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Iroquois and omen
One of the most influential Native American tribes is the Iroquois, whose way of life and constitution helped American women to realize that they, too, should be afforded the same rights and privileges as men within society. omen's rights activists such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and Matilda Joslyn Gage were directly inspired by the Iroquois women they met and observed, which influenced them to advocate for women's rights within the United States.
In the summer of 1848, Mott and her husband visited the Seneca people -- one of the Five Nations comprising the Iroquois -- during which she was able to observe how women were treated as equals in terms of family, government, and economy. Coincidentally, during this same time, the Seneca Clan Mothers were debating on whether they should adopt the governance systems of the Quakers eventually accepting the model except for any concepts…
The Constitution of the Iroquois Nations. Web. 26 May 2013.
Harper, Judith E. "Biography." Not for Ourselves Alone. PBS. Web. 26 May 2013.
"Inspiring Women's Rights." Oneida Indian Nation. 2 March 2009. Web. 26 May 2013.
Jamison, Dennis. "Women's Rights in the Iroquois Confederation." The Examiner. 4 March
The position of American Indians is peculiar today in view of their position as a protected species today. At the same time, when they were independent they had a distinct identity. We are here to discuss the Iroquois and in certain respects even in earlier times they were very modern in their outlook. Their law and custom allowed members of the tribe to freely express their opinions in political and religious matters. It did not permit others to enter the homes. It permitted the participation in politics by women to a certain extent and distributed wealth in a reasonable manner. The description of the position of Iroquois is not enough, but one has to know that they were then in touch with the leaders of the forces of white Americans led by Benjamin Franklin. This led to a situation where there was a free experiment regarding democracy when…
Iroquois Creation Myth. Retrieved from http://www.uwec.edu/greider/Indigenous/woodlands/Tom/Religion.htm Accessed on 25 June, 2005
Johansen, Bruce. E. Forgotten Founders. 1982. Retrieved from http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/FF.txt Accessed on 25 June, 2005
The Futures of Indigenous Peoples: 9-11 and the Trajectory of Indigenous Survival and Resistance. Retrieved from http://jwsr.ucr.edu/archive/vol10/number1/pdf/jwsr-v10n1-hallfenelon.pdf Accessed on 25 June, 2005
The Life and Writings of Dewitt Clinton. Retrieved from http://www.history.rochester.edu/canal/bib/campbell/Chap07.html Accessed on 25 June, 2005
During the years of the French Indian Wars, Benjamin Franklin saw the Colonies as needing to be united under one government, particularly for the purposes of defense. His Albany Plan of 1754 was directly influenced by the makeup of the Iroquois Confederacy. It was a commonly held view by American Patriots at the time that the functioning of the Confederacy most closely resembled that of ancient ome, and offered a unique living insight into the Colonists' own deep past. The Albany Plan was Franklin's first plan for uniting the colonies under one peaceful government. The Plan was not ratified, but several ideas therein moved forward into the Articles of Confederation and laid the platform for Franklin's position in drafting the Constitution. The Albany Plan is the blueprint for modern American government: the proposal included a President (appointed by the British monarchy) who would lead with the support of a Grand…
References author not specified. "Perceptions of America's Native Democracies"
.doc file provided by client
Cook, Brian. Iroquois Confederacy and the Influence Thesis. 12-11, 2000. http://www.ces.sau48.org/iroqconf.htm (accessed 5-13, 2011).
Portland State University. Covenant Chain. 10 1, 2001. http://www.iroquoisdemocracy.pdx.edu/html/covenantchain.htm (accessed 5-13, 2011).
Six Nations Indian Museum. The Six Nations: Oldest Surviving Participatory Democracy on Earth. n/a. http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/index.html (accessed 5-13, 20111).
Over the course of his text the Ordeal of the Longhouse: The peoples of the Iroquois League in the Era of European Colonization Donald Richter attempts to piece together what remains of the Iroquoian oral tradition, to understand the cultural as well as the political motivations behind different actions of the League. Richter would likely agree with Fixico that understanding the role of Iroquois mythology is vital to understanding how the tribes expressed themselves within the League. The ritual responsibilities towards the village, tribe, family of the Iroquois does show what Fixico calls a "visual and circular" orientation, rather than a linear and verbal tradition, and all tribes' interpretations of history eschewed easy linear interpretations of the relationship of the past to the present (Fixico xii). "Clans had reciprocal obligations centering on ceremonial gift giving and mutual ritual duties" (Richter 21). The League's conflicts with its Indian and new European…
Fixico, Donald Lee. The American Indian Mind. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Richter, Donald. The Ordeal of the Longhouse: The peoples of the Iroquois League in the Era of European Colonization. University of Carolina Press, 1992.
The Iroquois were hunters, gatherers, and farmers, with a large percentage of their macronutrient needs being supplied by farm crops (Santhos et al., 2014). A recent study of the calorie needs of Tanzanian hunter-gatherers, compared to Bolivian farmers, reveal the farmers tend to consume more calories (Pontzer et al., 2012). The men and women hunter-gatherers consumed on average 2,650 and 1,900 kilocalories (kcal) per day, respectively, whereas the farmers consumed 2,850 and 2,450, respectively. As with the Iroquois, the duties of hunting and gathering were divided along gender lines, with men tasked with hunting. The daily energy needs of the Iroquois would therefore lie somewhere between hunter-gatherers and farmers. The mean value using the findings from Pontzer et al. (2012) is just under 2,500 kcal per day for both genders. To reach this value using corn alone (see Fig. 6) the Iroquois would have to consume 2.9 kg…
CalorieLab. (2014). Calorie counter. Retrieved from http://calorielab.com/index.html .
Cordain, L., Miller, J.B., Eaton, S.B., Mann, N., Holt, S.H.A., & Speth, J.D. (2000). Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71, 682-92.
Pontzer, H., Raichlen, D.A., Wood, B.M., Mabulla, A.Z., Racette, S.B., & Marlowe, F.W. (2012). Hunter-gatherer energetic and human obesity. PLoS One, 7(7), e40503.
Santhosh, Heon, Kaelen, Alec, Colton, Cole et al. (2014). Diet: Farming and Agriculture. Retrieved from http://iroquoisgroup24.weebly.com/food.html .
This dance was very powerful as it did scare the European people. They did not fully understand the reason behind the dance and the religion, but they were very clear as to what the apocalypse was and they wondered if the Indians were somehow summoning the end of the world. Not soon after this Ghost dance caused such a commotion, an Indian by the name of Handsome Lake who was a leader for the Seneca tribe brought a new message to the Iroquois people. His message was to end the drinking. The Iroquois people had began to drink a lot of alcohol that was often offered to them from the European people during the fur trade. Handsome Lake believed that many of the problems that the Iroquois people faced was related to the alcohol. Many of the Indian people were drunk when they were trying to handle problems of poverty…
Kehoe, Alice Beck. North American Indian Tribes, Chapter 5. 1992 Prentice Hall.
Biolsi, Thomas and Zimmerman, Larry. Indians and Anthropologists, Chapter 9. 1997 Prentice Hall.
Iroquois Website. Retrieved December 19, 2009 from http://www.iroquois.net/.
Turtle shell rattles have been used for countless centuries. Such rattles have been recovered from ancient sites in the southwest and in the Mississippian civilizations.
The turtle rattle was also a musical instrument in ceremonial use. One of its most important functions was its significance in the False Face ceremonies. One of the most distinguishing features of the Iroquois belief system is the reliance on the mask for religious and ritual purposes. These masks are often designated as False Faces. This term refers to the first False Face and the mythical origins of protective and healing spirits. They are used in introductory and agricultural rituals. The turtle rattles play a significant part in these important rituals.
In the various curing and healing rituals, the wearer of the False Face will juggle hot coals and use ash and is apparently immune to cold (see below), and he bears a turtle-shell rattle…
American Indian Education. http://www.osseo.k12.mn.us/special/stusupport/stuserv/AmInd/LilBuffalo/catalog.htm (Accessed April 30, 2005)
THE IROUK CHARACTER. http://www.icculus.org/~msphil/mythus/campaigns/aerth/irouk / (Accessed May 1, 2005) www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=21005756
Frank G. Speck, and Alexander General, Midwinter Rites of the Cayuga Long House (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1995), 70.
nature in American literature, from earliest writings to the Civil War period. It is my purpose to outline the connection between spirituality, freedom and nature and explain how American writers have chosen to reflect and interpret these themes in relation to their historical realities.
At the beginning of the colonization process there were two congruent depictions of nature. Initially, the tribes comprising The Iroquois League lived in close contact with nature and believed in the importance of maintaining a harmonious relationship with it. In this respect, the Iroquois Constitution imposes a devout display of gratitude to all by-human elements of the world before the opening of any council. On the other hand, the early explorers and founders of the United States perceived an immense natural potential in the country. In this sense, Thomas Hariot describes the New World as a land of wealth, his words and images aimed both at…
Barna, Mark. (2001, May) Our Romance with Nature. The World and I, Vol.16, No.5
Webb, J. Echoes of Paine: Tracing the Age of Reason through the Writings of Emerson (2006). ATQ (The American Transcendental Quarterly), Vol. 20, No.3
Whicher, G.F. (1945) Walden Revisited: A Centennial Tribute to Henry David Thoreau. Chicago: Packard
" p. 6 (Morgan, 2000) Finally, the idea of property was slowly formed in the human mind, remaining nascent and feeble through immense periods of time. Springing into life in savagery, it required the experience of this period and of the subsequent period of barbarism to develop the germ (of civilization) and prepare the human brain for the acceptance of its controlling influence. Its dominance as a passion over all other passions marks the commencement of civilization..." p.6 (Morgan, 2000) Therefore, it is the ownership of property that is the final step into full civilization, and this was what Morgan envisioned for the Iroquois nation. Morgan states that the first and most ancient form of government was "a social organization, founded upon gentes, phriatries and tribes" p. 62 with the second and latest being a "political organization founded upon territory and upon property." p. 62 According to Morgan, the former…
Morgan, Lewis Henry (2000) Ancient Society. Contr. Robin Fox. Transaction Publishers. Online available at http://books.google.com/books?id=UrmLQ_taPD4C&dq=morgan+ancient+society+league+of+the+iroquois
Holmes, W.H. (1907) Lewis Henry Morgan, Biographical Memoir Read Before the National Academy of Sciences November 20, 1907. Online available at http://books.nap.edu/html/biomems/lmorgan.pdf
Morgan, Lewis H. (1901) League of the Iroquois. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company. 1901.
The Use of Institutions to Change Culture and Society
history of the native American Indians is a long and colorful one. The first Indians arrived on the North American continent subsequent to the end of the Ice Age approximately 15,000 years ago. These early Indians arrived from Siberia as they passed through Alaska and gradually settled throughout what is now the United States. These early arriving Indians were hunter-gatherers and, as a result, they traveled freely across the vast North American continent and by 8,000 years ago had spread as far east as the eastern seaboard.
As indicated, the early Indians were hunter-gatherers and many of the tribes remained such until the early 1900's but a select few tribes began farming. The Indian tribes electing such life style were centered in present day Mexico City and by the time that this area began to be explored and settled by Europeans the farming life-style of these Indian tribes had been…
noble savage..." etc.
The Noble, Savage Age of Revolution
When Europeans first came to America, they discovered that their providentially discovered "New World" was already inhabited by millions of native peoples they casually labeled the "savages." In time, Europeans would decimate this population, killing between 95-99% of the 12 million plus inhabitants of the Northern Continent, and as many in the south. efore this genocide was complete, however, the culture of the natives would significantly influence the philosophy and politics of the nations that conquered them. The native societies, with their egalitarian social structures, natural absence of disease, communal sharing of resources, and their lifestyles in which work was easily balanced with art and play, seemed like something Europeans had lost when Adam and Eve left Eden. "Native societies, especially in America, reminded Europeans of imagined golden worlds known to them only in folk history. . . Created of European…
Grinder, Donald & Johansen, Bruce. Exemplar of Liberty: Native America and the Evolution of Democracy, 7th draft. Los Angeles: UCLA, 1990. [nonpaginated ebook available from: http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/EoL/index.html#ToC ]
Johansen, Bruce. Forgotten Founders: Benjamin Franklin, the Iroquois and the Rationale for the American Revolution. Boston: Harvard Common Press, 1982. [nonpaginated ebook format from: http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/FF.txt ]
The legend itself tells very significant things about the Native Indian cultures in general and the Oneida culture in particular. The story offers at once hints to the heroic ideal of the Iroquois, to the cult of the female gender specific to some Native American peoples and to the metaphoric significance of the tribe's name. The most important conclusion to be derived from the analysis of the story is therefore the fact that there is a tight connection between the legend and the values and ideals specific to the Oneidas. Other versions of the arrior Maiden legend, such as the variant told by the Hopi tribe, also render the image of feminine modesty combined with spiritual strength. In the Hopi tradition, the maiden actually fights against the enemies of her people, because she is left alone at home with her mother, who at the time of the attack was just…
Erdoes, Richard and Alfonso Ortiz. American Indian Myths and Legends. New York: Pantheon Fairy Tales and Folklore Library, 1984.
Oneida Culture. Indian Country Wisconsin. http://www.mpm.edu/wirp/ICW-57.html
Oneida Culture and Language. http://www.native-languages.org/oneida.htm
Oneida Culture. Indian Country Wisconsin. http://www.mpm.edu/wirp/ICW-57.html
Native American Influence on the Constitution
The event or issue discussed in this document is the influence of Native Americans on the U.S. Constitution. There is a fairly lengthy history of research that contends that Native Americans actually played a considerable role in the founding of the U.S. Constitution. Moreover, there is also evidence that supports that certain members of the founding fathers were directly impacted by Native Americans. In fact, there are specific Native American tribes and political representations of these tribes that are alleged to have contributed to the U.S. Constitution. A good amount of this evidence is considered in "Our Founding Mothers and Fathers, The Iroquois."
There is certainly evidence that supports the idea that there was a Native American influence on the formation of the U.S. Constitution. That evidence is predicated on the effect of the Iroquois tribe on the founding fathers. Specifically, the Iroquois had…
rebeuf writes at length concerning the Huron thoughts about their origins, superstitions, belief in dreams, feasts, dances, sorcerers, style of government, council procedures, and burial ceremonies. He devotes the final chapter to the Huron Feast of the Dead.
III. In DEFENSE of LE JEUNE
The work of Charles Principe (1990) entitled "A Moral Portrait of the Indian of the St. Lawrence in One Relation of New France, Written by Paul Le Jeune' states a response to what is viewed as a revisionist history that criticizes Le Jeune unfairly for his "depictions of the Montagnais in the Jesuit Relations." (Principe, 1990) the argument of Principe is that even while scholars contend that Le Jeune was particularly harsh in criticizing the tribe that there was actually great admiration of the tribe on the part of Le Jeune and that he viewed them has having the potential to develop into 'very noble Christians'.…
Campeau, L. (ed) Huron Relations for 1635 and 1636 Jean de Brebeuf, S.J., edited by Lucien Campeau, S.J. (Transl. William Lonc, S.J.)
Hannan, a.A. (1944-5) a Chapter in the History of Huronia at Ossossane in 1637. CCHA Report, 11 (1944-45), 31-42 http://www.umanitoba.ca/colleges/st_pauls/ccha/Back%20Issues/CCHA1944-45/Hannan.html
Principe, Charles. (1990) "A Moral Portrait of the Indian of the St. Lawrence in One Relation of New France, Written by Paul Le Jeune, S.J." Canadian Catholic Historical Association, Historical Studies 57 (1990): 29-50.
The Jesuits and the Iroquois | Cornelius Michael Buckley, S.J. | Foreword to Jesuit Missionaries to North America: Spiritual Writings and Biographical Sketches by Francois Roustang, S.J.
Finally it also represented an important means of conducting the foreign policy from the point-of-view of the French occupation. In this sense, "the North America fur trade of the 17th and 18th centuries had usually been viewed, until recently, as merely another commercial enterprise governed by the premise "buy cheap, sell dear" in order to rip the maximum of profit. Of late the Canadian end of the trade has come to be regarded as having been more a means to a noncommercial end than a pursuit conducted solely for economic gain. As European penetration and dominance of the continent progressed, the trade, which had begun as an adjunct of the Atlantic shore fishery, became a commercial pursuit in its own right. After 1600 (...) it became a means to finance and further the tragic drive to convert the Indian nations to Christianity."
Aside from the Algonquin tribes, the Huron tribes…
Eccles, W.J. "The fur trade and eighteenth- century imperialism." William and Mary Quarterly.
3rd Ser., Vol. 40, No. 3. pp. 341-362.
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections vol. XXXIV.
In the period between the evolution and the drafting of the Constitution, Jefferson noted that the eventual existence of a dictator in place of a king in Ancient ome clearly indicated the existence of real failings within the oman system:
dictator is entirely antithetical to republicanism's "fundamental principle...that the state shall be governed as a commonwealth," that there be majority rule, and no prerogative, no "exercise of [any] powers undefined by the laws." "Powers of governing...in a plurality of hands." (Zuckert, 1996, p. 214)
As a result, Jefferson, like the philosophes before him (and the Iroquois) would turn to ideas that would balance the necessary evils of government power with the rights of the people. James Madison agreed wholeheartedly, and urged in "Government of the United States" that a constitutional government based on separation of powers was the only sure way of preventing the country from taking the "high road…
In general, both sides fought using impromptu raids and very vicious and undercutting tactics. However, this was the traditional fighting method used by Native Americans during this particular era and could be understood in terms of their cultural perspective.
The fifth criteria of just warfare is that "war must be the only possible means of righting the wrong done." This particular standard is another very flexible standard for warfare. oth sides of any conflict must justify their actions as "last resort" even if other opportunities were open for negotiation. However, in this historical context it could be argued that war was inevitable. This is because population tension within the eastern border mandated that a push by the colonials west of the Ohio River was inevitable. As a result, land that was traditionally Native American would ultimately get taken away from their ownership by the colonists. This it is an unavoidable…
A. Britt, Great Indian Chiefs (1938, repr. 1969)
M.F. Schmitt and D.A. Brown, Fighting Indians of the West (1948, repr. 1966)
R.H. Lowie, Indians of the Plains (1954, repr. 1963)
A.M. Josephy, the Patriot Chiefs (1961)
Louvigny returned to Quebec and was considered by Canadians to have ended the first Fox War. He returned to the area in 1717 to continue the policing of the Meskwaki forces, yet made little progress in making contact or forcing the provisions of the previous treaty. In later communication with the government, Meskwaki chiefs expressed their own desire for peace. During the period between 1714 and 1727, the French were able to reopen waterways and move freely throughout the areas previously hindered by the danger of Indian encounters. However, other communications between the French and the American Indians were failing. Among these, the greatest failure was the inability of the French to include the Indian groups in the agricultural settlements they had attempted, including the one at Detroit.
Though the city groups of Indians and white men did not last, the area remained secure enough for the French and Americans…
Edmunds, R. David, and Joseph L. Peyser. The Fox Wars: The Mesquakie Challenge to New France. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993.
Hagen, William Thomas. The Sac and Fox Indians. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958.
Jones, George O, and Norman S. McVean. History of Wood County, Wisconsin. Publication details unknown, 1923, accessed 22 October 2006; available at http://www.scls.lib.wi.us/mcm/wood_county/ .
Kay, Jeanne. "The Fur Trade and Native American Population Growth." Ethnohistory 31, no. 4 (1984): 265-287.
American History: Discussion
Today, the existence of America is often assumed to be obviously good because of the existence of American democracy and positive American democratic values exported all over the world. However, that was not always the case. The American colonists did not find untouched, virgin land but land that was already occupied by native peoples with unique cultural worldviews. Because the Indians did not 'own' land in a manner that was comprehensible to the Europeans the colonists viewed the territory as effectively 'up for grabs.'
The initial motivation of many of the early colonists was purely mercenary such as in Jamestown: "The colony was sponsored by the Virginia Company of London, a group of investors who hoped to profit from the venture. Chartered in 1606 by King James I, the company also supported English national goals of counterbalancing the expansion of other European nations abroad, seeking a northwest…
What is quality improvement? (2014). Duke University. Retrieved from:
Gasoline, similar to any other commodity in the marketplace, is influenced by the forces of demand and supply. In turn, this impacts the quantity amount of the commodity that is demanded and supplied to the consumers. The following discussion will encompass the gas prices of gasoline per gallon in ten different gas stations. Thereafter, the theory of demand and supply will be utilized to ascertain the change in prices and the new prices to be set in a new market.
The following are 10 gas stations in your local area with a record of the price per gallon for each gas station.
Price per Gallon
Catt-Rez Enterprises Inc. 10910 Erie Rd & Lakeshore Rd
Big Indian Smoke Shop 597 Milestrip Rd near Farnham Rd
Wolf's Run 12795 Four Mile Level Rd near Iroquois Dr.
Signals 11024 Southwestern Blvd near Brant Farnham Rd
Heron's Landing 11186 Southwestern Blvd near…
Native Societies and Disease
Numerous reports from European traders, missionaries, soldiers and explorers in the 16th and 17th Centuries reveal the same information about the devastating effect smallpox and other epidemic diseases had on the aboriginal populations of the Americas. Europeans were colonizing Africa and Asia at the same time, but "on no other continent in historic times has a combined disease and Construct phenomenon led to the collapse of an entire indigenous population."[footnoteRef:1] In 1492, Native Americans were one-fifth to one-sixth of the global population, but their numbers never came close to equaling that again after all the great epidemics that struck them in waves. Unlike China and India, where smallpox, plague, typhus, measles and influenza already existed, and therefore the local populations had more immunity and greatly outnumbered the European colonizers, aboriginal American societies routinely suffered mortality rates of 80 or 90%. Some forms of smallpox, such as…
Hackett, Paul. "A Very Remarkable Sickness": Epidemics in the Petit Nord, 1670 to 1846. (University of Manitoba Press, 2002).
Trigger, Bruce G. Natives and Newcomers: Canada's "Heroic Age" Revisited (McGill-Queen's University Press, 1985).
Warrick, Garry A., "European Infections, Disease and Depopulation of the Wendat-Tionotate (Huron-Petun)" in Jordan F. Kerber (ed) Archaeology of the Iroquois: Selected Readings and Research Sources (Syracuse University Press, 2007), pp. 269-86.
Watts, Sheldon. Epidemics and History: Disease, Power and Imperialism (Yale University Press, 1997).
Isuues Pertaining to Colonization
Issues Pertaining to the Colonization of America
Identify the three cultural regions of North America directly preceding colonization. Note one group for each area and describe its culture and the distinctive traits that defined the communities it created.
Three cultural regions of North America in place before the colonization of Europeans were established by the Iroquois, the Algonquian, and the Narragansett nations. The Iroquois were mainly settled in what is now upstate New York between the Adirondack Mountains and Niagara Falls. They lived in pole villages and the men hunted deer while the woman raised corn, squash, tobacco, and beans. Women held high status in Iroquois society and decent was matrilineal. Families lived in bark covered rectangular structures called long houses (Dill, 1996).
The Algonquian tribes inhabited what is now Quebec and Ontario Canada. They were patriarchal and semi-nomadic. They mainly relied on hunting for…
"Canadian Algonquin: First nations." (NDI). Hudsonrivervalley.org. Retrieved May 16, 2013, from http://www.hudsonrivervalley.org/library/pdfs/articles_books_essays/canadian_algonquin.pdf
Dill, J.S. (ed). (1996). Iroquois history. First Nations/First People's Issues. May 16, 2013, from http://www.tolatsga.org/iro.html
"English, French, and Spanish colonies: A comparision." (NDI). Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763). History of North America. Retrieved May 16, 2012, from http://www.granburyisd.org/cms/lib/TX01000552/Centricity/Domain/287/Fact_Sheet_U1_Comparison_of_Eng_Fr_Sp_Col.pdf
"Historical perspectives of the Narragansett Indian tribe: Early history." (2009) Narragansett Indian Tribe. Retrieved May 16, 2012, from http://www.narragansett-tribe.org/history.html
French and the Native American: A Mutually Beneficial elationship
When considering the history of the United States and its inception, the most common conception is of Native American tribes being tortured, murdered, and generally emaciated from their contact with the Europeans. And certainly, this was generally the case. However, in the often sad history of contact between the new entrants into the Americas and the native tribes, there are also a few sparks of light, where the native tribes and Europeans in fact benefited from their interactions with each other. Although these benefits were often not without their complications, the relationships between the French and the native tribes with whom they came into contact were generally of a far less violent and murderous nature than most other Indian-European interactions. Indeed, the mutual benefits of these relationships began based upon the fur trade and later progressed to intermarriage and intercultural relationships.…
Templeton, K.A. (n.d.). Trail of Tears: The Native American "Problem" in the New World. Retrieved from: https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~katster/Hist16p.htm
University of Ottawa (n.d.). European Colonization and the Native Peoples. Site for Language Management in Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.slmc.uottawa.ca/european_colonization
White, S. (2013). Wild Frenchmen and Frenchified Indians: Material Culture and Race in Colonial Louisiana. University of Pennsylvania Press
However, the life she found with her Native American captives was much more appealing to her. There were less religious restrictions, and as a woman, she had much more freedom in Iroquois culture. She was not doomed to become a submissive wife within the framework of Puritan colonialism, but instead she found her freedom through her adoptive Native American family. ith this in mind, one object in particular would help represent her struggle at a very early stage in American history. In the time capsule, I would place a recent 2009 article describing the voting demographics of women in the most recent presidential election. Eunice chose a life of relative freedom, sticking up for herself and basically paving a path of feminist rights in the earliest stages of American history. Thus, she would be proud to see how far this nation has come from its Puritan roots, giving women a…
Demos, John Putnam. The Unredeemed Captive: a Family Story from Early America. Vintage Books. 1995.
Martin, James K. Ordinary Courage: The Revolutionary War Adventures of Private Joseph Plumb Martin. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, 1999.
" Fears of French-Catholic influence amongst the settlers combined with the growing dislike of the Indians on the part of the English further inflamed tensions between the two groups.
This is why the title the "French and Indian ar" is the name commonly applied to the "Seven Years ar" when conflict actually began in 1754 because of the great influence of the native alliances in fighting the war, the last hurrah of Native American might. The strength of their allied tribes was used as a political bargaining chip and a military mark of terror by both sides. In particular, although fewer tribes were aligned with their sides, the English colonies exaggerated the Iroquois military predominance over other tribes to defend and establish British control over the region. Yet even many Englishmen privately criticized these same Indians as being disobedient, and unreliable, as well as predominantly known for their skill in…
Josephy, Alvin M, Jr. The Patriot Chiefs, New York: Penguin, 1993.
Starkey, Armstrong. European and Native American Warfare 1675-1815, Norman: U. Of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1998.
Alvin M, Josephy, Jr., the Patriot Chiefs, (New York: Penguin, 1993) p.101
Armstrong Starkey, European and Native American Warfare 1675-1815, (Norman: U. Of Oklahoma Press, 1998), p.86.
Jesuit elations: Natives and Missionaries in Seventeenth-Century North America edited by Allan Greer. Specifically it will consider the role the Jesuit missionaries played in the history of New France circa 1633-1665. This book is an important historical document because it preserves many of the practices and parts of the Northeast Native American culture that are now long gone. eading this book is an excellent introduction to Native American culture and values in the early seventeenth-century, and it is valuable for research into the culture, beliefs, and values at the time.
The Jesuits were not in Canada and the Northeast to alter their way of thinking. Their main goals were to colonize and covert the areas to French Christianity. As the editor notes in the Introduction, "And of course, the Jesuits themselves were determined to reshape native thinking and behavior in conformity with Christian principles" (Greer 11). At the time when…
Greer, Allan, ed. The Jesuit Relations: Natives and Missionaries in Seventeenth-Century North America. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000.
Colonial America: Questions
Unlike previous European settlers who came to the New World primarily to make a profit, the Puritans arrived with a commitment to create a new society and genuinely 'settle' on the land. They had no plans to return to England, given that they had been cast out of the Old World because of their religious beliefs. Unlike the settlers at Jamestown, they came prepared to work hard, and did not hope to simply make a quick profit and return to England rich, having done little labor. They believed in the value of hard work as part of their religious philosophy. They believed God had quite literally 'chosen' them to know the truth, which sustained them during times of suffering. During the first years, however, like previous colonists, they did struggle to stay alive. The winter was harsh, and they were forced to adapt their crops and…
"5b. Indentured servants." The Southern Colonies. U.S. History. 2012. [1 Feb 2013]
Pearson, Ellen Holmes. "The New World: A Stage for Cultural Interaction." Teaching History.
[1 Feb 2013.]
nations real? What makes them more or less real? Consider two concrete examples of the embodiment of national ideology.
Are nations real?
ecause of their establishment in the political firmament of contemporary society, nations seem or 'feel' so real that we forget most of the nations we take for granted are relatively young constructs. Italy and Germany were fractious, yoked-together provinces well into the 19th century. Even the United States only became united by a civil war, and today many Americans still proclaim the virtues of states' rights. During the end of both global conflicts in the 20th century, there was an international debate amongst the victorious map-drawing nations as to what constituted a 'nation' and what types of ethnic, religious, and cultural claims justified a right to sovereignty. "Nationalist claims are focused upon the non-voluntary community of common origin, language, tradition and culture, so that in the classical view…
Israel. 2011. U.S. Department of State. [10 Dec 2011].
Miscevic, Nenad. 2010. Nationalism. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Accessed: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/nationalism / [10 Dec 2011]
Social Economic and Political Significance of the Military Establishment of New France
This paper presents an analytic review of the article titled the "Social, Economic and Political Significance of the Military Establishments in New France" by Eccles. The paper critically examines various aspects of this article including its strengths and weaknesses in addressing the main issues in addition to establishing important relationships with other scholarly articles and works in the field. The article begins by exploring the socio-economic spectrum of New France which provided the basis for the military establishments. It is perhaps prudent enough to take a general overview of New France so as to get an understanding of what the article is all about.
New France was an area in North America that was colonized by the French for a period of over two hundred years, beginning in 1534 when French explorers toured the Saint Lawrence River until…
Addall, T., Halifax Warden of the North, McClelland and Stewart; 2003
Armstrong, Frederick. Handbook of Upper Canadian Chronology; Dundurn Press.1985
Axelrod, A., Blooding at Great Meadows: young George Washington and the battle that.... Running Press, 2007
Boose, W. Over the beach: U.S. Army amphibious operations in the Korean War. Combat Studies Institute. 2008
individual is a product of society, rather than its cause.' Discuss.
The relationship between the individual and the society are recurrent themes and profoundly linked concepts in the fields of anthropology and sociology. While the individual is defined as a human being who is considered isolated from and separate from the broader community, the society is thought of as the aggregate of these individuals or a more holistic structure that extends beyond the individuals themselves. However, both concepts are problematic since their significance varies according to whether the approach is holistic, focusing on society, or individualistic, focusing on the individual. Therefore, the causal relationship between the individual and society is of the utmost importance in the related academic fields. Since this subject is evidently central to the study of humans, many social theorists have taken a focused interest in these relationships. A classical debate brings into conflict, advocates of society's…
Native Tribes and American Identity
It is reasonable to suggest that the United States would not exist in its current form without the contributions and influences of the millions of Native Americans who already lived here when the first colonists arrived. Not only did these early Native Americans teach the new European arrivals how to survive in the New World, in some cases they even freely supported them for years while they awaited assistance from Europe, all with no real expectation of being repaid in kind or turn. Without this assistance, the settlement of the American continent might well have been delayed for several more decades.
In addition, and although many modern Americans may not realize it, the so-called “melting pot” that would characterize the American identity during much of the 19th and 20th centuries was the direct result of the influences of Native American tribes. Moreover, Native American tribes…
The Seven Years War saw Britain established as the greatest colonial power, with control over India and North America seemingly secured, while Prussia emerged as the greatest power on the Continent, and the dominant force inside Germany, reducing still further the power of the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Austria. Frederick II of Prussia (the Great) emerges as the most remarkable leader of the war. Prussia was the smallest of the main combatants, and yet Frederick survived year after year of campaigning, and despite coming near to defeat he emerged triumphant (Richard).
Histories of the American Revolution tend to start in 1763, the end of the Seven-Year's War, a worldwide struggle for empire that pitted France against England in North America, Europe, and Asia. Fred Anderson, who teaches history at the University of Colorado, takes the story back a decade and explains the significance of the conflict in American history.…
As a result, the majority of European business companies that handled the large number of fur trades were English. The largest of such firms was the Hudson's ay Company established in 1670 (elden, 82). This institution was the center of North American fur trading for more than two hundred years. It was founded by two French fur traders English merchant. The English government granted the company sole trading rights within the Hudson ay region. The development of the fur trade resulted in a greater integration between traders and merchants, and created an entire social system based upon this concept.
The French dominance of the marketplace meant that other European players wanted to gain momentum within the industry. ritish Merchants founded the North West Company in Montreal in order to compete with the stranglehold of Canadian fur trading (Innis, 154). y the late 1700's, fur became a much harder commodity to…
Burley, D., J. Scott Hamilton, and Knut R. Fladmark (1996) Prophecy of the Swan: The Upper Peace River Fur Trade of 1794-1823. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver.
Innis, Harold (1956) the Fur Trade in Canada. University of Ontario Press, Totonto.
Rich, E.E. (1966) Montreal and the Fur Trade. McGill University Press, Montreal.
Citizens identify themselves as being of the following ancestries: German -- 15%, English -- 14%, and Irish -- 13%.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau (2011) 85.9% of people ages 25 and over are high school graduates, and 23% of those age 25 and over are college graduates. The per capita income of residents in Kanawha County in 2009 was $24,816, and the median household income was $41,747. 14.4% of the population lives below the poverty level. 70.4 of the households are homeowners. Coal continues to be a major force in the county's economy (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011).
Kanawha County Schools (KCS) is the largest school system in West Virginia. The district serves over 28,000 students, representing the region's diverse socioeconomic mix. KCS is comprised of 44 elementary schools, 14 middle schools, eight high schools, two career and technical education centers, one adult center, and two community education centers. According…
Dilger, R.J. & Marshall, J. (2002). Kanawha County history. Retrieved from http://www.polsci.wvu.edu/wv/Kanawha/kanhistory.html
U.S. Census Bureau. (2011). State & county quick facts: Kanawha County, West Virginia. Retrieved from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/54/54039.html
West Virginia Department of Education (2011). Counties by composition, all grades all subgroup - sorted by county school year: 2010-11. Retrieved from http://wveis.k12.wv.us/nclb/pub/enroll/e06Makeup_county.cfm?so=CNSN&grade=99&size=0&updown=1&sop=1&spcd=T&sy=11
West Virginia Department of Education (2011). West Virginia achieves: 2009-10 NCLB report card. Retrieved from http://wveis.k12.wv.us/nclb/pub/rpt0910/rptcardC/test2.cfm?sy=10&cn=039
ritish agricultural revolution and English settlement patterns in their colonies in New England. It is the authors contention that the world view of the English influenced their agricultural practices and the way that these practices changed the ecology of the land in New England. While largely a failure as a commercial enterprise in New England, it did however have commonalities with the Middle and Southern colonies, a relentless drive West and a decimation of Native American cultures and populations. Needless to say, there were huge differences between this English world view and English agricultural policies and the Native American world view, agricultural practices and approach to the environment.
While agriculture was largely a failure as a commercial enterprise in New England, the idea in the English settlers mind to keep pushing West to find arable land was alive and well and continued throughout the colonial period. Surprisingly enough, this English…
Canterbery, E. Ray. The Making of Economics: The foundation. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific
Publishing Company, 2003.
Cochrane, William W. Development of American Agriculture: A Historical Analysis . Rochester, MN:
Univ Of Minnesota Press, 1993.
The Huron convert out of fear and self-interest, and ultimately the French mission is destroyed after the entire tribe is massacred by the Iroquois.
Black Robe is intensely realistic in its portrayal of disease, inter-tribe conflict, and the worldview of the Jesuit priest. It is also realistic by showing how relationships between white men and native women were common, even though the Europeans would often disparage the native population as inferior. It refuses to show one side as 'good' or 'bad,' given the moral complexities posed by warfare. The Jesuits, unlike later colonizers, do not seem to be self-interested in an economic fashion, and Father Laforgue risks everything in his attempt to reach the Huron. The Indians are not pure, and are just as fractious as the Europeans in their tribal rivalries. However, the incursion of European influence clearly has long-term negative fallout, as symbolized in the death of Chomina,…
Black Robe. Directed by Bruce Beresford. 1991.
"The Huron and the Jesuits." Native American Nations.
[21 Nov 2011] http://www.nanations.com/jesuits/huron_jesuits.htm
Bias in Curricula
Native American Bias in K-12 Literature
There are many artifacts used in curricula that illustrate a racial bias towards marginalized groups. American Indians are one such group adversely affected by stereotypical and offensive portrayals in educational material and literature. Native Americans are typically not even mentioned in American history textbooks past 6th grade curriculum. When they are referenced, it is often in terms of Pilgrims and Thanksgiving. Other times they are depicted as adversaries to be defeated in the "settling" of the West. As far as most Americans have been taught in the educational system, Native Americans virtually ceased to exist after 1890. In addition, there exists a very pervasive and subtle dehumanizing Native American stereotype that has become ingrained in American popular culture (i.e., sports teams, Halloween costumes, etc.). These misrepresentations -- and the misperceptions that follow - are commonly held by all Americans, and have…
Banks, L.R. (2005). The Indian in the cupboard. New York: Random House/Listening Library.
Olson, H.A. (2001). Classification or organization: What's the difference? Knowledge
Organization 28(1), 1-3.
Phillips, W.S. (1963). Indian Campfire Tales: Legends about the Ways of Animals and Men. New York: Platt & Munk.
In life and in business, there are situations that challenge, question, and test an individual's set of personal and professional ethics. Ethics is a crucial element to sustain a society as well as an organization. This paper will discuss several issues regarding the practice of ethics and the practice of leadership within organizations. The kind of leadership an organization maintains and models for employees plays a significant role in the practice of ethical conduct within the organization as well as ethical conduct during business practices with parties outside of the organization, including suppliers and consumers. As part of this discussion, the paper identifies prominent issues regarding leadership ethics in organizations, factors that directly contribute to the practice or lack of ethics on the individual and organizational levels. With analysis and references to relevant texts, the paper proposes an ethical code for a fictitious company such that there…
Dorasamy, N. (2010) Enhancing an ethical culture through purpose -- directed leadership for improved public service delivery: A case for South Africa. African Journal of Business Management, 4(1), 56 -- 64.
Stanwick, P.A., & Stanwick, S.D. (2009). Understanding business ethics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Waggoner, J. (2010) Ethics and Leadership: How Personal Ethics Produce Effective Leaders. CMC Senior Theses, Available from: http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cmc_theses/26 . 30 June 2012.
POGESSION OF HUMAN OCCASSIONS, IT HAS COME TO BE ESSENTIAL FO ONE SOCIETY TO DISBAND THE POLITICAL GOUPS WHICH HAVE TIED THEM WITH ANOTHE, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, A DECENT EVEENCE TO THE THOUGHTS OF MANKIND NECESSITATES THAT THEY POCLAIM THE EASONS WHICH DIVE THEM TO THE SEPEATION.
Mark the text
When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
The marking reveals the different aspects in which Jefferson…
Holcombe, R. G. (2005). From Liberty to Democracy: The Transformation of American Government. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.
Fenimore is responsible for having provided the public with an adventurous history of the old American landscape.
In spite of the fact that James Fenimore Cooper has been born in New Jersey, his father decided to move the whole family to an area around Otsego Lake, near New York, a place where he owned some land. This presented James with the chance of coming across a vast forested territory where Indian tribes roamed free.
James's father had attempted to give the boy a good education, but he had not been enthusiastic his boys academic achieving, as the latter was dismissed from Yale and later resigned from the navy. The reason for his resignation had been that he wanted to spend more time with his wife, Miss Susan De Lancey. Consequent to several divergences he and his wife had over his writing style vs. his capabilities, with the latter mocking him,…
1. Dennis Ian, "The Worthlessness of Duncan Heyward: A Waverley Hero in America," Studies in the Novel 29.1 (1997).
2. Fenimore Cooper James, the Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757 (Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1957)
3. Lamberton Becker May, "Introduction How This Book Came to Be Written," the Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757 (Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1957) 5.
4. Pitcher Edward W., "The Beaver and His Cousin in Cooper's the Last of the Mohicans," ANQ8.2 (1995): 11.
The advent of World War II saw and end of the period of economic turmoil and massive unemployment known as the Great Depression, and thus was a time of increased opportunity for many of the nation's citizens and immigrants, but the experiences of some groups during and following the war were far less positive than others. Some of this was due to the different histories that different immigrant groups had in the country, as well as the different roles that various nations played in the war itself, but often the source for the treatment of different ethnic groups was all too similar and all too simple -- racism and ethnocentrism that made the white Americans "true" citizens while others were labeled as outsiders, and those that didn't belong.
The Japanese suffered the worst during World War II; even families that had been in the country for generations and many decades…
Library of Congress. (2008). "African-American odyssey." Accessed 29 October 2010. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aointro.html
Morgan, T. (1995). "Native Americans in world war II." Accessed 29 October 2010. http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/NAWWII.html
Takaki, R. (2008). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America (Rev. ed.) Boston: Little Brown Company.
Vogel, R. (2004). "Stolen birthright: The U.S. conquest and exploitation of the Mexican people." Accessed 29 October 2010. http://www.houstonculture.org/hispanic/ conquest5.html
Under all of that, there is a theoretical angle that he brings to the table, and it is one that most other historians have really said very little about.
There are many participants in the world that White (1991) describes. There are traders, colonial officials, prophets, chiefs, women, missionaries, and warriors. According to White (1991) these people all had to continually construct the rules of a 'game' of sorts. The traditions and cultures these people had were not capable of handling what was happening on their own, so they had to all work together to play this game so that they could reach some kind of conclusion they all could accept. The natives and the Europeans did not just discard the cultural baggage they still carried with them, however. Instead, they used what worked from their own cultures and then took what they needed, wanted, and liked from the other…
White, Richard. (1991). The middle ground: Indians, empires, and republics in the Great Lakes region 1650-1815. Cambridge University Press.
The Algonquian also had harmonious relationships with the French fur trappers who came to this country and Canada to make their livings. In fact, the French bonded with the Algonquians so much that they fought with the Algonquians against their enemies, the Iroquois, during the seventeenth century. The editors of a historical Web site continue, "The Algonquian were among the first North American natives to strike alliances with the French, who adopted Algonquian means of travel and terms like 'canoe' and 'toboggan'" (Editors). This indicates the Algonquian people were eager to strike a balance with the new settlers entering the country, but they were not willing to give up their lands or way of life, something the settlers often demanded as their colonies continued to grow.
Another aspect of the relationship between the Algonquians and the settlers is the issue of disease. Many Algonquian tribes (and others) suffered huge losses…
Bragdon, Kathleen J. The Columbia Guide to American Indians of the Northeast. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
Editors. "The Algonquians." USHistory.com. 2009. 26 Feb. 2009. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h560.html .
Hatfield, April Lee. "Spanish Colonization Literature, Powhatan Geographies and English Perceptions of Tsenacommacah/Virginia." Journal of Southern History 69.2 (2003): 245+.
Jalalzai, Zubeda. "Race and the Puritan Body Politic." MELUS 29.3-4 (2004): 259+.
In 1779 the Creeks and Cherokees in 1779 suffered tremendous population losses and were unable to resist the new U.S. federal government's political and military advances upon their land (Richter 2001). The Indians lost economic power as well, as the Crees and Assiniboines saw their control over the northern fur trade ebb away to the Hudson's Bay Company. Through New Spain, the Great Plains, Hudson's Bay, and the Pacific Coast between 1779 and 1782, the pox cut a swathe through the nation, but had a particularly devastating impact upon Native Americans (Richter 2001). The Native Americans lost their political and economic clout, their land, as well as their lives, and, in the very long-term, they also lost their culture to the epidemic brought by whites.
Richter, Donald. Review of Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775-82. By Elizabeth Fenn. New York, N.Y., Hill & ang Publishers, 2001.…
Richter, Donald. Review of Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775-82. By Elizabeth Fenn. New York, N.Y., Hill & Wang Publishers, 2001. Common Place.
2.3. 2001. February 17, 2009. http://www.common-place.org/vol-02/no-03/reviews/richter.shtml
The politics were simple. The Government and the settlers had all the power, ultimately the Natives did not, and so, the settlers and the government subjugated the Natives and forced them into treaties that only served the European settlers. Another writer notes, "In 1983 ichard White argued in the oots of Dependency that Euro-Indian relations in various parts of North America had in common the 'attempt... By whites to bring Indian resources, land, and labor into the market.'"
Of course, they brought them into that "market" on their own terms most often, rather than that of the Natives.
Joseph Brant - Mohawk leader - British Army officer - Studied at "Moor's Indian Charity School - Translator for Department of Indian Affairs - esponsible for restoring lands to the Mohawk people.
Wampum belt - Fashioned from seashells - Used as money or for trade - Given during times of peace making…
Editors, First World. Voyager's World, (2009), ( http://www.tfo.org/television/emissions/rendezvousvoyageur/en/world/context/firstnations.html ) 9 Feb. 2009.
Hatfield, April Lee. "Colonial Southeastern Indian History." Journal of Southern History 73, no. 3 (2007): 567+.
Konkle, Maureen. Writing Indian Nations: Native Intellectuals and the Politics of Historiography, 1827-1863. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
Editors, First World. Voyager's World, (2009), (
The agricultural and animal breeding activities gave birth to fairs and agricultural societies that were established in the county. The first fair for cattle and ship took place in 1979; the first agricultural society in the county will appear almost twenty years later. (idem).
egarding the subject of faith, the first settlers in the Washington County were Presbyterian and since they first came into the land the number of those of the same faith increased very quickly. "A constant stream of immigration flowed into the country, and of this inflowing population Scotch-Irish Presbyterians constituted a principal part " (Crumrine, 1882, pg. 398).
The Washington County is also known for its enthusiastic participation in the raising of troops for the war between the United States and Great Britain, between 1812 and 1815. "The result of the order and call for volunteers appears in a communication oublishe in the Washington eporter of…
Crumrine, B., ed.(1882) History of Washington County, Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: L.H. Everts and Co., 1882. Retrieved: Oct. 12, 2008. Ailailable at http://digital.library.pitt.edu/cgi-bin/t/text/text-idx?c=pitttext;cc=pitttext;idno=00hc17099m;node=00hc17099m%3A43;frm=frameset;view=toc
Powell, a. Southwestern Pennsylvania Genealogy 101. Retrieved: 13 Oct, 2008. Available at http://pittsburgh.about.com/od/genealogy/a/southwestern_pa.htm
List of Pennsylvania county name etymologies. Retrieved: 13 Oct, 2008. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Pennsylvania_county_name_etymologies
Hawkeye again reminds us that "there is no cross" in his veins, that he is a pureblooded white man.
The book does not segregate itself to the discussion of only Native Americans and the feelings thereof, but also has occasion to discuss the prevailing sentiment in regards to African-Americans as well. As General Monro reveals in Chapter Sixteen, we find that Cora has a "cross" in her blood:
There it was my lot to form a connection with one who in time became my wife and the Mother of Cora. She was the daughter of a gentleman of those isles, by a lady whose misfortune it was, if you will" said the old man proudly, "to be descended, remotely, from that unfortunate class who are so basely enslaved to administer to the wants of a luxurious people." (Cooper 201)
It is perhaps a little difficult to discern but the General…
Cooper, James Fenimore. The Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757. Cleveland, OH: World
Smith, Lindsey Claire. "Cross-Cultural Hybridity in James Fenimore Cooper's the Last of the Mohicans." ATQ (the American Transcendental Quarterly) 20.3 (2006)
shelter has evolved in relationship to basic individual (shelter, security, comfort, social interaction, ritual) and context environmental constraints, character site, building materials, construction technologies, social relationships). In the essay, we will consider the relationship between the buildings as physical objects of a material culture. In terms of the plan/layout, exterior form, interior spaces, structure and materials and as lived in sites, we must realize that architecture serves the particular needs and desires of the users and the larger community in their everyday life. Interestingly, there are some constants through this evolution and that are constant among the many different peoples around the world.
Of these, the most significant is the basic shape of a building. A circular structure is certainly practical and easy to make. The building can be made out of totally field expedient materials that are readily at hand. The buildings do not take much skill…
Steadman, Philip. "Why are most buildings rectangular?." Theory. 10.2 (2006): 119-130. Print.
"Why round buildings?." Full Circles Shelters Why. 2011. Web. 18 Oct 2011.
Cheyenne Indians and the Ghost Dance
The Cheyenne people are Native Americans of the Algonquian language family. They are of the Great Plains culture area. The name Cheyenne means 'people of an alien speech,' and was given to them by the Sioux.
The Cheyenne call themselves Tsetschestahase or Tsistsistas, which means 'beautiful people' or 'our people.'
Originally farmers, hunters, and gatherers in the land that is now central Minnesota, however, during the late 17th century, the Cheyenne were driven out of the area by the Sioux and Ojibwa tribes.
Gradually they migrated westward and settled in the area that is now North Dakota, but were forced to move south when the Ojibwa destroyed their settlement in 1770.
When the Cheyenne reached the lack Hills of South Dakota, they changed from farming and hunting and living in permanent villages to a nomadic life following the uffalo herds.
When the horse was…
The Cheyenne Indians
Shamanic intervention is also a part of the social fabric of these cultures, and the Shaman is often consulted in terms of political and tribal disputes. The classic Shamanic trance or journey consists of a number of elements:
Leaving the realm of the mundane, that is, the physical world; (2) Traveling to the supernatural; and (3) Returning to the world of the mundane.
In order to facilitate this vital function the Shaman often uses psychoactive plants such as Peyote to aid his perception of the spiritual world. "The transition between the world of the mundane and the supernatural world is frequently facilitated by inducing trance states using psychoactive plants."
The use of Peyote and the origins of the Peyote cult are buried in antiquity. An early Spanish chronicler, Fray ernardino de Sahagun, "estimated on the basis of several historical events recorded in Indian chronology that Peyote was known to…
Batchelder, Tim. Drug Addictions, Hallucinogens and Shamanism: the View from Anthropology. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, July 1, 2001
French, Laurence Armand. Addictions and Native Americans. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2000.
Glazier, Stephen D., ed. Anthropology of Religion A Handbook. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999.
And even when they were not, and returned to Europe sniffing and huffing in letters and treatises about the evils of Native, pagan ways, they wielded some of their harshest critical words against Europeans who had 'gone native.' (4) These critiques are an example of how Calloway as a historian finds some portrait of how Native ways were before and after European settlers, how the settler's influence changed Native ways, and of the usefulness even of biased accounts of such early encounters between Natives and Europeans.
Calloway thus deals firstly with the assumed static and polarized war of historians that have given a misleading view of Indian and European interactions, before proceeding into the more rich and complex history provided by primary sources. However, he admits that his thesis is not without precedent, for as early as 1952, one historian noted that sports, agriculture, education, government, and all other facets…
Calloway, Colin. New Worlds for All: Europeans, Indians, and the Remaking of Early America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.
But although one's group identity is often discussed as if it were a fixed and unchanging notion, in fact identities such as 'Native American (Indian)' and 'Asian' and 'Latino' are not pre-existing categories, but categories created by community needs and society. All of these various identities include a variety of individuals who, when they or their ancestors were members of different nations, often engaged in frequent warfare, and defined themselves against one another.
For example, as the Chinese often fought vs. The Japanese, the Iroquois tribes often fought vs. The Pequot tribes in the Americas, and Latin America has posted a host of external conflicts between nations and internal class and ethnic conflicts (between European and Indian groups). Yet common construction of Asian-ness, Latin-ness, and 'otherness' in the case of Native peoples in North America, created, through a commonality of oppression, if not a perfectly seamless identity for these groups,…
Otis, Eileen. "The Reach and Limits of Asian Pan-ethnic Identity: The Dynamics of Gender, Race, and Class in a Community-Based Organization." Qualitative Sociology. 24 (3): 349-379. Fall 2001. Retrieved 25 Feb 2005 at http://www.kluweronline.com/issn/0162-0436/contents
The history of Indian and European scalping)
Another factor that should be considered in the discussion of the origins of European scalping traditions is the evidence in etymology. There is evidence of the prior knowledge and use of scalping in the original usage and understanding of the word ' scalping'.
The noun "scalp" (from a Scandinavian root) existed in English long before the seventeenth century. It had two meanings of different ages. The older meaning was "the top or crown of the head; the skull or cranium," and the more recent one was the skin covering that upper part of the head, "usually covered with hair." ut in 1601, Holland's edition of Pliny added a third meaning from a literary acquaintance with the "Anthropophagi" (Scythians) near the North Pole, who wore their enemies' "scalpes haire and al, instead of mandellions or stomachers before their breasts."
Researchers have also…
Ancient Evidence Similar to Indian Scalping Found in China's Hinterland. May 19, 2005. http://www.china.org.cn/e-kaogu/2001/36.htm
Axtell, James. The European and the Indian: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North America. Vol. 12. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.
Binder, a. Early development of arrest as a concept and process ERCES Journal. May 19, 2005. http://www.erces.com/journal/articles/actuel/v04_02.htm#_ftnref107
Brooke, Christopher. The Saxon & Norman Kings. London: B.T. Batsford, 1963.
Consider the fact that the Iroquois are said not to have had a strong word for the singular "I," and that they subsequently developed what was arguably the longest lasting communal representative democracy the world has ever known. The Inuit, whose culture revolves around the arctic world, have dozens of words for snow - this sort of technical knowledge allows quick and accurate transmission of conditions and training in survival.
In Western terms, one remembers that Jesus Christ was said to be "The Word," yet in the original Greek this indicates not only a spoken word but also the Logos - the root term for intellectual reason, for Meaning within context (be that the context of a sentence, a life, a history, or a universe); logos was rational order. The difference between saying that a religious figure is the Word (which at its most profound seem to indicate a kind…
Atkins, J.D.C. (1887). Report of the commissioner of Indian affairs. House Exec. Doc. No. 1, Pt. 5, 50th Cong., 1st Sess. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Boston Language Institute. "TEFL FAQ http://teflcertificate.com/faq.html
Ethnologue. "English http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng
Macha, Freddy. "Tanzanian Independence Day Abroad. http://www.unclesamofafrica.com/TanzaniaGuardian.htm
Army Structure; from 3-Brigade Division Units to Units of Action
At the Pentagon, briefings routinely begin with the old adage that
"the only thing constant today is change." Since the age of the Cold War, the United States Army has faced change at home and abroad, experiencing not only a massive transformation in technology and infrastructure, but also in the worldwide approach to warfare. As the end of front-line battles gave way to urban streets and insurgency, the Army transitioned its structural paradigm to mirror the rapidly shifting needs, abandoning the Three Brigade Division Units for Units of Action.
This organizational shift had roots in Capitol Hill politics and dissent internal to the Pentagon, but was a desperately needed restructuring to meet the needs presented by the Iraq War, vastly different than those experienced during the Cold War history. In the early 1950s, the Soviet forces overwhelmed many of the…
Shaping of the Colonies in 1763
There have been few eras in human history possessed with more of the expectant optimism, and the grim pragmatism, than the century following first contact with the new world of North America. With an expansive landmass, the size of which more than doubled that known to citizens of any European country at the time, brimming with natural resources and lying open for exploration and settlement, many thinkers of the age shared Benjamin Franklin's fateful estimation, made in his tract America as a Land of Opportunity, which claimed "so vast is the Territory of North-America, that it will require many Ages to settle it fully." Penned and published in 1751, Franklin's treatise on the seemingly infinite riches to be reaped by the American colonies failed to fully anticipate man's overwhelming compulsion to compete for the control of land. While America's preeminent philosopher was prescient in…
limits to democracy in the early republic, as its first president George ashington reflected the elitist view of the federalists in his approach to the executive branch of government. As Patrick Henry stated in 1788, "The Constitution is said to have beautiful features, but when I come to examine these features…they appear to me horridly frightful…it squints towards monarchy," (p. 146). According to Henry, the "President may easily become King," a fact that should "raise indignation in the breast of every American," (p. 146). Henry was himself not concerned with issues related to race, class, or gender, but he did understand the ideals of the democracy when he lamented, "hither is the spirit of America gone? hither is the genius of America fled?" (146). This question can easily be posed to point out the gross hypocrisy in denying Constitutional rights to more than half the population living in the borders…
Bailey, Ronald. "The Other Side of Slavery." Agricultural History. Vol 62, No. 2, 1994.
Hershberger, Mary. "Mobilizing Women, Anticipating Abolition." The Journal of American History. Vol 86, No. 1, June 1999.
Matthaei, Julie A. "An economic history of women in America: Women's work, the sexual division of labor, and the development of capitalism." Schocken Books, 1982.
All Primary Source Material from: Major Problems in American History:
Native Americans and European nations during the seventeenth century lived peacefully in such a manner that it was impossible to believe that this peace coexistence would be disrupted after the end of French and Indian ar in 1763. The ar of League of Augsburg and the ar of Spanish Succession were fought in late seventeenth and early eighteenth century respectively in order to gain power, wealth and lands in the eastern part of North America.
Native Americans in North America after 1763
Native Americans and European nations during the seventeenth century lived peacefully in such a manner that it was impossible to believe that this peace coexistence would be disrupted after the end of French and Indian ar in 1763. The ar of League of Augsburg and the ar of Spanish Succession were fought in late seventeenth and early eighteenth century respectively in order to gain power, wealth…
James A. Henretta, Rebecca Edwards, Robert O. Self. America: A Concise History (textbook) 2012. pgs. 100-104 and 116-125, 138-142
New Lands? Old Ideas
The Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries were the great age of European exploration in the New World. Spain concerned itself with South America and the Caribbean, while countries such as France and England turned northward to the great, unknown vastness of the North American continent. Men such as Verrazzano, Hariot, and Champlain arrived to explore and to record their experiences of this mysterious land. Strange new plants and animals, curious native customs, and assessments of natural resources all appear in the pages of their respective accounts. Yet their visions of this New World were colored by the expectations of the old. European dreams of hidden riches, and Spanish discoveries of gold and silver enliven their observations. These earliest of descriptions of North America are as much commentaries on contemporary European society and its aspirations, as they are catalogs of new things and new places.
Doughty, Arthur G. "Samuel de Champlain." The Catholic Encyclopedia. 1999.
Hariot, Thomas. "A Brief and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia." 1588. From The Heritage Education Program - National Park Service - Cape Hatteras. (No date) http://www.nps.gov/fora/hariotpart1.htm
Wroth, I., Ed. S. Tarrow, Trans. The Voyages of Giovanni da Verrazzano. 1970.
y the late 1780's many Americans had grown dissatisfied with the Confederation. It was unable to deal effectively with economic problems and weak in the face of Shay's Rebellion. A decade earlier, Americans had deliberately avoided creating a strong national government. Now they reconsidered. In 1787, the nation produced a new constitution and a new, much more powerful government with three independent branches. The government the Constitution produced has survived far more than two centuries as one of the most stable and most successful in the world.
The Articles of Confederation and the Constitution resembled each other in some cases and differed from each other greatly in other aspects. The Articles of Confederation were a foundation for the Constitution, and sometimes even called the Pre-Constitution. The Confederation, which existed from 1781 until 1789, was not a big success. It lacked power to deal with interstate issues, to enforce…
Morgan, Edmund S. The Meaning of Independence. New York W.W. Norton & Company. 1978.
Brown. Richard D Major problems in the Era of the American Revolution., 1760-1791.Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. 2000
Raphael, Ray. A Peoples History of the American Revolution: How Common People Shaped the Fight for Independence. New York: Perennial. 2002.