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This also eliminates the need to worry about currency values, as with one currency being worth more than another. In contrast, some are firmly against the Euro, due to its power to decrease national identity and fears related to runaway recession, meaning that by adopting the Euro, such as in Great Britain, the "boom-bust cycle of 2008" might have been made worse (Elliott, Internet), not to mention increasing economic competition. Also, when comparing the Euro to other national paper currencies, the Euro is rather generic in appearance and does not equate with any type of nationalism. Overall, it would be difficult to envision the English pound (and the Canadian dollar) with the image of Queen Elizabeth II being replaced with redundant, generic images of Europe and without any indication of national origin or phrases of national identity in a country's native language.
Elliott, Larry. "Should Britain Join the Euro?"…
Weir, Fred. "Russia's Population Decline Spells Trouble." Christian Science Monitor.
2002. http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0418/p06s02-woeu.html .
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Tortilla Curtain by T.Coraghessan oyle
T.C. oyle's "The Tortilla Curtain" is an engaging novel on the struggles of two couples as they try to achieve the American Dream; one already handed the chance on a silver platter, and the other daring the impossible by crossing illegally into America.
While oyle shows off the endless possibilities of the cliched American Dream, his novel impresses on his readers only the futility of attempting to live it, rather than the success that countless of immigrants and Americans have found while fulfilling their dreams and destinies.
Within "The Tortilla Curtain" there are various issues intertwining as the characters lives do. Delaney and Candido find themselves brought together by an accident, yet their lives are the extreme opposite. There is an underlying current of envy and distaste between the two. "Wealthy white people like Delaney get ahead by working and living with a go-go-go drive…
Author Unknown An Interview with T.C. Boyle. Penguin-Putnam. Online.
10 paragraphs (1998-2002) December 16, 2002.
Author Unknown The New York Times (November 11, 1994) December 16, 2002.
Author Unknown The New Internationalist issue. 251 (January 1994) December 14, 2002.
Iron Triangle" Of Care, Cost, And Quality
Prior to explicating the particular direction that the health care system in the United States needs to take to consistently offer high levels of health care access at reasonable costs with substantial quality, it is necessary to understand the so-called iron triangle conundrum. The typical view of health care in the U.S. is that these three important factors (cost, quality and access) inevitably produce a detrimental effect upon one another. This viewpoint propounds the notion that increasing access to health care will inevitably drive up the costs associated with it, and quite possibly produce a noxious effect on the quality of such care. Conversely, there is a popularly held belief that reducing costs for health care will lead to a definite reduction in the quality of care delivered. Essentially, the iron curtain view of these three aspects of health care maintains that any…
Farrell, J. (2012). New book presents accessible, practical guidance for avoiding national bankruptcy while improving individual well-being. www.breakingtheirontriangle.com http://breakingtheirontriangle.com/new-book-presents-accessible-practical-guidance-for-avoiding-national-bankruptcy-while-improving-individual-well-being/
Finney, M. (2013). Affordable Care Act driving some premiums up. www.abc.local.go.com Retrieved from http://abclocal.go.com/kgo/story?id=9288812
Light, D. (2012). Universal health care and the Iron Triangle myth of U.S. policy makers. www.pnhp.org. Retrieved from http://www.pnhp.org/news/2012/october/universal-health-care-and-the-iron-triangle-myth-of-us-policy-makers
McCanne, D. (2012). Aaron Carroll repeats meme of access, cost and quality. www.pnhp.org. Retrieved from http://www.pnhp.org/news/2012/october/aaron-carroll-repeats-meme-of-access-cost-and-quality
Even though Bedrock's capitalization policy may have been in alignment in prior years, the policy does create a material unadjusted error in the third quarter that would require adjustment. By simply following the Bedrock capitalization policy simply means the quantifying effects of an unadjusted material error would occur, more especially with continuing capital expenditures due to the expansion of the additional quarry and rock finishing plant. The quantifying effects of capital expenses with the expansion alone would result in a material error for the current year, including the third quarter.
The evaluation of materiality must be based on all relative quantitative and qualitative factors. The process begins with quantifying potential misstatements, including prior year misstatements that were not corrected. This also adds the question of whether the capitalization policy has really been in alignment with ASC 250-10 (SAB 108) in prior years. Depending on the capital expenditures in…
political framework of EU and OCT
European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…
Agnew John, "Geopolitics re-vision world politics," Routledge Taylor & Francies Group, pp 1-5
Alan Taylor, American Colonies: New York: Viking, 2001, pp. 57 -- 8.
Baldwin, David. Ed. Neo-Realism And Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Balzacq, T. (Ed.). Understanding securitization theory. The design and evolution of security problems. Oxon: Routledge, 2010.
McCarthy and the Cold War
One aspect of history is that a country's so-called "friend" one day, can be an enemy the next and visa versa. The United States and Soviet Union during World War II joined ranks against the real threat of Nazi Germany. However, it did not take long after the end of the war for ussia and the United States to once again bully each other. Even before the final surrender of Germany in 1945, the two super powers rapidly found themselves in a new military and diplomatic rivalry. Meanwhile, in the United States, the economy was taking time to build and unemployment was growing. Thoughts of the Depression loomed in people's minds. The friction with the ussians, which would receive the name of Cold War, did not help. Yet it did create a scapegoat for fears and feelings of paranoia. As the tensions between the U.S.…
Barson, M. Red Scared (2001). San Francisco: Chronicle.
Bennett, D. (1988). Party of Fear. New York: Random House.
Halberstam, D. (1993). The Fifties. New York: Villard.
Lewis, P. The Fifties (1978) New York:. J.B. Lippincott, 1978.
This is in fact what drove most European wars in the past. By reverting back to that system, Europe placed itself in the path of potential skirmishes as seen in previous generations, "Europe is reverting to a state system that created powerful incentives for aggression in the past," (Mearsheimer "Why We Will Soon Miss the Cold War" 1990:1). Smaller powers, now with a stronger more independent voice, have a greater potential of starting conflicts on their own, both within Europe and outside the region. Without the strong united front against the Easter Soviet powers, the smaller powers within Europe itself are free to break away and potentially start their own troubles elsewhere; "Without a common Soviet threat or an American night watchman, Western European states will do what they did for centuries before the onset of the Col War -- look upon one another with abiding suspicion," (Mearsheimer "Why We…
Mearsheimer, John J. (1993). "Back to the Future: Instability in Europe After the Cold War." The Cold War and After: Prospects for Peace. Ed. Lynn-Jones, Sean M. & Miller, Steven E. MIT Press.
Mearsheimer, John J. (1990). "Why We Will Soon Miss the Cold War." The Atlantic Online. August 1990. Retrieved August 19, 2009 at http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/foreign/mearsh.htm
Norman, R.L. (2002). "The Cold War and the Middle East from 1945 to 2001, 911 in a Historical Perspective." Southern Domains. Retrieved August 19, 2009 at http://www.southerndomains.com/SouthernBanks/cwar.html
Sayigh, Yazid & Shlaim, Avi. (1997). The Cold War and the Middle East. Oxford University Press.
If the satellite had successfully entered orbit, this would have put the United States more than a year ahead of the Soviets in the endeavor, which added
In fact, this was not the only rocket and satellite project that many United States scientists and government officials felt had been failures, or at least under-utilized successes. The Soviets increased the pressure on the American rocket program with their launch of Sputnik II on November 3, less than a month after the launch of their first satellite, and political urging from Eisenhower and others forced the early launch of an American Vanguard satellite.
The Vanguard project had actually anticipated a launch date ahead of the Soviets, which may in part have spurred on the Soviet team and helped them to set their deadline, but a series of setbacks delayed the various test launches of the vehicles meant to deliver the Vanguard into…
Borz, Fred. "Review of Sputnik: The Shock of the Century, http://www.fredbortz.com/review/Sputnik.htm
Caviness, Rochelle. "Review: Sputnik: The Shock of the Century, Large Print Reviews, http://www.largeprintreviews.com/sputnik.html
Curtis, Nancy R. "Review: Sputnik: The Shock of the Century," Library Journal, http://wbrl-lssvr.dnsalias.org:8000/decatur/kcContent?isbn=9780802713650&type=review&controlnumber=dec00086898&referedby=titlelist
Dickinson, Paul. Sputnik: The Shock of the Century (New York: Walker & Co, 2001)
The second motive behind the internationalist actions was a desire for control. This is especially seen in Kennedy's reaction to Guatemala. By the mid-1960's, Guatemala had finally begun creating an independent government. hat's more, the people even wanted to have an open election. However, Kennedy caught wind of a threat by the former dictator Arevalo, who planned to re-enter the country and run in the election. Instead of trusting the people to elect the right leader, Kennedy reacted in fear and used American military and intelligence to rig the election in favor of a civilian leader (Rabe 56) and a military independent of that government.
The third motive, and one that is rarely considered, behind the assaults on Latin America was imperialism. Prior to the cold war, America kept its own boundaries safe and nothing else. It only went to war when absolutely necessary and did not concern itself with…
Cottam, Martha. Images and Intervention: U.S. Policies in Latin America. University of Pittsurgh Press, 1994.
Holden, Robert H. & Zolov, Eric. Latin America and the United States: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, 2000.
Internet and Democracy
In one sense, computers and the Internet are just a continuation of the communications revolution, starting with the printing press then continuing with the telegraph, telephone, motion pictures, radio and television. Could this be leading to a more fundamental change in history on the same level as the agricultural and industrial revolutions? This is a more problematic proposition. Of course, the idea of a post-industrial economy based on services and high technology dates back to the 1960s, although some visionaries had an inkling of it even in the 19th Century. Skills and education that were valuable in an industrial economy have become obsolete in the new system, although this has happened before in the history of capitalism. Society has changed relatively little from the era before the computer age, with only a few exceptions, such as the use of computers to speed up financial transactions and in…
Agre, P.E. And D. Schuler, (eds.). (1997) Reinventing Technology, Rediscovering Community: Critical Explorations of Computing as a Social Practice. Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Alavi, N. (2005). We Are Iran. Brooklyn, NY: Soft Skull Press, Inc.
Baase, S. (2009). A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues in Computing, 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall.
Barglow, R. (1994). The Crisis of the Self in the Age of Information: Computers, Dolphins and Dreams. Routledge.
influential factor in the evolution of the international world of politics following the end of World War II was the interrelationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. The conflictive positions between the two states influenced both the evolution of highly dominant states as well as minor governments. The world divided into two military fronts, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) -- 1949, and the Warsaw Pact in 1955. The international relations were dominated by tensions between the East and the West that shaped a conflict of ideological, political, and strategic manner but not military. This bilateral contention has since come to be known as the Cold War. This image of non-conventional warfare was unfamiliar decades of years ago when massacres and slaughterous mayhem was the representative picture of battlefields that most would have associated wars with up until the emergence and unfolding of the Cold War. In 2013,…
Arnold, J.R., & Wiener, R. (Eds.). (2012). Cold War: The essential reference guide. Santa Barbara, California, Denver, Colorado, Oxford, England: ABC -- CLIO.
Feng L., & Ruizhuang, Z. (2006). The typologies of realism. Chinese Journal of International Politics, 1(1), 109-134. doi: 10.1093/cjip/pol006.
Hurst, S. (2005). Cold War U.S. foreign policy: Key perspectives. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd.
Jones, H. (1989). A new kind of war?: America's global strategy and the Truman Doctrine in Greece. Oxford, New York, Toronto, Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Karachi, Kuala Lampur, Singapore, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Nairobi, Dar es Salaam, Cape Town, Melbourne, Auckland, Berlin, Ibadan: Oxford University Press.
Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Issues and Changes in usiness Standards Since the Fall of Communism in 1989?
Poland's Economy Pre-Communism's Fall
Poland's Natural Resources
Minerals and Fuels
The Polish Economy Under Communism
The Centrally-Planned Economy
Establishing the Planning Formula
Retrenchment and Adjustment in the 1960s
Reliance on Technology in the 1970s
Reform Failure in the 1980s
Poland's Economy After the Fall of Communism
Poland After the Fall of Communism
Fall of Communism
Marketization and Stabilization
Required Short-Term Changes
Section 2.3.2. The Shock Strategy
Section 2.3.3. Initial Results
Section 2.3.4. Long-Term Requirements
Section 2.4. Macroeconomic Indicators for 1990-91
Section 2.4.1. Price Increases
Section 2.4.2. Impact on Productivity and Wages
Section 2.4.3. Statistical Distortions
Section 2.4.4. Agricultural Imbalances
Section 2.4.5. Causes of Decline
Section 2.5.The Polish Post-Communism Privatization Process
Section 2.6. Structure of Poland's Economy: Post-Communism
Section 2.6.1. Fuels and Energy
Bowie E. (1999) Business Ethics a Kantian Perspective Oxford: Blackwell
Ciszewska B. (1998) Unethical behaviour Warszawa: Rzeczpospolita
Cryssides G.D.; Kaler J.H. (1999) Introduction to the ethics of business. Warszawa: PWN
Davies W.F. (1997) Current issues in business ethics London: Routledge
The Czech director Vera Chytilova's 1966 film Daisies invites an allegorical reading from the outset. It is clear that we are not in the realm of any sort of realism, but the question remains whether the symbolism here is in any way coherent. However, considering it is a film by a female director with dual female leading roles, it is worth examining the role of gender in the film.
Chytilova's credit sequence seems to be a wink in the direction of Soviet-style socialist realism: we are watching a world of heroic machinery, cogs and gears. hen we first see the paired female leads -- one blonde, one brunette, both named Marie -- they seem to be part of the machinery as well. As the girls make their stylized movements, we hear a loud squeaking sound, as though they were dolls or automata whose joints were machinery that squeals with…
Chytilova, Vera. Daisies (Sedmikrasky). Perfs. Ivana Karbanova, Jitka Cerhova, Jan Klusak. Czechoslovakia, 1966. Film.
Fellowship Proposal: ussian Studies, Sovietology, and Orientalism
The motivation for this proposal is based on personal interest in the former ussian Empire. The proposed dissertation that will result from this research will consist of an introduction that will discuss the importance of this study, followed by three main chapters, and a conclusion that provides a summary of the research and important findings concerning the issues of interest. Each of the chapters will cover a specific historical period characterized by a different set of American views, studies, and assumptions about Central Asia prior to the end of the Cold War period. Ending the proposed dissertation with the early Cold War era is also apt because it was a pivotal moment in the formal establishment of Central Asian Studies, albeit as a sub-discipline within ussian and Soviet studies.
Prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia was comprised of five…
Baldwin, Kate A., Beyond the Color Line and the Iron Curtain: Reading Encounters between Black and Red, 1922-1963. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2002.
Bookwalter, John, Siberia and Central Asia. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1899.
Carew, Joy Gleason, Blacks, Reds, and Russians Sojourners in Search of the Soviet Promise. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2008.
Davis, Raymond and Andrew Steiger, Soviet Asia, Democracy's First Line of Defense. New York: the Dial Press, 1942.
ut the rabbi could also serve as the connection between a Jewish ghetto and the surrounding Christian community. This dual raised status of rabbis made their role the most enviable in the community. ut the shifts in French society that occurred in the decades just preceding and following the French Revolution created cracks in the isolation of European Jews.
The French Revolution is generally seen as an overthrow of the monarchy, and of course this is in part what happened. ut the revolution was intended not simply to overthrow the Second Estate -- the nobility and royalty -- but also the First Estate -- the church and the clergy. The revolution unseated the Catholic Church from its position of power perhaps even more surely than had the Reformation, and it helped to free the country from Protestant as well as Catholic influence. ut even more broadly, the revolution allowed people…
Alexander, Uri. The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference. European Judaism 35, 2002.
Arkush, A. Moses Mendelssohn and the Enlightenment. New York: State University of New York Press, 1994.
Berkovitz, Jay. The Shaping of Jewish Identity in Nineteenth-Century France (Paperback) Indiana: Wayne State University Press, 1995.
Brann, Ross and Adam Sutcliffe. Renewing the Past, Reconfiguring Jewish Culture: From al- Andalus to the Haskalah. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003.
" The U.S. railroads stated featherbedding bill figures to be approximately $500 million a year. (Time & CNN, 1959; paraphrased)
Summary and Conclusion
One cannot presume to visit any city or town in the United States in today's world without seeing or hearing a train as it chugs down the railroad tracks from one destination to another every busy. While not much attention is given to today's railroad companies, it is certain that the railroad in the United States is still going just as strong as in its' historical heyday. As a matter of fact, the railroad is the oldest form of across land transportation in the history of the United States excepting the horse and wagon originally used by settlers in the establishing of the United States of America.
Samson, William D. And Previts, Gary John (1995) Reporting for Success: The altimore and Ohio Railroad and Management Information…
Samson, William D. And Previts, Gary John (1995) Reporting for Success: The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and Management Information 1827-1856. Culverhouse College of Commerce. Online available at http://www.h-net.org/~business/bhcweb/publications/BEHprint/v028n2/p0235p0254.pdf
Reading Co." A Brief History (nd) Reading Company Technical & Historical Society, Online available at http://www.readingrailroad.org/reading/rdg_history.html .
Union Railroad (nd) Trainweb.org online available at http://www.trainweb.org/pt/union.html .
Central Railroad of New Jersery (nd) Trainweb.org online available at http://www.trainweb.org/pt/crnj.html
A core weakness in the current dynamic seems to be the laxity of enforcement on the part of the EU with respect to this issue of citizenship. According to EU Facts, "although they had to improve their citizenship process in order to join the EU in 2004, a significant proportion of the population (10% of Estonians and 19% of Latvians) have still not been given these rights. Relations with Russia are critical to all three countries." (p. 1)
Today, there is an opportunity to force reconsideration of Russian relations for the Baltic States. As the global recession spreads through the EU and imposes heavy burdens upon the three states in question, leaders are being forced to reconsider the unilateral approach that has caused such problematic dependency on a struggling economic coalition.
The greatest threat to the critical relations between Russia and the Baltics is the cultural tension which exists between…
Bajarunas, E.; Haab, M. & Viksne, I. (1995). The Baltic States: Security and Defence After Independence. Chaillot Papers, 19.
Buhbe, M. & Kempe, I. (2005). Russia, the EU and the Baltic States: Enhancing the Potential for Cooperation. Batic Centre for Russian Studies.
EU Facts. (2010). Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Civitas.
Herd, G.P. & Lofgren, J. (2001). 'Societal Security', the Baltic States and EU Integration. Cooperation and Conflict, 36(3), 273-296.
One of these issues is Central Asian archaeology. Towards the end of the chapter, the author notes that there may be whole cities buried beneath the desert sands in Central Asia. Because the author also mentions the importance of tourism for the economic empowerment of the region, it is clear that archaeology may become a major tourist draw.
In 1997, the author notes, an expedition on foot was undertaken to capture the Taklamakan desert on camera. Such adventures are rare, and not for the common visitor. Similarly, the common visitor will not be an archaeology scholar but rather, an amateur interested in ancient sites. For the same reason why tourists visit Egypt and Greece as much for ancient as modern culture, tourists to Central Asia may be driven by this core curiosity.
Lawler (2006) describes Viktor Sarianidi's unearthing of Gonur, one of many ancient settlements in Central Asia. Under the…
"Central Asia Archaeology" (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.cyberpursuits.com/archeo/cntrlasia-arch.asp
Central Eurasia Project (2010). Call for Papers: Building Open Society in Central Asia & the South Caucasus. May 3, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.soros.org/initiatives/cep/news/cep-occasional-papers-20100503
Lawler, V. (2006). Central Asia's Lost Civilization. Discover. Retrieved online: http://discovermagazine.com/2006/nov/ancient-towns-excavated-turkmenistan
UNESCO (2010). Cultural and Eco-tourism in the Mountainous Regions of Central Asia and in the Himalayas. Retrieved online: http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=1392&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is the second man in the history of the United States to have followed in his father footsteps and become the President. Bush served two consecutive terms as President, starting with January 2001. He was born in 1946 in New Haven, Connecticut, but most of his childhood, he spent in Midland, and then his teenage years in Huston, Texas. George W. Bush was the first child born in George and Barbara Bush's family. At the time of his birth, his father was an undergraduate at Yale (Bush, A Charge to Keep, 15). George W. Bush enrolled at the same university where his father studied and received a BA in history there. ater, he graduated from Harvard, receiving a MBA at Harvard Business School, in 1975. Between his studies at Yale and Harvard, Bush activated as a pilot in the Texas Air National Guard (The…
Lobe, Jim. The Bush Team Reloaded. Middle East Report, No. 234 (Spring, 2005), pp. 10-16 Published by: Middle East Research and Information Project
King, D.S. Edwards III, G.C. The Polarized Presidency of George W. Bush. Oxford University Press, 2007
Hamilton, W. Bush Began to Plan War Three Months After 9/11. Washington Post. April 17, 2004; Page A01
For the Soviet Union, the period of time during and immediately after the Second World War was in reality, yet another cruel landmark in the numerous wars, revolutions and crises which had been influencing and destroying the country since the year 1905, and when in the year 1985 Gorbachev took over the administration and management of the country, the people of the Soviet Union hoped for some form of relief from the years of oppression that they had been subjected to under various leaders, including Stalin, Khrushchev who denounced Stalin and caused communists to defect from the party in large numbers, Brezhnev, under whose rule the Soviet government gradually changed from a personal dictatorship to oligarchy, Sakharov, who helped create the world's first Soviet H. bomb, Chernenko, Andropov, and several others. (Lecture 16: 1989: The Walls Came Tumbling Down)
Gorbachev was an individual and a leader who was…
Kreis, Steven. (2000) Lecture 16: 1989: The Walls Came Tumbling Down. The history guide, lectures on twentieth century Europe. From http://www.historyguide.org/europe/lecture16.html
N.A. Biographies and the Division of Europe. February, 1999. http://hsozkult.geschichte.hu-berlin.de/TERMINE/1999/kbiog29.htm
N.A. Russia, the Gorbachev Reforms. At http://www.russiansabroad.com/russian_history_205.html
N.A. World War II in the Soviet Union. 2003 http://www.worldwariihistory.info/in/USSR.html
S.-Soviet partnership lasted only a year and a half. With World War II over and the OSS disbanded in October 1945, the Cold War was looming on the horizon.
The research showed that the KGB was established in 1917 and was official deactivated in 1991. The research also showed that the KGB was not the stuff of the James Bond movies, but rather was characterized by an enormous sense of internal rivalry, a profound sense of paranoia and a desire on the part of many of its agents to defect to the West at their first opportunity. In this environment, it was little wonder that the KGB would resort to some of the tactics it used to achieve its mission, and it is reasonable to assert that current ussian intelligence agents will have taken a lesson or two from their KGB predecessors as they seek to maintain hegemony with…
Andrew, Christopher and Vasili Mitrokhin. 1999. The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB. New York: Basic Books.
Ebon, Martin. 1994. KGB: Death and Rebirth. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Kalugin, Oleg D. 2002. "Window of Opportunity: Russia's Role in the Coalition against Terror." Harvard International Review 24(3), 56.
Ebon, Martin. 1994. KGB: Death and Rebirth. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, p. ix.
Thirdly, the approach Woodrow Wilson had put forward at the Peace Conference was based on the mutual agreement between the states of the world to avoid any military confrontation in the future. The final point which demanded for the creation of a world body to guarantee "political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike" would have implied certain equality between the parts of this Pact. The actual situation on the ground however could not have supported such a claim because the states present in Paris were split between winners and losers of the war and automatically between countries that were satisfied with the status quo the war had established and the ones that were unsatisfied with the post war situation. Part of the first category, France and ritain, as well as the U.S. tried to keep to the results the armed conflict had reached, while Russia and…
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994
Brigham Young University Library. President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points. 1996. Accessed 2 August, 2007 at http://net.lib.byu.edu/~rdh7/wwi/1918/14points.html
Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Schlesinger, Stephen. Act of Creation. The Founding of the United Nations. Colorado: Westview, 2003
Many peoples' lives, destinies, and hopes for the future, and not only American ones, depend and will depend in the future on this taking place sooner rather than later, and now more than ever before in America's history.
Illegal Immigration." ikipedia. 4 May 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illegal_immigration.html>.
Espenshade, Thomas J. "Unauthorized Immigration to the United States" Annual
Review of Sociology. 21 (1995). 195-200.
Flores, illiam V. "New Citizens, New Rights: Undocumented Immigrants and Latino Cultural Citizenship" Latin American Perspectives. 2003. 30(2). 87-
http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id=b2579269c3c901ad0ae85bd42dd2920d" Love Unites Them, La Migra Separates Them." El observador, 30 Nov. 2006. http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id= b2579269c3c901ad0ae85bd42dd2920d.html>.
Morgan, Edmund S. The Puritan Dilemma: The Story of John inthrop. New York: Longman 2nd Edition, November 20, 1998.
Snyder, Tanya. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/opinion/oped/bal-op.elsalvador11jan11,0,460257.story?coll=bal-oped-headlinesTo Slow Immigration from El Salvador, Understand its Causes."
Baltimore Sun, 11 Jan. 2007. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/opinion oped/bal-op.elsalvador11jan11,0,460257.story?coll=bal-oped-headlines.
Young Migrants Risk All to Reach U.S." ashington Post. 28 Aug 2006.
Illegal Immigration." Wikipedia. 4 May 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illegal_immigration.html >.
Espenshade, Thomas J. "Unauthorized Immigration to the United States" Annual
Review of Sociology. 21 (1995). 195-200.
Flores, William V. "New Citizens, New Rights: Undocumented Immigrants and Latino Cultural Citizenship" Latin American Perspectives. 2003. 30(2). 87-
Moreover, ending the cold war enabled the formation of international alliances that help and support members, and also fight together against common enemies.
Cold War, MSN Encarta, Encyclopedia Article, Microsoft Corporation, 2006
http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569374_1/Cold_War.html, last accessed on February 27, 2007
Walter Lippmann, the Cold War: A Study in U.S. Foreign Policy, Harper & rothers, 1947
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Proxy War, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, February 21, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proxy_war,last accessed on February 27, 2007
At Cold War's End: U.S. Intelligence on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 1989-1991, History Staff, Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1999, https://www.cia.gov/csi/books/19335/art-1.html#rtoc7,last accessed on February 27, 2007
Peter Nolan, China's Rise, Russia's Fall. Macmillan Press, 1995. pp. 17-18
Christopher Reeves, Western Europe during the Cold War and eyond, Jagiellonian University of Krakow, Center for European Studies
Cold War, MSN Encarta, Encyclopedia Article, Microsoft Corporation, 2006
http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569374_1/Cold_War.html, last accessed on February 27, 2007
Walter Lippmann, the Cold War: A Study in U.S. Foreign Policy, Harper & Brothers, 1947
Cold War, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, February 24, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_war,last accessed on February 27, 2007
More often than not, the plan of containment has been used to describe U.S. foreign policy. It is equally frequently traced back to the achievements of President Truman with regard to the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
In 1950, there was a shift in foreign U.S. policy after President Truman moved from passive to active containment by signing the top-secret policy plan NSC-68. It took a much more drastic approach towards the spread of Communism, which according to the new twist, claimed that Russia was en route for the domination of the world. It should be noted however that the doctrine had some major weaknesses and was repeatedly subject to contradictory interpretations. This may have led several other presidents and policy makers to toy with it at will. It could also very well explain some of the many long involvements of the U.S. In diverse wars and…
7 Michael O'Malley, "The Vietnam War and the Tragedy of Containment."
On the other hand, the International Rescue Committee focuses on promoting human rights as one of the core of every innovative programs carried out by the organization. This major focus on human rights through the restoration of safety, hope and dignity to millions of refugees is one of the major relations of this organization with the ISCOR major at San Diego University.
Finally, the third major relation of the organization with the ISCOR major is that it serves as an opportunity where graduates of the program can apply their knowledge in helping IRC to accomplish its mission. This is largely due to the fact that students completing the major are prepared for careers that relate to international security and conflict resolution. Since the International Rescue Committee hits the ground in places with conflicts across the globe, graduates of this program can be used to help provide a way from harm…
Graubart, Jonathan. "Program Information." San Diego State University: International Security and Conflict Resolution. San Diego State University, 27 Oct. 2010. Web. 15 May 2011. .
"History of the International Rescue Committee." International Rescue Committee: From Harm to Home. International Rescue Committee. Web. 15 May 2011. .
"International Rescue Committee." Idealist.org. Action Without Borders, Jan. 2011. Web. 15 May 2011. .
"International Security and Conflict Resolution." San Diego State University: SDSU 2011-2012 Catalog. San Diego State University. Web. 15 May 2011. .
S. responded to the Great Depression by electing FDR, who brought out his Alphabet Programs which were supposed to put the nation back to work with public works projects. When that failed to restore the economy, the world elected to start with a new war: WWII. Germany had been buried by the Western powers following WWI -- and now the country threatened to assert itself once more. Russia was in the middle of its own revolution: Stalin was liquidating the kulaks and rounding others up and shipping them off to the Gulag. That did not help Russia's economy any more than FDR's Alphabet program -- but it did not matter: war was on the horizon. Japan was being strangled by Western powers: the American military-industrial-congressional complex essentially forced Japan to attack -- and then sat back and let it happen when Japan finally decided to bomb Pearl Harbor. Thus, America…
There was also an opportunity cost to the availability of such goods. There was an explosion of American companies selling American products and to an unwelcome public. It was difficult for the Russian people to accept quickly. Their pace of life was not the same as America's and yet they were expected to adjust very quickly. The economic reform took a down turn when the Russian people did not catch onto a lot of these American products. As a result consumer spending went down and many companies failed in their ventures. Another factor to this failure is found in the quick need for the new Russia to do away with the old Russia' state owned companies by introducing privatization. This concept was hard for the Russian businessperson to grasp. "For both cultural and ideological reasons, the attitude toward private business in the Soviet Union could hardly be described as friendly"…
Dornberg, John. The New Germans: Thirty Years After. New York: MacMillan
Publishing Co., 1976.
Goldman, Marshall I. Lost Opportunity: Why Economic Reforms in Russia Have
Not Worked. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1994.
communism," "vodka," may be "Vladimir Putin." But everyone who would be asked about Russia would also say "Russian mafia" who are very cruel and dangerous gangs from Russia and who wouldn't stop behind anything in achieving their dirty plans.
The term and the phenomenon of Russian mafia are pretty young if compared to well-known mafia of Sicily, Italy, Latin American cartels. The first news and rumors about Russian mafia in the United stated appeared in 1980 ies, when a massive immigration of predominantly Russian Jews started from the Soviet Union. Russian mafia had penetrated into the infrastructure of the main business centers of the U.S.A.: New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and Boston. They spread their influence over the successful immigrants from Russia, who have to pay for their "protection" or who have to allow mafia representatives participate in running businesses.
If to look on the nature of relations of Russian…
3. Hoffmann, D. "Fragile Foundation," The Washington Post, December 26, 1996
4. Mafia invades New York, Article BBC NEWS available on web: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/03/98/russian_mafia/70485.stm
5. Khonanikhin, A. Mafiocracy in Russia, Article available on web: http://konanykhin.com/press/wp1.htm
Orson elles' Film Citizen Kane (1941) on Expression in Film; the Film Industry; and on the Theory of Director as "Auteur"
The expressive meaning of the cinematic masterpiece Citizen Kane, directed by Orson elles in 1941, cannot be summed up succinctly. ithin Citizen Kane, everything is significant; not a single frame is wasted or extraneous. Each separate portion of the film contributes to its overall impact as one of the greatest cinematic achievements, if not the greatest, ever. The film is, quite simply, a tour de force of film directing; cinematography; mise-en-scene; editing; sound (it is considered the best sound film ever made (Mast and Kawin; Giannetti); acting; "aesthetic realism" (Bazin, p. 43) and an amazing (even to this day) synthesis of all these elements and more. Therefore, analyzing one line, or one key scene, or even a long series of scenes from Citizen Kane and declaring any of these…
Bazin, Andre. What is Cinema, Vol. II. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California:
University of California Press, 1971. 40-45.
Giannetti, Louis. Understanding Movies. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall,
Army Structure; from 3-Brigade Division Units to Units of Action
At the Pentagon, briefings routinely begin with the old adage that
"the only thing constant today is change." Since the age of the Cold War, the United States Army has faced change at home and abroad, experiencing not only a massive transformation in technology and infrastructure, but also in the worldwide approach to warfare. As the end of front-line battles gave way to urban streets and insurgency, the Army transitioned its structural paradigm to mirror the rapidly shifting needs, abandoning the Three Brigade Division Units for Units of Action.
This organizational shift had roots in Capitol Hill politics and dissent internal to the Pentagon, but was a desperately needed restructuring to meet the needs presented by the Iraq War, vastly different than those experienced during the Cold War history. In the early 1950s, the Soviet forces overwhelmed many of the…
American History -- journal
In the September 2000 issue of the highly-prestigious history journal American Heritage, the main topic of discussion has to do with "ales From the Cold War," a period in American history following World War II when the U.S. And the Soviet Union were engaged in detente and threats related to the use of nuclear weapons.
he first article, "he Day We Shot Down the U-2" by Sergei Khrushchev, the son of Premier Nikita Khrushchev, makes it clear that the U-2 incident of May 1, 1960 involving U.S. pilot Gary Powers was far more complicated than has previously been realized. Khrushchev states that "In the 1950's, years of deep freeze in the Cold War caused politician and ordinary people on both sides to be gripped by the same fear," being "whether Moscow or Washington would seize the opportunity to deal the first, and possibly the last, nuclear…
The second article, "Aircraft 53-1876A Has Lost a Device" By Clark Rumrill, focuses on how the U.S. Air Force came to drop by mistake an A-bomb on the state of South Carolina in March of 1958 which fortunately did not detonate. Rumrill points out that an Air Force medium bomber accidentally dropped its nuclear weapon "in the woods behind the home of the Gregg family" and that the "high explosive trigger in the bomb blew up on contact with the ground, leaving a crater 50 feet across and 35 feet deep and injuring three girls" (50). This accident came about when a Captain Kulka noticed that the bomb was lodged in the wrong place in the plain and when he tried to fix the problem the bomb-bay doors opened up and the bomb fell from the plane. Moments later, "the plane was rocked by the shock wave of the blast when the bomb hit the ground" (53).
The third article, "Mr. Smith Goes Underground" by Thomas Mallon, concerns a specially-designed bunker, meant to house the President of the United States and his closest confidants, during a nuclear strike by the Soviet Union. Mallon reminds the reader that this bunker, located in West Virginia and now open to the public for tours, was "the strangest of all Cold War relics and offers a clue to why (the U.S.) won the Cold War" (60). The current tour guide, Marvin Weikle, who helped maintain the facility for many years, always warns the visitors that what they are about to see can be quite startling, due to costing $14 million to construct in the late 1940's. Once the visitors enter the bunker, they "find themselves standing at the end of a 144 yard-long concrete corridor leading into the 112, 544 square-foot former standby capital of the United States" (63).
The last article, "Visiting the Cold War Today" By Phil Patton, describes various landmarks from Berlin, Germany to Washington, D.C. To Area 51 which as of 2000 were being opened to the public. According to Patton, "these days, there are more and more visitors to the monuments of the Cold War" and tours as often overcrowded at the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station and the Nevada Test Sites. Some of the most conspicuous sites include the Titan Missile Museum in Sahaurita, Arizona, the house on Checkpoint Charlie in Berlin (the dividing line between East and West Germany during the Cold War, a.k.a. The "Iron Curtain), the Allied Museum in Berlin and the Cold War Museum which Gary Powers, the U-2 spy plane pilot, created "to honor his father and all Cold War veterans" (72). As of 2000, this museum included "a U-2, a section of the Berlin Wall, a spy satellite, a fallout shelter and other artifacts" (72).
Film -- Kundera, the Unbearable Lightness of Being
When Milan Kundera wrote The Unbearable Lightness of Being, he was a political exile from Czechoslovakia, living in France, whose books were banned in his native country. Thus, it is not surprising that his fiction addresses oppression and its instruments, particularly language. In The Unbearable Lightness of Being, Kundera's character, Tomas, is converted from surgeon to window-washer for refusing to cooperate with the authorities. Unlike Malcolm's subject, however, Tomas comes to find this transformation a personal reprieve, a feeling which is aided by the numerous sexual dalliances his new position affords him. Kundera's portrayal of Tomas's fate and his book's success in the west only exacerbated the sense of injury felt by those who had stayed in Czechoslovakia and had lived out the reality that Kundera 'improved on' in his fable of totalitarianism.
The novel is primarily philosophical and ironic,…
Kundera, Milan. The Unbearable Lightness of Being. Trans. Michael Henry Heim. New York: Harper and Row, 1984.
Unbearable Lightness of Being, The, 1988 D: Philip Kaufman, The Saul Zaentz Company.
THE UNBEARABLE LIGHTNESS OF BEING, Magill's Survey of Cinema; 6/15/1995
hat were the important events and factors that led to the end of the Cold ar? There are several theories and explanations, and this paper reviews those theories and explanations.
First of all, it should be noted that not all scholars accept that the Cold ar began after II. Professor Jack Matlock of Princeton University -- who served as ambassador to the U.S.S.R. -- writes in the peer-reviewed Harvard International Review that if the Cold ar began in 1945 or 1946, it "…must have ended around 1990" because that was when the "Iron Curtain" in Eastern Europe came down and the military confrontation between the East (Soviets) and est (U.S.) slowed to a standstill (Matlock, 2001, p. 1). But, on the other hand, if the Cold ar began in 1917, when the Bolsheviks won control of Russia, then it ended at a different time than 1990, Matlock asserts.…
Bozo, Frederic. 2009. "Winners' and 'Losers': France, the United States, and the End of the Cold War." Diplomatic History, 33: 927-940.
Matlock, Jack E. 2001. "The End of the Cold War." Harvard International Review 23: 84-87.
Nye, Joseph. 2009. "Who Caused the End of the Cold War?" HuffPost. Retrieved July 11, 2012,
from http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
An American who spent sometime in Germany recounted his experience [Will Higher Gasoline Prices Inspire Lifestyle Changes, 2001] of energy prices in that country, "When I lived in Germany, the price of gasoline went from the equivalent of $2.50 per gallon to $3.25 per gallon over night. The Bundesregierung had added another $0.75/gallon gas tax, in addition to the existing $2.00 per gallon gas tax. (That's right: $2.75 out of every $3.25 per gallon was Federal taxes.)," He remembered the effect on prices on his use of transport, "I used the public transport system, easily the best in the world."
This is the direction our country will have to go too. Do we allow this country to be totally dependent on imported oil? Should we keep gasoline prices low to prevent development of alternatives or take necessary steps now to create a change in the present Gas Guzzling life style?…
Roberts, P., Bad Sports, Harper's Magazine. April 2001
Snead, M.C. And Martinez, R.D., Energy Prices and the Oklahoma Economy, Center for Applied Economic Research, Oklahoma State University, September 2004
Yetiv, S.A., America benefits from high oil prices, retrieved from Internet on 21st May 2006, http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20060206/news_mz1e6yetiv.html , February 6, 2006
On the other hand there was growing opposition in intelligentsia circles to pro-soviet regimes in all East European countries and Eastern Germany. If in earlier years Soviet Union was able to aid economies of these countries in order to support communist regimes, then starting from the years fro stagnation in late 1970's the situation changed. Findings were shortening and the U.S.S.. was not able to support unprofitable industries of its partners as its own economy was experiencing troubles:
The growth of the Soviet economy has been systematically decelerating since the 1950s as a consequence of dwindling supplies of new labor, the increasing cost of raw material inputs, and the constraints on factor productivity improvement imposed by the rigidities of the planning and management system. The average annual growth of Soviet GNP dropped from 5.3% in the late 1960s to 3.7% in the early 1970s, to 2.6% in the late 1970s.…
Berkowitz, Bruce D. Richelson, Jeffrey T. The CIA vindicated: the Soviet collapse was predicted. The National Interest, No. 41, Fall 1995
Morewood, Steven Gorbachev and the Collapse of Communism History Review, No. 31, 1998
Fleming, D.F. The Cold War and Its Origins, 1917-1960 Vol. 2 Doubleday, 1961
Militant Vol. 61, no. 24. 23 June 1997
Nuclear confrontation between the two superpowers was profoundly frightening, not just for those who would have borne the full brunt of any nuclear exchange... But for the international community as a whole. Quite literally, the prospect of nuclear war constituted a threat of truly global dimensions. (O'Neil A. 2004)
There are many other important aspects that mark the beginning of the Cold War Era. One was the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO in 1949. NATO as a joint military group was created to "... defend against Soviet forces in Europe." (Cold War) The first members of NATO were Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and the United States. (Cold War) A similar organization was formed by the Soviet Union and its east European allies known as the Warsaw Pact. This also serves to emphasize the entrenchment of the Cold War into…
Cold War. Retrieved June 3, 2006, at http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/cold_war.htm
Harry S, Truman and the War Scare of 1948. Retrieved June 3, 2006, at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAtrumanD.htm
McGowan M. (2005) American society is in dire need of a wake-up call: Award Would Honor Veterans Who Fought for Freedom against Iron Curtain. Retrieved June 3, 2006, at http://www.globalsecurity.org/org/news/2005/050713-veteran-award.htm
O'Neil A. (2004) Keeping the contemporary threat environment in perspective. Retrieved June 4, 2006, at http://www.australianreview.net/digest/2004/05/oneil.html
When the wall fell, the United States could somewhat smugly say, "I told you so" to the former Soviet sympathizers. Political and ideological victory was a key advantage of reunification for the United States.
The Socialist Unity Party (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands), headed by Ulbrecht for decades, laid the foundations for the state-controlled industrial economy that would characterize East Germany and which might have crippled the Eastern provinces' potential to thrive as part of the EU. Like the former GD, West Germany also emphasized heavy industry during the Cold War as a key to their economic growth, but the FG permitted at least some form of free enterprise and also enjoyed having the United States as a wealthy trading partner.
Many of the lessons derived from reunification can also be incorporated into American foreign and domestic policy, informing for instance, methods of reviving economically depressed regions at home and abroad. However,…
Blacksell, Mark. State and Nation: Germany Since Reunification. Europa. Number 3 Article 5-1997. Retrieved July 17, 2006 at http://www.intellectbooks.com/europa/number3/blacksel.htm
Delaney, Bill. "Germany Still Dealing with Remnants of Cold War." CNN World News. 1995. Retrieved July 17, 2006 at http://www-cgi.cnn.com/WORLD/9510/germany/index.html
East Germany." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006. Retrieved July 17, 2006 at http://encarta.msn.com
Manus, Susan. "Perspectives on German Reunification." Library of Congress Information Bulletin. Nov. 1997. Retrieved July 17, 2006 at http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/9711/sommer.html
To wit, in Socrates' day, there were no official government prosecutors (commonly referred to in modern America as "District Attorneys"); in effect, any citizen could bring an indictment against any other citizen, and call for a trial. And that's basically what happened to Socrates.
Here in America, in 2006, notwithstanding what Vice President Cheney said, President George . Bush stated, "I will never question the patriotism of somebody who disagrees with me." Bush was responding to a reporter's question on August 21; Bush was asked if he believed, according to http://mediamatters.org, that the "Democrats advocating for U.S. withdrawal from Iraq 'embolden Al Qaeda types' as...Cheney similarly stated. Bush's answer was, "I will never question the patriotism of somebody who disagrees with me... [although] leaving [Iraq] before the job would be done would be to send a signal to our troops that the sacrifices they made were not worth it...this has…
Allen, R.E. (1980). Socrates and Legal Obligation. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis
American Sociological Association. (2006). "Statement...on Creationism and Related Religious
Doctrines in U.S. Science Education." Retrieved 18 Oct. 2006 at http://www.asanet.org .
The same access to formerly secret information from the Cold War era also revealed the extent to which Soviet infiltration of the highest level of American military projects had served to further exhaust the American economy by necessitating continual development of strategic and tactical weapon systems to counter escalating technological improvements in Soviet military systems. The first successful test of a Soviet nuclear weapon in 1949 was directly attributable to Soviet infiltration of the top secret Manhattan Project; American pilots flew combat missions against Soviet Mig fighters developed with information stolen from American weapon designs through espionage; and that dynamic persisted virtually throughout the Cold War (Langewiesche 2007).
The financial strain of continuous nuclear deterrence and the perpetual modernization and updating of sophisticated strategic weapon systems was among the principle causes of the eventual collapse of the former Soviet Union. By 1989, the protracted war in Afghanistan had all but…
Allison, G. (2004) Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe.
New York: Henry Holt & Co.
Langewiesche, W. (2007) the Atomic Bazaar: The Rise of the Nuclear Poor. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Girouh.
McNamara, R. (1995) in Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam. New York: Random House.
In this respect, it was not the reality which mattered but rather the perception of that reality. Most of the times during the Cold War, but especially after the fall of the Iron Curtain, the reality showed that the perception of the Russian Soviets as the strongest forces in the world was often not true. Still it motivated the U.S. To consider all sorts of side games to defeat the communist threat, which in fact was not as big as considered throughout the decades.
Diversionary war has its own motivation in terms of psychological impact on the population. People tend to view the international threat as being the ultimate point of reference for danger. The state in itself is the most trusted instrument for the insurance of security, and an international threat constitutes the questioning of this establishment. More precisely, it has been argued that "as the leader of one…
Baker, William D.. "The Dog That Won't Wag: Presidential Uses of Force and the Diversionary Theory of War" Strategic Insights, Volume III, Issue 5 (May 2004).
Clausewitz, Carl Von. On War.. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984
Hendrickson, Ryan. "Clinton's Military strikes in 1998: diversionary uses of force?" In Armed Forcea & Society, vol. 28, no. 2. Winter 2002, pp 309-332.
James, Patrick and John R. Oneal, "The Influence of Domestic and International Politics on the President's Use of Force," Journal of Conflict Resolution 35 (1991): 307-332.
S. And the U.S.S.. The second subject added also the countries of the non-aligned block. To this answer, he suggested an important book on the Cold War, Henry Kissinger's "Diplomacy." Indeed, the book reveals the importance of the non-aligned countries especially the ones in Africa or Latin America for the creation of the spheres of influence and the equilibrium of the time (Kissinger, 1995).
At the forth question on the most significant moments of the Cold War in everyone's view, again, the answers were different. My mother pointed out the arms race and the SALT I and II as tools for the disarmament. Also, she pointed out the role Gorbachev played in the change of politics and approach of the U.S.S.. together with that of onald eagan's. The second answer considered the landing on the moon by the Americans to have played a major role in determining the supremacy of…
Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. (London: Simon & Schuster, 1995)
6. What factors contribute to globalization? The principle factor that contributes to globalization is economics. Transnational companies (Giddens et al., 2012, p. 485), for instance, have a vested interest in identifying -- and exploiting -- the most economically viable markets in which to conduct business so that they can maximize profits and reduce costs. However, there are also other factors that readily contribute to globalization, such as the exchange of global data in the form of communication. With people able to easily disseminate and receive information in virtually any part of the world -- such expedience naturally results in a reduction of national and even global barriers that were previously existent. The main forms of communication include the World Wide Web and the telecommunications (Giddens et al., 2012, p. 480).
There are also important political and economic changes that have influenced the spread of globalization. Capitalism's emergence as the dominant…
Allen, J. (1998). "Birth control and the Catholic Church." Undergraduate Review.11 (1): 7. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.iwu.edu/rev/vol11/iss1/7
Babcock, H.M. (2008). "The National Environmental Policy Act in the urban environment: oxymoron or a useful tool to combat the destruction of neighborhoods and urban sprawl?." Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works. Retrieved from http://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1952&context=facpub
Giddens, a., Dunier, M., Appelbaum, R.P., Carr, D. (2012). "Essentials of sociology." New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Lee, E., Vivarelli, M. (2006). "The social impact of globalization in the developing countries." Iza. Retrieved from http://ftp.iza.org/dp1925.pdf
Art Culture: Public Space Art
Public art like that of Koon's Train (2011), Serra's Tilted Arc (1981), Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial (1981), and James' Sea Flower (1978), ignite discussion to the point of its modification, re-arrangement, or removal. The reason for this controversial treatment of public art is its ability to embrace a variety of aesthetic practices. The adoption of different aesthetic values like poster art, outdoor sculpture, earthworks, multimedia projections, and community-based projects among others, breaks the public's traditional understanding of art (Glahn, 2000). This critique finds that the public's totalizing classification of public sphere brings about controversy and dialogue over public art displays. By reviewing the famous public art "Tilted Arc" (1981) by Richard Serra, this analysis will show that there are distinct differences between public understanding and professional understanding of public art.
The government with the intention of exhibiting, protecting, and edifying art, commissions public art in…
"REVIEW & OUTLOOK (Editorial, b) -- Asides: Tilting with the Arc." Wall Street Journal: 1. Sep 04, 1987. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Doss, Erika. "Public Art Controversy: Cultural Expression and Civic Debate," Americans for the Arts, October 2006. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.
Drescher, Timothy. "The Harsh Reality: Billboard Subversion and Graffiti," Wall Power, Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, 2000.
Fleming, Ronald Lee. "Public Art for the Public." Public Interest.159 (2005): 55-76. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Watts (L.A) race riots - racial tension explodes in the big city.
he Watts Riots were a civil disturbance in Los Angeles, California. he riots took place from August 11 through August 15, 1965. he incident resulted in 34 deaths, 1,032 injuries, 3,438 arrests, and over $40 million in property damage. he riots began when a white police officer pulled over a 21-year-old black man on suspicion of drunk driving in the Watts neighborhood where he lived on the evening of August 11. A crowd soon gathered and the officer called for back-up, who attempted to arrest Frye using physical force to subdue him. he growing crowd of local residents watching the exchange began yelling and throwing rocks. After the arrest, the crowd continued to grow. Police came to the scene to break up the crowd a few times that night, but were attacked by rocks and concrete. Until the…
The Freedom Riders were black and white civil rights activists who rode interstate buses together into the segregated southern United States to challenge local laws or customs that enforced segregation. The first Freedom Ride began on May 4, 1961 with thirteen riders, seven black and six white. The Freedom Riders' tactics for their journey were to have at least one interracial pair sitting in adjoining seats and at least one black rider sitting up front, where seats under segregation had been reserved for white customers by local custom throughout the South. The rest would sit scattered throughout the rest of the bus. One rider would abide by the South's segregation rules in order to avoid arrest and to arrange bail for those who were arrested. Only minor trouble was encountered in Virginia and North Carolina, but one was attacked in Rock Hill, South Carolina. Some of the Riders were arrested in Charlotte, North Carolina, Winnsboro, South Carolina and Jackson, Mississippi.
5. First heart Transplant - what else can technology do?
On December 3, 1967, South African surgeon Christiaan Barnard conducted the first heart transplant on 53-year-old Lewis Washkansky. The surgery was a success. However, the medications that were given to Washkansky to prevent his immune system from attacking the new heart also suppressed his body's ability to fight off other illnesses. Eighteen days after the operation, Washkansky died of double pneumonia. However, Stanford University's Norman Shumway, and his team of doctors and scientists developed a technique to determine whether a patient's body was gearing up to reject an organ, allowing them to tailor their prescriptions of immunosuppressants. The success of the procedure over the past three decades has created a new problem, rising demand. With far more patients in need than donors, researchers have high hopes for alternative treatments, including stem-cell therapy or heart pumps.
gestures, I realized that I needed a bit more understanding regarding my own approach to non-verbal communication. I began by asking friends and associates about my non-verbal traits, and was actually surprised at their views telling me that often non-verbally I was more expressive than verbally.
Learning about non-verbal communication, I found that it is much more than gesture, and includes looks, dress, hair style, jewelry, and more -- everything and every message we send to the outside world unspoken, but nevertheless important and meaningful. When we use non-verbal gestures, for instance, we can communicate a great deal through our body posture, facial expressions, arm & hand gestures, or combinations. When we speak, we use tone, timbre, style and rhythm to emphasize or express emotion, but because our communications are co complex, some experts believe that depending on the culture, over 80% of human communication has an element of non-verbalness.…
Sometimes to deconstruct what someone else says or how they say it -- for instance overhearing students talk about a particular novel or painting and then using air-quotes to mimic what they said in a sarcastic movement.
This got me thinking -- do I use air-quotes as a way to be pretentious and all-knowing; sending messages that other people do not know what they are talking about, then I use the air-quote as a way to de-emphasize and deconstruct what they had to say. I began to ask friends and relatives about this; some said it was topic dependent, others mood dependent -- that when I am relaxed and having fun with friends, the topics can get more lively as the even progresses, thus allowing me more of an opportunity to poke fun at nearly everything for its veracity. For instance, note how air quotes are used in this political speech to really negate everything anyone else says about the matter: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SGZOyxfiNoU .
My analysis tells me that I must like this gesture and use it as a way to express my discontent with the viewpoint, score, estimate, and call into question the facts that are either supposed to be common knowledge or facts given to us by various speakers. Because I think I overuse this gesture, which then ends up having the opposite point it is intended, I am going to work on using the air-quote less and only in situations in which I have a very strong opinion about someone else's truth. One of my friends commented that now it actually looks like I do not really believe in anything anyone says because everything has an air-quote around it, giving it a sense of disbelief in the first place. To de-emphasize this use, though, took realization, research into my own use of this gesture, and having friends and parents watch out and warn me about it when I've use it in the last 3-4 sentences.
The Container: I have two ideas about the container. One would be a book, that is hollowed out to hold the items. Frank McCourt always loved books, and it is what made him the man he is now, a writer, a teacher, and a legend. The other would be some kind of container that held alcohol. McCourt always had a sense of humor, even about the most awful things that happened in his life. I think he would see the humor (even if it is black) in a time capsule left in a bottle or a can of booze, because he was not above laughing at himself.
Item 1: Timeline http://www.angelasashes.com/chronicles/timeline-nonflash.html
Printout of the web page (above), that shows the timeline.
Angela's Ashes" takes place from 1930 through 1940 in Limerick, Ireland. The novel follows the lives of Frank McCourt and his brothers. They are very poor, and…
United tates and Fidel Castro's Cuba, now more than forty years old, is still a source of great political and moral contention. The collapse of the oviet Union and, with it, the end of the Cold War, signaled a change in the implications of the type of socialism governing Cuba. The alleged threats that had hovered so close to the continental U.. throughout these paranoid and dangerous days of ideological impasse were now neutralized by the dismantling of the infrastructure that had brandished them. Cuba, once a unique and remote ally to the U...R., served as an outpost for anti-American hostilities and a potential vessel through which to deliver the devastating blows that may have turned the Cold War hot, now is an isolated bastion for ideals abandoned by most of the world. In the Western Hemisphere, they are alone, paying for what most American citizens will tell you is…
Sources can be found and printed at the following sites:
Source 1. http://www.state.gov/www/regions/wha/cuba/policy.html
Source 2. http://travel.state.gov/cuba.html
Source 3. http://qbanrum.tripod.com/cuba-1.html
Source 4. http://isla.igc.org/Features/Cuba/cuba2.html
Gypsies, otherwise known as Roma, came to the Americas with the very earliest settlers. Throughout the course of the past 500 years, the Roma, their preferred name, have held on to their traditions and practices. Historical written record says that the Portugese exported Gypsies to South America. According to legend, the Portugese did the same thing in what is now South Carolina, long before the English came to settle the area.
The long tradition of Gypsies in the United States is almost as interesting as the origination of Gypsises as a people. Gypsies originated in India over 1000 years ago, migrating to Europe in the Middle Ages. No one knows for sure how or why they began to wander the globe as they have. Today, there are more than twelve million Roma located in many countries around the world. ecause the Romani are almost never included on official census counts,…
Cheverly, MD; Gypsy Lore Society, 1994.
Patrin timeline of Romani History" http://www.geocities.com/Paris/5121/timeline.htm
Bunce, C. "Travelers are the Unhelathiest People in Britain." British Medical
Journal. 19 October 1996
African-Americans are second only to Native Americans, historically, in terms of poor treatment at the hands of mainstream American society. Although African-Americans living today enjoy nominal equality, the social context in which blacks interact with the rest of society is still one that tangibly differentiates them from the rest of America. This cultural bias towards blacks is in many notable ways more apparent than the treatment of other people of color, such as Asian immigrants, as is reflected in disparate wages and living conditions experienced by these respective groups. Common stereotypes hold the successful, college educated black man or woman as the exception rather than the rule, whereas Asians are commonly thought of as over-achievers. Although any bias undermines social interaction in that it shifts attention away from individual merit, the bias towards African-Americans can be said to be worse than most, and lies at the root of discrimination and…
Tamar Lewin. Growing Up, Growing Apart. New York Times, June 25, 2000. http://query.nytimes.com/search/article-page.html?res=9402E1DF1730F936A15755C0A9669C8B63
Thomas Dolan. Newark and its Gateway Complex. Rutgers Newark Online, September, 2002. http://www.newarkmetro.rutgers.edu/reports/2002/09/gateway/gateway2.php
George Breitman (Ed.), Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements, published in 1990 by Grove Weidenfeld: New York, NY. pp 4-17 http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/malcolmxgrassroots.htm
High Rises Brought Low at Last. The Economist: July 9, 1998. http://www.economist.com/displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=142018
life of famed musician Frank Zappa. The writer explores his life, his works and why he is a solid candidate for being labeled a 20th century genius in the field of music. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
It used to be that the word genius only applied to a standardized IQ score on an Intelligence Quotient test. In more recent years the world has come to the understanding that there are many types of intelligence and that genius can be found in many areas of life. One area that has always escaped the watchful eye of genius identifiers has been that of the music world. While musicians were often referred to as talented or gifted, the word genius was rarely used. Today, with the new understanding that genius can come in many forms; artists from the past and present are being recognized for the true genius…
Artist (Band):Frank Zappa http://www.sing365.com/music/lyric.nsf/singerUnid/D9BF3455EC85AB7B4825697100357627
Svenska Akademien informs the public in its press release from the 0th of October, 2002, that "The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2002 is awarded to the Hungarian writer Imre Kertesz "for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history."
One could say it was Fate. We know one cannot fight against Fate. It's implacable, its useless to try to change the course of things as long as there is Fate leading mankind to its way. A unique way.
Was it Fate that made him win the Nobel Prize so that the whole world can find out about his novel? This semi-autobiographical novel where he tells us about living as a Jewish teenager under the Holocaust was meant for the world to look back at that time of World War II, through the eyes of a 4 years old boy who is…
1. Imre Kertesz. Fateless 2. Imre Kertesz. Fateless, Reviewed by Gyrgy Uri Kozma, published by Northwestern University Press, Evanston, IL 1992
3. Imre Kertesz. Fateless reviewed by, K. Barnhart, on the http://www.sonic.net/barny/fateless.html
4. The Nobel Prize in Literature 2002 - Press Release, 10th of October 2002, available on the www.nobel.se/literature/laureates/2002/press.html
Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality
The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1
The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…
Bailey, Sydney D. Four Arab-Israeli Wars and the Peace Process. Palgrave: Macmillan, 1990
Barber, Benjamin. Fear's Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy. W.W. Norton and Company, 2003
Barton, F.D; Crocker, B. Winning the Peace in Iraq. Washington Quarterly Volume: 26, Number: 2. Spring 2003, pp. 7-22.
Bijl, Nick van der. Nine Battles to Stanley. Pen and Sword Books, 1999
role of individual: the titular "Hedwig" of "Hedwig and the Angry Inch" and the protagonist of "Magnolia"
The individual's sexual orientation and sexual identity and of identification is of supreme importance in "Hedwig and the Angry Inch," as well as in "Magnolia." However, in the latter film, the protagonists' senses of lived selfhood regarding the nature of life and death comes to the forefront, rather than notions of mere gender identification. In the film, of "Hedwig" regarding the "internationally ignored" rock singer from behind the Iron Curtain, the individual is defined almost entirely in terms of his/her sexuality. In "Magnolia," the closeness of different individuals towards their eventual end is what is at issue in terms of their sense of self as individuals.
This fact is evidenced in terms of Hansel/Hedwig's marginal social status as a transvestite and vocationally in terms of his/her manifested, simultaneous roles as a drag queen…
Hedwig and the Angry Inch." 2001.
Film Response to Repentance (1984)
Tengiz Abuladze's 1984 motion picture Repentance provides viewers with an abstract perspective on life in a rural area as being disrupted by feelings associated with absurdness, Stalinism, and people's struggle to reach common ground on particular issues. The film puts across a series of principles ranging from a satirical comedy to a means of addressing political topics that were controversial during the 1980s. In spite of the confusion that the film expresses as its storyline progresses, most viewers are probable to experience intense emotions as they become better acquainted with characters and with how they feel about their immediate environment.
While it would be pointless to discuss the film in association with conditions in the Soviet Union during the 1980s, it is intriguing to address matters in Soviet countries that separated from the union as the Iron Curtain fell. Individuals in former Soviet state must…
Dir. Tengiz Abuladze. Repentance. Cannon Film, 1987.
Cold War dominated American culture, consciousness, politics and policy for most of the 20th century. Even after the fall of the Berlin Wall, which symbolized the fall of the Iron Curtain and therefore finale of the Cold War, Cold War rhetoric and politics continued especially in the War on Terror. Depictions of the Cold War in American literature and film parallel the changes that took place in American ways of thinking about its own domestic policies as well as American perceptions of the alien enemy or "Other." Tracing the evolution of American film and literature from the end of World War Two until the 1980s reveals trends in thought. Early depictions of the Cold War were modernist in their approach, with clear distinctions between good and evil and no moral ambiguity whatsoever. Clear delineations between right/wrong and good/evil prevailed, a form of political propaganda and even brainwashing that prepped the…
Booker, K.M. (2001). Monsters, Mushroom Clouds, and the Cold War. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Comyn, J. (2014). "V2 to Bomarc: Reading Gravity's Rainbow in Context." Orbit 2(2). Retrieved online: https://www.pynchon.net/owap/article/view/62/174
Hamill, J. (1999). Confronting the Monolith: Authority and the Cold War in Gravity's Rainbow. Journal of American Studies 33(3): 417-436.
Jarvis, C. (n.d.). The Vietnamization of World War II in Slaughterhouse Five and Gravity's Rainbow. Retrieved online: http://www.wlajournal.com/15_1-2/jarvis%2095-117.pdf
The concept of the business cycle is that the rate of growth in an economy will shift over time, but in a more or less repeatable pattern. The structure of the pattern is, roughly, that economies will grow quickly, then a turning point will occur and the economy will turn into recession. After a trough, the business cycle will begin anew with a fresh period of growth.
For most Western economies, characterized by rising populations, intensive resource exploitation and continuous technological improvements, are on a long-run growth trend in their GDP. The business cycle should be identifiable outside of that trend. The degree of influence between business cycles and the trend is subject to debate. For example, in the United States the recession of 2008-2009 is believed by some to have permanently set the country's growth trajectory below where the previous trendline was -- so the business cycle will have…
Holocaust Memory in East and West Germany
In Bernhard Schlink’s Guilt about the Past, the author writes about it what it is like to live under the “long shadow of the past” (26). Schlink states that the Germans felt oppressed by this guilt that their soldiers committed. They are happy to forget it, for example, when the German soccer team scores a goal at the World Cup and shouts, “We are somebody again!” as though the goal erased everything, as though the German soccer team somehow brought respectability to the German nation once more. It was an instance of a man wanting to get back into the light. Yet, after WWII, there was not much light to get into. Just like after WWI, the Germans were saddled with guilt. Only this time, after WWII, they were really made to feel it. They learned that their people had committed a…
It also set up a conflict between labour and capital, a variation of the old conflict between peasants and nobility. Because it was based on a competitive "free" market, capitalism inherently sought labour-saving and time-saving devices by which it might increase efficiency and productivity. In other words, manufacturing and production processes were sped up through specialisation (division), automation, mechanisation, routinisation, and other alienating forms of production in which the human being was less a personality at work and more a replaceable cog in a much larger system. This changed the way construction products were made. The concept of capitalism itself envisioned the mass production system and then made it a reality.
Furthermore, with the rise of the factory and the mechanisation of labour, farming began a decline and people flocked to the cities to find other types of work. Added to this there were advances in medicine which meant that…
O'Conner, P. (2003). Woe is I: The grammarphobe's guide to better English in plain English. New York: Riverhead Books
As such, the original construction for the building was completed between 1911 and 1913, after which point the factory underwent significant reconstruction resulting in an expansion that was largely different than its original design. The construction effort was largely financed by enscheidt, who worked in conjunction with foreign investors raise the necessary funding. The building's foundation was achieved by mixing compressed concrete and pebble dashing. While the majority of the rising structure was erected with brick, the floors were laid down with reinforced wood planks. The ceilings were constructed with a formwork shell (Gotz 138).
The glass windows that the Fagus Factory is noted for were erected upon steel frames and cover the building's entire exterior. What is of interest about this fact is that the corners of the building were constructed without supports, in much the same way that the Turbine factory was (Jaeggi 43-44). The glass was placed…
Driscoll, Molly. "Ludwig Mies van der Rohe: Father of 'less is more' architecture." The Christian Science Monitor. 2012. Web. http://www.csmonitor.com/Innovation/Tech-Culture/2012/0327/Ludwig-Mies-van-der-Rohe-Father-of-less-is-more-architecture-video
Filler, Martin. "Mies and the Mastodon." The New Republic. 2001. Web. http://www.tnr.com/article/mies-and-the-mastodon
Harris, Neil. "Mies on Lake Shore Drive." Architecture Week. 2004. Web. http://www.architectureweek.com/2006/0503/culture_1-2.html
Puente, Moises. Conversations with Mies van der Rohe. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. 2008. Print.