Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
What makes me cringe even more is the continued claim that we are "liberators (Byrd, 2003)." The facts don't seem to support the label we have so euphemistically attached to ourselves (Byrd, 2003). True, we have unseated a brutal, despicable despot, but "liberation" implies the follow up of freedom, self-determination and a better life for the common people (Byrd, 2003). In fact, if the situation in Iraq is the result of "liberation," we may have set the cause of freedom back 200 years (Byrd, 2003)." agree with Byrd when he reminds the American people that our claim to have liberated the Iraqi people has actually put them in a position to have very little food, little water, destroyed towns and cities and no government to speak of.
To top it off the initial request to self-govern was stalled and ignored for many months as Bush proclaimed victory and insisted that…
Byrd, Robert (2003) Iraq War, Unprovoked Invasion of a Sovereign Nation?
Delivered on the floor of the U.S. Senate (Accessed 4-16-07)
"The United States engaged in a pattern of conduct beginning in or before 1989 intended to lead Iraq into provocations justifying U.S. military action against Iraq and permanent U.S. military domination of the Gulf.
2. President ush from August 2, 1990, intended and acted to prevent any interference with his plan to destroy Iraq economically and militarily.
3. President ush ordered the destruction of facilities essential to civilian life and economic productivity throughout Iraq.
4. The United States intentionally bombed and destroyed civilian life, commercial and business districts, schools, hospitals, mosques, churches, shelters, residential areas, historical sites, private vehicles and civilian government offices.
5. The United States intentionally bombed indiscriminately throughout Iraq.
6. The United States intentionally bombed and destroyed Iraqi military personnel, used excessive force, killed soldiers seeking to surrender and in disorganized individual flight, often unarmed and far from any combat zones and randomly and wantonly killed Iraqi…
John Ashcroft's April 1, Testimony (2003) TalkLeft: The Politics of Crime 2003 April 5. Online available at http://talkleft.com/new_archives/002337.html .
Pillar, Paul R. (2006) Intelligence, Policy, and the War in Iraq. Foreign Affairs. March/April 2006. Council on Foreign Relations. Online available at http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20060301faessay85202/paul-r-pillar/intelligence-policy-and-the-war-in-iraq.html.
Tremblay, Rodrigue (2006) War Crimes and Responsibility of the Bush Administration. After Downing Street. Online available at http://www.afterdowningstreet.org/node/13670 .
Skelly, James M. (2006) American Soldiers and War Crimes in Iraq. Open Democracy. June 9, 2006. Online available at http://www.opendemocracy.net/democracy-americanpower/iraq_warcrimes_3627.jsp .
6). At home, though, the media can often be co-opted by being made to feel that public opinion would be against it if it reported something other than the prevailing public sentiment. After't he 9-11 attacks, the public wanted the perpetrators and their leaders punished, so the war in Afghanistan had the support of the public. By extension, the idea of the war on terror also had support, though the parameters of that war were never clearly defined and were certainly not explained to the public. The Bush Administration made use of this support when it decided to invade Iran and suggested in many ways that this was a continuation of the war on terror and even that Saddam Hussein was responsible for 9-11. The news media did not do its job as well as it should and did not question most of these assertions until some time had passed.…
Boylan, James. "When the Press Fails: Political Power and the News Media from Iraq to Katrina." Columbia Journalism Review, Volume 46, Issue 2 (July-August 2007), 59.
Kamiya, Gary. "Iraq: Why the Media Failed." Salon.com (10 April 2007). July 22, 2008. http://www.salon.com/opinion/kamiya/2007/04/10/media_failure/ .
Kellner, Douglas. "Bushspeak and the Politics of Lying: Presidential Rhetoric in the 'War on Terror.'" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Volume 37, Issue 4 (2007). July 22, 2008. http://www.questia.com/read/5024109830?title=Bushspeak%20and%20the%20Politics%20of%20Lying%3a%20Presidential%20Rhetoric%20in%20the%20%22War%20on%20Terror%22 .
Payne, Kenneth. "The Media as an Instrument of War." Parameters, Volume 35, Issue 1 (2005). July 22, 2008. http://www.questia.com/read/5011208618?title=the%20Media%20as%20an%20Instrument%20of%20War.Smith , Sylvia a. "Media Faulted on War's Lead-up." Outside Cab le News (12 March 2008). July 22, 2008. http://outsidecablenews.blogsome.com/2008/03/12/media-faulted-on-wars-lead-up/ .
... Facing clear evidence of peril, we cannot wait for the final proof, the smoking gun that could come in the form of a mushroom cloud
Thus we conclude that President did indeed mislead the public even though the evidence clearly indicated that Saddam or Iraq were no immediate threats to national security. This is a matter of serious concern because if the head of the state deliberately tries to mislead the public, it speaks volumes about the president's leadership ethics. If we cannot trust our leaders, who should we turn to in times of genuine crisis? Weren't the president and his administration under a moral and legal obligation to tell us the truth? These are some questions that bother us today as we look back at the events preceding and following the Iraq war.
Dana Milbank and Claudia Deane, "Hussein Link to 9/11 Lingers in Many Minds," Washington…
Dana Milbank and Claudia Deane, "Hussein Link to 9/11 Lingers in Many Minds," Washington Post, September 6, 2003, p. 1.
Judis, John B., and Spencer Ackerman. 2003. The selling of the Iraq war. The New Republic, June 30.
Milbank and Deane.
Quoted in Milbank and Deane.
Despite high security in Baghdad, house searches, and strret patroling by the troops, the city remains pagued with violence. The current situation makes the use of miltary force as remedy for the current situation a useless option. A joint operation by Iraqi and coalition forces by the name of Operation Forward Together was also launched but jihadi elements, sectarian forces and nationalist elements continue to paly havoc with the security situation. Shiite and Sunni violent elements continue to hanut each other and resultantly inncoent people including women and children keep on losing their lives. The loss of innocent lives by the armed culprits in the daylight make people less confident of their security forces and skeptical of the seriousness on part of government.
The failure of efforts in the form of Operation Forward Together made the role of Iraqi security forces doubtful. In current situation people are unable to live…
Ghosh A. (August 2006). Baghdad Diary. Time. Vol:168 Isuue:9.
Muravchik, J. (April-May 2005).And the Walls Came Tumbling Down: The World's Last Holdout against Democracy -- the Middle East-Is Experiencing a Wave of Nascent Freedom. The American Enterprise. Vol: 16. Issue: 3.
Lowry, R. (May 9, 2005). What Went Right: How the U.S. Began to Quell the Insurgency in Iraq. National Review. Vol: 57. Issue: 8.
Teson, F. (2005). Ending Tyranny in Iraq. Ethics & International Affairs. Vol: 19. Issue: 2.
Iraq War Has Affected the U.S. Economy
Since 9/11, Americans have been defending their country. Unfortunately the war in Iraq has severely damaged the quality of life of many American citizens. Many people (Americans and otherwise) feel that the war effort has gone on long enough. In fact, it's believed that it's being dragged out, causing the American economy to suffer further. The intentions of this essay are to discuss the affect the war is having on the U.S. economy.
Many Americans are losing their homes and prices are out of control. ather than increasing the average income in order to support the cost increase throughout the United States, incomes have remained the same, if not have decreased slightly. It's hard for many Americans to find a job, so most are keeping the one they have. For the unfortunate individuals who are jobless, that means the job market is not…
Gwertzman, B. (n.d.). U.S. 'Winning' Unpopular War in Iraq, but 'Losing' Popular War in Afghanistan - Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved November 22, 2010, from http://www.cfr.org/publication/17111/us_winning_unpopular_war_in_iraq_but_losing_popular_war_in_afghanistan.html
Haass, R. (n.d.). Academic Module: War of Necessity, War of Choice - Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved November 22, 2010, from http://www.cfr.org/publication/20633/academic_module.html
Teslik, L.H. (n.d.). Iraq, Afghanistan, and the U.S. Economy - Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved November 22, 2010, from http://www.cfr.org/publication/15404/iraq_afghanistan_and_the_us_economy.html
Teslik, L.H. (n.d.). Debating the Cost of the Iraq War - Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved November 22, 2010, from http://www.cfr.org/publication/15694/debating_the_cost_of_the_iraq_war.html
In 2003 the United States President George W. ush officially declared war on Iraq to depose Saddam Hussein from power. The rationale given by the ush Administration to justify the invasion of Iraq was manifold. The U.S. Government accused the Iraqi regime of possessing and developing weapons of mass destruction. In numerous statements, the ush Administration officials also accused Saddam Hussein of harboring terrorists, including members of Al-Qaeda. And finally, the U.S. statesmen said, Iraq had abysmal human rights records and the United States, by overthrowing the regime of Saddam Hussein, would bring democracy to Iraq -- and elsewhere in the Middle East. In formulating this rationale, the ush Administration relied upon the principles of a group known as the Project for the New American Century (PNAC). The intended policies of the ush Administration in Iraq were in line with the main principle of PNAC, as stated by…
Bumiller, Elizabeth and Eric Schmitt, "On the Job and At Home: the Influential Hawks' 30-year-old Friendship Evolves," New York Times, September 11, 2002, available at . (Accessed: December 4, 2010).
Donnelly, Thomas. Rebuilding America's Defenses: Strategy, Forces, and Resources for a New Century, available at . (Accessed: December 4, 2010).
Greenhouse, Steven. "U.S. Says Iraq Appears to Resume Pullback From Kuwait Border," New York Times, 17 October 1994, p. 10.
Ikenberry, John. "America's Imperial Ambition," Foreign Affairs, Vol. 81, No. 5, (Sep./Oct., 2002).
Iraq War - on Iraq and the U.S.
The drums of war once again echo in my ears. I am disgusted seeing Donald umsfeld on television defending the U.S. invasion of Iraq. CNN shows old footage of umsfeld shaking Saddam Hussein's hand, made in the late eighties when the U.S. was providing know-how for Saddam to build chemical weapons. I was five years old when we left the country, but I have one clear memory of the Iran-Iraq war in the 1987. I was at my grandmother's house in Esfahan, Iran.
My grandfather was listening to the radio report on our volunteer army, fighting the evil Saddam Hussein in the name of Islam. Grandfather turns the radio up; its' a bombing raid. "Let's go," Grandfather says; we go to the basement and I hear engines roaring. My mother presses me to her bosom. The roaring gets louder; they…
Al-Sudani, Zuhair. "Insecurity may delay Iraq Constitution." USA Today 4 Nov. 2003.
Bearden, Milt. "Iraqi Insurgents Take a Page from the Afghan 'Freedom Fighters'." The New York Times Nov. 2003:
Economist Intelligence Unit Ltd. (2003). "Country Profile, Iran: a concise analysis
However, this change has been a progressive process and largely set on economic premises and cooperation between the Saudi state and western ones. Nonetheless, it represents an important example of progress in the Middle East.
At the moment the opinions regarding the current situation in the Middle East are rather mixed. On the one hand, there are those who see the Iranian case as being eloquent for the despise and opposing attitude of the majority in the Middle East; on the other hand, there are those who take Saudi Arabia as reference point for the possible success of future strategies concerning the democratization process and the way in which a totally Muslim country can change and improve its standards. From this point-of-view, the situation in Saudi Arabia, the progress it made in areas such as social activities, political participation, education, and other levels at which the population can express itself…
Bennis, Phyllis et al. "U.S. Policy Toward Iraq: Policy Alternatives." Foreign Policy in Focus. N.d. 18 February 2008. http://www.fpif.org/pdf/iraqStmt.pdf
Carothers, Thomas. "Is gradualism possible? Choosing a strategy for promoting democracy in the Middle East." Middle East Studies. Democracy and Rule of Law Project. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 2003
Cortright, David et al.. "Contested Case: Do the Facts Justify the Case for War in Iraq?" Policy Brief F8. Institute for International Peace Studies, University of Notre Dame. 2003.
Fisher-Thompson, Jim. "Mechanics Training for Iraqi Army Fuels Engine for Change." America. Gov website. 2008. 18 February 2008. http://www.america.gov/st/washfile-english/2008/January/200801071712331EJrehsiF0.7347071.html
His philosophy of a ruler who used any means necessary to achieve his goals is not too far off from what Bush has done in the war in Iraq. Bush has misled the public; whether he did this deliberately or not is still up for debate but the result of his misleading behavior has been financial and political gain for him and his cronies. Vice President Cheney has made tens of millions of dollars in the Iraq conflict through his ties with Halliburton. One has to wonder if the political and financial gains being made by those in the hite House had anything to do with the initial decision to go to war in Iraq. The fallacies of the Iraq war go deeper than just policy decisions. Great philosophers and politicians warned against greed and unjust wars, and the Bush Administration took the Iraq war far beyond the limits of…
Bush, George W. "This Is Not a Question of Authority; it Is a Question of Will." Presidential
Address to the Nation. March 17, 2003.
Purdum, Todd S. A Time of Our Choosing: America's War in Iraq. New York: Times Books,
" (Campo, PAGE) Such statements remind historians of colonialism, where invaders believed that their society was superior to the culture they were supplanting, while reaping significant financial rewards for doing so. However, the United States has never claimed financial gain. The real criticism of this war is the rush to get there. The United States planned to solve the Iraqi war with force of arms even while the U.N. was still working diligently to confirm whether WMD even existed in Iraq. As we all know now, they were never found, and that was the strongest and most primary reason for the war.
Campo, Juan E. "enign Colonialism? The Iraq War: Hidden Agendas and abylonian Intrigue." Harvard International Review. Volume: 26. Issue: 1, 2004.
Fuss, Toni. "Germany's Opposition to the Iraq War and Its Effect on U.S.-German Relations." Social Education. Volume: 68. Issue: 4, 2004.
Cordesman, Anthony H. Iraq and…
Campo, Juan E. "Benign Colonialism? The Iraq War: Hidden Agendas and Babylonian Intrigue." Harvard International Review. Volume: 26. Issue: 1, 2004.
Fuss, Toni. "Germany's Opposition to the Iraq War and Its Effect on U.S.-German Relations." Social Education. Volume: 68. Issue: 4, 2004.
Cordesman, Anthony H. Iraq and the War of Sanctions: Conventional Threats and Weapons of Mass Destruction. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999.
Jackson, Richard. "Between Iraq and a Hard Place: Richard Jackson Suggests That the United States Is Losing Its War on Terror." New Zealand International Review. Volume: 29. Issue: 4, 2004.
Human ights Violations in the Iraq War
War is a touchy subject. People often have strong opinions regarding war and the practices of war. It is a real challenge to discuss ethics and morality within the context of war. Even within the context of war, people are concerned with issues such as human rights and human rights violations. Human rights violations during war are an issue that grabs organizations across a wide variety of interest and influence, such as the United Nations. Just last week, the United Nations released a report regarding the numerous documented human rights violations occurring during the war in Iraq. People inside and outside of the war may questions whether there have been any human rights violations during the war. According to the United Nations, the answer is yes.
Others may have the view that during war, human rights do not apply, nor should violations of…
United Nations Human Rights Council. Iraq: Grave Human Rights Violations during the War and Occupation in Iraq. 22nd Regular Session, Item 4: Human Rights Situations that Require the Council's Attention - 25 February -- 22 March 2013. (2013).
Israeli-Egypt Conflict and Iraq War
On June 5, 1967, Israel launched a surprise attack on Egypt which quickly spread to involve other neighboring states with both ground and air troops becoming involved in the conflict. Israel claimed that the attack was provoked by a massive Egyptian build-up of military forces along the Israeli border. On May 27 of that year the President of Egypt, Abdel Nasser, had stated that Egypt's basic objective was the destruction of Israel (BBC, 1967). Although Israel had consistently attempted to negotiate with its neighbors, their overtures were repeatedly rejected (Bard, 2008). Intelligence indicated the Arab states were preparing to go to war against Israel with Egypt, Jordan, and Syria being aided by Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Algeria. On May 16 President Nasser ordered the withdrawal of United Nations Emergency Forces from the Egyptian-Israeli border. Later that month Egypt had signed a…
Given the criteria presented in the spectrum of justification for war this conflict may be classified as an easier-to-justify preventative war. The Arab states had indeed demonstrated acts of hostile intent, preparatory steps toward hostile action, and made inflammatory rhetoric in the face of reasonable offers of negotiation. Since there is some room for doubt that an attack was pending this war cannot be classified as justified. Whether or not Israel was morally justified in taking this action is debatable, however when placed in the context of the time a strong argument may be made that it was.
On March 19, 2003, American and British forces began "Operation Iraqi Freedom" otherwise known as the Iraq War. There are several issues that may be pointed to as the basic reasons for the second major war between a United States led coalition and Iraq. First, there were lingering tensions and hostilities, remnants left over from the first Gulf war of 1991. At the close of that war the Iraqi government agreed to surrender and/or destroy several types of weapons including SCUD missiles and various Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs). The United Nations was tasked with sending weapons inspectors to confirm the destruction of Iraqi weapons and to search for any prohibited weapons the believed to be in hidden by the Iraqi government. Additionally, two "No Fly Zones" were established over northern and southern Iraq for the protection of Iraqi minority groups in opposition to the Saddam Hussein government. Allied aircraft patrolled the air over these zones in order to prevent Iraqi aircraft
Under Saddam Hussein, Iraq experienced years of turmoil, resulting in a war with Iran, economic mismanagement, and U.N.-imposed sanctions. Now, after 4 years of occupation by the U.S., Iraq experiences extreme poverty, unemployment and has millions of homeless. The country's infrastructure is in ruins and U.S. plans for reconstruction of its schools, infrastructure and civic buildings have been mired in fraud, mismanagement and incompetence. Commentators expect the country to suffer from the effects the war for years to come.
On November 15, 2007, the House of Representatives passed a bill that provides $50 billion to fund the war in Iraq and attached a timetable for the withdrawal of troops by the end of 2008. The bill prevented the White House from using funds to construct permanent bases in Iraq or assert U.S. control over Iraq's oil. President ush vetoed the bill, while Republicans supported this move. Congressional Democrats countered that…
Bull, Alister. "Civil War or Not, Iraq Economy Faces Vast Challenge: If the Violence in Iraq Ceased Tomorrow, Its Economy Would Still Be in Deep Trouble." Reuters. August 16, 2006
Button, Karen. "IMF in Iraq: The Second Invasion." Uruknet. May 20, 2006.
Cockburn, Patrick. "U.S. Issues Threat to Iraq's 50bn Dollars Foreign Reserves in Military Deal." Independent. June 6, 2008
Herbert, Bob. "Now and Forever" New York Times. December 4, 2007.
U.S. War on Iraq and Iran
Aftermath of the U.S. War against Iraq: Its effects on U.S.-Iran Relations
ollowing the aftermath of the recent war against Iraq, the United States government has been pushing forward in building its program for a free and democratic Middle East region. However, despite its "idealistic" program, the U.S. government faces a lot of criticism from Middle Eastern countries, particularly Iran, a country that had been least receptive of the success of U.S. In Gulf War II (U.S.-Iraq War). This month, with U.S. facing great pressure from countries all over the world because of the absence of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in Iraq, it is facing another antagonist to its efforts in "liberating" Middle East. This is through Iran, which has reportedly been manufacturing nuclear weapons. This makes Iran another "Iraq" in the making, defying UN inspections and international law in limiting and preventing…
Following the aftermath of the recent war against Iraq, the United States government has been pushing forward in building its program for a free and democratic Middle East region. However, despite its "idealistic" program, the U.S. government faces a lot of criticism from Middle Eastern countries, particularly Iran, a country that had been least receptive of the success of U.S. In Gulf War II (U.S.-Iraq War). This month, with U.S. facing great pressure from countries all over the world because of the absence of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in Iraq, it is facing another antagonist to its efforts in "liberating" Middle East. This is through Iran, which has reportedly been manufacturing nuclear weapons. This makes Iran another "Iraq" in the making, defying UN inspections and international law in limiting and preventing it from manufacturing weapons of mass destruction, of which nuclear weapons are just one of its kinds. In an article by Joseph Treaster last September 30 in The New York Times entitled, "Powell tells Arab-Americans of Hopes to Develop Mideast," Treaster reports on U.S. plans to further expand on its program for the Middle Eastern region, particularly in dealing with social, political, and economic problems in Iraq, as well as dealing with the continuing conflict of Palestine and Israel over land territories. However, another important topic discussed in this article is how Iran looms as a possible threat to U.S. security (as well as international security) because of its possible production of nuclear weapons, which the Iran government has been vehemently denying of having ("International Atomic Energy Agency has given Iran a deadline of Oct. 31 to prove it is not using a nuclear power plant to enrich uranium for weapons"). Thus, what resulted after the U.S.-Iraq war are the deteriorating relations U.S. have among Middle Eastern countries, particularly countries hostile to democracy and the U.S., not to mention the poor living conditions Iraqis are in right after the war.
Treaster, J. "Powell tells Arab-Americans of Hopes to Develop Mideast." 30 September 2003. The New York Times. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com /2003/09/30/international/middleeast/30ARAB.html.
U.S. Intervention in Middle East Conflicts:
The relations between Iran and Iraq were hugely affected by Islamic Revolution as Iraq's president was worried that the emerging Shi'a regime in Iran would provoke uprisings in Iraq. Actually, Iraq became increasingly worried that the Islamic Revolution that emerged in Iran could spread to the country and topple the existing regime while replacing it with a theocracy. As Iraq's president was concerned that the Algiers Accord would be dismantled and not followed or obeyed because of the new Islamic Republic, he regarded this as a serious threat to the country's borders and sovereignty. Iraq became a more populist country several years before the emergence of the Islamic Revolution as the doors to trade liberalization were opened in the country. A war against Iran was considered as a suitable option by Saddam Hussein, Iraq's president, to build nationalist sentiments and spirit and…
Becker, Brian, "U.S. Conspiracy to Initiate the War Against Iraq," The Commission of Inquiry
for the International War Crimes Tribunal, last modified May 11, 1991, http://deoxy.org/wc/wc-consp.htm
Jacek, Brian, "U.S. Role in the Iran-Iraq War and its Negative Implications on U.S.-Iran
Relations," Kulna: For All of Us, last modified March 23, 2011, http://kulna.wordpress.com/2011/03/23/us-role-in-the-iran-iraq-war-and-its-negative-implications-on-us-iran-relations/
As the end of the year slowly approaches, there is an expected transition of power by the United States and its allies to allow the Iraqi people to govern themselves. The media has tried to convince us that we as a nation have liberated the country of Iraq from one of the most brutal dictators in the world's documented history. Saddam equated to a modern day Adolf Hitler. Saddam Hussein would surely have destroyed the American way of life by using his weapons of mass destruction that he had been stock piling for years. And if that was not bad enough, Saddam was also said to have supported the efforts of Al Qaeda's terroristic network. Our nightly news and all of the media hype may actually have us as a nation beginning to believe this, ah, stuff, for the lack of a better term. The war has had…
Al Qaeda. Ed. Frontline. PBS. 12 May 2004 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/who/alqaeda.html .
BBC World News. "Oil prices set new record highs." BBC Online UK Edition. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3713281.stm .
Blood for Oil? Ed. Taylor, Jerry. March 18, 2003. CATO Institute. 12 May 2004 http://www.cato.org/dailys/03-18-03.html .
Bush Administration. "National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction." White House Release (2002) 12 May 2004 http://www.whitehouse.gov /news/releases/2002/12/WMDStrategy.pdf.
Iraq War- Why America Should Have Never Gone to War
With human rights violation reaching its peak in Iraq and with pictures of Iraqi prisoners proving that U.S. soldiers are committing worst possible war crimes, every American is facing a dilemma: should we support the government or should we not. Everyone is asking the same question, what is America's point for continuing war in Iraq? Does America need to be in Iraq, should it have launched the military attack in the first, Is America really a champion of democracy or simply another terrorist state looking for ways to terrorize weaker nations? These are the questions that are bothering every thinking soul in the world and especially in America where public opinion is sharply divided on the issue of war. Any person with even the slightest degree of humanity left in him would want America to immediately pull out its troops…
Susan Page, Convergence of factors raises costs of Iraq war; As images erode U.S. credibility, analysts watch for tipping points in opinion, USA Today; 5/13/2004;
Siddioi, Moin, Pros & Cons of 'Gulf War II'. (View from the City). African Business; 2/1/2003;
JAMES TOEDTMAN. CHIEF ECONOMIC CORRESPONDENT, HIGH COST OF IRAQ WAR White House seeks extra $25B Newsday; 5/13/2004;
Prisoner mistreatment exposes U.S. double standard in human rights, XINHUA, (China); 5/11/2004
Iraq Conflict and Esdp
The European Security and Defence Policy emerged in the wake of Kosovo Crisis when it was found that European Union essentially lacked the capabilities to play an effective role in Bosnia and later in Kosovo. This led to a collective understanding among major European powers that a better defence system was needed by the EU to address their common defence needs. With various crisis emerging and EU trying to play a significant role, it became increasingly clear in 1990s that European defence policy had serious shortcomings and no single European state alone could play an effective role in the resolution of global crisis. But the one crisis that forces European Union to give its defence policy greater weight and deeper meaning was the Iraq conflict of 2002-2003. The reason we say that is because prior to this crisis, ESDP had not yet taken the shape that…
Menon, Anand. 2004. "From Crisis to Catharsis: ESDP after Iraq," International Affairs Vol. 80, No.4 p. 631-648;
Speech by Strobe Talbott on October 7, 1999 at a conference at the Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, available at "www.state.gov/www/policy_remarks/1999/991007_talbott_london.html."
S. forces were made to operate on ground and targeted operations were planned against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda fighters. There were significant individually planned battles and skirmishes between the U.S. army and Taliban often resulting in heavy losses to both sides. A tactic that Taliban often used in such conditions was the suicide attacks and planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that left the soldier carrying vehicles destroyed. The U.S. utilized an Iraqi style counter insurgency operations in the Afghan region that resulted in some strengthening of the conditions.
3.1.3 Power sharing agreements
In order to enhance the effectiveness of the U.S. presence in Afghanistan the U.S. forged agreements with many warring tribes and factions of the Northern Alliance to enhance the unity of these groups that were to be pitched against the Taliban. These agreements were aimed at removing the support base of Taliban and Al-Qaeda from the Afghan society…
Coll, S. (2005). Ghost wars: The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin.
Dreyfuss, R. (2005). Devil's game: how the United States helped unleash fundamentalist Islam. Metropolitan Books.
Giustozzi, a. (2008). Koran, Kalashnikov, and laptop: the neo-Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan. Columbia University Press.
Jones, a. (2013, Jan). Only Three Choices for Afghan Endgame: Compromise, Conflict, or Collapse: Counting down to 2014. TomDispatch.com. Retrieved from: [ http://www.commondreams.org/view/2013/01/28-3 ]
War & Human Rights Abuse: Parallelisms between Japanese-Americans in WWII and the U.S.-Iraq War (Gulf War II)
Among nations of varying cultures and societies, maintaining satisfactory political relations is a challenge. This is primarily due to differences among leaders and societies that make up this nation; thus, as a result of this diversity, it is inevitable that international relations among countries of the world may experience conflicts and antagonism with each other.
Declarations of war are one manifestation of conflicts and disagreements between two or more nations. Examples of these political conflicts are the First and Second World Wars, where devastation of the physical geography of countries and millions of deaths had occurred. Human history has, over time, illustrated how individual differences can potentially lead to bigger conflicts, thereby resulting to devastating, even deadly, results.
However, a far more important issue that should be focused on during times of war…
Cheney questions release of more photos." 11 May 2004. The New York Times Online. Available at http://www.nytimes.com .
Executive Order 9066." (1942). Available at National Archives and Records Administration.
That is simply not the case. Troops are being pulled out and replaced with mercenaries.
By using such deceptive tactics as talking points like that -- "I will bring the troops home" (one of Obama's campaign promises) -- the American public are fooled about politicians' plans. Politicians are by and large bought and sold by lobbyists from the military-industrial complex as well as by the Israeli lobby like AIPAC. If Americans in favor of peace cannot be fooled by phony promises of pulling the troops out (because they know they are only being replaced by hired mercenaries and unrest is still being promoted in the Middle East as a part of America's foreign policy), then Americans are tricked into believing that the Arab states are full of terrorists and that America is not safe unless it occupies the whole of the Middle East.
As Howard Zinn observes, "The United States…
Joseph, Paul. Are Americans becoming More Peaceful? MI: Paradigm Publishers,
McCoy, Katherine. "Uncle Sam Wants Them." Contexts, Winter 2009, 14-19. Print.
Zinn, Howard. A Power Governments Cannot Suppress. SF: City Lights, 2007. Print.
Manufacturers are the most affected as they have to absorb the transportation costs borne by the transporters. This often results in a price hike which lowers profits. Companies who have to cut their profits lay off staff which affects consumer spending power. These actions hurt the economy in the longer run as it causes inflation and puts pressure on the government to raise wages so that consumers can afford to pay higher prices. Wages are never increased with rising prices so this result in people becoming poorer and it weakens the economy. Unemployment deters people from buying goods and results in lower sales. This causes more layoffs and pushes the economy to go down.
The automobile industry has been the most affected as car sales have slumped due to the increase in oil prices. Consumers are wary of buying SUVs because they consume a lot of fuel. SUVs form a…
Bilmes, Linda & Stiglitz, Joseph (2006). The Economic Costs of the Iraq War: An Appraisal Three Years After the Beginning of the Conflict, NBER Working Paper No. 12054
Surowiecki, James (2005, May). Oil Change. The New Yorker
Perry, George L. (2001).The War on Terrorism, the World Oil Market and the U.S. Economy, The Brookings Institution
Behravesh, Nariman, (February 2003).Iraq War Scenarios, Global Insight
The time to go in and dismantle his war machine was now, Bush insisted.
But now, nearly four years after the invasion of Iraq, with nearly 3,000 American casualties and over $380 billion having been spent (Sidoti, 2006), less than 40% of Americans support the war. No weapons of mass destruction have been found. No evidence of any nuclear program Hussein was alleged to have launched has been found. And recently the U.S. intelligence agencies reported that the war in Iraq has created more terrorists, and that we are not any safer now than we were in 2001 after 9/11.
Moreover, the American people are clearly fed up with what they see on television from Iraq: a) there is now a civil war going on between rival ethnic factions, and dozens of innocent civilians are kidnapped and/or slaughtered every day; the U.S. involvement has exacerbated this bloodletting; b) images of…
Hess, Pamela. "Pentagon late to the information war." United Press International. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 at http://www.upi.com .
Reuters. "Factbox - Military and Civilian Deaths in Iraq. Retrieved 2 Nov. 2006 at http://www.alertnet.org .
Sidoti, Liz. "Analysis: Iraq war dominates campaign." Associated Press. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 from http://www.mercurynews.com .
When this was accomplished, the ideal of democracy was used to justify further war. After several years of ongoing death and destruction, this ideal is increasingly shown as a product of a very idealistic imagination.
The author's argument is made all the more poignant by the non-emotional and realistic tone of his writing. The construction of his writing makes clear the discrepancy between the reality and the ideal of the war. Indeed, he uses not only his own ideas, but also adds input from other political writers and thinkers to substantiate his ideas. These elements add to the realism of his writing.
In conclusion, articles such as the one by Danner provides the American public with valuable bases for both critical and realistic thinking. The Iraq war is assuming crisis proportions. The public however has the power to end the atrocity and to restore to their world a much-needed paradigm…
It explains how an Iraq War Vet became a military consultant in Hollywood. It quotes a professor who says that as the war goes on, the stories of war will become the fabric of American culture and identity. For example, many popular television programs began to incorporate the Iraq War into their stories. hese include the episodes from ER, Las Vegas, Extreme Makeover, comedy Arrested Development, and soap opera Days of Our Lives. he article quotes one producer saying: "I think people are just ready to watch . . . something that is contemporary and important and dramatic and exciting." his comment by a producer shows that war generates interest in war stories and thus people's love and glorifying of war stories. Explaining to my viewers that such breeding of interest in war stories may have very negative consequences for our culture and the nation is important to my blog.…
The second material I am using is an article by ABC News Good Morning America "Iraq War Images Seep into Popular Culture." It is available online at http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/IraqCoverage/story?id=759253&page=1 , This material mainly explains how the war in Iraq is becoming part of America at home. It explains how an Iraq War Vet became a military consultant in Hollywood. It quotes a professor who says that as the war goes on, the stories of war will become the fabric of American culture and identity. For example, many popular television programs began to incorporate the Iraq War into their stories. These include the episodes from ER, Las Vegas, Extreme Makeover, comedy Arrested Development, and soap opera Days of Our Lives. The article quotes one producer saying: "I think people are just ready to watch . . . something that is contemporary and important and dramatic and exciting." This comment by a producer shows that war generates interest in war stories and thus people's love and glorifying of war stories. Explaining to my viewers that such breeding of interest in war stories may have very negative consequences for our culture and the nation is important to my blog.
Third media material I am using is the "war and militarism" section of FAIR [Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting]. The website is available at http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=7&issue_area_id=26 . FAIR is dedicated to challenging the mainstream media reporting. It has specific sections that deal with a variety of issues, but most important for my blog is the section on war and militarism. The articles here show how often mainstream media reports present wrong impressions of wars and militarism. The media often lies about the realities of war and militarism and many people accept media representations as truth and fail to see many negative consequences of wars. For instance, Pat Tillman, a former popular soccer player who went to war but became an anti-war soldier and killed in a friendly fire, was at first reported to have been killed in a heroic fight with the Taliban. FAIR helps to expose these kinds of lies of the mainstream media.
All three materials are important for my blog. The documentary extra featuring George Gerbner explains the relationship between violent images in the media and American culture. The video tells how heavy exposure to violent images has affected America's national psyche. Many people are addicted to violence and crave for more and more violent imagery in films and on TV. The ABC News article is important to my blog because it explains how an ongoing war -- in this case, the Iraq War -- enters the American society. It explains how the Iraq War is becoming part of our popular culture. And the third media material is invaluable to my blog because it regularly publishes articles that are relevant to the topic of war, violence, and the nation. I will add these materials to my blog and also add my detailed commentaries because my purpose is not only to present media materials, but also try to explain some of the consequences of our culture's increasing obsession with war and violence.
This article addresses why children and adolescents may become violent, what factors influence them, what are the signs, and what preventive measures work in society's attempts to end violence among children and adolescents. In our society today, many parents have become irresponsible, not only allowing their children to immerse themselves in violent video games and movies but also causing a lot of violent behavior among their children by having unhealthy marriages, abusing their children, and becoming alcohol and drug addicts. This problem needs to be addressed, and therefore I found it important to include into my blog.
The last material I decided to include into my blog is an article by a professor of education who talks about the connection of toys to violence. This article points out that we often look at violence in media, TV, the Internet as causes of violence among Americans but we rarely…
Despite all the graphic, inventive detailed descriptions of the physical suffering and the mental anguish Turner has endured, in the end, it is the cliche, metaphoric image of a breaking heart that sends the strongest message. It should break any human being's heart to kill, and those who are not emotionally torn up by taking another human being's life are therefore, essentially heartless.
There is also an indication in Here, Bullet, that it is not only the heart that malfunctions in the throes of death and killing, but the brain as well. hen Turner speaks of "the leap thought makes at the synaptic gap" he is symbolizing the leap a person's mind is forced to make from have a respect for life and compassion for mankind to suddenly believe that it is okay to kill, maim and torture in the name of your country. Thus from Turner's point-of-view, after being…
Turner, Brian, "Here, Bullet" Here, Bullet, Alice James Books, 2005
Turner, Brian, "Sadiq" Here, Bullet, Alice James Books, 2005
Himes, Andrew, Voices in Wartime Anthology, cited in Alice James Books. Web. 17 June, 2010. http://www.alicejamesbooks.org/pages/book_page.php?bookID=43
Whetstone, David. Culture: A Poet in Tangled Battle Lines of Iraq; Plenty of Poets Described the Horrors of the First World War, but in Modern Combat Zones They Are a Rare Beast. David Whetstone Talks to American Poet Brian Turner, Who Served in Iraq. The Journal (Newcastle, England). March 17, 2008, p. 18.
He is more interested in "things," than what those things will bring. "Nick went over to the pack and found, with his fingers, a long nail in a paper sack of nails, in the bottom of the pack. He drove it into the pine tree, holding it close and hitting it gently with the flat of the axe. He hung the pack up on the nail. All his supplies were in the pack. They were off the ground and sheltered now" (as quoted in Vernon)
However, with time Nick is able to find some semblance of his early self. He overcomes challenges and moves forward the best he can. Despite the fact that he is walking uphill through burned land with a backpack that is too heavy, he is now in a familiar place and happy to be here:
Nick slipped off his pack and lay down in the shade.…
Crane, Stepen. Red Badge of Courage. New York: Modern Library, 2000.
Hemingway, Ernest. Big Two Hearted River. In Hemingway, Ernest. The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. New York: Scribner's, 1987.
O'Brien, Tim. The Things They Carried. New York: Random House, 1998.
Stewart, Matthew. Hemingway and World War I: Combatting recent psychobiographical reassessments, restoring the war. Papers on Language and Literature. (2000) 36, 198-217
U.S.-Iraq War Aftermath
Following the aftermath of the Second Gulf War or the U.S.-Iraq War, the bigger question that comes after learning of Saddam Hussein's oust from his leadership in Iraq is: where are the weapons of mass destruction (WMD)?
The presence of WMD is an essential proof for the U.S. that will prove how their offensive actions against Saddam is justified, i.e., Pres. ush acted on the principle of protecting national and international security against Saddam's ambitions to reign in all the world' nations, particularly the Arab world. However, a recent article shows how the ush administration had continually failed to show proof, even evidence, of the existence of these WMDs. Months after the attack, the ush administration is 'under fire' for attacking Iraq based on 'unfounded' evidence and claims that the Saddam regime is manufacturing chemical, nuclear, and biological weapons. The New York Times published an article entitled,…
Knowlton, B. "U.S. Inspector sees much to pursue in Iraqi weapons search." 5 October 2003. The New York Times Online edition. Available at http://www.nytimes.com /2003/10/05/international/middleeast/05CND-WEAP.html?hp.
ar in Iraq focuses on the prospects of war in Iraq. This paper highlights the pros and cons of a war. The paper argues about the unethical waging of war by the United States on Iraq while highlighting some quotes to support its claim.
ar In Iraq
The United States of America and the rest of the world turned over a new leaf after the September 11 incident. Many viewpoints were put forward when President Bush decided to wage a war against Iraq. Some thought that the war was a result of America's greed for oil or to set up the corrupt status quo, as it did in Vietnam and elsewhere in the Arab world during the cold war. The reason that the United States gave for the war was to install democracy in the heart of the Muslim world. No matter what the purpose of the war may be,…
Washington T. Bush Team Doesn't Want People To See Human Cost Of War. The Toronto Star. 11 Feb. 2003.
Scott S. Analysis: Effects Of War In Iraq On Turkey, Iran And Saudi Arabia.
Weekend Edition Saturday NPR. 19 Oct. 2002.
.." For example, during the Vietnam War the United States "sprayed 3640 km2 of South Vietnam's cropland with herbicides, using a total estimated amount of 55 million kg. The stated rationale was to deny the enemy sources of food and means of cover. This widespread use of chemicals to destroy farmland, forest and water sources is unprecedented, and the environmental consequences are still relatively unexplored. International teams have been granted access for field assessments only in the last few years." (Learning, 2000)
The work of Lindon, Jernelov, and Egerup (2004) entitled: "The Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991" relates that the oil fires in Kuwait" emitted pollutants that potentially could affect the health and well-being of the people in the region. Most of the substances emitted from the burning wells can potentially cause adverse effects, which vary according to concentration and duration of exposure." In fact the concentrations of…
Lessons from the Last Gulf War (2003) Greenpeace Briefing Feb. 2003. Online available at http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/lessons-from-the-gulf-war-the.pdf
Learning, Jennifer (2000) Environment and Health: Impact of War. CMAJ • OCT. 31, 2000; 163 (9). Online available at http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/reprint/163/9/1157.pdf
Amirahmadi, Hoosang (1992) Iranian Recovery From Industrial Devastation During War with Iraq. United Nations. 1992. Online available at http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu21le/uu21le0e.htm#environmental%20damage
Lindon, O., Jernelov, a., and Egerup, J. (2004) the Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991. Interim Report. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis Schlossplatz 1
invasion and occupation of Iraq from three different perspectives. Firstly, the paper provides a historical background pertaining to the interest of energy-hungry countries such as France, America and Britain. The paper also provides a brief background of the relationship of Iraq with its neighbors and how oil has turned out to be a major source of attraction for the imperial powers. Secondly, the paper provides an in-depth perspective of the ongoing war in Iraq from an economic perspective. The paper briefly reveals the unstable relationship of Iraq with its neighbors. The paper also reveals the importance of the Iraqi oil reserves in the war waged on Iraq and how the American and European companies have lobbied with George Bush and Tony Blair to get contracts worth billions of dollars. Thirdly, the paper studies the political aspects of this war. The paper focuses on the impact that democracy and the recent…
(1) Abbas Alnasrawi. Oil, Sanctions Debt and the Future. Arab Studies Quarterly, Vol. 23, 2001.
(2) Ibid, 1.
(3) Dr. Ferruh Demirmen. Oil in Iraq: The Byzantine Beginnings. Global Policy Forum. April 25, 2003.
(4) Michael Dobbs. U.S. Had Key Role in Iraq Buildup. Washington Post. December 30, 2002.
Psychological aspects of combat
Extreme high-stress incidents can trigger a number of possible experiences and responses including intrusive thoughts slow-motion time, sharper focus, dissociation, visual clarity and temporary paralysis. The occurrence of 'dissociation,' which is a disconnection from emotional and physical reality, might be a sign of danger for the start of post traumatic disorder or PTSD. One of the common and seldom discussed matters is the loss of bowel and bladder control that occurs during intense moments and it's also used as an exemplification by Grossman of the reluctance that people feel in talking about their natural reaction towards the fight against their condition (Grossman and Christensen, 2007).
According to some studies, there were far number of psychiatric calamities as compared to the physical casualties during the Second World War. 98 per cent of the individuals participating in the war would emotionally breakdown after no more than 60 continuous…
Grossman, D. And Christensen, L.W. (2007). On Combat: The Psychology and Physiology of Deadly Conflict in War and Peace. 2nd ed. PPCT Research Publications. Retrieved from: http://www.beyondintractability.org/bksum/grossman-on-combat
Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer S.C., McGurk, D. Cotting, D.I. & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care. New England Journal of Medicine, 351, 13-22. Retrieved from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa040603#t=articleTop
Litz, B.T. (2006). A Brief Primer on the Mental Health Impact of the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. A National Center for PTSD Fact Sheet. Retrieved from: http://www.ptsd.ne.gov/pdfs/impact-of-the-wars-in-afghanistan-iraq.pdf
Williamson, V. And Mulhall, E. (2009). Invisible Wounds: Psychological and Neurological Injuries Confront a New Generation of Veterans. Iraq and Afghanistan veterans of America. Retrieved from: http://iava.org/files/IAVA_invisible_wounds_0.pdf
theage.com.au/articles/2004/01/30/1075340841758.html?from=storyrhs (Iraq war necessary, despite intelligence errors by Tony Parkinson January 31, 2004)."
With that foundation and Saddam's regime tactics in the past in which he continued to defy United Nations resolutions there was really no choice but to invade Iraq, disarm it and remove Saddam from power.
When discussing the war in Iraq the most important thing to remember is what happened there before Saddam was taken out of office and tried. The United Nations had made many attempts to work with him to satisfy growing international concerns about his behavior and threats. He chose to ignore all requests, demands and treaties that were placed on him by the UN (Iraq war was necessary (http://media.www.dailycampus.com/media/storage/paper340/news/2003/02/03/).
He continued to defy the wishes of the United Nations Council while he threatened any nation that dared to criticize his behaviors. While he was never an actual threat to America due to his…
Iraq war was necessary (http://media.www.dailycampus.com/media/storage/paper340/news/2003/02/03/)
Iraq war necessary, despite intelligence errors
ar in Iraq
How Has it Impacted Basra?
Since the war in Iraq has begun, it has become almost impossible to turn on your radio or television without hearing about what has taken place in regard to Saddam Hussein or with our troops so many miles from home. Long before the official first shots were fired, the debate of whether the United States should pursue a war with Iraq has been hot and heavy. But, whether you are for or against the war, most of us can not help feeling a sense of anticipatory anxiety as we wonder what will happen next. But, as an Iraqi citizen, the anticipation must be very frightening to say the least. It is hard not to wonder what the long-term effects will be for the citizens of Iraq. Other than the city of Baghdad, the average American citizen probably knows very little about the…
Aparisim, Ghosh. "Basra: A City Braces For Battles As U.S. Troops Mass Across The Border." Time 10 Feb. 2003: 64.
Bandow, Doug. "The Iraqi Question." The Washington Times 18 Jan. 2002.
Barrett, Greg. "Basra is Wasteland of Wars, Sanction, Saddam's Neglect." Gannett News Service 06 Feb. 2003.
Editors, et al. "Persian Gulf II: A War Too Soon." St. Louis Dispatch 26 Jan. 2003: B2.
He lay in the center of a red clay trail near the village of My Khe. His jaw was in his throat. His one eye was shut, the other eye had a star shaped hole. I killed him." (O'Brien 180). Very similar observations can be made about Turner's poetry. Turner uses highly descriptive language when he expresses his view of "bone and gristle and flesh," the clavicle-snapped wish" and, "the aorta's opened valves" in Here, Bullet. These images are immensely disturbing yet at the same time, surprisingly lyrical. The ability to combine these two opposing sentiments into a seamless flow of expression is a rare talent; one that both O'Brien and Turner possess in abundance.
hile O'Brien chooses to express his experiences through prose, and Turner chooses poetry as his medium, the sentiments being relayed are remarkably similar. Each of the literary works discussed here demonstrates that it does…
Lomperis, Timothy J. "Reading the Wind" the Literature of the Vietnam War . Durham: Duke University Press, 1987
McCaffery, Larry. "Interview with Tim O'Brien." Chicago Review;33,1982: 129-49
O'Brien, Tim, the Things They Carried. Boston: Houghton, 1990.
O'Brien, Tim, the Man I Killed. In the Things They Carried. Boston: Houghton, 1990.
S. security, but on international security.
Source #7 from Google: owman, Karlyn, U.S. public opinion and the terrorist threat, June 6, 2006, available at http://www.aei.org/publications/filter.all, pubID.24492/pub_detail.asp.
Source evaluation: The article provides a well-documented insight into the public opinion in U.S. regarding the war in Iraq.
Source #8 from Google: Diminished Public Appetite for Military Force and Mideast Oil
Five Years Later..., released on September 6, 2006, available at http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=288.
Source evaluation: An article based on opinion polls regarding the people's opinion towards the war in Iraq.
Source #9: Gunaratna, Rohan, the Terrorist Threat Five years after 9-11, September 22, 2006, available at http://www.researchsea.com/html/article.php/aid/1031/cid/6?PHPSESSID=0f987fb38af332abab79864390a755c4.
Source evaluation: The article deals with the terrorist organization al-Qaeda and the changes in this field brought by the war in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Source #10 from Google: Layne, Christopher, No adult supervision, November 23, 2004, available at http://www.realisticforeignpolicy.org/archives/2004/11/index.php.
Source evaluation: The article is analyzing the decision-making…
Mazzetti, Mark, Spy Agencies Say Iraq War Worsens Terrorism Threat, published on September 24, 2006, available at http://www.nytimes.com /2006/09/24/world/middleeast/24terror.html?ex=1316750400&en=da252be85d1b39fa&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss;
Mueller, John, Is There Still a Terrorist Threat?: The Myth of the Omnipresent Enemy, from Foreign Affairs, September/October 2006, available at http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20060901facomment85501/john-mueller/is-there-still-a-terrorist-threat.html;
Fletcher, Michael a., Bush warns of enduring terror threat, September 6, 2006, available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/05/AR2006090500312.html ;
Benjamin, Daniel, Two Years After 9/11: A Balance Sheet, October 2003 | Special Report No. 111, available at http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr111.html
The world's stage is full of confusion and warfare as the unsettled circumstances in the Middle East resonate loud and strong across the Atlantic to Canada. The purpose of this essay deals with explaining the reasons why Stephen Harper, the Prime Minister of Canada should continue with the involvement with the conflict with ISIS as the Islamic terror group gains significant footholds in Iraq and other strategic locations in that region of the world. This essay will use three arguments to support this claim to demonstrate the need for involvement and Stephen Harper's decision on this matter will impact many events to come relating to this matter.
ISIS is a Global Threat
The doomed attacks on 9/11 in America demonstrated the global reach of Islamist terror groups. The world's political, economic and social structure was transformed in many ways as a result of this attack, and the Western…
Hall, John. "The growing influence of ISIS now reaches Pakistan as Taliban leaders pledge allegiance to brutal jihadist group." UK Mail, 15 October 2014. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2793622/the-growing-influence-isis-reaches - pakistan-taliban-leaders-pledge-allegiance-brutal-jihadist-group.html
Kirkpatrick, David, "Attacks in West Raise New Fears Over ISIS Influence." The New York Times, 24 Oct 2014. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com /2014/10/25/world/middleeast/string-of-attacks-in-west-raise- new-fears-over-isis-influence.html?_r=0
Marche, Stephen, " Canada, The Idea, Is In Pieces," Esquire, 22 Oct 2014. Retrieved from http://www.esquire.com/blogs/news/canada-in-pieces
Warmington, Joe, " Canada's ISIS fight extends beyond Fallujah." Toronto Sun 7 November 2014. Retrieved from http://www.torontosun.com/2014/11/07/canadas-isis-fight -extends-beyond-fallujah
Iraq War Summary
While the second Iraq War was extremely mixed in its results, outcomes and process, the first one was much more successful. Indeed, it made presiding General Norman Schwarzkopf a national hero. This report will cover the buildup of the forces, the ground force surge, the air campaign, an assessment of the battle overall and a conclusion that ties up all of the above. While everything could always be done better, the way in which the Coalition Air Campaign paralyzed the Iraqi forces and thus made it much easier for the ground forces to then win the war was done exquisitely well and it is the ground forces that truly won the day.
Buildup of Forces
The first war in Iraq, commonly referred to as the Gulf War, occurred in 1990 and 1991. The war was in response to the invasion of Kuwait in August 1990. Indeed, Iraq…
Ahmed, H.H. (1991). Iraq's conduct of the Gulf crisis: A critical assessment. Arab Studies Quarterly, 13(1/2), 11.
Cigar, N. (2014). Did Iraq expect a nuclear Desert Storm? Deterrence, paradigms, and operational culture in a weapons of mass destruction environment. War In
History, 21(3), 274-301.
Head, W. (2013). The Battle for Ra's Al-Khafji and the Effects of Air Power January 29-
War in Iraq
Should we have gone to war with Iraq based on the reasons given at the time the war started? When we went to war with Iraq, ush gave three reasons for doing so. First, he claimed that Saddam Hussein had ties to al-Qaeda (Richelson, p. 44, p. 69). Secondly, he said that Saddam Hussein at the very minimum was attempting to acquire nuclear weapons and in fact might have already gotten them. Third, he claimed that Saddam had weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
Of the three claims, the third one regarding WMD was instantly believable, because American news had been full of pictures of dead Kurds, citizens of Iraq, killed with Iraq's chemical weapons. Hussein had used WMD's in the past on his own citizens, and so it seemed likely that he could easily use them on people he regarded as enemies of his country. In addition,…
Barry, Tom and Jim Lobe. 2002. "U.S. Foreign Policy -- Attention, Right Face, Forward March." Foreign Policy in Focus, April. Accessed via the Internet 4/8/04. http://www.fpif.org/papers/02right/
CNN. 2003. "Bush sends Iraq war letter to Congress." CNN Edition Inside Politics. Accessed via the Internet 4/15/04 http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/03/19/sprj.irq.bush/
Cochran, John. 2004. "Corroborating O'Neill's Account." ABC News, Jan. 13. Accessed via the Internet 4/8/04. http://abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/U.S./oneill_charges_040113.html
Richelson, Jeffrey.2004. "Iraq and Weapons of Mass Destruction." National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 80. Feb. 11. Accessed via the Internet 4/15/04. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB80/
ar and Occupation: The Effects of the U.S. Occupation on Japan's Government and Politics
The recent change in the American foreign policy direction which has seen the replacement of its traditional anti-colonialist tilt by the neo-conservative belief of guided nation building evokes a lot of interest in the history of United State's occupation of post world war II Japan. Although each such occupation is different -- the political, social and cultural environment as well as the historical context of every war and country being different-- it is interesting to study how the Americans handled the re-building of Japan in the post-orld ar II period.
There is no doubt that the United State government's influence in shaping the future of Japan was overwhelming. In fact it would not be wrong to state that Japan's current political and economic status as a first world power is a direct result of the guiding…
Bell, P.M.H. "The World Since 1945: An International History.": New York: Oxford University Press, 2001
Dower, John W. "Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II." New York: Norton/Free Press:, 1999
Dower, John W. "Why Iraq is not Japan." Mercury News. Apr. 27, 2003. July 2, 2003. http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/news/editorial/5728557.htm?template=contentModules/printstory.jsp
Gordon, Bill. "The Allied Occupation of Japan." May 2000. July 2, 2003 http://wgordon.web.wesleyan.edu/papers/alliedoc.htm
The American public is misleaded concerning the war in Iraq.
Americans believe that the war is for freedom, 9-11, and the good of the Iraqi people.
Americans are misled.
What is the war really about?
The war is not about terrorism, freedom, WMD's or the "people."
The war is misguided and damaging.
Experts agree that the war is a bad idea.
Clarke and Leverett give opinions on why the war is a bad idea.
The Iraq war is compared to an insufficient dose of penicillin.
What's so wrong with attacking Iraq?
There are no WMD's, the main justification is gone.
One cannot clean one's kitchen by cleaning the living room.
So what's the big deal?
American citizens are not safer than before, and may be less safe.
Iraq, like American Muslims are perceived as fair targets, whether they deserve it or not.
Conclusion: Iraq is not the same as…
Fletcher, Douglas. (2004). Where are the WMD's? Reason Hit and Run. 27 March.
Discusses the role of WMD's in the war on Iraq.
Gillespie, Nick. (2002). You mean they're not the same thing? The Washington Post. Retrieved from Web site on March 31, 2004 http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:JW0jnA8faFQJ:www.brookings.edu/comm/policybriefs/pb93.pdf+%22war+on+terrorism%22+and+%22Iraq%22+an d+%22wrong%22&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
Touches on the possible negative repercussions on the war on terrorism resulting from the Iraq war -- especially in the use of resources.
War has shown its ugly side many times throughout the ages. As people have seen through battles, the casualties can be devastating. People lose families, lose their livelihoods, lose their dignity, and lose their homes when they are amidst war. The stories and the personal experiences of non-combatants are often shown to shed light on the brutality and violence that exists in war. Soldiers rape women and kill men. They set fires to entire villages and thousands of children are either left dead, raped, or orphaned. This essay is meant to shed light on the effects of war on non-combatants.
John Keegan, in his book, explains the views of war and the way people may have a particular perspective on combat and the various classifications of people during a war. The friend is the ally who helps or comes to aid. The enemy is the person that needs to die…
Anny Politzer, 'Der heimkehrende Krieger' ['The Returning Soldier']
Bartell, L.S. True Stories Of Strange Events And Odd People. iUniverse, 2014.
Carlson, John. 'War On Behalf Of Noncombatants'. Isme.Tamu.Edu. Last modified 2015. Accessed April 8, 2015. http://isme.tamu.edu/JSCOPE04/Carlson04.html#_edn1 .
Keegan, John. The Face Of Battle. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978.
ar in Iraq: An Application of Conflict Theory
The recent war with Iraq has been on the minds of people all across the world since well before it started. Many are worried that the United States will be seen as being too controlling, and that it should let the Iraqi people work out their own problems. Others, who are concerned about the threat of terrorist activity in this country and others, stick with the belief that the United States was right in their attempt to remove Saddam Hussein from power.
Regardless of which opinion one holds, there are theorists, both classical and modern, who have strong views on war. This is largely due to conflict theory, which is that life is largely characterized more by conflict that it is by consensus. Those who uphold this theory have different ways of looking at it, and the purpose of this paper is…
Collins, Randall. "Conflict Sociology." New York: Academic Press, 1974. 56-61.
Conflict. 2003. 10 April 2003 http://www.sunflower.com/~syber/sociology/html/conflict.html.
Dugger, William M., & Howard J. Sherman. "Institutional and Marxist theories of evolution." Journal of Economic Issues, 31 (1997): 991-210.
Introduction to sociological theory. 2003. 10 April 2003 http://www.dustbunny.fsnet.co.uk/Soci1.htm .
ar in Iraq
The top story for May 1, 2005 in the New York Times concerning Iraq was titled, "Iraq Insurgents Continue ave of Attacks." The Chicago Tribune had no top stories on Iraq for this date and the ashington Post's only story on Iraq concerned Iraq's power grid problem. The LA Times' top story is titled "Iraq to Purge Corrupt Officers." Therefore the two domestic stories concerning Iraq come from the New York Times and the LA Times. The two foreign stories discussed were links found on the Iraq Daily web site. One is from The Independent Bangladesh and the other is from Dawn, a Pakistan English newspaper.
The New York Times article is an Associated Press report concerning the Sunday attacks in Iraq. It reports that insurgents' attacks are continuing for the third straight day and have included ambushes, car bombs, and drive-by shooting, bringing the death toll…
"Iraq2 still crippled by violence." The Independent Bangladesh. May 1, 2005.
"Iraq1 troubles keep haunting U.S.." Dawn. (Pakistan). May 1, 2005
War on Iraq
United States declared that its main motive behind launching military attack against Iraq was to destroy Saddam's so-called vicious plans against the humanity. But how can we justify destruction of terrorism with more terrorism, how did American plan to root out terrorism with the help of massive military attacks which resulted in the death of numerous civilians and left Iraq in a deplorable condition? The answer is simple: Bush administration was never honest with the public and had no solid evidence to link Iraq with terrorist activities around the world, neither did there exist any proof of Saddam having any weapons of mass destruction. But America still went on war, just to declare its supremacy on the world and to show everyone that it had the power to do anything it wanted to do. I staunchly believed that war was wrong and now with the Iraq in…
The Honorable John Culberson
Old Executive Office Building
t seems there is very little we have done in raq that is in any way honorable. t is common knowledge, now, that there were no Weapons of Mass Destruction, and therefore precious little excuse for the war. However, it is true, also beyond question, that Saddam Hussein was a vicious and brutal dictator who kept his nation in line by virtue of excesses of every sort. One of his sons is reputed to have shredded foes in paper shredders. So perhaps the global community is better off rid of him.
None of that excuses the actions of the United States, both its top administration and its military. After exposure of their activities at Abu Ghraib Prison, and in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, their activities are very little better than the unconscionable activities of the Hussein family. Perhaps it…
If we are ever to see the abuses carried out by our military stopped and amends made, if we are ever to regain our reputation as a moral nation with high ideals, one of which is the humane and ethical treatment of all people (repeat ALL PEOPLE), then we must not confirm another Attorney General who is committed to destroying the foundation of American ideals, the U.S. Constitution, nor who ignores the demands of international law among nations of good will.
A November 11, 2004, report in The Washington Post by Dan Eggen noted the ways Gonzales, currently White House counsel, disregards and disrespects the American Way as it was once known, and the Geneva Conventions' requirements as recognized by all civilized nations. Eggen quoted Gonzales' January 2002 memo in which he "argued that the war on terrorism made the Geneva Conventions' limitations on treatment of enemy prisoners 'obsolete' and 'renders quaint some of its provisions'." He also noted that Gonzales' office "played a role in an August 2002 memo from the Justice Department's Office of Legal Counsel" that rendered the opinion "that torturing alleged al Qaeda terrorists in captivity abroad 'may be justified' and that international laws against torture 'may be unconstitutional if applied to interrogations' conducted in the U.S. war on terrorism."
In view of the abuse already conducted by U.S. forces, both in Iraq and at Guantanamo, we cannot afford to have as our chief law enforcement official a man who twists international law
A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.
A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…
Van Bergen, J. (2003) "In the Absence of Democracy: The Designation and Material Support Provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Laws." Cardozo Pub. [?] Law Policy & Ethics Journal 2 (2003): 107.
Luca, B (2004). American foreign policy and global governance, in A. Gobbicchi (ed.), Globalization, armed conflicts and security (Rubbettino/CEMISS, Roma) 112-127
Fawcett, L. (2009) International Relations of the Middle East (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press
ar in Afghanistan
After the terrorist group al Qaeda attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, the American military was sent to Afghanistan to attack the Taliban, and destroy their governing position. The Taliban became the target of the U.S. because they had allowed Osama bin Laden to use their country as a training ground for terrorist activities directed against the United States. However, the U.S. is now bogged down in what seems to be an unwinnable war against Taliban insurgents that cross the border from Pakistan. Moreover, there are militants in Afghanistan who object to foreign troops being in their country, and they have apparently joined with the insurgents and continue fighting the American and NATO forces in Afghanistan. This paper reviews the historical and contemporary causes of the war in Afghanistan, and critiques the positive outcomes as well as the negative outcomes of the U.S. engagement in…
Associated Press. (2011). Suicide Bombers Kill Worshippers In Afghanistan. Retrieved November, 2011, from http://www.npr.com .
This is an article that brought to light the ongoing violence in Afghanistan, in specifics the proverbial suicide bomber situation, where an radical Islamic terrorist is willing to blow himself up in order to kill others. In this case the people killed with fellow Muslims -- worse yet, he killed people exiting a mosque following their worship services -- but clearly the message to the world was this: the NATO and U.S. presence in Afghanistan will never stop terrorists from doing whatever they want to do whenever they wish to do it.
Baktash, Hashmat, and Magnier, Mark. (2011). Suicide bombing in Kabul kills as many as 13
Americans. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.latimes.com
He turns some readers off with his vitriolic attacks. Further, his attacks are is blatant propaganda. hy? Because while Taibbi does mention that the Democrats already crafted legislation more than once - setting timetables for withdrawal and tying those timetables to funding, bills that Bush subsequently vetoed - he uses quotes from unnamed "congressional aides" to solidify his assertion that the Democrats just wanted to "score political points without ever being serious about bringing the troops home."
Taibbi does use evidence that there are anti-war leaders outside of ashington who are discouraged and bitter. But he fails to build a case for his most radical assertion, that the Democrats "hijacked the anti-war movement itself" in order to play to the voters, and that the Democrats filled the "ranks of peace groups with loyal party hacks." This is pure propaganda, and the evidence he provides is very thin. He doesn't name…
Biddle, Stephen. "Seeing Baghdad, Thinking Saigon." Foreign Affairs 85.2 (2006): 2-14.
Taibbi, Matt. "The Chicken Doves." Rolling Stone Issue 1046 (2008): 37-39.
The Kurdish uprisings since late 1960s and the war with Iran during the 80s decade have significantly destabilized the political structure of Iraq. And the recent U.S.-led military aggression in the country has not helped the situation at all. The people are in Iraq are desperately looking for restoration of normalcy. And for this reason it is important to study the situations and propose a peace plan that would stabilize the government and brings decades of conflict to an amicable end.
To begin, it is extremely important for Iraq to understand that its internal uprisings are just as damaging as external aggression, if not more. Internal conflicts have caused immense damage to Northern Iraq where Kurds have been fighting for self-determination and representation since 1960s. Over the years, through active and passive activities, Kurds have managed to carve an identity and denying this would be useless as Peter…
1. Peter W. Galbraith, "Protect the Kurds," Washington Post, August 11, 2002.
As the world waits and watches, America steps one step closer to war each day. The issues with Iraq have become the most important news event each morning. Children worry that their moms and dads are going to have to go, while people at the end of high school and the beginning of college nervously eye the draft registration requirement they received in the mail on their 18th birthday. Whether or not one believes in the pending Iraq-American War the possibility of its occurrence has provided millions of Americans with lessons in history that surpass any textbook or any classroom lecture.
Each day the president's and his advisors publicly debate, argue, and discuss the idea of the possibility of war. Their views, as well as the views of the public are shared through television broadcasts, newspapers, and on the Internet. In addition, the United Nations are currently hearing arguments…
S. from the preparation and supervision of the coming elections . . . during this period, the training of Iraqi forces might, of necessity, remain a coalition task, but it ought to be monitored and supervised by the U.N." (Hoffmann & Bozo, 113)
It is clear though that at this juncture, the world community is not yet prepared to take control of the operation. The presence of U.S. forces is a reality prompted by the aggressive lead in to war and the obligations thereby created. And quite certainly, no nation or organization has stepped up to take the lion's share of responsibility which the U.S. has taken for contending with Hussein and his legacy. Thus, Obama's plan does not fully withdraw troops, instead maintaining a significant American presence that suggests the war is not truly yet ended. Accordingly, his 'exit' plan "would leave in Iraq a residual force of as…
Ewens, M. (2006). Casualties in Iraq. AntiWar. Online at http://antiwar.com/casualties/#count .
Hoffmann, S. & Bozo, F. (2006). Gulliver Unbound: America's Imperial Temptation and the War in Iraq. Rowman & Littlefield.
The Nation. (2009). Obama's Iraq Exit. Thenation.com.
Perle, R. (2002). Statement Before the House Armed Services Committee. American Enterprise Institute.
Private armies and warlords support themselves with these crops -- an instance of exploiting (in fact, abusing) the environment to pay for war (Global esources, 2004).
Use of esources to Finance Conflict
Forest products are also often used to pay for conflicts. Timber requires little investment and can be converted to cash more cheaply than oil, which requires technology. Control over timber resources can shift the balance of power during a conflict and affect how long the conflict lasts. Underfunded armies, military, police, and rebel forces often finance themselves by cutting trees. Conflicts in Cambodia, Burma and Liberia have been funded with timber, and in each of those countries the wood produced more than 100 million dollars per year (Global esources, 2004).
Incompatible Uses Leading to Conflict
Use or misuse of resources can be very profitable on one hand but ruinous to another. For example, jurisdictional conflicts have heated up…
Breaking the habit (2004). The Nation (Feb 9), 178 (5), 11-14.
Brown, V.J. (2004). Battle scars: Global conflicts and environmental health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112 (17), 994-1003.
Coles, C. (2004). Resources for peace. The Futurist (Jan/Feb), 38 (1) 6.
Conserving the Peace: Resources, Livelihoods, and Security (2002). IUCN/IISD E&S Task Force. Johannesburg: World Summit on Sustainable Development.
Many reasons for the war were offered by both the United States and British governments at various times. In the months leading up to the war, there were a plethora of reasons offered that made it difficult to rationalize and understand exactly why the war was necessary. The argument regarding weapons of mass destruction was one of the most argued points; however, there was much debate as to whether these alleged weapons of mass destruction even existed (Iraq Survey Group 2004). Another point of contention with the war in Iraq was whether or not there were right intentions. According to many scholars and lay persons, reiterated by Fishar and Biggar, there was serious opposition because the disarmament of Iraq seemed only the beginning of a larger agency established by the U.S., UK and their allies. Reasonable belief that weapons of mass destruction existed, for many, was not enough to…
American Unbound: the Bush Revolution in foreign policy. Washington DC. Web. 2003.
Biggar, N. "Invading Iraq: what are the morals of the story?" International Affairs, 87.1
(2011): p. 29-30.
Davies, N. Blood on our hands: the American invasion and destruction of Iraq. Web. 2010.
Iraq War on the U.S. Economy
The current U.S. War in Iraq has become the most expensive military undertaking by the United States in the last sixty years. According to a recent study, the U.S. Treasury is paying out more money each month to sustain the war in Iraq than it did during the Vietnam War. While there is little disagreement about the actual expenses involved in the Iraq War, the opponents and the supporters of the War disagree on its actual impact on the U.S. economy. While the political left and the traditional conservatives in the country are staunchly against the Iraq war and decry its detrimental effect on the U.S. economy, the right-wing neo-conservatives consider the expense of the war worthwhile and beneficial for the U.S. In the long run. This essay takes a look at the impact of the U.S. War in Iraq on the U.S. economy…
Bennis, P., Leaver, E. et al. (2005). "The Iraq Quagmire." A Study by the Institute for Policy Studies and Foreign Policy In Focus. August 31, 2005. Retrieved on September 26, 2005 from http://www.ips-dc.org/iraq/quagmire/IraqQuagmire.pdf
Bilmes, Linda. (2005). "The Trillion-Dollar War." The New York Times. August 20, 2005. Retrieved on September 26, 2005 from http://www.nytimes.com /2005/08/20/opinion/20bilmes.html?ex=1128052800& en=fab629af9daf9eb5& ei=5070& ex=1125288000& en=53b1099708a36c0e& ei=5070& emc=eta1& oref=login
Buchanan, P.J. (2005). "Riding the Free Trade Raft Over the Falls." The American Cause.
April 18, 2005. Retrieved on September 26, 2005 from http://www.theamericancause.org/a-pjb-050418-freetrade.htm
War against Iraq
War has had a tremendous effect on me and my family as a result of the war which occurred with Iraq. The taxes imposed by the government by way of increased taxation were creating difficulties for my family. My father being the only full-time employed member of the family, the increased taxation was creating financial difficulties for us to bear the costs of running the family. There were Muslim friends of mine who were looked upon with suspicion by the administration and the Police authorities. They had expressed their inability to overcome the problem of the suspicious eyes on their day-to-day activities. As a result war does not give me good memories, being attacked by difficulties in running the family and of having to witness the sufferings of my friends who have to bear the cost. So I felt that I should take up this project of…
U.S. INVADED IRAQ IN 2003
Why U.S. Invade Iaq 2003
invasion of Iaq has a numbe of foceful effects that elate to the influence of the 9/11 occuence in the county. The then U.S. pesident who happened to have been Pesident Bush pushed fo the U.S. invasion of Iaq amidst the actions that Saddam had done to the U.S. In most avenues of pefomance, it is clea that the U.S. attack on Iaq was bought unde an infuiated situation. The demand fo the U.S. To invade Iaq came fom the sensitive eactions and elations between Bush and the then Iaq pesident Hussein. Many nations in the wold have engaged in wa and not because of the ideological diffeences. Rathe, the invasions and conflicts that have been expeienced in many nations ae elated to the geneal balance of powe. Many of the nations that have been expeiencing the ugency to be…
references to the political, economic and ideological interests/purpose of the U.S., ignoring the reasons stated by the Bush administration and the Blair government. Mu-nchen, GRIN Verlag
GmbH. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-20100916742 .
Radu, M., & Arnold, A. (1990). The New insurgencies: Anticommunist guerrillas in the Third
World. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers.
Roberts, J.E., & Army War College (U.S.). (2007). Winning the battle of ideas in the War on Terrorism. Carlisle Barracks, Pa: U.S. Army War College.
U.S. Invasion into Iraq:
After the 911 terror attacks, the ush Administration launched the war on terrorism in attempts to deal with the threats of global terrorism and enhance homeland security. The war on terrorism was characterized by a successful American military campaign to destroy Afghanistan's Taliban regime and interrupt the operations of the Al Qaeda terrorist network. In the aftermath of this successful mission, the United States military invaded Iraq due to its probable source of strategic surprise and the huge danger to U.S. national interests. The onset of the invasion was marked with huge debates regarding the continued use of international sanctions and the inspections by United Nation's arms to contain Iraq. These debates also focused on the denial of imports that would be helpful to Iraq in rebuilding and modernizing Saddam Hussein's military. While U.S. invasion into Iraq was geared towards fighting the threat of terrorism, it…
Baker Boys: Inside the Surge. Directed by Ken Konwiser and Written by Jon Steele. 2010.
Chatsworth, CA: Gigapix Studios, Inc., 2010. DVD.
GRANT REBECCA, 'Saddam's Elite in the Meat Grinder', Air Force Magazine, [web page]