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Irritable owel Syndrome (IS) is the common intestinal and chronic disorder most frequently reported to and encountered by gastro-enterologists. It is also called irritable or spastic colon. The incidence of IS has been reported to be anywhere from 9-22%, 10-22% or 20% of the American population (Masand 1998). Computing, these numbers suggest that about one out of five Americans suffers from it (Nutrition Forum 1997).
Comparative studies also show that IS occurs more in women than men at a 2.5:1 ratio (one 2001), starts in early adolescence, reaches a mean of 46 and seldom begin after 50 (Nutrition Forum). No significant differences in demographic characteristics have been observed, although most of those who sought medical assistance had high school education and mostly working (Masand). Nothing indicates that there are differences of marital status among those studied.
IS occurs most frequency at times of emotional stress and these studies furthermore say…
1. American Family Physician. (2001). Women's Health Report on Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Women's Health Resource Center: American Academy of Family Physicians.
A accessed 27:03:03). http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m3225/6_63/71579200/print.jhtml
2. Bertram, Susan. (2001). The Patient's Perspective of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
Journal of Family Practice. (accessed 27:03:03). http://www.findarticles.cxom/cf_o/m0689/6_50/75995850/print.jhtml
Chronic GI/GU Condition Case Studies
The primary diagnosis in the present scenario would be gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The diagnosis in this case has been made on the strength of the presenting symptoms. According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases – NIDDK (2014), some of the symptoms associated with GERD include a “regular heartburn, a painful, burning feeling in the middle of your chest, behind your breastbone, and in the middle of your abdomen.” The 46-year-old male in this case presents the very same symptoms. In essence, the symptoms that the patient presents are as a consequence of the flow-back stomach contents/stomach from his stomach into his esophagus. Given that this is something that has been happening over the past couple of months, the lining of his esophagus is irritated – hence the need for immediate medical attention to ease symptoms. The differential…
Cross-Cultural Perceptions of Religious and Ideological Movements: The Effects of Nationality and Ideological Preference
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Irritable Bowel Syndrome is a very common illness. Research shows that the large bowel or colon is the site of a lot of various beneficial bacteria. Also, may many may be aware that a good colon gives a lot of detail on the way the colon and its bacteria work in unison in order to provide our bodies with particular health profits. On the other hand, the colon is the site for numerous of the symptoms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome patients. Because this organ is where all fiber and other food leftovers arrive, it would seem rational that some parts of food we eat could play a part in the signs of IBS, which for the majority, are a reflection of an excessively complex colon that is sensitive. As stated by the International…
Anand, Bhupinder. Irritable Bowel Syndrome. 8 June 2013. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/irritable_bowel_syndrome/page10_em.htm . 29 September 2014.
Cunha, John P. MedicineNet.com. 7 May 2012. http://www.medicinenet.com/irritable_bowel_syndrome_ibs/page6.htm . 29 September 2014.
Vorous, Heather Van. "The First Year: IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) -- An Essential Guide for the Newly Diagnosed." New York City: Da Capo Press; 2005 edition, 2001. 1-242.
Zuckerman, M.J., Nguyen, G., Ho, H., Nguyen, L., & Gregory, G.G. "A survey of irritable bowel syndrome in vietnam using the rome criteria." Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 51.5 (2009): 946-51.
On a basic level, patients can make attempts to restructure their diet and general lifestyle choices to promote a more positive, health body in general. If this approach does not work, there are many sorts of antibiotics, painkillers, laxatives or anti-diarrhea pills that one can take to negate the effects of noxious symptoms. Corrective surgery is also an option, although it does not always work.
Some of the treatments for inflammatory bowel disease can work for irritable bowel syndrome, such as the taking of antibiotics, anti-diarrhea medicine, and fiber supplements. Additionally, corrective measures to one's diet and lifestyle to attempt to procure a stress free environment may work as well. Treatments specific to this condition, however, include antidepressants and counseling to assist with stress. Additionally, medications such as lubiprostone and alosetron also pertain strictly to this condition, and not to inflammatory bowel disease.
PATIENT FACTO: AGE
Age certainly has a…
Pace, F., Molteni, P., Bollani, S., Sarzi-Puttini, P., Stockbrugger, R., Porro, Bianchi, Drossman, D.A. (2003). "Inflammatory bowel disease vs. irritable bowel syndrome: a hospital-based, case-control study of disease impact on quality of life.." BMC Gastroenterol. 38 (10): 1031-1038.
Porter, C.K., Brooks, D.C., Pimentel, M., Akinseye, a., Riddle, M.S. (2012). "Risk of inflammatory bowel disease following a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome." BMC Gastroenterol. 12: 55. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3444908/
Digestive Disorders: Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Irritable Bowel Syndrome
It is important to note that in some instances, the symptoms patient present could be tied to a myriad of disorders. This has in some quarters led to misdiagnoses. Both inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) present a number of similar symptoms. IBD includes a number of inflammatory conditions whereby sections of a person’s digestive system are attacked by his or her immune system. The said conditions are inclusive of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. IBS, on the other hand, “is a problem that affects the large intestine” (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2018). In essence, the movement of food in the intestines is enhanced by the relaxation and contraction of the intestines. When the said contraction as well as relaxation does not follow the normal pattern, symptoms of IBS are likely to present.
In basic terms, the…
The objective of this study is to examine the condition of Fibromyalgia. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of current literature in this area of inquiry.
Fibromyalgia is a syndrome reported as common and one in which the individual has pain throughout their body as well as joint, muscle, tendon and soft tissue tenderness on a long-term basis.
Causes of Fibromyalgia
While the cause of Fibromyalgia is uncertain it has been linked to such as fatigue, problems sleeping, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Factors that are believed to be potential triggers of fibromyalgia include: (1) physical or emotional trauma; (2) abnormal responses to pain in areas of the brain; (3) disturbances in sleep; and (4) infection although no specific virus has been identified as being responsible for causing Fibromyalgia.
Occurrence of Fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia is known to occur most in women ages 20 to 50 years of age.…
Demirbad, B. And Erci, B. (2012) The Effects of Sleep and Touch Therapy on Symptoms of Fibromyalgia and Depression. Iran J. Public Health. 2012;41(11):44-53. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
Fibromyalgia - Fibromyositis; Fibrositis (2012) Summary of Cochrane Review. PubMed Health. Retrieved from:
Contraindications include false sugar readings in diabetic patients. This medication can also cause a black tongue or dark stool.
Irritable bowel syndrome is another gastrointestinal disorder. Irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS, is a problem that affects mainly the bowel, which is also called the large intestine. The bowel is the part of the digestive system that makes and stores stool. The word syndrome means a group of symptoms. IBS is a syndrome because it can cause several symptoms. For example, IBS causes cramping, bloating, gas, diarrhea, and constipation. Two medications that are used to treat irritable bowel syndrome are: 1.) laxatives and 2.) antispasmodics. Oral laxatives are medicines taken by mouth to encourage bowel movements to relieve constipation, which is a common symptom of IBS. Side effects include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, cramping, gas, and increased thirst. A contraindication of any laxative is dehydration. Advice to the patient and the patient's…
The patient is an 18-year-old of the Filipino-American origin. He has no known family history of ulcerative colitis or chronic illnesses similar to colitis. He is a high school senior student.
The patient complains of diarrhoea 3-4 times a month although it has been on and off for one year. There is no known allergy that the patient experiences.
He experienced rectal bleeding, rectal pain and often had an urgent need to empty his bowels. His diarrhoea had bloodstains with mucus at least once a month. This led to few red blood cells due to the low level of iron, which resulted from the bloody stool. He had belly pains, which he described as cramping and his belly felt sore if touched. He experienced constipation, but it was less frequent than diarrhoea. He had no signs of vomiting or nausea, but he…
Baumgart, D. (2012). Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: From epidemiology and immunobiology to a rational diagnostic and therapeutic approach. New York: Springer.
Bayless, T.M., & Hanauer, S.B. (2010). Advanced therapy of inflammatory bowel disease: Volume 1. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.
Hanauer, S.B., & Marteau, P. (2001). Ulcerative colitis: Focus on topical treatment. Paris: J.
One might consider fibromyalgia to be one of the most confounding conditions around today. It is debilitating. It results in several quality of life issues. The confounding aspect of this condition is that it is difficult to diagnose. It is also difficult to treat. Most treatment modalities today recourse to treating one or more specific symptoms -- but there is no treatment that can comprehensively treat all the symptoms. (NIAMS, 2004) More holistic treatment modes however, are being researched, explored and considered. Fibromyalgia often presents symptoms of other diseases. Essentially therefore, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain that cannot be localized to any part of the body. It is also associated with fatigue and other specific (though not necessarily widespread) symptoms that will be discussed later in this work.
Fibromyalgia syndrome is often referred to in its abbreviation FMS. Some of the symptoms (though not all) enjoy significant overlap…
Adiguzel, O., Kaptanoglu, E., Turgut, B., & Nacitarhan, V. (2004). The possible effect of clinical recovery on regional cerebral blood flow deficits in fibromyalgia: a prospective study with semiquantitative SPECT. South Med J, 97, 7, 651-655
Baldry, P. (1993). Complementary medicine. The practice of acupuncture needs tighter safeguards. Bmj, 307, 6899, 326
Baumgartner, E., Finckh, A., Cedraschi, C., & Vischer, T.L. (2002). A six-year prospective study of a cohort of patients with fibromyalgia. Ann Rheum Dis, 61, 7, 644-645
Bennet, Robert. (2000). The Scientific Basis for Understanding Pain in Fibromyalgia. Myalgia.com. Retrieved August 21, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.myalgia.com/Scientific%20basis.htm
e recommended the remedy Natrum muriaticum, as it applies readily to Roy's symptoms, including his responsiveness to massage, his suppressed emotion, and his tendency to keep his feelings concealed from those around him. e asked that Roy not alter anything about his exercise regime during the course of treatment. Six months after Roy started taking the remedy, he returned to us for follow-up. Roy's posture was noticeably improved and he sat upright in spite of having returned from a business trip just that morning. hen asked, Roy stated that he had been increasingly aware of his negative emotions and was making a conscious effort to consciously own up to his feelings by being more assertive at work, and by simply admitting to himself that he was angry. Roy's back problems had waned; although last week he had a sudden relapse, he could readily attribute the setback to a stressful incident…
Homeopathy Index." Vitacost.com. Online at http://www.vitacost.com/science/hn/Index/Homeo.htm.
Article 14 claims centered on children's health and reduction of disease for a iomed probiotic called lactoral and its three strains. The submitted studies supported the health claim of the strains but not to the bacterial strains of the probiotic. iomed's phenotypic testing were not accepted as sufficient to properly identify the bacterial strains. The claim, "natural intestinal microflora during travel," had not been sufficiently characterized. On the four other claims, the panel said that in vitro trials cannot sufficiently predict in vivo efficacy in human subjects of experiment (Starling).
A Yakult spokesman, however, said that their products still had to be assessed
(Starling 2009). According to him, their company's claims for Lactobacillus casei Shirota probiotic strain had strong evidence for its health benefits from more than 70 human studies and more than 70 years of research (Starling). The World Health Organization itself recognized probiotics as "live micro-organisms & #8230;which…
Bailey, Ron. Prebiotics and Probiotics in Japan. Nutraceuticals World: Rodman
Publishing, 2008. Retrieved on November 21, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb223/is_3_11/ai_n29421476
Cooper, Ben. A Bad Few Weeks for Good Bacteria. Just Food: Just-Food.com.
Retrieved on November 22, 2009 from http://www.just-food.com/article.aspx?id=108402
Constipation, Hypertension, Seizure
This is the infrequent or difficult bowel evacuation (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012). While there are no strict standard for bowel elimination, it is generally believed that fewer than thrice a week constitutes constipation. Stools are usually hard and dry. Other common symptoms associated constipation include excessive straining during bowel evacuation, a sense of rectal blockage, a sense of incomplete evacuation and the need to perform manual measures to evacuate the bowels. Constipation may be the consequence of insufficient fluid intake or dehydration, inadequate fiber in the diet, foregoing elimination, irritable bowel syndrome, lack of physical activity, illness, abuse of laxatives and certain medical conditions. Those more likely to develop constipation are older adults, those who are sedentary, confined in bed, dehydrated, on low-fiber diet, on certain medications and undergoing chemotherapy. It is more common in women and children. Causes for alarm include fewer…
Makoff, D. (2012). High blood pressure. MedicineNet: MedicineNet.com. Retrieved on March 7, 2012 from http://www.medicinenet.com/high_blood_pressure/page
Mayo Clinic Staff (2012). Constipation. Mayo Clinic: Mayo Foundation for Medical
Education and Research. Retrieved on March 7, 2012 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/constipation.DS0063/METHOD=print&DSECTION=all
PubMed Health (2011). Seizures. ADAM Medical Encyclopedia: ADAM, Inc. Retrieved
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…
On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.
Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.
In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems. http://www.recalleddrugs.com
Researchers used standard sleep questionnaires to assess sleep problems and characteristics in ADHD (n = 122) and non-ADHD (n = 105) comparison youths. They concluded that ADHD may be one of the consequence of nightmares but is not an outcome of it.
This study is valuable to my study in that it teaches me to be skeptical regarding differentiating between outcome and cause.
StRanjbaran, Z., Keefer, L., Farhadi, a., Stepanski, E., Sedghi, S. And Keshavarzian, a. (2007), Impact of sleep disturbances in inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 22: 1748 -- 1753.
Study showed that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have significant sleep disturbance even when their disease is not active. This problem might affect quality of life, gastrointestinal symptoms and coping ability, and might potentially increase or decrease disease severity. A self-administered, mail-in questionnaire package was sent to 205 subjects using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index…
Doctors should be consulted on their effectiveness and safety (NIAMSD).
In the meantime, a person with fibromyalgia can help himself or herself feel better besides taking medicines (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disorders 2004). He can try to get enough sleep of the right kind to ease or lessen the pain and fatigue. Although pain and fatigue may make exercise and daily activities difficult, the person should be as physically active as possible. Studies show that regular exercise is, in fact, among the most effective treatments of the condition. A patient can try walking or doing mild exercise slowly and according to the severity of his condition. He can or should also make adjustments at work, such as reducing his working hours or change to a less strenuous type of work, change some things in his work space. His diet also deserves a second look. Some persons…
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disorders. (2004). Questions and Answers About Fibromyalgia. NIH Publication # 04-5326. http://www.niams.nih.gov/hi/topics/fibromyalgia/fibrofs.htm
Fibromyalgia is a rather mysterious condition, with no known cause and no known cure. The symptoms of fibromyalgia consist primarily of muscle and joint pain and heightened sensitivity to pain, experienced globally. Secondary symptoms, which are also common in sufferers, include chronic fatigue, cognitive and memory dysfunction, sleep disorders, and mood disorders. Women are far more likely to suffer from fibromyalgia than men, and age of onset is generally between 30 to 50 years. A combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are recommended, with the latter taking precedence over the former in evidence-based practice. Prognosis is relatively good when the right combination of lifestyle and treatment options is employed.
The cause of fibromyalgia remains a mystery. ecent research reveals the possibility of a genetic marker for pain sensitivity in fibromyalgia patients, in that haplotypes of the COMT gene and genotypes of the Val158Met polymorphism play a key role on…
Fitzcharles, M. et al. (2013). 2012 Canadian Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of fibromyalgia syndrome: Executive summary. Pain Res Manag. 2013 May-Jun; 18(3): 119 -- 126.
Martinez-Jauand, M. et al. (2013). Pain sensitivity in fibromyalgia is associated with catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. European Journal of Pain 17(1): 16-27.
Mayo Clinic (2015). Fibromyalgia. Retrieved online: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/fibromyalgia/basics/tests-diagnosis/con-20019243
Neusch, E. et al. (2011). Comparative efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in fibromyalgia syndrome: network meta-analysis. Ann Rheum Dis 2013;72:955-962
FIBOMYALGIA OUTLINE and PAMPHLET
Introduction to Fibromyalgia
Symptoms of Fibromyalgia
Effects of the symptoms on the body.
isk factors and preventive steps.
Diagnosis and Treatment for fibromyalgia.
Therapeutic and diagnostic methods for fibromyalgia.
Treatment for fibromyalgia.
Having many physical and clinical symptoms, Fibromyalgia is a syndrome whose effects are felt in form of extreme musculoskeletal pain. It is believed that many environmental, genetic and biological factors are responsible for the start and progress of this infection although its etiology is undermined. In many industrialized countries, its rate of occurrence is 0.7-4.7% amongst the general population. It is incidentally seen more in women than men and the general female-to-male ratio being 9-1. Due to the diverse nature of its symptoms, those infected experience major difficulties adapting to their working environment, family or their life. It also subjects the sufferers to use consultative health services and social resources…
Arthritis and Fibromyalgia.Plos ONE, 9(2), 1-9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088740
Derrer, David, T.,2014, understanding fibromyalgia symptoms, webmdmd,2014,understanding fibromyalgia symptoms, retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/fibromyalgia/understanding-fibromyalgia-symptoms .
Fibromyalgia | University of Maryland Medical Center http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/fibromyalgia#ixzz3HSyCkaXF
KengenTraska, T., Rutledge, D., Mouttapa, M., Weiss, J., & Aquino, J. (2012). Strategies used for managing symptoms by women with fibromyalgia. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 21(5/6), 626-635. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03501.x
diseases in the world are suffered by all children. Babies and adults alike have to endure them at some or other point of their life. Furthermore, those whose immune systems are poor or weak have a greater tendency to contract diseases such as the common cold, infant diaper rash, earaches, stomach aches and diarrhea (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015)
The common cold shows the following symptoms: a sore throat, runny nose, headache, and watery eyes. Up till now, no precise medication exists to 'cure' the common cold. Normally, this viral illness wanes by itself after a period of 5-6 days. However, in the event that symptoms continue for an unusually long time, the patient must stay alert, as severe cases of common cold may result in pneumonia, sinusitis, ear infection, asthma attack, and bronchitis (Justadd, 2015). A study indicates that several individuals suffer each winter from sinusitis, impacting…
ADAM. (2015). Earache. Medical Encyclopedia. Medline Plus. U.S. Medical Library. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003046.htm
Alan, M., Lake, M.D.(1999). Chronic Abdominal Pain in Childhood: Diagnosis and Management. American Academy of Family Physicians. Retrieved from http://googleweblight.com/?lite_url=http://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0401/p1823.html&ei=KmJxS8Wk&lc=en-IN&s=1&m=992&ts=1439382771&sig=APONPFkf1k48Ut_Q5SluR0akIscNP1e-gg
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2015). Overview of Infectious Diseases. USA. Retrieved from https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/infections/Pages/Overview-of-Infectious-Diseases.aspx
Benaroch, R. (2015).Your Baby's Diaper Rash. WebMD, LLC.
Endometriosis' is taken from the Greek work endon which means "within," metra, meaning "uterus" and osis, meaning "uncommon or sick state." Endometriosis is said to be very complicated and tiring gynecological sickness. This disease causes the functional endometrial stroma and glands grow outside of uterus that is usually present inside (the endometrium). These areas mostly consist of fallopian tubes, ovaries, gastrointestinal tract, rectovaginalseptum, bladder, pelvic peritoneum and unusually Pleura and pericardium. Endometriosis is a widespread disease most common in women who are in age of reproduction. This disease depends on estrogen and involves a chronic inflammatory component. Sampson was the first person to classify hemorrhagic ovarian lumps. He further explained these cysts as follicular, stromal, endometrial and corpus luteal. He also presented the endometrial hematomas based on thehistologic form. A number of categories have been formed after that, which is based on the histologic appearance, anatomic size, location and the…
1. Batt, R. (2011). A history of endometriosis. Springer Science & Business Media.
2. Burney, R. O., & Giudice, L. C. (2012). Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of endometriosis. Fertility and sterility, 98(3), 511-519.
3. Brown, J., & Farquhar, C. (2015). An overview of treatments for endometriosis. JAMA, 313(3), 296-297.
4. Gupta, S., Harlev, A., & Agarwal, A. (2015). Endometriosis: A Comprehensive Update. Springer.
Parents can team up with teachers and schools by asking for school conferences where they can address the issue of bullying, (Barreto). The parents can also keep a record of incidents of harassment and the ways in which the school handled these situations. They should also insist on the putting up of a bullying prevention committee if one is not already in place. In order for the committee to be effective, it needs to have representatives from administration, teachers, school mental health teams and parents.
2. Teachers should be encouraged to involve the students in creating rules for the classroom regarding bullying. They should have a serious talk with the bully and explain the unacceptability of the behavior as well as its negative consequences. Reports of bullying should not be left to deal with bullying on their own in the hope that the experience will make them stronger individuals, bullying…
Barreto, Steven. Bullying and Harassment Stop When Parents Help Break the Silence. 2005.
23 May, 2010
Batsche, G.M., & Knoff, H.M. "Bullies and their victims: Understanding a pervasive problem in the schools." School Psychology Review, 22.6 (1994): 165-174.
Probable causes accounting for this are a holdup in the identification of cardiovascular ailment in women might not be enough to reveal medical implication. Variation in the accepted chronology of coronary arterial ailments is found in the genders, especially connected with the effect of menopause. Age of appearance, appearing of signs, influence of different causes of danger, and results of treatment vary between the sexes. (Tecce; Dasgupta; Doherty, 22)
In general, coronary artery ailment occurs 10 years past in life in women compared to men, and the median age for MI in case of women is approximately 20 years older, branding coronary heart ailment which affects elderly women. The causes for these disparities is not wholly intelligible, even if the prevalence of the sickness of coronary artery in women in the fertility years becomes low, signifying that endogenous hormones seems to exercise a defensive part beyond menopause. Postmenopausal women rapidly…
Barnett, Rosalind C. Gender, Job Stress and Illness. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors. Volume 2; No: 1; 2000; pp: 1-34; 77
Carmel S; Bernstein JH. Gender Differences in Physical Health and Psychosocial Well Being among Four Age-Groups of Elderly People in Israel. International Journal of Age and Human Development. Volume: 56; No; 2; 2003; pp: 113-131
Deborah, Gesensway. Reasons for Sex-Specific and Gender-Specific Study of Health Topics. The Annals of Internal Medicine. 2001; Volume: 135; No: 1; pp: 935-938.
Evangelista LS; Kagawa-Singer, M; Dracup K. Gender Differences in Health Perceptions and Meaning in Persons Living with Heart Failure. Heart Lung. Volume: 30; No: 3; May-June 2001; pp: 167-176
WHY DO THE JAPANESE LIVE LONGE?
NUTITIONAL BENEFITS OF SOY:
As an annual Asian legume (meaning that it grows in a pod), soy is one of the most amazing members of the bean family, due mostly to its significant health benefits. Many studies done by nutritionist worldwide have confirmed that a plant-based diet is the most healthful choice. Soybean and its extracts, such as soybean oil, provide high-quality protein that is equal to that found in poultry, milk and other animal-based foods. However, not all soyfoods are low in fat, but most of them are cholesterol-free. An added bonus is that soybean and its byproducts do not contain saturated fat unless it is added during the processing stage or is combined with other ingredients containing saturated fat.
Because many forms of soy are low or modest in total fat, a person's overall diet will be inclined toward…
Davidson, Alan. (1989). The Oxford Companion to Food. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ling, Wen Hua, et al. (2001). "Black and Red Rice Decreases Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation and Increases Antioxidant Status." Journal of Nutrition. Vol. 131. 1421-26.
London, Sheryl. (1992). The Versatile Grain and the Elegant Bean. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Marks, Leonard S., et al. (2004). "Prostate Cancer in Native Japanese and Japanese-American Men: Effects of Dietary Differences on Prostatic Tissue." Urology. 64. 4. 765-71.
17% of men and 13% of women have experienced more than three traumatic events in their lives, and the onset of PTSD is generally based on the degree and the extent of the trauma, and the duration, and the type. For example, when there is a rape, then there is a 49% chance that the women will experience PTSD, and when there is a physical assault, it would be 31.9%. For sexual assault, the percentage would be 23.7 and when the person has been in an accident, and then the percentage would be 16.8%. (What is PTSD?)
Other traumatic events may be a child's life threatening illness, or a natural disaster, or a witness or a victim of a shooting or a stabbing, and so on. (What is PTSD?) These people may also experience of several kinds of physical symptoms related to their traumatic experience, and some of them are:…
Gore, Allen. T; Richards, Georgeianna. (27 April, 2005) "Post Traumatic Stress
Disorder" Retrieved at http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic1900.htm . Accessed 6 November, 2005
Managing Traumatic Stress" American Psychological Association. Retrieved at http://www.apa.org/practice/traumaticstress.html. Accessed 6 November, 2005
What is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder?" A National Center for PTSD Fact Sheet.
This is vital because medical personnel could administer something that causes life threatening symptoms if taken with an anticoagulant.
The final educational area that needs to be covered are the changes that must take place in the daily life of the patient. The patient must be careful not to cut himself or herself, In addition the patient must be careful not to take part in activities that might cause injury as injury can cause the patient to hemorrhage.
Three common GI problems include heartburn, ulcers and irritable bowel syndrome. Each of these conditions can cause stomach upset. Heartburn can be treated with over the counter medications, including Zantac. Ulcers require a specific antibiotic and a stomach acid reducer and IBS is often treated with stomach acid reducers. In addition all three conditions respond favorably to changes in diet.
The medications for heartburn can be purchased over the counter,…
Precautions While Using This Medicine http://www.healthopedia.com/drugs/detailed/anticoagulants/precautions.html#
What is OxyContin? http://www.drugfree.org/Portal/Drug_Guide/OxyContin
Moreover, most of the police officers believed that criminalization was not an appropriate or effective method to deal with batterers because it "leads to the break-up of the family" (Ganapathy).
According to a 2004 study of 1,200 women in Bangladesh, some 67% reported having experience domestic violence, and 35% during the past year (Islam). Domestic violence was higher among women with a dowry agreement, and was also higher among women with a registered marriage and women who cover at least some of their expenses (Islam). Khairul Islam reports, "The proportion experiencing domestic violence was non-significantly lower among women with more than five years of education than among less educated or non-educated women" (Islam).
However, in the United States, much progress has occurred during the past thirty years regarding the recognition of domestic violence as a major problem, resulting in the development of numerous services by different professional disciplines to address…
Forgey, Mary Ann. "Evaluation study of an interdisciplinary social work and law curriculum for domestic violence." Journal of Social Work Education. March 22, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Ganapathy, Narayanan. "Between the devil and the deep-blue sea: conceptualising victims' experiences of policing in domestic violence in the Singaporean context." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology. April 1, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Hart, Sandra J. "Domestic violence: legal, practice, and educational issues."
MedSurg Nursing. June 1, 1998. Retrieved September 28, 2006 from HighBeam Research
This study seeks to answer the question of what individual treatment modes have been found to be the effective for treating this population as stated by the study. Complementing that question is the fact that the study is also attempting to determine whether certain treatments are more effective than other treatments for adolescent boys between the ages of 14 -- 16 who have been diagnosed with conduct disorder. In order to ascertain if one of the proposed treatments is more effective than the other, the study is collecting qualitative and quantitative data which will then be analyzed by the researchers. In addition to the collection of data, variables will be presented and tested using a variety of methodologies.
One method that will be employed by the study is the experimental design most commonly referred to as a factorial design method. The factorial design method is a methodology that…
Ducharme, J.M. & Shecter, C.; (2011) Bridging the gap between clinical and classroom intervention: Keystone approaches for students with challenging behavior, School Psychology Review, Vol. 40, Issue 2, pp. 257-274
Everitt, H.A.; Moss-Morris, R.E.; Sibelli, A.; Tapp, L.; Coleman, N.S.; Yardley, L.; Smith, P.W.; Little, P.S.; (2010) Management of irritable bowel syndrome in primary care: Feasibility randomized controlled trial of mebeverine, methylcellulose, placebo and a patient self-management cognitive behavioral therapy website, BMC Gastroenterology, Vol. 10, pp. 136 -- 144
Nair, V.; Strecher, V.; Fagerlin, A.; Ubel, P.; Resnicow, K.; Murphy, S.; Little, R.; Chakraborty, B.; Zhang, A.; Screening experiments and the use of fractional factorial designs in behavioral intervention research, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 98, Issue 8, pp. 1354-1359
The Infectious Diseases Society of America or IDSA came out with guidelines on the treatment of the infection.
A multidisciplinary group, which prepared these guidelines, included infectious disease specialists, rheumatologists, neurologists, pediatricians, and entomologists. The guidelines primary apply to the disease strain acquired in the U.S. And do not tackle the diagnostic evaluation of the disease. They recommended oral and parenteral therapies according to a timetable. Doxycycline or amoxicillin, cefotaxime or penicillin would be prescribed. The guidelines warned against the use of first-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and benzathene penicillin.
Greater Recovery Among Children
Studies conducted on 177 children treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis in an endemic area in Sweden showed that 117 of them recovered complete in two months.
The children exhibited fatigue, facial nerve palsy, loss of appetite and fever as symptoms. Antibiotics were given to 69% of the children. At 2 months, 117 of them recovered completely. At 6…
Bransfield, Robert C. 2001. Lyme neuroborreliosis and aggression. Action Lyme. 21-23
(April).Available from http://actionlyme.50megs.com/neuroborreliosis%20aggression.htm
-. 2009. Lyme, depression and suicide. Canlyme. 18 (April). Available