Irish Republican Army Essays (Examples)

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History of the Irish Republican

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54705152

It has also set off bombs in towns in the North of Ireland. The group is said to be the only military group in Ireland never to have yet killed or targeted a civilian. As of 2004, the CIRA is not believed to have an established presence or capability of launching attacks on the island of Great Britain. In 2004 the U.S. government believed the CIRA to consist of fewer than fifty fully active members. The U.S. government suspected the CIRA of receiving funds and arms from supporters in the United States. It is also believed that, in cooperation with the "Real" IRA, the CIRA may have acquired arms and material from the Balkans.

The Irish Republican Army first emerged as the army of the Irish Republic that had been declared at the Easter Rising of 1916 and affirmed by the irst Dail in January 1919. It was an amalgamation…… [Read More]

For a minority of nationalists, the home rule conceded was judged to be too little, too late. In the Easter Rising of 1916, these nationalists staged a rebellion against British rule in Dublin and in some other isolated areas. Weapons had been supplied by Germany, under the auspices of a leading human rights campaigner, Sir Roger Casement. However the plot had been discovered and the weapons were lost when the ship carrying them, the Aud, was scuttled rather than allow the arms to fall into British hands.

The rebellion was largely centered on Dublin. The leaders seized the Dublin General Post Office (GPO), raising a green flag bearing the legend "Irish Republic," and proclaiming independence for Ireland, though ironically some republicans in the GPO talked of making Prince Joachim of Prussia the King of Ireland if Germany won the First World War. Although many Irish people believe that the Rising and its leaders had public support, in reality there were calls for the execution of the ringleaders coming from the major Irish nationalist daily newspaper, the "Irish Independent" and local authorities. Dubliners not only cooperated with the British troops sent to quell the uprising, but undermined the Republicans as well. Many people spat and threw stones at them as they were marched towards the transport ships that would take them to the Welsh internment camps.

Public opinion gradually shifted, initially over the summary executions of 16 senior leaders, some of whom, such as James Connolly, were too ill to stand. Opinion shifted even more in favor of the Republicans in 1917-18 with the Conscription Crisis, when Britain tried to impose conscription on Ireland
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Irish Economics Economic Systems and

Words: 392 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43071521

The economy is market-oriented, and highly technologically advanced. Primary sectors include petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, consumer goods, aerospace, and telecommunications (CIA the World Factbook, United States).

Both Ireland and the United States have a high degree of economic freedom. The Heritage Foundation ranks Ireland as the world's 7th freest economy, with high levels of investment, financial, business, and property rights freedom. However, labor freedom is the weakest area for Ireland (Heritage Foundation, Ireland).

The Heritage Foundation ranks the United States as the world's 4th freest economy. Interestingly, the Hertiage Foundation notes "America could do slightly better in fiscal freedom and freedom from government" (Heritage Foundation, United States), while Ireland has more freedom from government (Heritage Foundation, Ireland).

eferences

CIA the World Factbook. 2007. Ireland. https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/print/ei.html

CIA the World Factbook. 2007. United States. https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/us.html

Heritage Foundation. 2007. Ireland. http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/country.cfm?ID=Ireland

Heritage Foundation. 2007. United States. http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/country.cfm?ID=Unitedstates

Commanding Heights, PBS. United Kingdom. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/commandingheights/lo/countries/uk/uk_political.html… [Read More]

References

CIA the World Factbook. 2007. Ireland. https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/print/ei.html

CIA the World Factbook. 2007. United States. https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/us.html

Heritage Foundation. 2007. Ireland. http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/country.cfm?ID=Ireland

Heritage Foundation. 2007. United States. http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/country.cfm?ID=Unitedstates
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IRA and Farc the Irish

Words: 1876 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61955958

The RIRA on occasion attacks a British army base, or bombs a civilian site just to show it is still out there while FARC is a powerful force that the government has no choice but to negotiate with. Also, the RIRA does not recruit young children for its violent terrorist activities, while FARC recruits and kidnaps thousands of young boys and trains them in guerrilla warfare. The RIRA does not have thousands of acres of poppies (to make into cocaine) that it can within its territory -- the RIRA has no established territory -- that it can exploit (tax) in order to raise money. That said, the RIRA does do some drug smuggling, according to credible sources.

There is an interesting connection between FARC and the RIRA: Evidence shows that the RIRA has been training FARC in "new technology" (bombs/mortars) (www.bbc.co.uk).

orks Cited

Center for Defense Information. (2007). Revolutionary Armed…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Center for Defense Information. (2007). Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).

Retrieved Feb. 6, 2009, from http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/terrorist-groups.cfm.

Global Security. (2008). Real Irish Republican Army. Retrieved Feb. 5, 2009, from  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/nira.htm .

Global Security. (2009). Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia -- FARC. Retrieved Feb.
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Peacemaking in the Irish Populaiton

Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83356678

Conflict esolution and Peacemaking

The conflict presented in the article is focused on the tense relations between British and Irish groups that held deeply divisive beliefs about a range of differences between the two cultures. There were significant tensions in the social divisions not only with the British, but also within Ireland itself which were primarily the result of sectarian divides in the population (White, 2013). Many of the warring factions had a strong sense of identity with their cultural heritage along the lines of their religious preferences for either Catholicism or Protestantism and much of the struggle perpetuated between those who viewed themselves as the oppressed and/or colonized and their oppressors (Lane, 1998). The oyal Irish Constabulary (IC) was an armed colonial style of police force and was viewed by much of the Irish population as being the administrative thugs that were doing the bidding of the British government.…… [Read More]

References

Arthur, P. (2015). The Role of Civil Society in the Northern Ireland Conflict. Palestine - Israel Journal of Politics, Economics, and Culture, 96-101.

Hayward, K. (2003). The Region between State and Nation: British and Irish conceptions of Northern Ireland as a European Region1. Perspectives on European Politics & Society, 417-443.

Lane, J. (1998). Police co-operation and internal conflict resolution strategies: The case of Ireland. Innovation, 267-276.

White, T. (2013). Generational Change and Redefining Identities: Post-conflict Peacebuilding in Northern Ireland. Peace Research, 95-117.
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Terrorism Tragedies From Deadly Terrorist Attacks Have

Words: 1947 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51742665

Terrorism

Tragedies from deadly terrorist attacks have made the international communities to pervasively fear and loath terrorism. Terrorism is undertaken by individual with motivations that are complex for the understanding of security agencies and individuals. Definition according United States statutes states terrorism to be politically motivated, premeditated, violence against noncombatant individuals, private property by clandestine agents or subnational groups, with an intention to obtain audience (Launtenberg, 2011). This definition is adopted for purposes of this paper.

Attempts to shed some light on terrorism highlight the motives of the perpetrators while they give some appropriate measures to resolve the problem. The organizations linked to supporting terrorism by State Department stood at 22 in the year 2001. In three years' time, the list of identified terrorist groups had grown to 36 with more groups being listed as unofficial terrorist organizations. One might mistake terrorism industry for a thriving economic entity or the…… [Read More]

References

Launtenberg, F. (2011). Homeland Security and Fighting Terrorism. Retrieved 19th October 2013, from http://lautenberg.senate.gov/issues_update/homesec_terror.cfm

McCarthy, Timothy, P., & McMillian, J. (2008). The Radical Reader: A Documentary History of the American Radical Tradition. (Vol. New Press): New York.

Morag, N. (2004). The Economic and Social Effects of Intensive Terrorism: Israel 2000 -- 2004. Retrieved 19th October, 2013, from http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2006/issue3/jv10no3a9.html

Ridgeway, J. (1990). Blood in the Face: The Ku Klux Klan, Aryan Nations, Nazi Skinheads, and the Rise of a New White Culture. New York: Thunder's Mouth,.
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Michael Collins- Terrorist or Freedom Fighter The

Words: 1046 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29152168

Michael Collins- Terrorist or Freedom Fighter?

The name Michael Collins has very different meanings for different groups of people. For millions of people, he is considered not only a terrorist, but one of the first real terrorists. For millions of others, he is considered a great freedom fighter. The author was called upon to choose a position and support an argument about whether Collins was a terrorist or a freedom fighter. However, the reality is that Collins was both a terrorist and a freedom fighter, and the two roles are not mutually exclusive. Many people who support his position as a freedom fighter reject the terrorist label. Therefore, this paper will focus explaining why the author believes that Collins was a terrorist. There are several facts that support Collins being considered a terrorist. First, Collins developed modern guerrilla warfare, one of the preferred tactics of modern-day terrorists. Initially, he targeted…… [Read More]

References

Boot, M. (2011, May 17). The queen visits Michael Collin's Ireland. Retrieved January 9, 2012

from Commentary website: http://www.commentarymagazine.com/2011/05/17/queen-elizabeth-visit-reaffirms-anglo-irish-friendship/

The Delaware Criminal Justice Council Terrorism Research Page. (2007, March 22). The

history of terrorism: More than 200 years of development. Retrieved January 9, 2012 from The State of Delaware website: http://cjc.delaware.gov/terrorism/history.shtml
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Frank O'Connor's Guests of the Nation

Words: 1815 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53076152

Guests of the Nation

Frank O'Connor's writing frequently deals with the issues of everyday violence which people have to engage in, whether they want to or not. Some people commit crimes because they believe that they have no choice. Other people kill in the name of religion. One of the most universally acceptable reasons for widespread acts of murder is nationalism. Two political factions, if not more, fight against one another in order that their perspective becomes accepted by the other population. For soldiers, particularly those who are members of the lower infantry ranks, they are given orders which must be carried out. If a soldier is told to kill, then he must continue killing until he is given an order to stop. It is a fact that soldiers are ordered to kill other human beings for reasons which may not be clear to them, which they may not even…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Korner, S. (2008). Frank O'Connor's 'Guests of the Nation.' 21st Century Socialism.

O'Brien, E. (2007). Guests of a nation; geists of a nation. New Hibernia Review. 11(3). 114-30.

O'Connor, F. (1987). Guests of the nation. Poolbeg Press: Dublin, Ireland.

Renner, S. (1990). The theme of hidden powers: fate vs. human responsibility. Studies in Short
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Guerilla Warfare the Efficacy of

Words: 818 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4667155

He also contends that guerilla warfare is not a tactic that is practiced without discipline or structure. The structure and adherence to rules or laws, as Guevara, suggests, are elements that directly contribute to the efficacy of guerilla warfare as used by terrorist organizations and small countries.

It is often said that guerrilla warfare is primitive. This generalization is dangerously misleading…it can be conducted in any terrain, in any climate, in any weather…Its basic element is man, and man is more complex than any of his machines. (U.S. Navy & Marine Corps, 1989, 13)

This quote comes from the headquarters of the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps, two extremely talented branches of the United States military, which is arguably one of the finest militaries in the world. If leaders from these branches of the military have this to say about guerilla warfare as it is used…… [Read More]

References:

Guevara, Ernesto "Che." Guerilla Warfare. 1961.

Irish Republican Army. Green Book, Volumes 1 & 2.

United State Navy, United States Marine Corps. Mao Tse-Tung on Guerilla Warfare. Washington, D.C., 1989.
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Pira and the Paramilitary Opposition Faced During the Troubles

Words: 12201 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48199988

PIA and the British Government's esponse

The war between the Provisional Irish epublican Army (PIA) and the British State from 1969 to 1998 was a complex situation in which various entities pursued similar and dissimilar aims through various channels (political as well as militaristic/terroristic). Even in the midst of the most violent clashes, secret talks were held between leaders of the PIA and the British State, with the political face of epublican beliefs (Sinn Fein) gaining popular support over the years and to some degree undermining the aims, objectives and capacity of the PIA to operate effectively (O'Brien, 1999; Tonge, 2002). The PIA's strategic effectiveness, however, was also complicated by its own inability to overcome specific problematic features of its own organization -- such as the factors of security and territoriality. Likewise, the British State had enacted a program of using informants and infiltrators to undermine the PIA from within.…… [Read More]

References

Beggan, D. (2009). Understanding Insurgency Violence: A Quantitative Analysis of the Political Violence in Northern Ireland 1969-1999. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32: 705-725.

Bell, J. B. (2008). The Secret Army: The IRA. London: Transaction Publishers.

Bennett, H. (2010). From Direct Rule to Motorman: Adjusting British Military Strategy

for Northern Ireland in 1972. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 33: 511-532.
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Domestic & Foreign Extremist Groups

Words: 2494 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35258067

However, a recent study did not find 'members of the Irish epublican Army (IA) to be emotionally disturbed' (eich, p. 26).

As with the KKK, the IA trains its members in several types of terrorist actions. Ambush tactics are taught to IA recruits; they learn how to stalk and attack targets and how to rapidly flee unnoticed. IA members are trained in the use of a wide range of weaponry and explosives. Similar to the KKK, they are trained in para-military operations. On the training agenda of IA members is the construction of napalm bombs. Trainees are instructed on the art of torture and are able to practice such skills on prisoners.

Since its inception, the IA called on the community at large for its support. This synchronization was integral to the organization's cause: the reunification of Ireland and freedom of oman Catholics. Thus, religion was the common denominator in…… [Read More]

References

Anti-Defamation League (2005). Ku Klux Klan. Law Enforcement Agency Resource Network.

Retrieved September 21, 2005. Web site:

www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/KKK.asp.

Arthur, Paul (1998). The IRA & Sinn Fein. Public Broadcasting System (PBS) Online.
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Brendan Behan Contributed Much to the Literary

Words: 2214 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37018897

Brendan Behan contributed much to the literary genre, though his literary achievements often are subordinate to his public recognition as a drunk, disorderly and often amusing or entertaining member of society. Many literary critics fail to recognize Behan for the serious contributions he made to writing, instead choosing to focus on the controversy that exists regarding his work ethic and personal habits.

This paper asserts however that Behan used his writing to voice his disagreement with the notion of cultural nationalism that existed during the time he lived in Ireland. Brannigan (2002) supports this notion claiming that Behan's writing in fact allowed him to "articulate dissident" and contributed to the emergence of revisionist and other critiques of nationalism (Brannigan, 2002).

This paper will also delve into the idea that Behan wrote from a strictly humanistic point, attempting to enlighten his audience with amusing anecdotes about human nature, sharing the notion…… [Read More]

Jasto, K. (2000). "Brendan Behan." [online] October 10, 2004, at http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/behan.htm

Silltoe, A. (1959, August). "Proletarian novelists. Books and Bookmen, 13; from Brannigan, J. (2002). "Belated Behan: Brendan Behan and the cultural politics of memory" Eire-Ireland: A Journal of Irish Studies.

Brendan Behan
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Michael Collins the Legend and

Words: 1466 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1493076

This disparity also relates to the opposing ways that the Irish people saw Collins. "The question is how do the Irish view Collins: as the fellow who bombed the British out of Ireland, or as the one who insisted that the bombing he started must stop? Some Irish view both Collins and De Valera as sellouts. Jordan says he means to celebrate Collins "the statesman and, ultimately, man of peace." (Shulgasser B.)

Historically it seems that the actual intentions and motivation of Michael Collins as a human being are not clearly known. The identity of Michael Collins is to a large extent shrouded in myth and contradiction. The director of the film has stated as much.

Even though Collins lived only about 75 years ago, much of the information we have about him is as mysterious as the existence he maintained. I have made choices about certain events based on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Introduction: a foreword by Neil Jordan. May 29, 2006. http://michaelcollins.warnerbros.com/cmp/introduction.html

Michael Collins" directed by Neil Jordan.Warner. 1966.

Mullan D. And Mullin J. Terrorism Defined and Exemplified. 2004. May 29, 2006. http://www.phoblacht.net/terdefexpjmdm.html

RELIGIOUS TERRORISM. May 27, 2006. http://faculty.ncwc.edu/TOConnor/429/429lect13.htm
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History of Terrorism Historical Depictions

Words: 2856 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73288397



There is a little known revolution being conducted along the French and Spanish borders, where, until just before orld ar II, in 1937, Basque people lived in what was referred to as "Basque Country," perceived by them to be their country (Nunez Astrain, Louis and Stephens, Meic, 1997, p. 1). hile the Basque movement probably is one of the least known and reported on movements, it does occasionally make it to the papers when the level of violence is such that it draws widespread attention.

Basque attaches such importance to his language that he defines himself by his ability to speak it, that is to say, in linguistic terms. He does not refer to himself in terms of race or tribe, or religion, or geographical locality, but exclusively in relationship to his language. In the Basque language, in order to convey that someone is a Basque, one says that he…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97675918

Astrain, Luis Nunez. The Basques: Their Struggle for Independence. Trans. Meic Stephens. Cardiff, Wales: Welsh Academic Press, 1997. Questia. 18 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97675920.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=76801128

Evans, Martin. The Memory of Resistance: French Opposition to the Algerian War (1954-1962). Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1997. Questia. 18 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=76801128.
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Threat Assessment

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53323341

Threat Assessment

South America's very old, biggest, most competent, and well- equipped rebellion having Marxist origin is the evolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - FAC. The uproar and clashing in the 1950s involving liberal and conservative militias lead to the civil war that demolished Columbia and from here FAC came into existence. The murder of liberal party leader Jorge Eliecer by the representatives of the conservative government ignited the battle between the Liberal and Conservative political parties. The consequent civil wars lead to the loss of over 200,000 Columbians and generated a glut of guerrilla groups. One of those groups, lead by Manuel Marulanda, split from the Liberals in 1966 and developed into the Marxist-oriented FAC. (FAC History)

Identify the group by name and country in which based. If there is no one country, state the countries in which the group is operative, or the region.

a. Stated goals and…… [Read More]

Resources) Some medical care and advice is offered by Cuba. A court case is presently happening in Bogota to check whether three members of the Irish Republican Army, detained in Colombia in 2001 upon quitting the FARC-controlled demilitarized zone, supplies sophisticated explosives education to the FARC. The FARC and the Colombian National Liberation Army (ELN) frequently use the border area for cross border invasions and makes use of the Venezuelan territory near the border as a refuge. (Terrorist Group Profiles, 2003)

d. Spiritual or religious support.

Could not find any information.

e. Umbrella or cover organization, if any.

As per Colombian intelligence agencies, the FARC was implementing the techniques studied from a yet another terrorist cluster, namely, the Irish Republican Army. (One year after Sept. 11, U.S. And Colombia face parallel challenges)
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Terrorism Compare and Contrast a

Words: 1231 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38312890

Jewish people believed they were promised land of their own, and the Palestinians believed that they would be given a defined homeland as well. However, the governments making these decisions were outside the Middle East and were acting in their own interests, not the interests of the people living in the areas affected. When the United Nations recognized Israel as a political entity after World War II, it did so in response to the outrage of Germany's Holocaust. While this was understandable to Western countries, Palestinians felt that they had been cheated out of their homeland and that instead it had been given to Israel.

The differences between fundamentalist and more moderate Islam comes down to the nature of Islamic belief. Islam does not make any real distinction between religion and government. In the Koran, religion and government are completely intertwined. So to fundamentalist Moslems, a non-fundamentalist Islamic country in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Merey, Can. 2004. "Still no trace of Osama bin Laden."

Manila Bulletin, December 29.

Staff writer. 2005. "Irish Republicans in crisis over money laundering probe. Agence France Presse English, Feb. 19

Weisbach, Jessica. 2004. "The Psychology of the Terrorist Mind: Attempting to Understand as a Possible Means towards Prevention," in Peace, War and Human Nature. Accessed via the Internet 8/4/05. http://gseweb.harvard.edu/~t656_web/peace/Articles_Spring_2004/Weisbach_Jessica_terrorist_mind.htm
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Psychology of Terrorism

Words: 2629 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61469454

Terrorism and the Low Numbers of Practicing Terrorists

Horrific acts of terror have plagued this planet for centuries. The contemporary prevalence of such acts has spawned the term 'terrorism' which has been precisely defined by Merriam Webster's New English Dictionary as "the systematic use of terror (which is defined as a violent or destructive act in this context) especially as a means of coercion" (Merriam-Webster's New English Dictionary 2011). Though despite the recent popularity of this term, its origins go back to the French Revolution. Surprisingly enough, this period of terror was actually perpetrated by the French Government . Eventually entitled "The Reign of Terror," the infamousness of this historical era brought the horrors of violent oppression (in this case it was a government oppressing its population) to the world stage . Similarly to the atrocious deeds committed by the French Government during the Reign of Terror, activities that would…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bar, Shmuel. "The Religious Sources of Islamic Terrorism." Policy Review 125 (2004).

Choueiri, Youssef M. Islamic Fundamentalism. London: Continuum, 1997.

Douki, S., F. Nacef, A. Belhadj, A. Bouasker, and R. Ghachem. "Violence Against Women in Arab and Islamic Countries." Archives of Women's Mental Health 6, no. 3 (April 2003): 165-171.

Enders, Walter, and Todd Sandler. "What Do We Know About the Substitution Effect in Terrorism?" April 2002. http://74.125.155.132/scholar?q=cache:ZHFBPRPTOqUJ:scholar.google.com/+terrorist+recruiting+tactics&hl=es&as_sdt=0,5 (accessed May 11, 2011).
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Fault An Alternative to the Current Tort-Based

Words: 30263 Length: 70 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86754711

Fault: An Alternative to the Current Tort-Based System in England and Wales

The United Kingdom

statistics regarding claims

THE NATIONAL HEALTH SYSTEM

OBSTACLES TO DUE PROCESS

THE CASE FOR REFORM

THE REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT

THE RISING COST OF LITIGATION

LORD WOOLF'S REFORMS

MORE COST CONTROLS

THE UNITED STATES

PAUL'S PULLOUT

THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY

TORT REFORM IN AMERICA

FLEEING PHYSICIANS

STATISTICS FOR ERROR, INJURY AND DEATH

THE CALL FOR REFORM IN 2003: A FAMILIAR REFRAIN

THE UNITED STATES SITUATION, IN SUMMARY

NEW ZEALAND CASE STUDIES

THE SWEDISH SCHEME

COMPARISON: WHICH SYSTEM IS BETTER?

FIRST: UNDERLYING DIFFERENCES

TALKING TORT: AMERICAN PECULIARITIES

AMERICANS CONSIDER NO-FAULT

BRITAIN CONSIDERS NO-FAULT

CONCLUSION

Works Cited

Appendix A THE UNITED KINGDOM

INTRODUCTION

At issue is the economic effectiveness of tort law in the common law legal system of England and Wales, as applied to medical and clinical negligence and malpractice cases. In response to economic concerns and a continual…… [Read More]

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Leadership Identify a Leader Has

Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47031195

But to a certain extent his distanced perspective, his hope and optimism, and also his willingness to listen to the grievances of both sides is what made him such a historically great peacemaker ("George Mitchell," Understanding Northern Ireland: BBC News, 2008). He refused to take 'no' for an answer, when people said that no compromise was possible.

Patience is one of Mitchell's most notable qualities, even though at the time some of his critics said "he gave too much latitude to participants in the talks who were over-fond of their own opinions" ("George Mitchell," Understanding Northern Ireland: BBC News, 2008). But without such unfailing patience, the final peace settlement could never have occurred. The final talks that cumulated in a politically inclusive agreement, the establishment of a chief executive agreeable to both parties, and the agreement of all paramilitary groups to hand over their weapons took thirty-six hours of nonstop…… [Read More]

Works Cited

George Mitchell." Understanding Northern Ireland: BBC News. 3 Mar 2008.  http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/northern_ireland/understanding/profiles/george_mitchell.stm
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Transportation - Security Contemporary Transportation

Words: 6826 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95271087

By federal law, all passenger airliners now feature cockpit doors that are locked by the pilots from inside the cockpit. Likewise, pilot training now includes the specific instructions not to open the door in response to any occurrence or emergency in the passenger cabin; instead, pilots are under instructions to land the aircraft immediately in response to any perceived emergency that would have previously been cause to investigate beyond the flight deck (Sperry 2003).

Fortunately, by itself, this single set of rules has effectively ended any realistic threat of terrorists (or anybody else) ever hijacking a passenger airliner or otherwise gaining access to the flight controls for the purposes of commandeering it. In fact, it is now virtually impossible for anyone to hijack an American airliner again. Unfortunately, all of the subsequent passenger restrictions and billions of dollars in expenditures for sophisticated screening equipment is largely considered a complete waste…… [Read More]

References

Allison, G. (2004) Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe. New York: Henry Holt

Bulzomi, M. (2007) FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin; Search Incident to Arrest in the Age of Personal Electronics. Vol. 76 No. 9.

Clarke, R. (2004) Against All Enemies: Inside America's War on Terror.

New York: Simon & Schuster
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Freedom and Terrorism Online

Words: 3136 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27373214

policy makers underestimate internet independence?

YouTube independence of positing video content

The internet moderated terrorism

egulating the internet for anti-terrorism

Freedom and Terrorism on the Internet

The purpose of the study is to explore the use of internet by terrorist organizations and the degree of independence that terrorist enjoy while conducting and coordinating their terrorism activities from the cyberspace. The topic is an area of interest for the researcher as it is significantly relevant in today's environment when cross-border terrorism has increased. As part of the academic and citizen world, the researcher feels it is essential to gauge the scale and severity of terrorism moderated by internet sources.

Audience

The main audiences of the research paper are academic instructors, research students of cyber security and government policy makers who can influence to control terrorism originating from the freedom of internet use for every user irrespective of the underlying motive.

1.2…… [Read More]

References

Amble, J.C. (2012). Combating terrorism in the new media environment.Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 35(5), 339-353.

Brinkerhoff, J.M. (2006). Digital diasporas and conflict prevention: the case of Somalinet. com. Review of International Studies, 32(1), 25-47.

Crilley, K. (2001, September). Information warfare: new battle fields Terrorists, propaganda and the Internet. In Aslib Proceedings (Vol. 53, No. 7, pp. 250-264). MCB UP Ltd.

Denning, D.E. (2009). Terror's web: How the internet is transforming terrorism.Handbook on Internet crime.
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Criminology of Terrorism Terrorism Has

Words: 2351 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75941629

An authoritarian leader gathers members in a cult and isolates them from the mainstream. Bodrero says this does not constitute a problem, unless the group becomes violent. When a leader uses rhetoric and violence to silence internal opposition, Bodrero believes the group may be on the path to violent extrem- ist behavior. Doomsday cults emerge from such dynamics and believe they must take offensive action to bring about the end of the world.

Black Hebrew Israelism is a form of black supremacy. Its origins trace back to the Civil War and were relatively peaceful. Recently, Ben Ami

Ben Israel, also known as Ben Carter, had a vision in Chicago telling him that African- Americans were the true Jews of old and the people who call themselves Jews are impostures. Whites are evil incarnate, descended from the devil. Bodrero (1999) says the most violent aspect of this movement formed in the…… [Read More]

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Rebellion Discuss the Problem of How People

Words: 1339 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38673261

Rebellion

Discuss the problem of how people feel excluded from society and how that leads to rebellion.

Within the fabric of every society are groups of people bonded together through their similar values, culture, race etc. The groups that bond together are prone to exclude others because of their differences. At times these similarities and differences work well together to produce a productive feeling; however, at times the feeling becomes negative and affects the society adversely as one group begins to feel resentment towards the other. This resentment can lead to full fledged rebellion and usually takes place when the basic needs of the group are affected. Consider feelings of nationalism, racism, economic upheaval all of which can individually or collectively combine to create a vortex of aggressive emotions.

In the French Revolution the masses rebelled against the aristocracy as they were getting richer at the expense of the poor.…… [Read More]

Sources:

1. Gellner, Ernest Nations and Nationalism New Perspectives on the Past Series Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983

2. Collins, Eamon Killing Rage Grata Publications, 1998

3. Frantz Fanon. Concerning Violence. In The Wretched of the Earth. New York, 1961, p. 38-39/53-54. Retrieved March 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://www.hyperghetto.de/texts/fanon/concerning_violence
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Treason Terrorism Wartime Crimes

Words: 1513 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66217620

Treason, Terrorism and Wartime Crimes

Treason

Treason is the term legally used to describe different acts of unfaithfulness, treachery and betrayal. The English law was the first to make a distinction between high treason and petit (petty) treason in the Statute of Treasons (1350). It described petit treason as an act in which one's lawful superior is murdered by him/her. For instance, if an apprentice murdered his/her master, it was stated as a petit treason. On the other hand, high treason was defined by the English law as any grave threat to the permanence or stability of the state. High treason consisted of "attempts to kill the king, the queen, or the heir apparent or to restrain their liberty; to counterfeit coinage or the royal seal; and to wage war against the kingdom" ("treason," 2012).

Treason is regarded as both a prehistoric misdemeanor and an acknowledged epithet (Eichensehr, 2009). The…… [Read More]

References

Eichensehr, K.E. (2009). Treason in the Age of Terrorism: An Explanation and Evaluation of Treason's Return in Democratic States. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 42 (5), 1443+. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-215409561/treason-in-the-age-of-terrorism-an-explanation-and

Lawless, M. (2007). Terrorism: An International Crime. International Journal, 63(1), 139+. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-1525193241/terrorism-an-international-crime

McGlynn, S. (2011). War Crimes. In The Encyclopedia of War. Retrieved September 24, 2012, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781444338232.wbeow678/pdf terrorism from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (2012). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-terroris/terrorism treason from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (2012). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-treason/treason

War Crimes. (2012). In BBC. Retrieved September 24, 2012, from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/war/overview/crimes_1.shtml
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Non-Traditional Security Threats and the EU

Words: 8197 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84723317

Non-Traditional Security Threats and the EU

Theoretical Study

Terrorism

Weapons of Mass Destruction and Nuclear Threat

Regional Conflict

Organized Crime

Environmental Degradation

Non-Traditional Security Threats and the EU

Due to the discontentment with the conventional concepts of security, the research schedule based on these conventional concepts, associated theoretical debates and their impact on policy, have given rise to the idea of non-traditional security. In the present era, it is universally acknowledged that security possesses multifaceted characteristics. Growing from the components of military and political units of the days of the Cold War, it has presently come to achieve new magnitude i.e. which is composed of economic, social, environmental based and educational oriented. These are not brought together under the military characteristics of security and they encompass a whole lot, ranging from macroeconomic equilibrium to environmental based.

Non-traditional security risks like extremism or terrorist activities, weapons which lead to mass destruction,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Burgess, John. (2004) EU Taking Up Terrorism Issues: Security Officials Try to Forge Europe-Wide Response After Attacks. Washington Post Foreign Service. March 20; p. A13

Black, Ian. (2004) EU faces Nuclear Terror Threat. The Guardian. May 5. p.5

Buzan, Barry. (1991) People, States and Fear: National Security Problem in International Relations. Longman Publishers.

Desertification/Land degradation. European Environment Agency, 2001
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Talking to Children About Death

Words: 1711 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87883740

"Are the Developmental Needs of Children in America Adequately Addressed during the Grief Process?." Journal of Instructional Psychology 31.2 (2004): 143+. Questia. 2 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006444121.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105244793

Seibert, Dinah, Judy C. Drolet, and Joyce V. Fetro. Helping Children Live with Death and Loss. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2003. Questia. 2 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105244795.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111651481

ebb, Nancy Boyd, ed. Helping Bereaved Children: A Handbook for Practitioners. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press, 2002. Questia. 2 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111651481.… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113438929

Barnard, Paul, Ian Morland, and Julie Nagy. Children, Bereavement, and Trauma: Nurturing Resilience. London: Jessica Kingsley, 1999. Questia. 2 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113438929.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5024491224

Branch, Mary Louise, and Sabrina a. Brinson. "Gone but Not Forgotten: Children's Experiences with Attachment, Separation, and Loss." Reclaiming Children and Youth 16.3 (2007): 41+. Questia. 2 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5024491224.
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FISA Improving Counterterrorism Through Modernization

Words: 4187 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85446657

FISA's recent rise to fame has been due to attempts by the Bush Administration to apply the law as justification for warrant-less wiretaps of U.S. citizens in apparent disregard of their Fourth Amendment protections. This issue will be examined in more detail below, however, it is important to first discuss some of the key court cases that help establish the Constitutionality of FISA. Specifically, this report will address three cases that directly feed into the Constitutional requirements of FISA: Olmstead v. U.S. (1928), Katz v. U.S. (1967), and U.S. v. U.S. (1972).

Olmstead v. U.S. (1928)

For the civil libertarian, the case of Olmstead v. U.S. (1928) is a nightmare violation of constitutionally guaranteed Fourth and Fifth Amendment rights. In the case, oy Olmstead was convicted of bootlegging during the Prohibition years of U.S. history. Without obtaining any kind of judicial approval, federal agents placed wiretaps in the building Olmstead…… [Read More]

References

Fein, B. (2007, March). Presidential authority to gather foreign intelligence. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37(1), pp. 23-36.

Katz v. United States. (1967). FindLaw for Legal Professionals. Retrieved March 25, 2008, at http://laws.findlaw.com/us/389/347.html

Malooly, D.J. (1998, Winter). Physical searches under FISA: a constitutional analysis. American Criminal Law Review, 35(2), pp. 411-424.

Olmstead v. United States (1928). The Oyez Project. Retrieved March 25, 2008, at http://www.oyez.org/cases/1901-1939/1927/1927_493/
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Weapons of Mass Destruction Wmds

Words: 3700 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85661565

By continuing with a "business as usual" attitude, the terrorists would not have a long-term psychological impact on American society, culture and economic development.

hile the long-term psychological impact appears to be the most prominent value that a weapon of mass destruction has for a terrorist, it seems reasonable to argue that these weapons also serve as a means for terrorist groups to have their political voices heard. Terrorist attacks bring to light the activities, beliefs and values of a specific terrorist group. Although many in the U.S. were familiar with Osama bin Laden before 9/11, his implication in the terrorist attacks made him and Al-Qaeda household names. In this context, bin Laden was able to bring to light the organization's hatred of the United States and the organization's political agenda for the entire international community. The publicity gained from terrorist events clearly has value for terrorist groups.

4. Given…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The dynamic terrorist threat." RAND Corporation. [2005]. Accessed October 31, 2007 at http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/2005/MR1782.pdf.

Thornburgh, Dick. "Balancing civil liberties and homeland security." Albany Law Review, 68(4), (2005): 801-813.

Weapons of mass destruction." Global Focus. [2006]. Accessed October 31, 2007 at http://globalfocus.org/GF-WMDs.htm.
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Terrorism and the Internet Modern

Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10999243

(Ulph, 2006)

The document is remarkable for a couple of reasons, which more widely emphasizes on the importance of the internet for the jihadi terrorists. The first one is the component of collective initiative that the writer promotes; emphasizing the pace of communication and the prospective strength that spread jihadi sympathizers throughout the world could concentrate on a single project. Second relates to the competence for data storing that the internet entails, permitting quick reach not only to data of academic interest but also to sensitive forms of infrastructure details containing utilities, distribution as well as transport networks, along with the risk and susceptibility perceptions of such facilities -- that governments are presently providing at ever higher standards of transparency. (Ulph, 2006)

Activity over the web is not a current phenomenon and not limited to Islamic outfits- either moderate or extremist. Terrorist groups of several features i.e. racial, ideological or…… [Read More]

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Margaret Thatcher -- the Iron

Words: 845 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60626175



In what concerns economy and taxation, Margaret Thatcher succeeded in signficicantly assisting the recovery of the ritish economy, and, by 1983, the country experienced economic growth and inflation and mortgage rates were at their lowest levels since 1970. However, the international public remembers her not for more than the things she has done to improve the ritish economy, as her 1976 speech about the Soviet Union impressed people everywhere. This particular speech gained her the nickname "Iron Lady" and she even came to relate to the name a few months after the incident.

The nickname suited Margaret Thatcher very well, given that whatever she did, she did it with an iron fist. Although she was extremely elegant and very candid, all her political actions were firm and strong. Moreover, she demonstrated her strength of mind consequent to the 1984 incident, when an Irish Republican Army bomb exploded in the hotel…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Sian Ellis. Live the History -- Margaret Thatcher: Iron Lady. 24 August 2007. Web. 8 November 2011.

2. Becket, Claire. Margaret Thatcher. Haus Publishing, 2006.
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Counterterrorism Training Program

Words: 2611 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35777431

Counterterrorism Training Program

Terrorism is a fact of modern life. On one level, it cannot be understood; it is difficult to empathize with those who have no empathy of their own and cause enormous suffering in the name of their own beliefs. On another level, however, there are components of terrorism that can be understood -- their tactics and methods, their choice of targets and more. Because terrorism is aimed at entire societies, and is carried out in a guerrilla fashion, it is necessary to develop tactics for deterring terrorism that address terrorism's wide and deep sources, tactics and effects.

Terrorism has been a fact of life for 200 years, since the French evolution. At that time, Cottam et al. (2004) suggest that the rise of the nation-state made it more possible than ever before for individuals to want to maintain identities that were very like those of their community;…… [Read More]

References

Alibek, K., and S. Handelman. (1999). Biohazard. New York: Random House.

Almog, D. (2004) Cumulative Deterrence and the War on Terrorism. Parameters, 34(4), p. 4+.

Block, S.M. (2001, January) The Growing Threat of Biological Weapons. American Scientist, 889(1), p. 28.

Bush, G.W. (2003, February) National Strategy for Combating Terrorism (Washington: The White House, February 2003), p. 15,
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Does Terrorism Work

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59339198

Terrorism and Counterterrorism

Causes of Terrorism

Terrorism clearly draws attention to the group that perpetuated the crime in the media although it is not clear that it 'works' to achieve the stated goals of the groups that use it. Studies of the efficacy of terrorism indicate that it often backfires, at least violent terrorism. "When terrorists kill civilians or captives, it significantly lowers the likelihood of bargaining success" (Solomon 2013). However, some might argue that the accomplishments of former terrorist organizations in gaining the ability to negotiate with the offending power such as the rish Republican Army (RA) and the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) (both of which have long renounced terrorism but which began as paramilitary groups) might suggest that violence is often useful in achieving group objectives (Solomon 2013).

But in these instances, the goals of the groups were relatively concrete (expelling British and sraeli influence, respectively, from contested…… [Read More]

International responses to terrorism

The Bojinka plot was an international effort, comprising a terror network beholden to no specific nation. Also, although the terrorists were based in Manila, the 'testing ground' of the plot cast a wide net. For example, to assess the feasibility of the plan, the organizers detonated a bomb in Japan and the 'lines were not drawn' between this attack, a small bomb on a Philippines Airlines Flight, and a bombing in a Manila theater. While the Homeland Security Department has made major efforts in increasing information-sharing between domestic agencies, the same efforts must be made to increase information-sharing between nations as well.

Unfortunately, the atmosphere of mistrust between nations affected by terrorism has hampered this, even when this seems to work against nations' best interests. Legally speaking, there is growing consensus internationally as to what constitutes terrorist actions as defined in the abstract. According to the UN, "there are currently 12 international conventions that criminalize some of the most significant acts of terror: offenses against aircraft and airports, attacks on internationally protected persons, hostage-taking, misuse of nuclear material, attacks on ships and offshore platforms, misuse of plastic explosives, bombings and financing of terrorist acts"( Multi-lateral responses to terrorism: The UN, 2004, Anti-defamation League).
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Putting Yourself in the Shoes of an Officer

Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39927037

police case wherein a man is robbed of his car, at gunpoint. The victim is unable to identify the crooks. Ultimately his car is successfully located. The paper will examine legal issues linked to the scenario.

'Carjacking' is what has happened in this case. This crime is one among the most dominant crimes occurring across the globe (Carjacking - Don't Be A Victim). A majority of carjacking crimes take place with the sole intent of obtaining the car; this crime is not associated with any political agenda, nor does it target Americans, in particular.

Technology to Use

No fewer than 70% of local police departments in the United States currently make use of systems for reading license plates, as per a recent report by the AND Corporation. This technology was initiated during the 90s in the United Kingdom (UK) for the purpose of fighting terrorism by the Irish epublican Army.…… [Read More]

References

Hsu, J. (2014, July 8). IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News. 70% of U.S. Police Departments Use License Plate Readers - IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved August 19, 2015, from http://spectrum.ieee.org/cars-that-think/transportation/sensors/privacy-concerns-grow-as-us-police-departments-turn-to-license-plate-readers

Rutledge, D. (2006, March 1). POLICE Magazine - Law Enforcement News, Articles, Videos, Careers & Podcasts. Seizing Evidence in Plain View - Article - POLICE Magazine. Retrieved August 19, 2015, from http://www.policemag.com/channel/patrol/articles/2006/03/point-of-law.aspx

(2002). U.S. Department of State. Carjacking -- Don't Be a Victim. Retrieved August 19, 2015, from http://www.state.gov/m/ds/rls/rpt/19782.htm

Writer Thoughts
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Arguments for Limiting Free Speech

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21176640

limiting free speech ID: 53711

The arguments most often used for limiting freedom of speech include national security, protecting the public from disrupting influences at home, and protecting the public against such things as pornography.

Of the three most often given reasons for limiting freedom of speech, national security may well be the most used. President after president, regardless of party has used national security as a reason to not answer questions that might be embarrassing personally or would show their administration as behaving in ways that would upset the populace. Although there are many examples of government apply the "national security" label to various situations, perhaps some of the stories that are associated with the Iran-Contra issue best display what government uses limitations on free speech for. In horrific tangle of lies double and triple dealing that resulted in the deaths of many Nicaraguans, the egan administration sought to…… [Read More]

References

Curtis, M.K. (1995). Critics of "Free Speech" and the Uses of the Past. Constitutional Commentary, 12(1), 29-65. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Dan, W. (1989). On Freedom of Speech of the Opposition. World Affairs, 152(3), 143-145.

Reflections and Farewell. (2002). Social Work, 47(1), 5+. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
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William J Donovan and the

Words: 4625 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15468295

Y. National Guard, which had been conducting a vigorous recruiting campaign (Troy 24). According to this author, "The Sixty-ninth was drafted into the Regular Army and was proud to be selected New York's representative in the newly formed Forty-second Division, the 'Rainbow Division,' where it was redesignated the 165th Regiment" (Troy 24). These events as much as any other were responsible for providing Donovan with both the experience as well as the recognition that would help propel him into future leadership positions. In this regard, Troy reports that, "It remained 'the old Sixty-ninth,' however, and for the better part of his twenty-two months of service Donovan was the commander of its First Battalion. It was in that capacity, a lieutenant colonel, that he saw combat, was several times wounded, and demonstrated such outstanding qualities of leadership and moral courage that he emerged from the war with 'more medals than any…… [Read More]

Works Cited

About Us. (2007). Central Intelligence Agency. [Online]. Available:  https://www.cia.gov/about-cia/index.html .

Donovan, William J. Preface to the Ultimate Weapon, Oleg Anisimov, Chicago: Regnery Publishing, Inc., 1953.

Ford, Corey. Donovan of OSS. Boston: Little, Brown, 1970.

Heidekinq, Jurgen, Christof Mauch and Marc Frey. American Intelligence and the German Resistance to Hitler: A Documentary History. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.
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Colonel Patrick Guiney - Great

Words: 942 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18021919



As a soldier, he was beloved by the infantry, but "several officers and prominent North End Irishmen troubled Guiney at every turn" and the lack of political cohesion of the Irish-American community is illustrated by their treatment of the Colonel ("Colonel Patrick Guiney," ild Geese Today, 2003). Still, Guiney put principle over narrow parochialism, and strove to lead his community, rather than fall prey to the temptations of racism and easy political victories by fanning the flames of prejudice against African-Americans.

One Irish-American, General Thomas Francis Meagher who sympathized with Guiney despaired at the divisions of the Irish community. Guiney was urged by General Meagher to condemn Irish-Americans who blindly followed the Democratic Party: "Democrats they remain until the day of their deaths, miserably and repulsively regardless of the conflicting meanings that name acquires through the progressive workings of the great world about them," he wrote (Samito 2007). Meagher's anger…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Colonel Patrick Guiney: The good knight of Boston." The Wild Geese Today. 2003. http://www.thewildgeese.com/pages/guiney.html

Samito, Chris. Review of The Irish General: Thomas Francis Meagher. By Paul Wylie.

Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2007. H-net reviews. January 23, 2009.  http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=23020
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Copperheads The Rise and Fall

Words: 1211 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45672105

ith the Copperheads putting across messages relating to how Republicans could directly threaten the lower classes by generating an influx of black laborers from the South, simple workers were influenced in rebelling against their government and against everyone they considered to be responsible for their disadvantaged status.

eber stresses the significance of the army in reducing the influence that the Copperheads had in the North. In spite of the fact that the soldiers themselves were not very passionate about going to war, they did not support Peace Democrats because the faction was against the Union's principles. The military was apparently largely responsible for the fact that the masses did not appreciate Copperheads.

The Copperhead were ardent racists and this also reduced their influence in the North, as in spite of the fact that they were determined to have the public's interest directed at preventing black individuals from becoming equals, they…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Weber, Jennifer L. "Copperheads: the rise and fall of Lincoln's opponents in the North." (Oxford University Press, 2006)

Weber, Jennifer L. "Copperheads: the rise and fall of Lincoln's opponents in the North." (Oxford University Press, 2006) p. 1.

Weber, Jennifer L. "Copperheads: the rise and fall of Lincoln's opponents in the North." (Oxford University Press, 2006) p. 3.

Idem. P. 18.
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Except for the Indigenous Native

Words: 8783 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72367303

S. citizenship (Bloemraad 2002). Given the ongoing need for qualified recruits by the U.S. armed forces, it just makes sense to determine the extent of enlistment in the armed forces by immigrants to identify their personal reasons for doing so. To the extent that these reasons are directly related to their desire to obtain American citizenship rather than a sense of patriotic responsibilities is the extent to which military service may represent a viable alternative to more time-consuming, expensive and complication naturalization procedures. It is important, though, to ensure that these immigrant recruits are provided with accurate information concerning how military service will affect their naturalization status and efforts to secure ultimate citizenship.

Rationale of Study

Military recruiters typically experience increases in enlistments during periods of economic downturn because of limited employment opportunities elsewhere in the private sector. Nevertheless, recruiting adequate numbers of high-quality and motivated service members is more…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anbinder, Tyler, 2006. "Which Poor Man's Fight? Immigrants and the Federal Conscription of

1863." Civil War History 52(4): 344-345.

Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.

Bloemraad, Irene, 2002. "The North American Naturalization Gap: an Institutional Approach to Citizenship Acquisition in the United States and Canada." The International Migration
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Juno and the Paycock

Words: 1748 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20757508

Suffering Madonna of Ireland: omen, sentimentality, and mother Ireland

Sean O'Casey's play "Juno and the Paycock" portrays an Ireland where good women and particularly good mothers are the soul and heart of the Irish land, and Irish men are shiftless, murdering, or bad. Army men and unionizing men and worst of all, lawyers, threaten the dignity and the soul of the Boyle family, but only with the integrity of Mrs. Boyle does anything good survive out of the tragedies that ensue over the course of the play.

This deflationary view of men can be seen even if one parses the title of O'Casey's play. The" Juno" of the title is a nickname for the matriarch of the clan, given by her husband to his wife. In contrast, the epithet "paycock" is a dialect rendition of Mrs. Boyle's husband's name, a man who is known as strutting peacock, particularly when he…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Atkinson, Brooks, Ed. The Sean O'Casey Reader. By Sean O'Casey. New York: St. Martin's, 1968.

Gill, Peter. "A New State of Chassis: The Irish Civil War and its background." National Theater. First Published 1989. Last Modified 16 Feb 2005. http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/town/parade/abj76/PG/pieces/ocasey/new_state_of_chassis.shtml

O'Casey, Sean. "Juno and the Paycock."

"Sean O'Casey: Biography" The Moonstruck Theater Database.    http://www.imagi-nation.com/moonstruck/clsc100.html   . [1 Mar 2005] Article originally published in Minute History of the Drama. Edited by Alice B. Fort & Herbert S. Kates. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1935.
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Women and the Homefront in Western North Carolina and Eastern Tennessee During the Civil War

Words: 11672 Length: 31 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56537237

Women and the Home Front in Western North Carolina and Eastern Tennessee during the Civil War

This paper examines the living conditions and attitudes that shaped the lives of the women in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee during and after the American Civil War. The thesis statement should deal with the breakdown of long standing ties between the people of the mountains as they chose to fight for the Confederacy or the Union. In the pre-war years, these close ties had become strong out of a mutual attempt to try to built a life in the rugged environment they encountered. ased on primary and secondary documentary evidence, this paper will investigate how could friends and family become bitter enemies and how this process played out in the mountains of western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee to better understand what the women went through while their brothers, husbands and fathers…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Among the Pines," State Chronicle, September 22, 1883 in Leloudis.

Barret, John G. And W. Buck Yearns (Eds). 1980. North Carolina Civil War Documentary. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

In an appendix, the editors provide this excerpt from the diary of an eighteen-year-old girl of Everittsville, who recorded her concerns about the fate of women in the Confederacy and her views about the part played by the Confederate male:

Aug. 30, 1861. Hatteras taken by Yanks-- women and children fleeing. "Quick oh God! Save us from the enemy. Surely thou hast not forsaken us."
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Delimitations Today Modern Business Systems

Words: 20751 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13650636

A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-

Jacobs at p. 237.
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European Union Member States Relations With Their Overseas Territories

Words: 17554 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16781713

political framework of EU and OCT

European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…… [Read More]

References

Agnew John, "Geopolitics re-vision world politics," Routledge Taylor & Francies Group, pp 1-5

Alan Taylor, American Colonies: New York: Viking, 2001, pp. 57 -- 8.

Baldwin, David. Ed. Neo-Realism And Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Balzacq, T. (Ed.). Understanding securitization theory. The design and evolution of security problems. Oxon: Routledge, 2010.
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James Rarick Western Civilization II

Words: 3653 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18069719

The fact that the Ottoman Empire had experienced significant losses until that time meant that other European powers needed to intervene and attempt to gain control over areas that the Ottomans lost. The Allies eventually won the conflict but it was difficult to determine the exact effects that their victory would have on their relationship with the Ottoman Empire, as its leaders seemed determined to maintain most of their attitudes with regard to non-Muslims within their borders, thus meaning that one of the primary reasons for which the French, the English, and the Sardinians entered the war was believed to be unimportant by the Ottomans.

6. Crisis in the Ottoman Empire

People across Greece saw the Crimean War as an opportunity to concentrate their powers into removing Ottoman control from within their borders. Individuals in the Epirus region started to publicly express revolutionary attitudes in an attempt to influence others…… [Read More]

Resources, 01.07.1997)

9. Wilson, H.W., "The Great War: the standard history of the all Europe conflict. Digging in," (Trident Press International, 01.12.1999)

10. Wolf, Eric L., "Peasant wars of the twentieth century," (University of Oklahoma Press, 1969)

11. Woloch, Isser, "Revolution and the meanings of freedom in the nineteenth century," (Stanford University Press, 1996)

12. "The State and Revolution in the Twentieth Century: Major Social Transformations of Our Time," (Rowman & Littlefield, 2007)
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Origins of the Thirteen Colonies

Words: 3081 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71524723

James II. had pursued it from a very different point-of-view when he consolidated the northern and middle colonies under Sir Edmund Andros (Appleby, 1984). The high-handed proceedings of Andros and his master rendered the Americans averse from any future plans of federation imposed from without, and the social and religious differences between the various regions long prevented the rise of any motion to union from within. All had their disagreements with the home government, but none had sufficient sympathy with their neighbors to fight their battles in common. Nevertheless, the French peril from 1689 onwards rendered co-ordination at least of military effort desirable, and plans were discussed from time to time which, whilst themselves abortive, kept alive the idea of union which bore fruit at length in the Philadelphia Congress of 1774. In all these plans the initiative came from the British government or its representatives; the royal officials in…… [Read More]

References

Akenson, Donald Harman. 1985. Being Had: Historians, Evidence and the Irish in North America. Don Mills: P.D. Meany Publishers.

Appleby, Joyce. 1984. Capitalism and a New Social Order: The Republican Vision of the 1790s. New York: New York UP.

Appleby, Joyce. 1992. Liberalism and Republicanism in the Historical Imagination. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP.

Archibald, Peter. 1978. Social Psychology as Political Economy. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
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International Cooperation to Fight Terrorism

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98035499

Terrorism and Counterterrorism.

M5D1: Winners and Losers

Has a nation ever "won" a struggle against a terrorist organization? Was te victory sort-lived or seemingly permanent? Has a terrorist organization ever "won" in its conflict against a nation?

Peraps te closest example to a 'win' tat as ever been attained by eiter a terrorist group or its victim is tat of te IRA in Great Britain. Britain was terrorized by a series of attacks by tis organization. Te IRA demanded tat England leave Nortern Ireland. "From 1969 troug 1997, te IRA splintered into a number of organizations, all called te IRA… Te IRA began its terrorist attacks on te Britis army and police following a summer of violent rioting between Catolics and Protestants in Nortern Ireland," te most infamous of wic was called 'Bloody Sunday' (Zalman 2006). "For te next generation, te IRA carried out bombings, assassinations and oter terrorist attacks…… [Read More]

http://terrorism.about.com/od/groupsleader1/p/IRA.htm

M5D2: Combating International Terrorism Do international terrorist organizations or movements, such as Al-Qaeda, that operate across international borders require an international agency to track and combat them? If so, which international agency or body should be responsible for combating cross-border terrorism? If not, how should nations fight these cross-border organizations?

"No state, however powerful, can defend itself unilaterally against transnational terrorism. Terrorist networks move operatives, money and material across borders and through the crevices of the global economy. Only through extensive cooperation on financial flows, intelligence, and police action can the risk of terrorism be reduced" (Policy brief on combatting international terrorism, 2008, The Brookings Institute: 1). Even if international agencies are not the only means by which to police international terrorism, they are surely some of the most effective. Terrorism is so difficult to contain and detect because it is a borderless crime. Increasingly terrorist organizations are non-state actors with relatively vague, undefined missions. Their outreach is international and so are their ambitions. While nations can and
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U S Patriot ACT We Deserve

Words: 3590 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66930462

" (Lindsey, 2004, p.1) it is interesting to note that one of the young protestors stated: "[the world leaders] are sitting over there on Sea Island having their little party only talking about how to fix things, but we are over here actually doing something to make things better" -- Laurel Paget-Seekins (Lindsey, 2004, p. 1) the U.S.A. Patriot Act has been touted to do just this - or to make things better in terms of security of American citizens and it is certain that the provisions of this Act have served to increase levels of security for American citizens but this security has come with a cost attached and for some Americans the cost is too high and too intrusive upon their basic civil rights. One such instance of the complexity created within the security paradigm are the no-fly lists that have been implemented in U.S. airports since September…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bohn, Kevin (2003) Patriot Act Reports Documents Civil Rights Complaints. 31 July 2003. CNN Law Center. Online available at  http://www.cnn.com/2003/LAW/07/21/justice.civil.liberties/index.html 

Carafano, James Jay (2007) Securing the Home Front. The Heritage Foundation. 10 July 2007. Online available at http://www.heritage.org/Press/Commentary/ed071107a.cfm

Drew, Kevin (2002) Balancing Life and Liberty: Danger to Civil Liberties when Security is Strengthened - CNN Law Center 10 Sept 2002. Online available at http://archives.cnn.com/2002/LAW/09/05/ar911.civil.liberties/

Houses, spaces raided throughout the Twin Cities (2008) Coldsnap Legal 30 Aug 2008. Online available at http://coldsnaplegal.wordpress.com/2008/08/30/houses-spaces-raided-throughout-the-twin-cities/
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American Interventionism

Words: 1146 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73706635

U.S. FOEIGN POLICY

American Foreign Policy from 1890 to 1930

From neutrality to intervention

Early on in American history, President George Washington advised Americans not be become embroiled in foreign conflicts. However, at the end of the 19th century, it became increasingly difficult for America to remain isolated from the issues affecting its neighbors abroad. The period from 1890-1930 was characterized by a far more expansionist American foreign policy than had been the case before. Although this policy was often defended by the notion that the U.S. was making the world safe for democracy, self-interest rather than idealism was usually the real motivating force.

A good, early example of this in Latin America can be found in the form of the Spanish-American War (1898) which eventually resulted in the U.S. acquiring territories in the western Pacific and Latin America. Spain's repression of the Cuban pro-independence movement combined with the sinking…… [Read More]

References

Spanish-American War. (2015). History.com. Retrieved from:

 http://www.history.com/topics/spanish-american-war 

U.S. foreign policy in Asia. (2015). KQED. Retrieved from:

 http://www.kqed.org/w/pacificlink/history/usforeignpol/
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Secession and Economic Impact on

Words: 2808 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2391433



Some of the slaves remained where they were and went to work for the masters that they had previously slaved under. They were paid wages instead of working for free, but they remained because they had gotten along well with their masters and knew that if they remained there they would be able to work and eventually buy land so that they and their family could have their own place to live. Sometimes the masters would even give the freed individuals that they actually liked a small piece of their land so that they could build something. This was one of the other ways that they were able to acquire land from Caucasians

Land grants from the government also gave them a chance to build churches and other buildings as they were still not allowed to share any of these with Caucasians. Many people believe that the Emancipation Proclamation work…… [Read More]

Fellman, Michael et al. This Terrible War: The Civil War and its Aftermath (2nd ed. 2007)

Fellman, 2007

Fellman, 2007
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Elf Earth Liberation Front Elf Elf Logo

Words: 2984 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25233009

ELF

Earth Liberation Front (ELF)

ELF Logo 2009 (Earth Liberation Front, N.d.)

Eco-Terrorism Overview

Examples of Eco-Terrorism Groups

The Earth Liberation Front

If a Tree Falls in the oods: A Story of the Earth Liberation Front (Documentary)

There are many people and/or groups who claim responsibility for the Earth Liberation Front's (ELF) development. The group is comprised of loosely affiliated or autonomous cells that are only bound by the idea that they can move beyond civil disobedience and accept more contentious tactics for the defense of their environmental causes. This group was one of the groups that helped coined the label of an "eco-terrorist" which later became mainstream label of such types of offenders. The ELF group was considered one of the first eco-terrorist groups and was at one time labeled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as the most dangerous domestic terror group in the United States.

This…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Earth Liberation Front. (N.d.). Earth Liberation Front. Retrieved from Earth Liberation Front:  http://earth-liberation-front.com/ 

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (N.d.). Definitions of Terrorism in the U.S. Code. Retrieved from Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/terrorism/terrorism-definition

Jarboe, J. (2002, February 12). Testimony Before the House Resources Committee, Subcommittee on Forests and Forest Health. Retrieved from Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov/news/testimony/the-threat-of-eco-terrorism

Libcom.org. (2012, January 12). If a tree falls: A story of the Earth Liberation Front (documentary). Retrieved from Libcom.org:  http://libcom.org/blog/if-tree-falls-story-earth-liberation-front-documentary-12012012