agreement and a PR strategy would not constitute as justification for not reporting on what amounts to otherwise…
NYT v. Sullivan (2011). From Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Times_Co._v._Sullivan .
Robbe, A. (2011). The Embedded War Journalism Controversy. Knol. Viewable at http://knol.google.com/k/the-embedded-war-journalism-controversy#.
Winslow, D. (2009). New Afghanistan embedded rule bars photographing troops killed in action. National Press Photographers Association. Viewable at http://nppa.org/news_and_events/news/2009/10/embed.html .
Iraq War - on Iraq and the U.S.
The drums of war once again echo in my ears. I am disgusted seeing Donald umsfeld on television defending the U.S. invasion of Iraq. CNN shows old footage of umsfeld shaking Saddam Hussein's hand, made in the late eighties when the U.S. was providing know-how for Saddam to build chemical weapons. I was five years old when we left the country, but I have one clear memory of the Iran-Iraq war in the 1987. I was at my grandmother's house in Esfahan, Iran.
My grandfather was listening to the radio report on our volunteer army, fighting the evil Saddam Hussein in the name of Islam. Grandfather turns the radio up; its' a bombing raid. "Let's go," Grandfather says; we go to the basement and I hear engines roaring. My mother presses me to her bosom. The roaring gets louder; they…
Al-Sudani, Zuhair. "Insecurity may delay Iraq Constitution." USA Today 4 Nov. 2003.
Bearden, Milt. "Iraqi Insurgents Take a Page from the Afghan 'Freedom Fighters'." The New York Times Nov. 2003:
Economist Intelligence Unit Ltd. (2003). "Country Profile, Iran: a concise analysis
Iraq War on the U.S. Economy
The current U.S. War in Iraq has become the most expensive military undertaking by the United States in the last sixty years. According to a recent study, the U.S. Treasury is paying out more money each month to sustain the war in Iraq than it did during the Vietnam War. While there is little disagreement about the actual expenses involved in the Iraq War, the opponents and the supporters of the War disagree on its actual impact on the U.S. economy. While the political left and the traditional conservatives in the country are staunchly against the Iraq war and decry its detrimental effect on the U.S. economy, the right-wing neo-conservatives consider the expense of the war worthwhile and beneficial for the U.S. In the long run. This essay takes a look at the impact of the U.S. War in Iraq on the U.S. economy…
Bennis, P., Leaver, E. et al. (2005). "The Iraq Quagmire." A Study by the Institute for Policy Studies and Foreign Policy In Focus. August 31, 2005. Retrieved on September 26, 2005 from http://www.ips-dc.org/iraq/quagmire/IraqQuagmire.pdf
Bilmes, Linda. (2005). "The Trillion-Dollar War." The New York Times. August 20, 2005. Retrieved on September 26, 2005 from http://www.nytimes.com /2005/08/20/opinion/20bilmes.html?ex=1128052800& en=fab629af9daf9eb5& ei=5070& ex=1125288000& en=53b1099708a36c0e& ei=5070& emc=eta1& oref=login
Buchanan, P.J. (2005). "Riding the Free Trade Raft Over the Falls." The American Cause.
April 18, 2005. Retrieved on September 26, 2005 from http://www.theamericancause.org/a-pjb-050418-freetrade.htm
First, the relative quiet produced by the surge permits the United States to withdraw its forces far more safely than if the country were in flames; if this opportunity is seized, the surge will have made an important contribution" (Zelleke & Dujarric 2008). The United States has ultimately striven to bring regional stability to Iraq and to Afghanistan, not to establish a permanent presence, and such stability is to be welcomed by all, particularly those who live in these nations who desire peace.
The means of a just war must be limited by proportionality to the offense.
The offense is a potentially future attack, "one we have good reason to believe is coming, then we can prevent it with what it takes to prevent it in proportion to how reasonably we can expect it and what means would be involved in such a potential attack" (Pierce 2005). Given the extent…
Greenway, HDS. (2005, March 31). Afghanistan, the poor stepsister to Iraq. The Boston Globe.
Retrieved April 12, 2009 at http://www.boston.com/news/globe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2005/03/25/afghanistan_the_poor_stepsister_to_iraq/
Pierce, Jeremy. (2005). Just war theory and Iraq. Parablemania. Retrieved April 12, 2009 at http://parablemania.ektopos.com/archives/2005/12/just_war_theory_1.html
Principles of just war. (2009). Mt. Holyoke. Retrieved April 12, 2009 at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pol116/justwar.htm
invasion and occupation of Iraq from three different perspectives. Firstly, the paper provides a historical background pertaining to the interest of energy-hungry countries such as France, America and Britain. The paper also provides a brief background of the relationship of Iraq with its neighbors and how oil has turned out to be a major source of attraction for the imperial powers. Secondly, the paper provides an in-depth perspective of the ongoing war in Iraq from an economic perspective. The paper briefly reveals the unstable relationship of Iraq with its neighbors. The paper also reveals the importance of the Iraqi oil reserves in the war waged on Iraq and how the American and European companies have lobbied with George Bush and Tony Blair to get contracts worth billions of dollars. Thirdly, the paper studies the political aspects of this war. The paper focuses on the impact that democracy and the recent…
(1) Abbas Alnasrawi. Oil, Sanctions Debt and the Future. Arab Studies Quarterly, Vol. 23, 2001.
(2) Ibid, 1.
(3) Dr. Ferruh Demirmen. Oil in Iraq: The Byzantine Beginnings. Global Policy Forum. April 25, 2003.
(4) Michael Dobbs. U.S. Had Key Role in Iraq Buildup. Washington Post. December 30, 2002.
U.S. INVADED IRAQ IN 2003
Why U.S. Invade Iaq 2003
invasion of Iaq has a numbe of foceful effects that elate to the influence of the 9/11 occuence in the county. The then U.S. pesident who happened to have been Pesident Bush pushed fo the U.S. invasion of Iaq amidst the actions that Saddam had done to the U.S. In most avenues of pefomance, it is clea that the U.S. attack on Iaq was bought unde an infuiated situation. The demand fo the U.S. To invade Iaq came fom the sensitive eactions and elations between Bush and the then Iaq pesident Hussein. Many nations in the wold have engaged in wa and not because of the ideological diffeences. Rathe, the invasions and conflicts that have been expeienced in many nations ae elated to the geneal balance of powe. Many of the nations that have been expeiencing the ugency to be…
references to the political, economic and ideological interests/purpose of the U.S., ignoring the reasons stated by the Bush administration and the Blair government. Mu-nchen, GRIN Verlag
GmbH. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-20100916742 .
Radu, M., & Arnold, A. (1990). The New insurgencies: Anticommunist guerrillas in the Third
World. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers.
Roberts, J.E., & Army War College (U.S.). (2007). Winning the battle of ideas in the War on Terrorism. Carlisle Barracks, Pa: U.S. Army War College.
U.S. Invasion of Iraq- easons
US Invasion of Iraq: easons
The epublic of Iraq is located in South West Asia. Baghdad is its capital and Kuwait, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the Persian Gulf, Iran and Turkey are its neighboring countries. More than 95% of the population in Iraq is Muslim. The members of Shiites sect are the main inhabitants of the country (The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2009).
Saddam Hussein Takriti came in power after the resignation of President Bakr in 1979. It was immediately after his presumptuous control that a fight with Iran began which continued for eight years. The war ended in 1988 with a cessation of hostilities by the United Nations. Although Iraq was supported by the United States in Iran-Iraq war but it strongly criticized Hussein's tyrannical strategies and unrelenting arms increase. In 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait. International trade sanctions were established on Iraq by the…
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth ed., s.v. "Iraq." New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117025268 (accessed June 25, 2011).
Deaver, Michael V. . Disarming Iraq: Monitoring Power and Resistance. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106841608 (accessed June 25, 2011)
Zunes, Stephen. "The U.S. Invasion of Iraq: The Military Side of Globalization?." Common Dreams. www.commondreams.org/views04/1020-28.htm (accessed June 25, 2011).
Enemark, Christian, and Christopher Michaelsen. " Just War Doctrine and the Invasion of Iraq." The Australian Journal Of Politics and History 51, no. 4 (2005): 545+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018854191 (accessed June 25, 2011).
war on Iraq, and considers whether U.S. policy towards Iraq can prevail, through an analysis of eight facets of this policy: international trade; weapons of mass destruction; democratization; the war against tyranny vs. The grab for oil; the "shock and awe" tactics used at the beginning of the war; the U.S. occupation vs. liberation; whether the new government of Iraq will be Iraqi run or whether Iraq will become a puppet state; and, Operation Iraqi Freedom. The analysis is performed by means of an in-depth literature review, with relevant statistical support, where necessary. It is found that the war on Iraq was founded on false premises, and that the current U.S. policy towards Iraq is not sustainable for the Iraqi people nor for the honour of the U.S. government.
The war on Iraq (which some people would argue was an illegal invasion on Iraq, as it happened without regard…
Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality
The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1
The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…
Bailey, Sydney D. Four Arab-Israeli Wars and the Peace Process. Palgrave: Macmillan, 1990
Barber, Benjamin. Fear's Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy. W.W. Norton and Company, 2003
Barton, F.D; Crocker, B. Winning the Peace in Iraq. Washington Quarterly Volume: 26, Number: 2. Spring 2003, pp. 7-22.
Bijl, Nick van der. Nine Battles to Stanley. Pen and Sword Books, 1999
This is significant, because the two elements will directly determine the overall extent that these issues will play in deciding when American forces will withdraw. It is through examining this complex role that United States is playing in Iraq, that provide the greatest insights as to what challenges will be faced in the future.
"1,487 Victims of Violence in March 2010." 1 April 2010. Aswat Al Iraq. Http://en.aswataliraq.info/?p=129534 .
Accessed 2 April 2010.
"Iraq Violence Facts and Figures." 29 November 2006. C. Http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/5052138.stm. Accessed 2
"Lebanon, Israel and the Greater West Asian Crisis." 17 August 2006. Open Democracy.
Http://www.opendemocracy.net/conflict/westasia_crisis_3833.jsp. Accessed 2 April 2010.
"Obama Keeps U.S. Troop Withdrawal Plan after Iraq Poll." 7 March 2010. Reuters.
Http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE6261YI20100307. Accessed 2 April 2010.
"PKK Surrender Test Turkey Plan." 19 October 2009. C. Http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8315088.stm. Accessed 2
"U.S. Commits to Iraq Withdrawal by 2011, but Could Seek an Extension."…
"1,487 Victims of Violence in March 2010." 1 April 2010. Aswat Al Iraq. Http://en.aswataliraq.info/?p=129534 .
Accessed 2 April 2010.
"Iraq Violence Facts and Figures." 29 November 2006. BBC. Http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/5052138.stm . Accessed 2
ush justified to invade Iraq
Incontrovertibly, one can assert that Iraq had not been invaded for social or political reforms by the ush and lair Administration. Their objective had not been to liberate or free Iraq, but instead to occupy it and abuse the massive quantities of oil it holds. If truth be told, the aspiration to conquer Iraq and have power over the oil fields has not been a latest development.
Historic tendencies have revealed that all colonial states and super powers, for example America, ritain, Russia, France etc., have worked as a team and sometimes challenged each other depending on the state-of-affairs to achieve control over the oil wealth within Iraq. Abbas Alnasrawi (2001) writes, "It is a historical fact that the home governments of multinational oil corporations (U.S., UK, France) have all played significant roles in enabling their companies to acquire oil concessions, to penetrate markets and…
Abbas Alnasrawi. Oil, Sanctions Debt and the Future. Arab Studies Quarterly, Vol. 23, 2001
Barry Schweid. Powell: Iraq Evidence May Have Been Wrong. Associated Press
April 4, 2004.
Dr. Ferruh Demirmen. Oil in Iraq: The Byzantine Beginnings. Global Policy Forum. April 25, 2003
President Bush's ar On Iraq
President Bush feels the United States should launch a preemptive strike on Iraq, rather than waiting for sanctions by the United Nations.
He has received support from some political groups while facing opposition from others. Each side presents valid arguments on why they believe the U.S. should or should not go to war with Iraq.
In 1990, the United Nations imposed sanctions on Iraq after it invaded Kuwait. The invasion eventually lead to the Gulf ar in 1991.
The U.N. agreed to lift the sanctions if Iraq would allow international inspectors to certify it had removed its weapons.
However, since 1998, Baghdad has refused to allow inspectors into the country until the sanctions are lifted, claiming the weapons no longer exist (Yacoub, 2002).
In May 2002, a new Security Council resolution dealing with U.N. sanctions was accepted by Iraq for a period of 6…
COVER EDITORIAL / Convince Us / 4 Questions Bush Must Answer Before Deciding to Invade Iraq. Newsday. (2002): 03 August. Pp.B01.
DON'T BLAME THEH SANCTIONS. Denver Rocky Mountain News. (2001):
03 December. Pp. 38A.
IRAQ CALLS FOR INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE TO IDENTIFY TERROR.
However, this change has been a progressive process and largely set on economic premises and cooperation between the Saudi state and western ones. Nonetheless, it represents an important example of progress in the Middle East.
At the moment the opinions regarding the current situation in the Middle East are rather mixed. On the one hand, there are those who see the Iranian case as being eloquent for the despise and opposing attitude of the majority in the Middle East; on the other hand, there are those who take Saudi Arabia as reference point for the possible success of future strategies concerning the democratization process and the way in which a totally Muslim country can change and improve its standards. From this point-of-view, the situation in Saudi Arabia, the progress it made in areas such as social activities, political participation, education, and other levels at which the population can express itself…
Bennis, Phyllis et al. "U.S. Policy Toward Iraq: Policy Alternatives." Foreign Policy in Focus. N.d. 18 February 2008. http://www.fpif.org/pdf/iraqStmt.pdf
Carothers, Thomas. "Is gradualism possible? Choosing a strategy for promoting democracy in the Middle East." Middle East Studies. Democracy and Rule of Law Project. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 2003
Cortright, David et al.. "Contested Case: Do the Facts Justify the Case for War in Iraq?" Policy Brief F8. Institute for International Peace Studies, University of Notre Dame. 2003.
Fisher-Thompson, Jim. "Mechanics Training for Iraqi Army Fuels Engine for Change." America. Gov website. 2008. 18 February 2008. http://www.america.gov/st/washfile-english/2008/January/200801071712331EJrehsiF0.7347071.html
ar in Iraq
The top story for May 1, 2005 in the New York Times concerning Iraq was titled, "Iraq Insurgents Continue ave of Attacks." The Chicago Tribune had no top stories on Iraq for this date and the ashington Post's only story on Iraq concerned Iraq's power grid problem. The LA Times' top story is titled "Iraq to Purge Corrupt Officers." Therefore the two domestic stories concerning Iraq come from the New York Times and the LA Times. The two foreign stories discussed were links found on the Iraq Daily web site. One is from The Independent Bangladesh and the other is from Dawn, a Pakistan English newspaper.
The New York Times article is an Associated Press report concerning the Sunday attacks in Iraq. It reports that insurgents' attacks are continuing for the third straight day and have included ambushes, car bombs, and drive-by shooting, bringing the death toll…
"Iraq2 still crippled by violence." The Independent Bangladesh. May 1, 2005.
"Iraq1 troubles keep haunting U.S.." Dawn. (Pakistan). May 1, 2005
invading Iraq. The writer argues that an invasion at this time is not necessary or prudent when there are so many bigger threats facing the U.S. The writer discusses why Iraq is not a threat at this time and why an invasion would be inappropriate. There were seven sources used to complete this paper.
For more than a decade the nation of Iraq has been at odds with the U.S. Saddam Hussein, who is the leader of Iraq, has alternately allowed then refused weapons inspections throughout the last decade, even though he had agreed to them following the Desert Storm War of 1991. More recently, the President of the United States has focused attention on a possible invasion of Iraq based on the current war against terrorism that the U.S. launched following the WTC attack of 9-11. President Bush has invested many hours and speeches in an effort to convince…
Author not available (2002). BRAZIL CALLS FOR U.S.-IRAQ DIALOGUE TO AVOID WAR., Xinhua News Agency, 09-12-2002.
Author not available (2002). WHY AREN'T SADDAM'S NEIGHBORS AFRAID OF HIM?., The Palm Beach Post, 08-02-2002, pp 19A.
Wallace, Richard (2002). U.S. warn Bush over war., The Mirror, 08-14-2002, pp
Diamond, John (2002). U.S. war planners waiting for Iraq to cross the line., USA Today, 07-12-2002, pp 05A.
[…] With the U.S. now mired in a Mesopotamian morass because of what is described as a 'unilateralist' foreign policy, the UN's multilateralist approach is gaining unearned prestige and unwarranted credibility" (Grigg, 2006). While the UN might not have masterminded the war, they certainly participated in the events that led up to the invasion, so they did play an important role in arguments for the invasion, and now they are benefiting, which does not seem right, somehow.
Many members of NATO, including France, Germany, and Belgium opposed the war, and they protested sending any NATO troops into Iraq for any cause. Another writer notes, in July during a trip to Washington, obertson told U.S. lawmakers that NATO would not go beyond providing logistical support for the Polish-led force in Iraq" (Dettmer, 2003). The Polish forces were peacekeepers sent in to assist British and American forces. While NATO seems to have…
Dettmer, J. (2003). NATO suffering from identity crisis. Retrieved 7 May 2010 from the FindArticles.com Web site: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_2003_Sept_16/ai_107543546/ .
Editors. (2004). The invasion of Iraq. Retrieved 7 May 2010 from the Frontline Web site:
Grigg, W.N. (2006, January 9). Bring 'em home! The New American, 22, 12+.
S. To quit Iraq, sectarian genocide (or some lesser form of mass murder would ensue. As prediction, this warning is highly plausible, given the incipient balkanization of mixed Iraq neighborhoods and the great profusion of blood let therein. As ethics, the warning rests on the unstated premise that America has an obligation not to abandon Iraq to genocide (Steorts, Jason Lee, 2007, p. 43)."
From a U.S. perspective, to pull U.S. troops out of Iraq would silence the detractors, the anti-war sector, but it would be harmful to the U.S. In many other ways, especially on an international level. The U.S. would lose credibility with those countries that the U.S. has assured we would not leave Iraq in desperate straits. It would not serve the U.S. well on an international level as a credible world leader to withdraw American forces from Iraq and leave the country vulnerable and susceptible to…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018509737
Ackerman, Spencer. "Permission to Stand Down: By Mid-March, the Baker-Hamilton Commission Will Declare Withdrawal from Iraq a Respectable Option. That Will Be a Disaster for Republicans, and Great News for Democrats Eyeing the White House." The American Prospect Dec. 2006: 34+. Questia. 23 Nov. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018509737 .
Keeper of the Flame Award." U.S. Department of Defense Speeches 9 Oct. 2003: 1+. Questia. 24 Nov. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007383928 .
Laipson, Ellen, Patrick L. Clawson, Andrew Parasiliti, and Rend Rahim Francke. "Symposium: After Saddam, What Then for Iraq?." Middle East Policy 6.3 (1999): 1-26. Questia. 23 Nov. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94297561 .
It is without a shred of uncertainty that Iraq has the second largest reserves of oil in the entire world. It is also extremely clear that one of the motivations for the invasion and occupation of Iraq had been to control those oil reserves. On the other hand, at the present, in the post-war stage in Iraq, it is absolutely necessary that United States of America and its coalition partners collaborate and team-up to stabilize the present disordered Iraqi situation, for the reason that a free, stable and democratic Iraq is very important not only in the interest of United States but also very important for the harmony, growth and development of the world. Even the moderate opponents of the Iraqi war wish that the elections held in Iraq are not the end but the beginning of a new period for the Iraqi people so that they can grow and…
Abbas Alnasrawi. Oil, Sanctions Debt and the Future. Arab Studies Quarterly, Vol. 23, 2001.
Andrew Buncombe. Carter Savages Blair and Bush: "Their War Was Based on Lies." Independent. March 22, 2004
Dr. Ferruh Demirmen. Oil in Iraq: The Byzantine Beginnings. Global Policy Forum. April 25, 2003.
David Sirota and Christy Harvey. They Knew. In These Times. August 3, 2004
Under the terms of the Gulf War cease-fire, Iraq was supposed to destroy all its weapons of mass destruction. It has refused to do so.
Saddam Hussain is known to possess biological and chemical weapons and almost certainly hiding large stockpiles -- apart from American and British intelligence sources, this has been confirmed by neutral observers
He has tried to develop nuclear weapons before and will be in a position to do so some time in future if not stopped. There is evidence to support the this fact as he has bought and attempted to buy equipment used in development of nuclear weapons as well as weapons grade uranium
He has also acquired ballistic missiles that enables delivery of these weapons and is trying to upgrade their capability and range
He has consistently refused, obstructed and hindered inspection of his weapons development facilities to UN observers
Blair's Speech to Parliament": Raw Data. Fox News Web Site. September 24, 2002. Retrieved on November 30, 2002 at http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,63921,00.html
Does Saddam have weapons of mass destruction -- and would he use them?" (2002). USA TODAY. Retrieved on November 30, 2002 at http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq-q09.htm
Falkenarth, Richard. (1998)"Unconventional Arms: The Threat of Biological and Chemical Weapons." Article in Microsoft Encyclopedia Encarta, 2002.
Rothschild, Matthew. (2002). "The Case Against the Iraq War." A speech by, Editor of The Progressive Magazine. August 28, 2002. Retrieved on November 30, 2002 at http://www.progressive.org/webex/wxiraq082802.html
ar in Iraq focuses on the prospects of war in Iraq. This paper highlights the pros and cons of a war. The paper argues about the unethical waging of war by the United States on Iraq while highlighting some quotes to support its claim.
ar In Iraq
The United States of America and the rest of the world turned over a new leaf after the September 11 incident. Many viewpoints were put forward when President Bush decided to wage a war against Iraq. Some thought that the war was a result of America's greed for oil or to set up the corrupt status quo, as it did in Vietnam and elsewhere in the Arab world during the cold war. The reason that the United States gave for the war was to install democracy in the heart of the Muslim world. No matter what the purpose of the war may be,…
Washington T. Bush Team Doesn't Want People To See Human Cost Of War. The Toronto Star. 11 Feb. 2003.
Scott S. Analysis: Effects Of War In Iraq On Turkey, Iran And Saudi Arabia.
Weekend Edition Saturday NPR. 19 Oct. 2002.
His philosophy of a ruler who used any means necessary to achieve his goals is not too far off from what Bush has done in the war in Iraq. Bush has misled the public; whether he did this deliberately or not is still up for debate but the result of his misleading behavior has been financial and political gain for him and his cronies. Vice President Cheney has made tens of millions of dollars in the Iraq conflict through his ties with Halliburton. One has to wonder if the political and financial gains being made by those in the hite House had anything to do with the initial decision to go to war in Iraq. The fallacies of the Iraq war go deeper than just policy decisions. Great philosophers and politicians warned against greed and unjust wars, and the Bush Administration took the Iraq war far beyond the limits of…
Bush, George W. "This Is Not a Question of Authority; it Is a Question of Will." Presidential
Address to the Nation. March 17, 2003.
Purdum, Todd S. A Time of Our Choosing: America's War in Iraq. New York: Times Books,
Under Saddam Hussein, Iraq experienced years of turmoil, resulting in a war with Iran, economic mismanagement, and U.N.-imposed sanctions. Now, after 4 years of occupation by the U.S., Iraq experiences extreme poverty, unemployment and has millions of homeless. The country's infrastructure is in ruins and U.S. plans for reconstruction of its schools, infrastructure and civic buildings have been mired in fraud, mismanagement and incompetence. Commentators expect the country to suffer from the effects the war for years to come.
On November 15, 2007, the House of Representatives passed a bill that provides $50 billion to fund the war in Iraq and attached a timetable for the withdrawal of troops by the end of 2008. The bill prevented the White House from using funds to construct permanent bases in Iraq or assert U.S. control over Iraq's oil. President ush vetoed the bill, while Republicans supported this move. Congressional Democrats countered that…
Bull, Alister. "Civil War or Not, Iraq Economy Faces Vast Challenge: If the Violence in Iraq Ceased Tomorrow, Its Economy Would Still Be in Deep Trouble." Reuters. August 16, 2006
Button, Karen. "IMF in Iraq: The Second Invasion." Uruknet. May 20, 2006.
Cockburn, Patrick. "U.S. Issues Threat to Iraq's 50bn Dollars Foreign Reserves in Military Deal." Independent. June 6, 2008
Herbert, Bob. "Now and Forever" New York Times. December 4, 2007.
Bush's Invasion Of Iraq
invasion of Iraq was surrounded by controversy even before it began on March 20, 2003 as several countries including key NATO allies of the United States like France and Germany were opposed to it. Almost twenty months later, the critics are still busy questioning the necessity of the military action in Iraq and calling for a quick withdrawal of the U.S. forces from the country. A dispassionate review of the causes for the invasion, the developments during the U.S. occupation, and the likely future of Iraq would, however, reveal that the decision by the Bush administration to Iraq was correct. This essay gives arguments in support of Bush's invasion of Iraq.
One of the main arguments against U.S. invasion is that the U.S. And British governments had accused Saddam Hussain of developing eapons of Mass Destruction (MD) before the war but the U.S. forces have not…
Brookes, Peter. "The World is a Safer Place." The Heritage Foundation. September 12, 2004. December 13, 2004. http://www.heritage.org/Press/Commentary/ed091304a.cfm
Eberle, Bobby. "Bush Firm on January Elections in Iraq." Talon News. December 7, 2004. December 13, 2004.
Phillips, James. "Iraq: One Year Later." The Heritage Foundation. March 22, 2004
War on Iraq
Long road for U.S. Iraq Proposal." CNN International Online. Available at http://edition.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/09/08/sprj.irq.russia/.
This article was published on the eve of the U.S.-Iraq proposal in conducting an offensive attack against Iraq. The U.S. administration's plan to conduct an offensive attack against Iraq (and particularly, Saddam Hussein) was spurred by reports on incidents about civil unrest in Iraq, as well as Iraqi attacks against the U.S. These arguments are supported by reports that Iraq has been responsible for the attacks in the UN headquarters in Baghdad. During this time, UN support on the proposed war against Iraq is perceived to be the best support that the U.S. can receive as a solid backing in pursuing an attack against Iraq and Saddam Hussein's regime. In addition to an offensive attack against Iraq, U.S. also asks for additional financial support through the Congress to back up the costs of attacking Iraq…
Johnson's article presents a clear illustration of the after-effects of the offensive attack against Iraq. Through this article, readers become informed about the two sides of Iraqis inside Iraq: one group who wants independence with U.S. assistance, and the other group who wants independence without U.S. assistance. Although Iraqis do not approve of Hussein as their leader, neither do they want their nation be commandeered by Americans, since they know the cultural and religious differences that Americans and Iraqis have. This Newsweek article presents the "human side" of civil society-led insurgencies, a more dangerous and serious problem than the issue concerning Saddam, since Iraqis themselves are now expressing their disapproval of U.S. intervention in rebuilding Iraq through violent means/methods.
Beyer, L. "Inside the Kingdom." September 15, 2003. TIME Magazine. pp. 16-27.
Lisa Beyer's cover article for TIME Magazine delves into the political and social system of Saudi Arabia, a Muslim nation that is a declared ally of the U.S. In its war against terrorism. Beyer's focus, however, is about the danger that Saudi Arabia poses against the U.S., primarily because its actions does not parallel with its statements on anti-terrorism. The reporter provides an in-depth analysis of Saudi Arabia as a nation and its leaders, all of whom Beyer alleges to be supporters and financiers of terrorist groups, which Beyer qualifies as "Taliban extremists" and "Pakistani radicals." In addition to this information, Beyer also reports on Wahhabism, a religious movement (Muslim) that is dominant in Saudi Arabia. Wahhabism is relevant in Beyer's report because this is the primary ideology that Saudi Arabia uses in motivating and training members of radical and extremist groups that they finance. The article ends with a skeptical look on the future of U.S.-Saudi Arabia relations. While U.S. And Saudi Arabia are presently allies (not necessarily against terrorism), it is still questionable whether Saudi Arabia will maintain its pro-U.S. stance in the future. Beyer's report is also another analysis of the present and future effects of the U.S.-Iraq war on the U.S.'s relationships with Muslim nations. The article's critical look on Saudi Arabia gives the readers an idea of the stance of the reporter, which is clearly anti-Saudi Arabia, if its loyalty and honesty with the U.S. will be gauged. Moreover, this TIME article also mirrors the truth that aside from problems, criticisms, and possible attacks against Americans in Iraq, there is more at stake when other countries, specifically Muslim nations, are put into the picture of the current U.S. "rehabilitation program" in the Middle East.
War against Iraq
War has had a tremendous effect on me and my family as a result of the war which occurred with Iraq. The taxes imposed by the government by way of increased taxation were creating difficulties for my family. My father being the only full-time employed member of the family, the increased taxation was creating financial difficulties for us to bear the costs of running the family. There were Muslim friends of mine who were looked upon with suspicion by the administration and the Police authorities. They had expressed their inability to overcome the problem of the suspicious eyes on their day-to-day activities. As a result war does not give me good memories, being attacked by difficulties in running the family and of having to witness the sufferings of my friends who have to bear the cost. So I felt that I should take up this project of…
War in Iraq
Should we have gone to war with Iraq based on the reasons given at the time the war started? When we went to war with Iraq, ush gave three reasons for doing so. First, he claimed that Saddam Hussein had ties to al-Qaeda (Richelson, p. 44, p. 69). Secondly, he said that Saddam Hussein at the very minimum was attempting to acquire nuclear weapons and in fact might have already gotten them. Third, he claimed that Saddam had weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
Of the three claims, the third one regarding WMD was instantly believable, because American news had been full of pictures of dead Kurds, citizens of Iraq, killed with Iraq's chemical weapons. Hussein had used WMD's in the past on his own citizens, and so it seemed likely that he could easily use them on people he regarded as enemies of his country. In addition,…
Barry, Tom and Jim Lobe. 2002. "U.S. Foreign Policy -- Attention, Right Face, Forward March." Foreign Policy in Focus, April. Accessed via the Internet 4/8/04. http://www.fpif.org/papers/02right/
CNN. 2003. "Bush sends Iraq war letter to Congress." CNN Edition Inside Politics. Accessed via the Internet 4/15/04 http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/03/19/sprj.irq.bush/
Cochran, John. 2004. "Corroborating O'Neill's Account." ABC News, Jan. 13. Accessed via the Internet 4/8/04. http://abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/U.S./oneill_charges_040113.html
Richelson, Jeffrey.2004. "Iraq and Weapons of Mass Destruction." National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 80. Feb. 11. Accessed via the Internet 4/15/04. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB80/