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The solution is easy. According to Eddie Boyle IA'a primary objective is to upset the opponent's routine of life and the economy of the North. They will act in a manner to make certain the Army is all the while endeavoring to second guess the IA and ascertain what is scheduled to occur the forthcoming moment. It is the objective of the IA to restore social equality, self-rule, equity, harmony and sovereignty to every people of Ireland. The manner in which this will be attained is in case the English gives up its control on Ireland and hands it over to the Irish. As they perform this, the entire stretch of Ireland shall for the first time in eight centuries, be independent to choose their future of their own. The media depicts the IA volunteers as hooligans, ordinary killers, minor offenders and killers. They are of not that type.
In…… [Read More]
Roman Catholics, who made up around one-third of the population of Northern Ireland, were largely opposed to the partition (Intelligence pp).
The IRA declined swiftly from internal dissentions and due to a loss of popular support because of its violence and pro-German agitation during orld ar II (Irish 2004). The attainment of republican objectives in 1949 and government measures against its illegal activities also contributed to its decline (Irish 2004). It was eventually outlawed by both Irish governments and thus became a secret organization, responsible for bombing attacks in Belfast, London, and at the Ulster border during the 1950's, but then became quiescent until the late 1960's (Irish 2004).
The Irish Republican Army split into two groups in 1969, the majority or "officials" who advocated a united socialist Ireland but disavowed terrorist activities, and the "provisional" who claimed terrorism as a necessary catalyst for unification (Irish 2004). The provisionals began…… [Read More]
The Tactics of the British Intelligence against the IRA
History of the IRA
The Provisional IRA formed in response to a war between the Irish Republican Army and the British state in Northern Ireland from 1969 to 1998. The IRA or what is commonly referred to as the IRA in the West was actually a breakaway from the Army and is better known as PIRA in Ireland. However, because it stood as the fighting force and face of the Irish resistance, it is typically referred to as IRA for short. The IRA was a formal fighting force up until the 1970s when fears of British infiltration caused the IRA to become a secret organization with a cell structure. The IRA published its Green Book, which laid out the rules of being an IRA volunteer. Meanwhile, on the political front was Sinn Fein, which negotiated behind the scenes with the British…… [Read More]
It has also set off bombs in towns in the North of Ireland. The group is said to be the only military group in Ireland never to have yet killed or targeted a civilian. As of 2004, the CIRA is not believed to have an established presence or capability of launching attacks on the island of Great Britain. In 2004 the U.S. government believed the CIRA to consist of fewer than fifty fully active members. The U.S. government suspected the CIRA of receiving funds and arms from supporters in the United States. It is also believed that, in cooperation with the "Real" IRA, the CIRA may have acquired arms and material from the Balkans.
The Irish Republican Army first emerged as the army of the Irish Republic that had been declared at the Easter Rising of 1916 and affirmed by the irst Dail in January 1919. It was an amalgamation…… [Read More]
The economy is market-oriented, and highly technologically advanced. Primary sectors include petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, consumer goods, aerospace, and telecommunications (CIA the World Factbook, United States).
Both Ireland and the United States have a high degree of economic freedom. The Heritage Foundation ranks Ireland as the world's 7th freest economy, with high levels of investment, financial, business, and property rights freedom. However, labor freedom is the weakest area for Ireland (Heritage Foundation, Ireland).
The Heritage Foundation ranks the United States as the world's 4th freest economy. Interestingly, the Hertiage Foundation notes "America could do slightly better in fiscal freedom and freedom from government" (Heritage Foundation, United States), while Ireland has more freedom from government (Heritage Foundation, Ireland).
CIA the World Factbook. 2007. Ireland. https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/print/ei.html
CIA the World Factbook. 2007. United States. https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/us.html
Heritage Foundation. 2007. Ireland. http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/country.cfm?ID=Ireland
Heritage Foundation. 2007. United States. http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/country.cfm?ID=Unitedstates
Commanding Heights, PBS. United Kingdom. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/commandingheights/lo/countries/uk/uk_political.html… [Read More]
The RIRA on occasion attacks a British army base, or bombs a civilian site just to show it is still out there while FARC is a powerful force that the government has no choice but to negotiate with. Also, the RIRA does not recruit young children for its violent terrorist activities, while FARC recruits and kidnaps thousands of young boys and trains them in guerrilla warfare. The RIRA does not have thousands of acres of poppies (to make into cocaine) that it can within its territory -- the RIRA has no established territory -- that it can exploit (tax) in order to raise money. That said, the RIRA does do some drug smuggling, according to credible sources.
There is an interesting connection between FARC and the RIRA: Evidence shows that the RIRA has been training FARC in "new technology" (bombs/mortars) (www.bbc.co.uk).
Center for Defense Information. (2007). Revolutionary Armed…… [Read More]
Conflict esolution and Peacemaking
The conflict presented in the article is focused on the tense relations between British and Irish groups that held deeply divisive beliefs about a range of differences between the two cultures. There were significant tensions in the social divisions not only with the British, but also within Ireland itself which were primarily the result of sectarian divides in the population (White, 2013). Many of the warring factions had a strong sense of identity with their cultural heritage along the lines of their religious preferences for either Catholicism or Protestantism and much of the struggle perpetuated between those who viewed themselves as the oppressed and/or colonized and their oppressors (Lane, 1998). The oyal Irish Constabulary (IC) was an armed colonial style of police force and was viewed by much of the Irish population as being the administrative thugs that were doing the bidding of the British government.…… [Read More]
Tragedies from deadly terrorist attacks have made the international communities to pervasively fear and loath terrorism. Terrorism is undertaken by individual with motivations that are complex for the understanding of security agencies and individuals. Definition according United States statutes states terrorism to be politically motivated, premeditated, violence against noncombatant individuals, private property by clandestine agents or subnational groups, with an intention to obtain audience (Launtenberg, 2011). This definition is adopted for purposes of this paper.
Attempts to shed some light on terrorism highlight the motives of the perpetrators while they give some appropriate measures to resolve the problem. The organizations linked to supporting terrorism by State Department stood at 22 in the year 2001. In three years' time, the list of identified terrorist groups had grown to 36 with more groups being listed as unofficial terrorist organizations. One might mistake terrorism industry for a thriving economic entity or the…… [Read More]
Michael Collins- Terrorist or Freedom Fighter?
The name Michael Collins has very different meanings for different groups of people. For millions of people, he is considered not only a terrorist, but one of the first real terrorists. For millions of others, he is considered a great freedom fighter. The author was called upon to choose a position and support an argument about whether Collins was a terrorist or a freedom fighter. However, the reality is that Collins was both a terrorist and a freedom fighter, and the two roles are not mutually exclusive. Many people who support his position as a freedom fighter reject the terrorist label. Therefore, this paper will focus explaining why the author believes that Collins was a terrorist. There are several facts that support Collins being considered a terrorist. First, Collins developed modern guerrilla warfare, one of the preferred tactics of modern-day terrorists. Initially, he targeted…… [Read More]
Guests of the Nation
Frank O'Connor's writing frequently deals with the issues of everyday violence which people have to engage in, whether they want to or not. Some people commit crimes because they believe that they have no choice. Other people kill in the name of religion. One of the most universally acceptable reasons for widespread acts of murder is nationalism. Two political factions, if not more, fight against one another in order that their perspective becomes accepted by the other population. For soldiers, particularly those who are members of the lower infantry ranks, they are given orders which must be carried out. If a soldier is told to kill, then he must continue killing until he is given an order to stop. It is a fact that soldiers are ordered to kill other human beings for reasons which may not be clear to them, which they may not even…… [Read More]
He also contends that guerilla warfare is not a tactic that is practiced without discipline or structure. The structure and adherence to rules or laws, as Guevara, suggests, are elements that directly contribute to the efficacy of guerilla warfare as used by terrorist organizations and small countries.
It is often said that guerrilla warfare is primitive. This generalization is dangerously misleading…it can be conducted in any terrain, in any climate, in any weather…Its basic element is man, and man is more complex than any of his machines. (U.S. Navy & Marine Corps, 1989, 13)
This quote comes from the headquarters of the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps, two extremely talented branches of the United States military, which is arguably one of the finest militaries in the world. If leaders from these branches of the military have this to say about guerilla warfare as it is used…… [Read More]
PIA and the British Government's esponse
The war between the Provisional Irish epublican Army (PIA) and the British State from 1969 to 1998 was a complex situation in which various entities pursued similar and dissimilar aims through various channels (political as well as militaristic/terroristic). Even in the midst of the most violent clashes, secret talks were held between leaders of the PIA and the British State, with the political face of epublican beliefs (Sinn Fein) gaining popular support over the years and to some degree undermining the aims, objectives and capacity of the PIA to operate effectively (O'Brien, 1999; Tonge, 2002). The PIA's strategic effectiveness, however, was also complicated by its own inability to overcome specific problematic features of its own organization -- such as the factors of security and territoriality. Likewise, the British State had enacted a program of using informants and infiltrators to undermine the PIA from within.…… [Read More]
Brendan Behan contributed much to the literary genre, though his literary achievements often are subordinate to his public recognition as a drunk, disorderly and often amusing or entertaining member of society. Many literary critics fail to recognize Behan for the serious contributions he made to writing, instead choosing to focus on the controversy that exists regarding his work ethic and personal habits.
This paper asserts however that Behan used his writing to voice his disagreement with the notion of cultural nationalism that existed during the time he lived in Ireland. Brannigan (2002) supports this notion claiming that Behan's writing in fact allowed him to "articulate dissident" and contributed to the emergence of revisionist and other critiques of nationalism (Brannigan, 2002).
This paper will also delve into the idea that Behan wrote from a strictly humanistic point, attempting to enlighten his audience with amusing anecdotes about human nature, sharing the notion…… [Read More]
This disparity also relates to the opposing ways that the Irish people saw Collins. "The question is how do the Irish view Collins: as the fellow who bombed the British out of Ireland, or as the one who insisted that the bombing he started must stop? Some Irish view both Collins and De Valera as sellouts. Jordan says he means to celebrate Collins "the statesman and, ultimately, man of peace." (Shulgasser B.)
Historically it seems that the actual intentions and motivation of Michael Collins as a human being are not clearly known. The identity of Michael Collins is to a large extent shrouded in myth and contradiction. The director of the film has stated as much.
Even though Collins lived only about 75 years ago, much of the information we have about him is as mysterious as the existence he maintained. I have made choices about certain events based on…… [Read More]
South America's very old, biggest, most competent, and well- equipped rebellion having Marxist origin is the evolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - FAC. The uproar and clashing in the 1950s involving liberal and conservative militias lead to the civil war that demolished Columbia and from here FAC came into existence. The murder of liberal party leader Jorge Eliecer by the representatives of the conservative government ignited the battle between the Liberal and Conservative political parties. The consequent civil wars lead to the loss of over 200,000 Columbians and generated a glut of guerrilla groups. One of those groups, lead by Manuel Marulanda, split from the Liberals in 1966 and developed into the Marxist-oriented FAC. (FAC History)
Identify the group by name and country in which based. If there is no one country, state the countries in which the group is operative, or the region.
a. Stated goals and…… [Read More]
There is a little known revolution being conducted along the French and Spanish borders, where, until just before orld ar II, in 1937, Basque people lived in what was referred to as "Basque Country," perceived by them to be their country (Nunez Astrain, Louis and Stephens, Meic, 1997, p. 1). hile the Basque movement probably is one of the least known and reported on movements, it does occasionally make it to the papers when the level of violence is such that it draws widespread attention.
Basque attaches such importance to his language that he defines himself by his ability to speak it, that is to say, in linguistic terms. He does not refer to himself in terms of race or tribe, or religion, or geographical locality, but exclusively in relationship to his language. In the Basque language, in order to convey that someone is a Basque, one says that he…… [Read More]
Jewish people believed they were promised land of their own, and the Palestinians believed that they would be given a defined homeland as well. However, the governments making these decisions were outside the Middle East and were acting in their own interests, not the interests of the people living in the areas affected. When the United Nations recognized Israel as a political entity after World War II, it did so in response to the outrage of Germany's Holocaust. While this was understandable to Western countries, Palestinians felt that they had been cheated out of their homeland and that instead it had been given to Israel.
The differences between fundamentalist and more moderate Islam comes down to the nature of Islamic belief. Islam does not make any real distinction between religion and government. In the Koran, religion and government are completely intertwined. So to fundamentalist Moslems, a non-fundamentalist Islamic country in…… [Read More]
Terrorism and the Low Numbers of Practicing Terrorists
Horrific acts of terror have plagued this planet for centuries. The contemporary prevalence of such acts has spawned the term 'terrorism' which has been precisely defined by Merriam Webster's New English Dictionary as "the systematic use of terror (which is defined as a violent or destructive act in this context) especially as a means of coercion" (Merriam-Webster's New English Dictionary 2011). Though despite the recent popularity of this term, its origins go back to the French Revolution. Surprisingly enough, this period of terror was actually perpetrated by the French Government . Eventually entitled "The Reign of Terror," the infamousness of this historical era brought the horrors of violent oppression (in this case it was a government oppressing its population) to the world stage . Similarly to the atrocious deeds committed by the French Government during the Reign of Terror, activities that would…… [Read More]
Fault: An Alternative to the Current Tort-Based System in England and Wales
The United Kingdom
statistics regarding claims
THE NATIONAL HEALTH SYSTEM
OBSTACLES TO DUE PROCESS
THE CASE FOR REFORM
THE REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
THE RISING COST OF LITIGATION
LORD WOOLF'S REFORMS
MORE COST CONTROLS
THE UNITED STATES
THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY
TORT REFORM IN AMERICA
STATISTICS FOR ERROR, INJURY AND DEATH
THE CALL FOR REFORM IN 2003: A FAMILIAR REFRAIN
THE UNITED STATES SITUATION, IN SUMMARY
NEW ZEALAND CASE STUDIES
THE SWEDISH SCHEME
COMPARISON: WHICH SYSTEM IS BETTER?
FIRST: UNDERLYING DIFFERENCES
TALKING TORT: AMERICAN PECULIARITIES
AMERICANS CONSIDER NO-FAULT
BRITAIN CONSIDERS NO-FAULT
Appendix A THE UNITED KINGDOM
At issue is the economic effectiveness of tort law in the common law legal system of England and Wales, as applied to medical and clinical negligence and malpractice cases. In response to economic concerns and a continual…… [Read More]
But to a certain extent his distanced perspective, his hope and optimism, and also his willingness to listen to the grievances of both sides is what made him such a historically great peacemaker ("George Mitchell," Understanding Northern Ireland: BBC News, 2008). He refused to take 'no' for an answer, when people said that no compromise was possible.
Patience is one of Mitchell's most notable qualities, even though at the time some of his critics said "he gave too much latitude to participants in the talks who were over-fond of their own opinions" ("George Mitchell," Understanding Northern Ireland: BBC News, 2008). But without such unfailing patience, the final peace settlement could never have occurred. The final talks that cumulated in a politically inclusive agreement, the establishment of a chief executive agreeable to both parties, and the agreement of all paramilitary groups to hand over their weapons took thirty-six hours of nonstop…… [Read More]
policy makers underestimate internet independence?
YouTube independence of positing video content
The internet moderated terrorism
egulating the internet for anti-terrorism
Freedom and Terrorism on the Internet
The purpose of the study is to explore the use of internet by terrorist organizations and the degree of independence that terrorist enjoy while conducting and coordinating their terrorism activities from the cyberspace. The topic is an area of interest for the researcher as it is significantly relevant in today's environment when cross-border terrorism has increased. As part of the academic and citizen world, the researcher feels it is essential to gauge the scale and severity of terrorism moderated by internet sources.
The main audiences of the research paper are academic instructors, research students of cyber security and government policy makers who can influence to control terrorism originating from the freedom of internet use for every user irrespective of the underlying motive.
1.2…… [Read More]
An authoritarian leader gathers members in a cult and isolates them from the mainstream. Bodrero says this does not constitute a problem, unless the group becomes violent. When a leader uses rhetoric and violence to silence internal opposition, Bodrero believes the group may be on the path to violent extrem- ist behavior. Doomsday cults emerge from such dynamics and believe they must take offensive action to bring about the end of the world.
Black Hebrew Israelism is a form of black supremacy. Its origins trace back to the Civil War and were relatively peaceful. Recently, Ben Ami
Ben Israel, also known as Ben Carter, had a vision in Chicago telling him that African- Americans were the true Jews of old and the people who call themselves Jews are impostures. Whites are evil incarnate, descended from the devil. Bodrero (1999) says the most violent aspect of this movement formed in the…… [Read More]
The Rationale for and the Efficacy of Torture during Interrogation
Although information from interrogational torture is unreliable, it is likely to be used frequently and harshly. ==John W. Schiemann, 2012
The epigraph above is indicative of the growing consensus concerning the lack of efficacy of torture in providing interrogators with reliable concealed information Concealed information is the foundation of the majority of security issues. In most cases, concealed information is a situation wherein one individual knows something that someone else does not know. Consequently, the majority of security issues could be resolved if there was a dependable method of determining those cases in which an individual was concealing information and extracting that information effectively. To date, though, there has not been a dependable method developed.1 For instance, polygraph research has been unable to achieve an accuracy level that would make the results acceptable in courtrooms in the United States…… [Read More]
Discuss the problem of how people feel excluded from society and how that leads to rebellion.
Within the fabric of every society are groups of people bonded together through their similar values, culture, race etc. The groups that bond together are prone to exclude others because of their differences. At times these similarities and differences work well together to produce a productive feeling; however, at times the feeling becomes negative and affects the society adversely as one group begins to feel resentment towards the other. This resentment can lead to full fledged rebellion and usually takes place when the basic needs of the group are affected. Consider feelings of nationalism, racism, economic upheaval all of which can individually or collectively combine to create a vortex of aggressive emotions.
In the French Revolution the masses rebelled against the aristocracy as they were getting richer at the expense of the poor.…… [Read More]
Treason, Terrorism and Wartime Crimes
Treason is the term legally used to describe different acts of unfaithfulness, treachery and betrayal. The English law was the first to make a distinction between high treason and petit (petty) treason in the Statute of Treasons (1350). It described petit treason as an act in which one's lawful superior is murdered by him/her. For instance, if an apprentice murdered his/her master, it was stated as a petit treason. On the other hand, high treason was defined by the English law as any grave threat to the permanence or stability of the state. High treason consisted of "attempts to kill the king, the queen, or the heir apparent or to restrain their liberty; to counterfeit coinage or the royal seal; and to wage war against the kingdom" ("treason," 2012).
Treason is regarded as both a prehistoric misdemeanor and an acknowledged epithet (Eichensehr, 2009). The…… [Read More]
"Are the Developmental Needs of Children in America Adequately Addressed during the Grief Process?." Journal of Instructional Psychology 31.2 (2004): 143+. Questia. 2 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006444121.
Seibert, Dinah, Judy C. Drolet, and Joyce V. Fetro. Helping Children Live with Death and Loss. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2003. Questia. 2 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105244795.
ebb, Nancy Boyd, ed. Helping Bereaved Children: A Handbook for Practitioners. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press, 2002. Questia. 2 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111651481.… [Read More]
FISA's recent rise to fame has been due to attempts by the Bush Administration to apply the law as justification for warrant-less wiretaps of U.S. citizens in apparent disregard of their Fourth Amendment protections. This issue will be examined in more detail below, however, it is important to first discuss some of the key court cases that help establish the Constitutionality of FISA. Specifically, this report will address three cases that directly feed into the Constitutional requirements of FISA: Olmstead v. U.S. (1928), Katz v. U.S. (1967), and U.S. v. U.S. (1972).
Olmstead v. U.S. (1928)
For the civil libertarian, the case of Olmstead v. U.S. (1928) is a nightmare violation of constitutionally guaranteed Fourth and Fifth Amendment rights. In the case, oy Olmstead was convicted of bootlegging during the Prohibition years of U.S. history. Without obtaining any kind of judicial approval, federal agents placed wiretaps in the building Olmstead…… [Read More]
By continuing with a "business as usual" attitude, the terrorists would not have a long-term psychological impact on American society, culture and economic development.
hile the long-term psychological impact appears to be the most prominent value that a weapon of mass destruction has for a terrorist, it seems reasonable to argue that these weapons also serve as a means for terrorist groups to have their political voices heard. Terrorist attacks bring to light the activities, beliefs and values of a specific terrorist group. Although many in the U.S. were familiar with Osama bin Laden before 9/11, his implication in the terrorist attacks made him and Al-Qaeda household names. In this context, bin Laden was able to bring to light the organization's hatred of the United States and the organization's political agenda for the entire international community. The publicity gained from terrorist events clearly has value for terrorist groups.
4. Given…… [Read More]
The document is remarkable for a couple of reasons, which more widely emphasizes on the importance of the internet for the jihadi terrorists. The first one is the component of collective initiative that the writer promotes; emphasizing the pace of communication and the prospective strength that spread jihadi sympathizers throughout the world could concentrate on a single project. Second relates to the competence for data storing that the internet entails, permitting quick reach not only to data of academic interest but also to sensitive forms of infrastructure details containing utilities, distribution as well as transport networks, along with the risk and susceptibility perceptions of such facilities -- that governments are presently providing at ever higher standards of transparency. (Ulph, 2006)
Activity over the web is not a current phenomenon and not limited to Islamic outfits- either moderate or extremist. Terrorist groups of several features i.e. racial, ideological or…… [Read More]
In what concerns economy and taxation, Margaret Thatcher succeeded in signficicantly assisting the recovery of the ritish economy, and, by 1983, the country experienced economic growth and inflation and mortgage rates were at their lowest levels since 1970. However, the international public remembers her not for more than the things she has done to improve the ritish economy, as her 1976 speech about the Soviet Union impressed people everywhere. This particular speech gained her the nickname "Iron Lady" and she even came to relate to the name a few months after the incident.
The nickname suited Margaret Thatcher very well, given that whatever she did, she did it with an iron fist. Although she was extremely elegant and very candid, all her political actions were firm and strong. Moreover, she demonstrated her strength of mind consequent to the 1984 incident, when an Irish Republican Army bomb exploded in the hotel…… [Read More]
Counterterrorism Training Program
Terrorism is a fact of modern life. On one level, it cannot be understood; it is difficult to empathize with those who have no empathy of their own and cause enormous suffering in the name of their own beliefs. On another level, however, there are components of terrorism that can be understood -- their tactics and methods, their choice of targets and more. Because terrorism is aimed at entire societies, and is carried out in a guerrilla fashion, it is necessary to develop tactics for deterring terrorism that address terrorism's wide and deep sources, tactics and effects.
Terrorism has been a fact of life for 200 years, since the French evolution. At that time, Cottam et al. (2004) suggest that the rise of the nation-state made it more possible than ever before for individuals to want to maintain identities that were very like those of their community;…… [Read More]
Terrorism and Counterterrorism
Causes of Terrorism
Terrorism clearly draws attention to the group that perpetuated the crime in the media although it is not clear that it 'works' to achieve the stated goals of the groups that use it. Studies of the efficacy of terrorism indicate that it often backfires, at least violent terrorism. "When terrorists kill civilians or captives, it significantly lowers the likelihood of bargaining success" (Solomon 2013). However, some might argue that the accomplishments of former terrorist organizations in gaining the ability to negotiate with the offending power such as the rish Republican Army (RA) and the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) (both of which have long renounced terrorism but which began as paramilitary groups) might suggest that violence is often useful in achieving group objectives (Solomon 2013).
But in these instances, the goals of the groups were relatively concrete (expelling British and sraeli influence, respectively, from contested…… [Read More]
limiting free speech ID: 53711
The arguments most often used for limiting freedom of speech include national security, protecting the public from disrupting influences at home, and protecting the public against such things as pornography.
Of the three most often given reasons for limiting freedom of speech, national security may well be the most used. President after president, regardless of party has used national security as a reason to not answer questions that might be embarrassing personally or would show their administration as behaving in ways that would upset the populace. Although there are many examples of government apply the "national security" label to various situations, perhaps some of the stories that are associated with the Iran-Contra issue best display what government uses limitations on free speech for. In horrific tangle of lies double and triple dealing that resulted in the deaths of many Nicaraguans, the egan administration sought to…… [Read More]
Y. National Guard, which had been conducting a vigorous recruiting campaign (Troy 24). According to this author, "The Sixty-ninth was drafted into the Regular Army and was proud to be selected New York's representative in the newly formed Forty-second Division, the 'Rainbow Division,' where it was redesignated the 165th Regiment" (Troy 24). These events as much as any other were responsible for providing Donovan with both the experience as well as the recognition that would help propel him into future leadership positions. In this regard, Troy reports that, "It remained 'the old Sixty-ninth,' however, and for the better part of his twenty-two months of service Donovan was the commander of its First Battalion. It was in that capacity, a lieutenant colonel, that he saw combat, was several times wounded, and demonstrated such outstanding qualities of leadership and moral courage that he emerged from the war with 'more medals than any…… [Read More]
ith the Copperheads putting across messages relating to how Republicans could directly threaten the lower classes by generating an influx of black laborers from the South, simple workers were influenced in rebelling against their government and against everyone they considered to be responsible for their disadvantaged status.
eber stresses the significance of the army in reducing the influence that the Copperheads had in the North. In spite of the fact that the soldiers themselves were not very passionate about going to war, they did not support Peace Democrats because the faction was against the Union's principles. The military was apparently largely responsible for the fact that the masses did not appreciate Copperheads.
The Copperhead were ardent racists and this also reduced their influence in the North, as in spite of the fact that they were determined to have the public's interest directed at preventing black individuals from becoming equals, they…… [Read More]
As a soldier, he was beloved by the infantry, but "several officers and prominent North End Irishmen troubled Guiney at every turn" and the lack of political cohesion of the Irish-American community is illustrated by their treatment of the Colonel ("Colonel Patrick Guiney," ild Geese Today, 2003). Still, Guiney put principle over narrow parochialism, and strove to lead his community, rather than fall prey to the temptations of racism and easy political victories by fanning the flames of prejudice against African-Americans.
One Irish-American, General Thomas Francis Meagher who sympathized with Guiney despaired at the divisions of the Irish community. Guiney was urged by General Meagher to condemn Irish-Americans who blindly followed the Democratic Party: "Democrats they remain until the day of their deaths, miserably and repulsively regardless of the conflicting meanings that name acquires through the progressive workings of the great world about them," he wrote (Samito 2007). Meagher's anger…… [Read More]
S. citizenship (Bloemraad 2002). Given the ongoing need for qualified recruits by the U.S. armed forces, it just makes sense to determine the extent of enlistment in the armed forces by immigrants to identify their personal reasons for doing so. To the extent that these reasons are directly related to their desire to obtain American citizenship rather than a sense of patriotic responsibilities is the extent to which military service may represent a viable alternative to more time-consuming, expensive and complication naturalization procedures. It is important, though, to ensure that these immigrant recruits are provided with accurate information concerning how military service will affect their naturalization status and efforts to secure ultimate citizenship.
Rationale of Study
Military recruiters typically experience increases in enlistments during periods of economic downturn because of limited employment opportunities elsewhere in the private sector. Nevertheless, recruiting adequate numbers of high-quality and motivated service members is more…… [Read More]
Suffering Madonna of Ireland: omen, sentimentality, and mother Ireland
Sean O'Casey's play "Juno and the Paycock" portrays an Ireland where good women and particularly good mothers are the soul and heart of the Irish land, and Irish men are shiftless, murdering, or bad. Army men and unionizing men and worst of all, lawyers, threaten the dignity and the soul of the Boyle family, but only with the integrity of Mrs. Boyle does anything good survive out of the tragedies that ensue over the course of the play.
This deflationary view of men can be seen even if one parses the title of O'Casey's play. The" Juno" of the title is a nickname for the matriarch of the clan, given by her husband to his wife. In contrast, the epithet "paycock" is a dialect rendition of Mrs. Boyle's husband's name, a man who is known as strutting peacock, particularly when he…… [Read More]
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…… [Read More]
political framework of EU and OCT
European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…… [Read More]
The fact that the Ottoman Empire had experienced significant losses until that time meant that other European powers needed to intervene and attempt to gain control over areas that the Ottomans lost. The Allies eventually won the conflict but it was difficult to determine the exact effects that their victory would have on their relationship with the Ottoman Empire, as its leaders seemed determined to maintain most of their attitudes with regard to non-Muslims within their borders, thus meaning that one of the primary reasons for which the French, the English, and the Sardinians entered the war was believed to be unimportant by the Ottomans.
6. Crisis in the Ottoman Empire
People across Greece saw the Crimean War as an opportunity to concentrate their powers into removing Ottoman control from within their borders. Individuals in the Epirus region started to publicly express revolutionary attitudes in an attempt to influence others…… [Read More]
James II. had pursued it from a very different point-of-view when he consolidated the northern and middle colonies under Sir Edmund Andros (Appleby, 1984). The high-handed proceedings of Andros and his master rendered the Americans averse from any future plans of federation imposed from without, and the social and religious differences between the various regions long prevented the rise of any motion to union from within. All had their disagreements with the home government, but none had sufficient sympathy with their neighbors to fight their battles in common. Nevertheless, the French peril from 1689 onwards rendered co-ordination at least of military effort desirable, and plans were discussed from time to time which, whilst themselves abortive, kept alive the idea of union which bore fruit at length in the Philadelphia Congress of 1774. In all these plans the initiative came from the British government or its representatives; the royal officials in…… [Read More]
Terrorism and Counterterrorism.
M5D1: Winners and Losers
Has a nation ever "won" a struggle against a terrorist organization? Was te victory sort-lived or seemingly permanent? Has a terrorist organization ever "won" in its conflict against a nation?
Peraps te closest example to a 'win' tat as ever been attained by eiter a terrorist group or its victim is tat of te IRA in Great Britain. Britain was terrorized by a series of attacks by tis organization. Te IRA demanded tat England leave Nortern Ireland. "From 1969 troug 1997, te IRA splintered into a number of organizations, all called te IRA… Te IRA began its terrorist attacks on te Britis army and police following a summer of violent rioting between Catolics and Protestants in Nortern Ireland," te most infamous of wic was called 'Bloody Sunday' (Zalman 2006). "For te next generation, te IRA carried out bombings, assassinations and oter terrorist attacks…… [Read More]
" (Lindsey, 2004, p.1) it is interesting to note that one of the young protestors stated: "[the world leaders] are sitting over there on Sea Island having their little party only talking about how to fix things, but we are over here actually doing something to make things better" -- Laurel Paget-Seekins (Lindsey, 2004, p. 1) the U.S.A. Patriot Act has been touted to do just this - or to make things better in terms of security of American citizens and it is certain that the provisions of this Act have served to increase levels of security for American citizens but this security has come with a cost attached and for some Americans the cost is too high and too intrusive upon their basic civil rights. One such instance of the complexity created within the security paradigm are the no-fly lists that have been implemented in U.S. airports since September…… [Read More]
U.S. FOEIGN POLICY
American Foreign Policy from 1890 to 1930
From neutrality to intervention
Early on in American history, President George Washington advised Americans not be become embroiled in foreign conflicts. However, at the end of the 19th century, it became increasingly difficult for America to remain isolated from the issues affecting its neighbors abroad. The period from 1890-1930 was characterized by a far more expansionist American foreign policy than had been the case before. Although this policy was often defended by the notion that the U.S. was making the world safe for democracy, self-interest rather than idealism was usually the real motivating force.
A good, early example of this in Latin America can be found in the form of the Spanish-American War (1898) which eventually resulted in the U.S. acquiring territories in the western Pacific and Latin America. Spain's repression of the Cuban pro-independence movement combined with the sinking…… [Read More]
Some of the slaves remained where they were and went to work for the masters that they had previously slaved under. They were paid wages instead of working for free, but they remained because they had gotten along well with their masters and knew that if they remained there they would be able to work and eventually buy land so that they and their family could have their own place to live. Sometimes the masters would even give the freed individuals that they actually liked a small piece of their land so that they could build something. This was one of the other ways that they were able to acquire land from Caucasians
Land grants from the government also gave them a chance to build churches and other buildings as they were still not allowed to share any of these with Caucasians. Many people believe that the Emancipation Proclamation work…… [Read More]
Earth Liberation Front (ELF)
ELF Logo 2009 (Earth Liberation Front, N.d.)
Examples of Eco-Terrorism Groups
The Earth Liberation Front
If a Tree Falls in the oods: A Story of the Earth Liberation Front (Documentary)
There are many people and/or groups who claim responsibility for the Earth Liberation Front's (ELF) development. The group is comprised of loosely affiliated or autonomous cells that are only bound by the idea that they can move beyond civil disobedience and accept more contentious tactics for the defense of their environmental causes. This group was one of the groups that helped coined the label of an "eco-terrorist" which later became mainstream label of such types of offenders. The ELF group was considered one of the first eco-terrorist groups and was at one time labeled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as the most dangerous domestic terror group in the United States.
This…… [Read More]