1000+ documents containing “smoking”.
However, since the indirect consequences of smoking cessation are linked to cessation rather than to smoking, they must be addressed in terms of providing education and guidance about related issues independently, and mostly in connection with dietary advice.
Implementing an Effective Smoking Cessation Plan
Smokers wishing to quit should begin chewing a gum made for smokers that contain nicotine. Since most smokers cannot quit through this method alone, the next step in this comprehensive smoking cessation plan is to teach smokers to identify and distinguish physical cravings and symptoms of nicotine withdrawal from habitual cravings such as those triggered by behavioral associations. Because abrupt or "cold-turkey" cessation of smoking can result in overwhelming physical symptoms of withdrawal, it is appropriate to allow the smoker to smoke enough strictly to reduce those physical cravings and to gradually reduce smoking as those cravings subside.
Conversely, habitual smoking must be eliminated immediately for two reasons:….
History of smoking and the effects on health
History of smoking
The history of smoking and its effect on health
Hard as it may believe to be today, the ill effects of smoking were not always well-known. The practice originated in the Americas with the Native Americans and the European colonists also indulged in the practice. Tobacco was a major cash crop in the South even before America formally became a nation. "Most early European physicians subscribed to the Native American belief that tobacco can be an effective medicine" (A brief history of tobacco, 2000, CNN). Smoking became more and more popular with the use of cigarettes. Initially, it was not considered decorous for women to smoke but in the 1920s, with the rise of the flapper and the New Woman, many women began to smoke to demonstrate their newfound liberation.
However, the democratization of smoking also coincided with increasing knowledge of its ill….
Adult cigarette smoking in the United States. (2014). CDC. Retrieved from:
Beirne, M. (2001). Big tobacco gets tough. Brandweek, 42(20), 28-34.
Borrello, S. (2010). Help your patients with smoking cessation. Nursing Made Incredibly Easy, 8
The New York case though does not come near this because clearly the means initiated by the government are just and proper. The end or overall utility is not only to prevent non-smokers from the ill effects of second hand smoke but lessen the smoking of smokers. Overall, the end result sees a healthier population and between the rights of the smokers and their health and well-being, the goodness of the action is maximized. It is not even a choice between the "devil and the deep blue sea" but a choice between a bad habit (smoking" and a good one (non-smoking or minimizing it).
From the deontological perspective, which can be differentiated from utilitarianism wherein deontology calls for the rightness or wrongness of the action as opposed to utilitarianism's rightness or wrongness of the ends or consequences. y and large through, banning smoking in bars and restaurants can be deemed….
The City of New York Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. (2006, December). New York City Smoke-Free Air Act of 2002. Retrieved June 8, 2011 from http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/downloads/pdf/smoke/tc5.pdf
Graziano, R.G. (2010, October 20). On normative ethical theories: Some basics. Retrieved June 8, 2011 from http://cla.calpoly.edu/~rgrazian/docs/courses/231/instruction/normative.pdf
Hu, W. & Farmer, A. (2003, December 8). The smoking ban: Clear air, murky economics. The New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2011 from http://www.nytimes.com/2003/12/28/nyregion/the-smoking-ban-clear-air-murky-economics.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
Solish, S. (2009, November 19). Six years after ban, smoking returns to NYC's bars and clubs. Retrieved June 8, 2011 from http://ny.eater.com/archives/2009/11/the_return_of_smoking.php
History of Smoking
It is seen that people have continued through out our development without smoking. But it is also evident that people have been engaged in smoking since the earliest times of oman Empire. This was not tobacco, however, Cyprus grass instead, coltsfoot, and lavender. They engaged in smoking more for healing causes than just entertaining. The sailors those accompanied Columbus on his adventures to the 'New World' were considered to be the first those brought smoking of tobacco to Europe. The smoking of tobacco there was extensive among all the natives of the North America however, excluding those residing in the Arctic regions. A larger portion of this was for ceremonial purposes. Among Europeans tobacco was applied at first in Spain. Tobacco was developed as an ornamental plant in French lawns around the sixteenth century, where it was regarded as antidote against plague, toothache, gout, colic and tetanus. (Smoking….
Cigarette Ads Influence Teen Smoking. Retrieved from http://personalmd.com/news/a1998021701.shtml Accessed on 18 May, 2005
Schaefer H. Smoking as a Psychological and Social Problem. Bull Schweiz Akad Med Wiss. 1979 March. Vol: 35; No: 1-3; pp: 15-23. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve& ; db=PubMed& list_uids=110384& dopt=Abstract Accessed on 18 May, 2005
Schaefer, Udo. Smoking as a Social Problem. Retrieved from http://bahai-library.com/books/bluehaze/1.html Accessed on 18 May, 2005
Smoking killed almost 5 million people around the world in 2000. Medical Research News. 24 November, 2004. Retrieved from http://www.news-medical.net/?id=6450 Accessed on 18 May, 2005
Smoking Behaviors Among Women…
Smoking Behaviors Young Adult Women
Smoking Behaviors among U.S. Women Ages 18-30
Smoking Behaviors among U.S. Women Ages 18-30
The issue of tobacco smoking is increasingly becoming an essential element to discussions about community and individual health. As smoking and all of its side effects and co-morbidities are the most preventable behaviors and diseases in the world (Bricker, ajan, Andersen, & Peterson, 2005). The diseases and/or conditions directly associated with smoking are the most deadly group of diseases there are and yet young people continue to begin smoking at alarming rates (Munafo, & Black, 2007). This work will specifically look at the identifiable social/cultural and personal reasons why people and specifically young women ages 18-30 in the U.S. begin smoking in the first place.
The work proposed will be a mixed methods research methodology that utilizes both qualitative and quantitative data. In general, most of the research related to cigarettes that….
Baker, J.H., Maes, H.H., Larsson, H.H., Lichtenstein, P.P., & Kendler, K.S. (2011). Sex differences and developmental stability in genetic and environmental influences on psychoactive substance consumption from early adolescence to young adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 41(9), 1907-1916. doi:10.1017/S003329171000259X
Bell, S., & Lee, C. (2006). Does Timing and Sequencing of Transitions to Adulthood Make a Difference? Stress, Smoking, and Physical Activity Among Young Australian Women. International Journal Of Behavioral Medicine, 13(3), 265-274. doi:10.1207/s15327558ijbm1303_11
Berlin, I., Gasior, M.J., & Moolchan, E.T. (2007). Sex-based and hormonal contraception effects on the metabolism of nicotine among adolescent tobacco-dependent smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 9(4), 493-498. doi:10.1080/14622200701243193
Bernaards, C.M., Kemper, H.G., Twisk, J.R., van Mechelen, W.W., & Snel, J.J. (2001). Smoking behaviour and biological maturation in males and females: a 20-year longitudinal study. Analysis of data from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. Annals Of Human Biology, 28(6), 634-648. doi:10.1080/03014460110047973
Tobacco smoke should certainly be considered a toxic chemical, and its risks to human health have been well-known for decades. Any reasonable person -- or indeed anyone who is even slightly familiar with the medical and scientific evidence -- would certainly know this today. Forty years ago, the federal government banned tobacco advertising from radio and television and put warning labels on tobacco products, while class action lawsuits have cost the tobacco companies billions of dollars. Airlines and buses that once had smoking sections banned these long ago for fear of lawsuits from employees and customers, and increasingly state and local governments are banning smoking from all public places, including bars, hotels and restaurants. In this case, then, the hazards of smoking are common knowledge, and the desire on nonsmokers not to be exposed to it is perfectly reasonable. This would not have happened in the past when the….
"Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke in Bars, Restaurants, Falls below OSHA Standards" (2000). Safety Online, February 24, 2000.
Frumkin, P. (2003). "New York State Outlaws Smoking in all Enclosed Workplaces." Nation's Restaurant News, April 7, 2003.
Topics include motivation, stress management, the effects of smoking, preparing to quit, relapse prevention, dealing with peer pressure, media awareness, support networks, and healthy lifestyles. Four optional booster sessions are offered after the program's conclusion" (NOT, 2009, CDC).
The success of the NOT program is attributed to the way that the facilitators 'speak the language' of the participants. However, the need for having counselors who are familiar with the culture, lifestyle, and economic resources of the community is not limited to teen programs, rather this policy of having counselors know the population they service is a necessary component of all anti-smoking initiatives. Counselors must be able to compellingly demonstrate that they can truly understand the unique stressors that affect that community -- and share, if relevant, their own success stories about quitting with participants. Connecting quitting smoking to a series of positive lifestyle changes, such as reducing body weight, and….
Kaplan, Norman. (2009). Smoking and hypertension. Up-to-date for patients.
Retrieved July 18, 2009 at http://www.uptodate.com/patients/content/topic.do?topicKey=~_1Fz7ZSMOSGC2F
McIntyre, Lynn & Chandrakant P. Shah. (1986, February 15). Prevalence of hypertension, obesity and smoking in three Indian communities in Northwestern Ontario.
Canadian Medical Association Journal. 134. Retrieved July 18, 2009 at http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1490834&blobtype=pdf
Smoking in Public Places
Like many smokers, David . Cowles started smoking in his teens. He wanted to look older, to appear more sophisticated, to fit in. Today, after 50 years of smoking, Cowles has finally stopped. Still, it seems he did not stop early enough. Shortly after, Cowles was diagnosed with lung cancer and emphysema. Surgeons removed the growth in his lungs but to this day, Cowles confesses to having difficulty breathing (Cowles).
Cowles' case is typical of most smokers, and has added dimensions as well. His father was a smoker, another reason why Cowles started smoking early. Additionally, now that the dangers of second-hand smoke have been well-documented, people like Cowles are worrying about the possibility of exposing their loved ones and people around them to possible carcinogens.
The recognition of the detrimental effects of smoking has given rise to calls for smoking bans. Because cigarette smoke also harms non-smokers, cigarette….
Cowles, David W. "The Price of Smoking." Teen Smoking. Mary E. Williams, Ed. Contemporary Issues Companion Series. Greenhaven Press, 2000. Reprinted from "The Price of Smoking," by David W. Cowles, My Turn column, Newsweek, February 1, 1999, by permission. All rights reserved. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. 2004 http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.catalog.houstonlibrary.org:80/servlet/OVRC
"The Government Should Increase Efforts to Reduce Smoking."
Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. 2004 http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.catalog.houstonlibrary.org:80/servlet/OVRC
"The Government Should Not Regulate Smoking." Economist. Smoking. Auriana Ojeda, Ed. Current Controversies Series. Greenhaven Press, 2002. From "Blowing Smoke," by the Economist, Economist, December 20, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by the Economist Newspaper, Ltd. Reprinted with permission. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. 2004 http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.catalog.houstonlibrary.org:80/servlet/OVRC
And many people believe that in the long run, people will get used to dining without smoking, just as they did with flying on airlines without being allowed to light up (Frumkin pp).
But not all New York restaurateurs are happy with the law, such as the owner of the Cellar Bar in Larchmont, New York and manager of the illett House in Port Chester, New York, who claims of losing business to restaurants across the Connecticut border, and hopes that Connecticut and New Jersey do not follow the path of New York (Frumkin pp). Many believe that the ban is a bad idea, and as far as being a workplace issue, no restaurant or bar employees came forward to complain, mainly because they know that patrons who drink and smoke are often better tippers (Frumkin pp). Others believe that the property owner should have an option of whether to….
Frumkin, Paul. "New York state outlaws smoking in all enclosed workplaces: as in Calif., Del., law snuffs habit in restaurants, bars, hotels." Nation's Restaurant News. April 7, 2003. Retrieved September 19, 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3190/is_14_37/ai_100074787
Levin, Justin C. "Protect us or leave us alone: the New York state smoking ban."
Albany Law Review. September 22, 2004. Retrieved September 19, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
MacNeil, A. "State smoking restrictions for private-sector worksites, restaurants, and bars -- United States, 1998 and 2004."
Smoking and the Autonomic Nervous
There is much controversy with regard to smoking in the contemporary society, as the practice is widely promoted and accepted in spite of the fact that the masses are well acquainted with the negative effects it can have on the body. In individuals who smoke on a regular basis, the activity lowers baseline stages of nerve activities in the vagal-cardiac areas and has a restructuring effect on arterial baroreceptor-cardiac reflex reactions. The fact that smoking is responsible for a series of autonomic changes is very probable to have a strong effect on how smokers experience acute arterial pressure.
The nervous system functions abnormally as a consequence of people smoking and putting an end to this habit is likely to have a positive effect on it. Actions such as pupil dilatation and heart contraction can be negatively affected as a consequence of a person smoking. The autonomic….
efutation of Counterargument:
James epace, is a former senior science policy analyst who worked at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Occupational Safety & Health
Administration (OSHA) for 19 years and as a research physicist at the Naval esearch
Laboratory for 11 years. According to epace, OSHA first proposed regulating secondhand smoke as a workplace hazard after determining that it caused as many as 14,000 worker deaths annually, far surpassing any other toxic hazard to workers.
Subsequently, the National Cancer Institute endorsed an estimate by the California EPA
that passive smoking caused as many as 65,000 deaths a year in the United States from heart disease and lung cancer alone (epace, 2004).
Furthermore, while nobody is obligated to work (or to eat) in any particular restaurant, there is no justification for requiring non-smokers to choose between taking a specific job and eating at a restaurant or subjecting themselves to second-hand smoke. In principle, non-smoking restaurant workers….
Aamot, Gregg. "At One Minnesota Bar, the Show's Over" Associated Press, March 14,
2008. Retrieved April 20, 2009, from the Fox News website, at:
Nizza, Mike. "Watering Down Smoking Bans" The New York Times, March 28, 2008.
The ban creates new problems for tobacco company marketing. The companies are now being faced with new restrictions on where they are able to sell their product. The large cigarette displays behind the counter of any given pharmacy are also an important part of the promotional package for most cigarette companies. Furthermore, the ban of tobacco sales on college campuses illustrates a commitment towards limiting access to tobacco products for all young people, not just those who are underage.
The ban is the first step in limiting where tobacco products can be sold. hat this means for tobacco companies is that their marketing efforts will now need to incorporate information about where to obtain the product. At present, tobacco companies generally focus their advertising efforts on brand-building, a function of the strong brand loyalty that cigarette brands engender. However, companies must now work to keep their distribution channels intact. They….
Smith, Stephen. (2009) Cigarettes Gone from Pharmacy Shelves in Boston. Boston Globe. Retrieved February 15, 2009 at http://www.boston.com/news/health/blog/2009/02/cigarettes_gone.html
Hirschkorn, Phil & Pinkston, Randall. (2009). Boston Bans Cigarette Sales in Drug Stores. CBS News. Retrieved February 15, 2009 at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/02/08/eveningnews/main4784060.shtml
No author. (2009) Pharmacy Tobacco Sales Banned in Boston. Drug Topics. Retrieved February 15, 2009 at http://drugtopics.modernmedicine.com/drugtopics/Modern+Medicine+Now/Pharmacy-tobacco-sales-banned-in-Boston/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/574348?contextCategoryId=47465
Magee, Mike. (2008). Tobacco sales at Pharmacies? Health Commentary. Retrieved February 15, 2009 at http://healthcommentary.org/public/item/213922
The most well-researched of all the smoking-related chemicals, nicotine, reaches the brain within 10 seconds after intake," the result is "increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, thickening of blood, increased respiration, decreased skin temperature, and a stimulation of the central nervous system (Daly). The cumulative effect? Smokers die an average of 13 to 14 years earlier, are more likely to die from cancer (particularly of the lungs), and are more likely to suffer life-long conditions that affect their lung capacity, the elasticity of their skin, and the overall function of their brain.
Smokers are often addicted to their habit. Because of this, smokers spend an increasingly significant portion of their disposable income on smoking. ith an average per-pack price of nearly nine dollars (or more depending upon the state), the fiscal impact of smoking can be very high - that amount includes an average actual cost of the pack of….
Associated Press. List of Smoking-Related Diseases Expanded. 24 March 2004. 06 February 2008 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5077308/ .
Boonn, Ann. State Cigarette Prices, Taxes, and Costs per Pack. 27 November 2007. 06 February 2008 http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/research/factsheets/pdf/0207.pdf .
Daly, John. Nicotine. 12 January 2005. 06 February 2008 http://www.newdirectionsprogram.com/nicotine.html .
We are all human beings who make some stupid choices in our lives. Some non-smokers have other bad habits like a poor diet whereas some smokers might eat well. Many non-smokers get addicted to other substances like alcohol or drugs. Smokers and non-smokers both occasionally use drugs like caffeine and therefore just because someone doesn't smoke doesn't mean they are totally pure. Both smokers and non-smokers want to enjoy life and even though smokers know their habit is not healthy, both smokers and non-smokers want to avoid getting sick. Many if not most smokers believe that smoking-related diseases happen to other people; and therefore they feel invincible. Ironically some smokers remain disease-free whereas some non-smokers get lung cancer. Regarding the law, both smokers and non-smokers value personal freedoms in general and many non-smokers do not support strict anti-smoking laws. Anti-smoking laws are sometimes bad for local businesses like bars,….
Q1. How do you feel about these regulations?
I think such regulations mandating accurate and graphic warnings on cigarette packages are necessary and warranted. Smoking is a hazard for those suffering from the addiction, and also generates tremendous societal costs in terms of lost productivity at work and costs to the healthcare system. For far too many years, cigarette companies hid the risks of their products and were protected by the law. Even if their products had warning labels on them, cigarette companies were still able to advertise their products with sexy, carefree illustrations of people enjoying healthy activities. Companies even used cartoon characters to promote their products and attract children. Forcing companies to illustrate the true risks of their products is essential.
Q2. Will this type of packaging make a difference in the number of people who smoke? If not, can you think of other ways to encourage people to quit….
Sports - Drugs
However, since the indirect consequences of smoking cessation are linked to cessation rather than to smoking, they must be addressed in terms of providing education and guidance about…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
SMOKING History of smoking and the effects on health History of smoking The history of smoking and its effect on health Hard as it may believe to be today, the ill effects of…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
The New York case though does not come near this because clearly the means initiated by the government are just and proper. The end or overall utility is…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Smoking History of Smoking It is seen that people have continued through out our development without smoking. But it is also evident that people have been engaged in smoking since the…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Smoking Behaviors Among Women… Smoking Behaviors Young Adult Women Smoking Behaviors among U.S. Women Ages 18-30 Smoking Behaviors among U.S. Women Ages 18-30 The issue of tobacco smoking is increasingly becoming an essential…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Smoking Ban Tobacco smoke should certainly be considered a toxic chemical, and its risks to human health have been well-known for decades. Any reasonable person -- or indeed anyone who…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Topics include motivation, stress management, the effects of smoking, preparing to quit, relapse prevention, dealing with peer pressure, media awareness, support networks, and healthy lifestyles. Four optional booster…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Smoking in Public Places Like many smokers, David . Cowles started smoking in his teens. He wanted to look older, to appear more sophisticated, to fit in. Today, after 50…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
And many people believe that in the long run, people will get used to dining without smoking, just as they did with flying on airlines without being allowed…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Smoking and the Autonomic Nervous There is much controversy with regard to smoking in the contemporary society, as the practice is widely promoted and accepted in spite of the fact…Read Full Paper ❯
efutation of Counterargument: James epace, is a former senior science policy analyst who worked at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) for 19 years and…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Advertising
Tobacco Marketing The ban creates new problems for tobacco company marketing. The companies are now being faced with new restrictions on where they are able to sell their product. The…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
The most well-researched of all the smoking-related chemicals, nicotine, reaches the brain within 10 seconds after intake," the result is "increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, thickening of…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
We are all human beings who make some stupid choices in our lives. Some non-smokers have other bad habits like a poor diet whereas some smokers might eat…Read Full Paper ❯
Q1. How do you feel about these regulations? I think such regulations mandating accurate and graphic warnings on cigarette packages are necessary and warranted. Smoking is a hazard for those…Read Full Paper ❯