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History of smoking and the effects on health
History of smoking
The history of smoking and its effect on health
Hard as it may believe to be today, the ill effects of smoking were not always well-known. The practice originated in the Americas with the Native Americans and the European colonists also indulged in the practice. Tobacco was a major cash crop in the South even before America formally became a nation. "Most early European physicians subscribed to the Native American belief that tobacco can be an effective medicine" (A brief history of tobacco, 2000, CNN). Smoking became more and more popular with the use of cigarettes. Initially, it was not considered decorous for women to smoke but in the 1920s, with the rise of the flapper and the New Woman, many women began to smoke to demonstrate their newfound liberation.
However, the democratization of smoking also coincided with…… [Read More]
However, since the indirect consequences of smoking cessation are linked to cessation rather than to smoking, they must be addressed in terms of providing education and guidance about related issues independently, and mostly in connection with dietary advice.
Implementing an Effective Smoking Cessation Plan
Smokers wishing to quit should begin chewing a gum made for smokers that contain nicotine. Since most smokers cannot quit through this method alone, the next step in this comprehensive smoking cessation plan is to teach smokers to identify and distinguish physical cravings and symptoms of nicotine withdrawal from habitual cravings such as those triggered by behavioral associations. Because abrupt or "cold-turkey" cessation of smoking can result in overwhelming physical symptoms of withdrawal, it is appropriate to allow the smoker to smoke enough strictly to reduce those physical cravings and to gradually reduce smoking as those cravings subside.
Conversely, habitual smoking must be eliminated immediately for…… [Read More]
The New York case though does not come near this because clearly the means initiated by the government are just and proper. The end or overall utility is not only to prevent non-smokers from the ill effects of second hand smoke but lessen the smoking of smokers. Overall, the end result sees a healthier population and between the rights of the smokers and their health and well-being, the goodness of the action is maximized. It is not even a choice between the "devil and the deep blue sea" but a choice between a bad habit (smoking" and a good one (non-smoking or minimizing it).
From the deontological perspective, which can be differentiated from utilitarianism wherein deontology calls for the rightness or wrongness of the action as opposed to utilitarianism's rightness or wrongness of the ends or consequences. y and large through, banning smoking in bars and restaurants can be deemed…… [Read More]
History of Smoking
It is seen that people have continued through out our development without smoking. But it is also evident that people have been engaged in smoking since the earliest times of oman Empire. This was not tobacco, however, Cyprus grass instead, coltsfoot, and lavender. They engaged in smoking more for healing causes than just entertaining. The sailors those accompanied Columbus on his adventures to the 'New World' were considered to be the first those brought smoking of tobacco to Europe. The smoking of tobacco there was extensive among all the natives of the North America however, excluding those residing in the Arctic regions. A larger portion of this was for ceremonial purposes. Among Europeans tobacco was applied at first in Spain. Tobacco was developed as an ornamental plant in French lawns around the sixteenth century, where it was regarded as antidote against plague, toothache, gout, colic and…… [Read More]
Smoking Behaviors Among Women…
Smoking Behaviors Young Adult Women
Smoking Behaviors among U.S. Women Ages 18-30
Smoking Behaviors among U.S. Women Ages 18-30
The issue of tobacco smoking is increasingly becoming an essential element to discussions about community and individual health. As smoking and all of its side effects and co-morbidities are the most preventable behaviors and diseases in the world (Bricker, ajan, Andersen, & Peterson, 2005). The diseases and/or conditions directly associated with smoking are the most deadly group of diseases there are and yet young people continue to begin smoking at alarming rates (Munafo, & Black, 2007). This work will specifically look at the identifiable social/cultural and personal reasons why people and specifically young women ages 18-30 in the U.S. begin smoking in the first place.
The work proposed will be a mixed methods research methodology that utilizes both qualitative and quantitative data. In general, most of the…… [Read More]
Topics include motivation, stress management, the effects of smoking, preparing to quit, relapse prevention, dealing with peer pressure, media awareness, support networks, and healthy lifestyles. Four optional booster sessions are offered after the program's conclusion" (NOT, 2009, CDC).
The success of the NOT program is attributed to the way that the facilitators 'speak the language' of the participants. However, the need for having counselors who are familiar with the culture, lifestyle, and economic resources of the community is not limited to teen programs, rather this policy of having counselors know the population they service is a necessary component of all anti-smoking initiatives. Counselors must be able to compellingly demonstrate that they can truly understand the unique stressors that affect that community -- and share, if relevant, their own success stories about quitting with participants. Connecting quitting smoking to a series of positive lifestyle changes, such as reducing body weight, and…… [Read More]
Smoking in Public Places
Like many smokers, David . Cowles started smoking in his teens. He wanted to look older, to appear more sophisticated, to fit in. Today, after 50 years of smoking, Cowles has finally stopped. Still, it seems he did not stop early enough. Shortly after, Cowles was diagnosed with lung cancer and emphysema. Surgeons removed the growth in his lungs but to this day, Cowles confesses to having difficulty breathing (Cowles).
Cowles' case is typical of most smokers, and has added dimensions as well. His father was a smoker, another reason why Cowles started smoking early. Additionally, now that the dangers of second-hand smoke have been well-documented, people like Cowles are worrying about the possibility of exposing their loved ones and people around them to possible carcinogens.
The recognition of the detrimental effects of smoking has given rise to calls for smoking bans. Because cigarette smoke also…… [Read More]
And many people believe that in the long run, people will get used to dining without smoking, just as they did with flying on airlines without being allowed to light up (Frumkin pp).
But not all New York restaurateurs are happy with the law, such as the owner of the Cellar Bar in Larchmont, New York and manager of the illett House in Port Chester, New York, who claims of losing business to restaurants across the Connecticut border, and hopes that Connecticut and New Jersey do not follow the path of New York (Frumkin pp). Many believe that the ban is a bad idea, and as far as being a workplace issue, no restaurant or bar employees came forward to complain, mainly because they know that patrons who drink and smoke are often better tippers (Frumkin pp). Others believe that the property owner should have an option of whether to…… [Read More]
Tobacco smoke should certainly be considered a toxic chemical, and its risks to human health have been well-known for decades. Any reasonable person -- or indeed anyone who is even slightly familiar with the medical and scientific evidence -- would certainly know this today. Forty years ago, the federal government banned tobacco advertising from radio and television and put warning labels on tobacco products, while class action lawsuits have cost the tobacco companies billions of dollars. Airlines and buses that once had smoking sections banned these long ago for fear of lawsuits from employees and customers, and increasingly state and local governments are banning smoking from all public places, including bars, hotels and restaurants. In this case, then, the hazards of smoking are common knowledge, and the desire on nonsmokers not to be exposed to it is perfectly reasonable. This would not have happened in the past when…… [Read More]
Smoking and the Autonomic Nervous
There is much controversy with regard to smoking in the contemporary society, as the practice is widely promoted and accepted in spite of the fact that the masses are well acquainted with the negative effects it can have on the body. In individuals who smoke on a regular basis, the activity lowers baseline stages of nerve activities in the vagal-cardiac areas and has a restructuring effect on arterial baroreceptor-cardiac reflex reactions. The fact that smoking is responsible for a series of autonomic changes is very probable to have a strong effect on how smokers experience acute arterial pressure.
The nervous system functions abnormally as a consequence of people smoking and putting an end to this habit is likely to have a positive effect on it. Actions such as pupil dilatation and heart contraction can be negatively affected as a consequence of a person smoking. The…… [Read More]
efutation of Counterargument:
James epace, is a former senior science policy analyst who worked at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Occupational Safety & Health
Administration (OSHA) for 19 years and as a research physicist at the Naval esearch
Laboratory for 11 years. According to epace, OSHA first proposed regulating secondhand smoke as a workplace hazard after determining that it caused as many as 14,000 worker deaths annually, far surpassing any other toxic hazard to workers.
Subsequently, the National Cancer Institute endorsed an estimate by the California EPA
that passive smoking caused as many as 65,000 deaths a year in the United States from heart disease and lung cancer alone (epace, 2004).
Furthermore, while nobody is obligated to work (or to eat) in any particular restaurant, there is no justification for requiring non-smokers to choose between taking a specific job and eating at a restaurant or subjecting themselves to second-hand…… [Read More]
The ban creates new problems for tobacco company marketing. The companies are now being faced with new restrictions on where they are able to sell their product. The large cigarette displays behind the counter of any given pharmacy are also an important part of the promotional package for most cigarette companies. Furthermore, the ban of tobacco sales on college campuses illustrates a commitment towards limiting access to tobacco products for all young people, not just those who are underage.
The ban is the first step in limiting where tobacco products can be sold. hat this means for tobacco companies is that their marketing efforts will now need to incorporate information about where to obtain the product. At present, tobacco companies generally focus their advertising efforts on brand-building, a function of the strong brand loyalty that cigarette brands engender. However, companies must now work to keep their distribution channels…… [Read More]
The most well-researched of all the smoking-related chemicals, nicotine, reaches the brain within 10 seconds after intake," the result is "increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, thickening of blood, increased respiration, decreased skin temperature, and a stimulation of the central nervous system (Daly). The cumulative effect? Smokers die an average of 13 to 14 years earlier, are more likely to die from cancer (particularly of the lungs), and are more likely to suffer life-long conditions that affect their lung capacity, the elasticity of their skin, and the overall function of their brain.
Smokers are often addicted to their habit. Because of this, smokers spend an increasingly significant portion of their disposable income on smoking. ith an average per-pack price of nearly nine dollars (or more depending upon the state), the fiscal impact of smoking can be very high - that amount includes an average actual cost of the pack of…… [Read More]
We are all human beings who make some stupid choices in our lives. Some non-smokers have other bad habits like a poor diet whereas some smokers might eat well. Many non-smokers get addicted to other substances like alcohol or drugs. Smokers and non-smokers both occasionally use drugs like caffeine and therefore just because someone doesn't smoke doesn't mean they are totally pure. Both smokers and non-smokers want to enjoy life and even though smokers know their habit is not healthy, both smokers and non-smokers want to avoid getting sick. Many if not most smokers believe that smoking-related diseases happen to other people; and therefore they feel invincible. Ironically some smokers remain disease-free whereas some non-smokers get lung cancer. Regarding the law, both smokers and non-smokers value personal freedoms in general and many non-smokers do not support strict anti-smoking laws. Anti-smoking laws are sometimes bad for local businesses like bars, which…… [Read More]
Q1. How do you feel about these regulations?
I think such regulations mandating accurate and graphic warnings on cigarette packages are necessary and warranted. Smoking is a hazard for those suffering from the addiction, and also generates tremendous societal costs in terms of lost productivity at work and costs to the healthcare system. For far too many years, cigarette companies hid the risks of their products and were protected by the law. Even if their products had warning labels on them, cigarette companies were still able to advertise their products with sexy, carefree illustrations of people enjoying healthy activities. Companies even used cartoon characters to promote their products and attract children. Forcing companies to illustrate the true risks of their products is essential.
Q2. Will this type of packaging make a difference in the number of people who smoke? If not, can you think of other ways to encourage people…… [Read More]
Furthermore, smokers are also in greater danger than non-smokers of premature death as a result of their habit. Indeed, the Action on Smoking and Health Web site states that worldwide, a staggering 5 million smokers per year die prematurely, and that half of all smokers are at risk of premature death.
The prospects for non-smokers exposed to secondary smoke are also gloomy. According to Science News Online. http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc98/1_17_98/fob1.htm (accessed 07March07), a study has shown that secondary smoke causes at least 40% of the damage to a non-smoker as smoking does. Surely, for the protection not only of non-smokers, but also of smokers themselves and of our children, the law should discourage this habit.
Action on Smoking and Health. "Factsheet No:2." http://www.ash.org.uk/html/factsheets/html/fact02.html (accessed 07March07).
Seppa N. " Science News Online: Secondary Smoke Carries High Price." http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc98/1_17_98/fob1.htm (accessed 07March07).… [Read More]
And, students should be notified of where they can go to report smoking policy violations.
The student who does not comply with smoking policies should be allowed only one warning before mandatory expulsion. Because of this significant penalty, the student should be asked to sign an agreement before the beginning of each school year that they are aware of the university's smoking policies and will abide by them as a condition of attending school. This measure should help protect the university against possible law suits and will give the student adequate information to determine if this is an environment that is conducive to the student's desired lifestyle.
To improve the health of our university community, the administration should also encourage health services to educate smokers about the harm smoking causes to both smokers and nonsmokers. The administration should also encourage health services to develop and promote programs to help smokers…… [Read More]
Banning Smoking in Cars With Children: Moral and Legal Issues
Five states in America, Arkansas, California, Louisiana, Maine and Oregon, and also Puerto ico -- have made it a crime to smoke in cars when children are there, and more states are considering the adoption of this legislation as well. For instance, other nations such as Canada, South Africa and the United Arab Emirates are also leaning towards such a ban. The ban is viewed as beneficial in the sense that it not only protects children but it also minimizes the amount of accidents which will be derived from cigarette-related distractions, such as lighting, ashing or dropping them while driving (ash.org). However, the biggest impetus for this legislation is the desire to protect all innocent children from exposure to the hazards which are inherently connected to cigarettes and cigarette smoke. One of the inherent necessities of this issue is in…… [Read More]
Stages of Change Model: 43-year-old Smoker
The first stage of the Transtheoretical Stages of Change model is that of pre-contemplation, in which the client is still not fully committed to the need to taking action to make a necessary change. In the case of a 43-year-old smoker who began smoking in childhood, the smoker may be reluctant to commit to change because of a history of failed attempts. At this stage, the counselor would need to give the smoker options to convince the client that the next time will be different—for example, the use of medications, patches, or supportive group or individual counseling, versus going cold turkey. Asking questions such as, “What needs does smoking serve in your life,” may be useful, to identify the social and physical needs smoking has fulfilled. A typical, Caucasian resident of the United States who has resided in the US for the entirety of…… [Read More]
Thus, he is presenting it as it would presumably be ok for children to smoke. Along with Eckhart, the movie presents an alcohol merchandiser and a gun trafficker and the three of them as a team fighting about who sells the most dangerous article. Eckhart proves to be scruples and able to use almost any method to create a good image for tobacco in the U.S.
The film leaves the audience with a better understanding of how easily people can be influenced by mass-media and crafty spokesmen. Americans are known for their reluctance from accepting T.V. broadcasts as being true, but films as "Thank you for smoking" often prove suppositions of being wrong.
Eckhart, as almost any demagogue is shown as having trouble in his personal life because of the lies that he tells. Moreover, in reality, he seems to have a different opinion when concerning the consequences of tobacco…… [Read More]
battle against cigarettes and tobacco has been around for a long time. As the authors A. Lee Fritschler and James M. Hoefler point out in their book Smoking and Politics there has always been a tug of war over the "golden leaf," the paradox that strict regulation of the business meant a windfall for the government.
Concern about the health consequences of smoking predates the "modern era" by nearly four centuries. In 1604, for example, King James I of England lambasted smoking as, "a custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the Nose, harmeful to the braine, dangerous to the Lungs, and in the blacke stinking fume thereof, nearest resembling the horrible Stigian smoke of the pit that is bottomless" (as quoted in Sullum, 1998, p 18). King James subsequently raised the tax on tobacco by 1000%, deriving significant revenues for his coffers. This illustrates the profound dilemma that has…… [Read More]
moking and Lung Disease
moking is a hazardous habit that has the ability to greatly affect the health of the smoker and those that are close to them. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate smoking and lung disease. The discussion will focus on possible community health nursing interventions/teaching strategies. We will also use Orem's nursing model to describe the community, its health issue/problem, and proposed interventions.
Community and Health issue
The community in question is Grady County which is located in Chickasha, Oklahoma. moking is a prevalent problem in this community and people are seemingly unaware of the health consequences related to smoking. The reason why this issue was chosen was due to my mother having evere Emphysema and the effects this disease has on her, also because of the impact that second hand smoking can have on non-smokers For example, I am Deathly Allergic to moking. My…… [Read More]
BANS ON SMOKING IN AMEICAN CITIES: NEW YOK CITY & LOS ANGELES
Moving with unexpected swiftness, New York state lawmakers passed a sweeping anti-smoking measure that makes New York the third state after California and Delaware to ban smoking in all workplaces, including restaurants, bars, and hotels. Within hours of the New York bill's passage, Governor George E. Pataki signed the tough measure, which exempts only America-Indian-owned casinos, cigar bars already licensed in New York City, fraternal clubs, outdoor areas of restaurants with no roof or awning, private homes, and personal but not company cars. New York's ban will take effect July 24 in areas where smoking now is permitted and where local ordinances are weaker. Although the law will not supersede the stricter measures previously passed in Westchester and Nassau counties, it will replace elements of New York City's new law, which took effect March 30.
Bans…… [Read More]
elping the elderly quit smoking is one of the most important responsibilities of the healthcare professional. The number of cessation programs designed for the elderly are severely limited, therefore the venues by which they actively quit smoking are not nearly as prevalent as other age segments. Most health care professionals have not received significant training in smoking cessation counseling in general, even though it is one of the most prevalent causes of health problems within America.
In the absence of having a strong primary care physician or a group therapy session to promote smoking cessation, alternatives include the use of cessation literature. Many channels of education have been attempted with some success in the elderly. In one recent test conducted by Rimer and Orleans using smoking cessation brochures, the results were extremely promising. In the study, three groups were established with the control group receiving cessation literature not specifically designed…… [Read More]
Banning Smoking in Restaurants in All States
Through this study, the author aims to support a policy regarding ban on smoking in restaurants in all the 50 states of USA. The author is of the view that smoking should be banned in restaurants in all 50 states to lower the rate of second hand smoking related diseases in non-smokers
Due to bad impacts on secondhand smoke, it has been banned on public places and educational institutions in many states. For example, Utah fully banned smoking in restaurants in 1995 and California imposed a complete ban on smoking in restaurants and bars in 1998. No further complete smoking bans were passed by any state till 2002 when South Dakota totally banned smoking in workplaces, and Delaware totally banned smoking in workplaces, restaurants, and bars. As of 2002, the number of states where there is complete ban on smoke at workplace, restaurant…… [Read More]
enefits After Quitting Smoking
Among the many health risks that toll life, smoking is considered as the most preventable cause of mortality. Globally, smoking has been one of the principal factors that lead to diverse type of diseases, such as cancer, coronary heart disease, lung disease, and many others. The number of smokers worldwide grows everyday, both in developed and developing countries. According to Karl Fagerstrom's Epidemiology of Smoking, from a 1995 estimate, the rate of smoking-related mortality will grow from 3 million to 10 million annually by 2030.
In response to the risks that smoking causes to the increasing number of smokers', many health organizations worldwide conduct different programs that are hoped to minimize and prevent people from smoking. This includes the provision of enough information on the effects of smoking to one's health, as well as information on how to quit from the smoking habit.
Many research and…… [Read More]
Developmental perspective was the concept that the nursing students participating in this study were typically younger than they patients they were caring for. This made it difficult for them to ask the "older" patient questions about a lifestyle they had been practicing for many years.
Environmental constraints were noted that prevented the participants in the study from fully implementing best practice guidelines. The primary of which was time. They noted that because of other duties and paper keeping requirements, they had little time to properly present the best practice guidelines. Some noted that they had little time to do expected things such as breathing, much less introduce the patient properly to best practice guidelines.
During their third year of training the nurses were introduced to a comprehensive program concerning cigarettes and cessation programs. In addition they had already been taught more efficient time management training. With these new tools they…… [Read More]
Military personnel must achieve and maintain the best physical conditioning of they are reasonably able to reach for the duration of their enlistment as a fundamental obligation of being fit for duty. Smoking makes that impossible. Likewise, the American taxpayer has a justifiable interest in reducing the costs of fielding a military by eliminating unnecessary costs. Smoking invariably adds to the already substantial costs of providing medical care to armed services personnel, both during their active service as well as throughout their lives afterwards to the extent they rely on veteran's services for medical care.
Military personnel already understand that the privilege and benefits associated with military service entail various restrictions on rights enjoyed by civilians. In this case, military justice must catch up to the manner in which civilian society has already incorporated the understanding of the risks of smoking into American life.
Dershowitz, Alan. (2002). Shouting Fire:…… [Read More]
emoving Smoking in the Workplace Increases Productivity
The purpose of this proposed study is to determine if removing smoking from the workplace has increased workplace productivity. The writer will explore the question by using a survey study method. The participants will include workers across the nation in varying levels of work and careers. The proposed study is designed to measure whether or not there is an increase in productivity since employers began refusing to allow smoking in the workplace environment. There are several factors involved in the study including a look at five previously published studies regarding smokers and their habits. In addition the writer explores some of the different concerns for productivity that have been studied throughout the years with regards to smokers including secondhand smoke damage, absenteeism and dollars lost. This proposal suggests the direct question of affect on productivity from the time workplaces began to ban smoking…… [Read More]
Students Smoking Behavior
The rates of campus students smoking have fluctuated over a period of the last twenty years. Most of the lifelong smokers' start their smoking habit before they reach the age of 24 years. This therefore means those campus years are a very crucial time when it comes to any study of cigarette smoking. Cigar rete smoking in campus has now become a very serious issue in public health issue. This has led to an increase in campus wide bans in smoking alongside other preventive programs in place to reduce students smoking rates. There are several economic, social and environmental factors that have been associated with the increase of smoking around campus students. Some of these factors are low socioeconomic status, students who have parents, close friends and relatives who smoke the acceptance as well as positive views of peers who smoke the exposure and high availability of…… [Read More]
scientific effects of smoking on the human body especially on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. We will give a brief analysis on how smoking affects the mentioned systems and see how the human body system works if the individual does not smoke. We will also support our paper with scientific and statistical evidence regarding the facts related to smoking.
Smoking and its effects
Before looking at smoking and its effects lets review on how the respiratory and cardiovascular systems work. When we breathe air it first enters Trachea/windpipe through which it enters on each of the bronchi present at both of the lungs. The bronchus is spread throughout the lungs like branches on trees and at its tips is as thin as a hair (bronchioles). Each lung has about thirty thousand bronchioles. At the tip of every bronchiole lies an area which leads to tiny air sacs known as alveoli.…… [Read More]
Besides the most serious medical consequences, smoking causes bad breath, yellowing of teeth and is considered equally damaging to the skin in terms of premature aging and wrinkles as overexposure to the sun. Finally, the increased awareness of the dangers of second-hand smoke have already led to laws prohibiting smoking in the workplace, in restaurants and other public areas, and even in residential buildings. In general, smoking is becoming something that many people consider evidence of poor decision making or even low intelligence.
The decision to start smoking is just not consistent with good judgment and intelligent choices. The fact that so many people who already smoke wish they had never started and the difficulty they experience in trying to quit should be enough proof to anybody that starting is a very bad idea. Healthcare costs are one of the most expensive bills that Americans pay and a substantial amount…… [Read More]
More important to creating that plan, is the eventual follow through.
The adverse health affects are a justifiable reason to quit smoking. An astounding 90% of lung cancer is directly associated with long-term smoking, (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008). Other adverse health risks include cardiovascular disease, and other respiratory diseases. These haunting reminders of the adverse affects of smoking only increase as the user smokes for a longer period of time. Both lung and heart disease rates for smokers explode as smokers continue smoking throughout their lives. The risks just get higher as the years continue to pile up, "If you smoke for a lifetime, there is a 50% chance that your eventual death will be smoking-related - half of all these deaths will be in middle age," (BBC News 2003).
I am now almost thirty years of age, and have been smoking for at least ten years.…… [Read More]
This also makes an additional and still very strong point about the values of the contemporary world, that is the material ones.
Another issue that can be discussed is that of personal freedom. Nick Naylor may be a very intelligent and skilled orator, but he is not forcing people to do something against their will. All people ought to be able to decide for themselves. We have absolute freedom and control over ourselves. Therefore should we decide to harm ourselves through various vices such as drinking or smoking, why should there be anyone to prevent us from doing it? Does the stare still have the role to protect its citizens? Are the anti-smoking campaigns really made for the benefit of the people or is it everything about financial interests? Are there such things as the devil's advocates or do we have to take care of ourselves on our own? Do…… [Read More]
e. managerial, social, political, economic benefits are linked to the study's results) the proposed helpful outcomes are realistic (i.e. dealing with questions that can actually be answered through the type of data gathering and analysis you're proposing. The suggested helpful outcomes do not go beyond the data that's to be collected).
The increase in teen smoking may be abating, or may be taking a pause before it continues the climb seen in the past 10 years, from 1996 to 2005. In either case, reducing smoking at an early age has a lifelong effect on individuals' health, and can lead to better quality of life for millions of people who might otherwise take up smoking. A secondary benefit is that lessons learned may help to reduce the current 3.1 million teen smokers, many of whom try smoking and quit -- it would be useful to know why they started in the…… [Read More]
psychosocial smoking cessation interventions for coronary heart disease patients effective?
The association with smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been well documented. To prevent further heart attacks, as well as to preserve their life, smokers have been consistently and strongly advised to quit smoking, and associations such as the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Task Force have drafted recommendations and reams of advice to assist patients in doing so. Nevertheless, many patients diagnosed with CHD continue to smoke despite the possibility of interventions and programs (many of them free) helping them to stop. Mortality can be reduced by as much as 36% if smokers with CHD determine to stop smoking 3-5 years after diagnosed (Critchley, 2003) aside from which dramatic reductions in cardiac attacks have been discovered when smokers have stopped smoking for as short a time as a year (Quist-Paulsen, & Gallefoss, 2003). The Coronary…… [Read More]
Outcomes to be Assessed:
The primary objective is to see that subjects of the program cease smoking and remain abstinent from tobacco use. This will be the primary outcome to be assessed therefore. Individuals in both the experiment and control groups would be consulted at the six-month juncture and the one year point in order to determine how many among them have remained abstinent from tobacco use in that duration and up to that point.
Other outcomes to be assessed would be long-term health factors relating to the use of tobacco. According to statistics compiled and sponsored by the T.J. Samson Community Hospital in Glasgow, Kentucky and most recently updated in the spring of 2006, habitual smokers of cigarettes are "fourteen times as likely to die of lung cancer" and twice as susceptible to fatality by heart disease. (T.J.S.C.H, 1) This means, according to the Community Hospital, that…… [Read More]
Cigarette smoking is the major cause of cancers of the lung, mouth, larynx, esophagus, and pharynx. In addition, cigarette smoking is a contributing cause of cancers of the stomach, colon, rectum, bladder, pancreas, uterine cervix, and kidney. Finally, cigarette smoking is a contributing factor in some leukemias. Currently, cigarette smoking is responsible for approximately 180,000 cancer deaths every year. However, quitting smoking immediately can reduce the risk of cancer. Ten years after quitting smoking, an ex-smoker's risk of lung cancer is about half that of a current smokers. Furthermore, quitting smoking reduces the risk of developing cancers of the mouth, esophagus, throat, bladder, cervix, and pancreas within a ten-year period.
Finally, cigarette smoking increases the risk of heart disease. Heart disease is the number one cause of death in America, and smoking cigarettes is the number one risk factor for heart disease. Smoking is the main cause of sudden heart…… [Read More]
Nursing Counseling and Smoking Cessation Among Inpatients
The work of Li, et al. (2014) reports a study that examines the facilitators and barriers to effective smoking cessation as it relates to counseling services provided to inpatients by nurse counselors.
The study reports that the Taiwanese Health Promotion Administration reports that 4.8 million smokers exist in Taiwan and that nearly 50% of these smokers were interested in quitting smoking. Smoking cessation is beneficial to both smokers and those whom they love and are loved by in that smoking cessation not only saves lives of those who quit smoking but in addition results in reduction in the costs of personal and health care. According to the report, THPA's implementation of the "New Smoking Cessation Policy on the 1st of March 2012 to expand smoking cessation counseling services to both outpatient and inpatient settings." (Li et al., 2014, p. 5) Li et al.…… [Read More]
My friend has been a smoker for five years. She is a pack-a-day smoker. Not only is this habit expensive (she may spend upwards of $50 a week on this habit), but it is also not very good for health, as numerous studies have shown (Agaku, King, Dube et al., 2014). I would like to help her quit smoking so that she can save her health, save money, and just be an altogether more enjoyable person to be around. (It is not that much fun being around a person who smokes all the time). To solve this problem, I have applied the six-step problem solving process. This paper will review the steps and explain what I did step-by-step to help my friend quit smoking.
Step One: Define the Problem
The problem my friend was having was that she was smoking a pack a day and did not know how…… [Read More]
In addition, smoking is addictive, and the earlier a person starts, the more likely they are to continue, making it more difficult to quit as one ages. Young people do not understand smoking, because they tend to have an "it will not happen to me" mentality, and it should not be available to teens, you should have to be an adult to make the choice to smoke, because it is a health choice, as well as a lifestyle choice.
In conclusion, smoking is hazardous to your health and well-being, and that has been proven. People start to smoke too early in life, and then they find it difficult to quit. The earlier you start smoking, the longer smoke can do damage to your lungs, making it more likely you will develop lung disease such as emphysema or lung cancer. Smoking is no less dangerous than drinking, it can harm others…… [Read More]
Nurses Perspectives on Smoking
According to researchers, about 18% of all registered nurses in America smoke. In order to help these people quit the habit, and thus improve their health and the health of those around them, the authors stated purpose is to "develop a national program to assist nurses in smoking cessation." (Bialous, 2004, p. 387) To accomplish this goal, the researchers conducted a total of eight focus groups, in four states, consisting of current and former smokers in order to determine attitudes toward smoking, quitting, and to examine preferences towards types of programs.
Eight focus groups were conducted in four states, California, Kentucky, New Jersey, and Ohio. These states were chosen because California and New Jersey had low smoking prevalences, while the prevalence of smoking in Kentucky and Ohio were high. By using both low and high prevalence of smoking, the researcher can obtain a national average for…… [Read More]
I have also noticed I have a tendency to eat more, as I worried about. Part of that is the oral gratification missing when I do not smoke, but I have also found that food simply tastes better now that I am not smoking, and I find myself eating more, as a result. I am attempting to monitor this so I do not gain weight, as so many people do in the course of their intervention.
Another con is that I have been irritable, suffered from headaches, and have been short with some of the people trying to aid me in my intervention. I know this is common during smoking cessation, but it makes the process more difficult, and makes me feel dreadful as well.
However, the pros of my action stage are quite compelling. I do feel better about myself, and my psyche is improving each day I continue…… [Read More]
Predictors of the Transition From Experimental to Daily Smoking Among Adolescents in the United States" the authors sought to identify certain factors that influence the transition to daily smoking by American adolescents. They used Problem Behavior Theory (PBT), demographics, and non-theory-related factors as various characteristics that can predict an adolescent's transition from experimental smoking to daily. Problem elated Theory (PBT) is a theoretical framework that is used to identify certain problem behavior prevalent in adolescents which correlate to undesirable social behavior. (Jessor, 1991, p.52) The data came from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD) collected by the Carolina Population Center at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
Because the authors were attempting to determine the different factors involved in the transition from experimental to daily smoking, the study can be considered to be a predictive correlational design. Experimental smoking after one year was the criterion…… [Read More]
Phone numbers are displayed liberally. A stop-smoking hotline is listed with a toll-free telephone number. Links to sponsoring organizations like the Centers for Disease Control allow visitors to read more, and a "Get expert help" section invites viewers to use instant messaging to communicate with a "National Cancer Institute smoking cessation counselor."
Illustrations are used sparingly. No negative illustrations such as those depicting lungs decayed by cancer are included, keeping the imagery on the Web site positive and inoffensive. Most of the illustrations included on smokefree.gov are photographs depicting men and women exercising and enjoying the great outdoors. The images refresh themselves often, like a slide show. The smiling faces on the models imply that quitting smoking will make anyone feel healthier and more alive. Inclusion of people from various ethnic groups in the smokefree.gov photo database is helpful in reaching a broad audience. Background of the Web…… [Read More]
If a driver ignored a road sign that said "Danger: Bridge Out!" and proceeded along the street, he would be labeled as an idiot by his community. If a fence had a sign on it that read, "arning: Vicious Dogs" and some adventure-seeking teens climbed that fence, no one would be surprised when they had their legs torn off by a pack of pit bulls. However, every single year 400,000 Americans die from ignoring one of the most infamous warnings: The Surgeon General's warning on cigarette packages. Smoking cigarettes may seem to be a part of the definition of being an American-- everyone from the street punk rebels to the successful big business CEOs are automatically visualized with a cigarette or fat Cuban cigar hanging from their mouths. These smokers see themselves as a better person for the momentary pleasure they receive from these tobacco products, but fail to realize…… [Read More]
CVS enames Itself CVS Health as it Ends Sale of Tobacco Products
(1) Who are the major winners and losers in this story? Why do you think so?
The new CVS strategy definitely seems more consistent relative to health promotion. Promoting health and well-being includes smoking cessation and being smoke free. By selling tobacco products, many argued that CVS was sending mixed signals to their clients. However, the reorganization of the company, now referred to as CVS health, sends a clear message that they are in the health promotion business. Yet, by doing so, the company is also sacrificing a significant revenue stream in all their locations. It is too early to tell if the more consistent mission statement will overcome the loss in revenues that they will experience throughout the transition.
The general public should be a winner in this situation as well. Although some consumers might be inconvenienced…… [Read More]
Smoking becomes a symbol of anti-cultural rebellion and even more so it takes on the symbol of something holy unrealistic and undesirable. The basic affect is to create a sense of empowerment as a result of smoking they feel that they are now better than they were before, in both a sense of adulthood as well as "counter-culture" mentality. Teenagers all desire to rebel against the normalcy of society, this is a natural response to the restrictions that society institutes upon teenagers. The decision to "go against the grain" is one that teenagers make in subtle and forthright ways, whether it takes the form of not doing homework or arguing with parents. Smoking has become such a controversial subject, through it's almost bombardment of health information and anti-smoking campaigns, that it epitomizes the one thing that youth can do to fight against the establishment. This becomes a crucial reason for…… [Read More]
, Binns, Colin W., and Alfonso Helman. (2006): "Which Women Stop Smoking During Pregnancy and the Effect on Breastfeeding Duration." Biomed Central. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/6/195
Torfs, Claudine P. And Roberta E. Christianson. (2000): "Effect of Maternal Smoking and Coffee Consumption on the Risk of Having a Recognized Down Syndrome Pregnancy." American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol. 152, No. 12: 1185-1191.
Solomon, Laura J. And Virginia P. Quinn. (2003): "Spontaneous Quitting: Self Initiated Smoking Cessation in Early Pregnancy." Nicotine and Tobacco Research. Vol. 6, Sup. 2; S203-S216.
leinman, Michael. (2000): "The Health Effects of Air Pollution on Children." Irvine: University of California.
Eichhammer P, and Johann M. harraz. (2003): "High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Decreases Cigarette Smoking." Journal of Clincial Psychiatry. 64:951-953.
In conclusion, the literature presented clearly shows that smoking during pregnancy does have an adverse affect on infants and fetuses and that through the proper treatment and counseling, these effects can…… [Read More]
Encouraging people to report violations for the sake of their health is a final service that nurses can perform to support the ban. People often do not like to report violations, because they feel like 'busybodies' but there is no way that state health inspectors alone can constantly police restaurant owners who illegally look the other way when customers light up. Nurses can remind the public that this legislation was the result of a voter-generated, rather than a politician-generated effort. It must be supported by the public to succeed.
One final criticism of the bill was that smokers will simply go across the border to smoke (Steinberg, 2007). However, proponents point out that, for smokers, there are other options, like patios, personal residences, and other places where they can smoke and not put hospitality workers' lives at risk. And once again, nurses can act as advocates, asking smokers to ask…… [Read More]
Minmum 750 words.
The tobacco industry is one of the most successful businesses in the contemporary society. This happens in spite of the fact that individuals who smoke are very well-acquainted with the risks coming along with smoking the substance. What is even more concerning is that smoking is often adopted by certain individuals as a result of the fact that they believe that they are fashionable because they smoke. Surely, freedom is one of the most important values that the social order benefits from and it would be absurd to deny someone the right to smoke as long as the respective individuals understands the risks and still wants to do it. However, considering that most people who start to smoke do it because they are searching for social acceptance or simply want to feel what it is like to smoke, it seems that the system needs to install more…… [Read More]
Public Health Achievements
hat factors accounted for the control of tobacco in the U.S. Currently, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about 42.1 million Americans smoke cigarettes, which is about 18.1% of all adults (18 or over). About 20.5% of men smoke cigarettes and 15.8% of women smoke cigarettes (Liss, 2013).
the information environment -- mass media and counter-advertising. There is no doubt that media campaigns have a positive impact when it comes to anti-smoking campaigns. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that the first year of the federal government's national advertising campaign called "Tips from Former Smokers" "exceeded expectations; an estimated 1.6 million cigarette smokers attempted to stop smoking. Of those, about 100,000 actually succeeded in quitting, and that information came from a study published by the medical journal, The Lancet. Moreover, the campaign run by the CDC reportedly "inspired millions of nonsmokers to encourage…… [Read More]
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website, the Healthy People 2020 Initiative was launched in 2010 in order to address a comprehensive assortment of health related issues concerning the American people and society (CDC, 2011). The initiative has four primary goals and objectives which includes; 1) attaining higher-quality and longer lives that are free from preventable diseases, disabilities, injuries and even premature death, 2) achieving equity in health, eliminating disparities, and improving the health of all groups of Americans, 3) creating social and physical environments that promote healthiness for all people, and 4) promoting quality of life along with health development and healthy behaviors throughout the stages of life. In all aspects of life, and certainly geared towards healthier American citizens, the idea and concept of becoming healthy by the year 2020 is a laudable exercise.
Tracking certain behaviors is generally accepted as one methodology in determining how effective (or ineffective)…… [Read More]
Toward an Effective olution
In principle, the most effective solution to the tremendous problem of cigarette smoking in the U.. would simply be to impose legislation banning the manufacture, sale, or consumption of cigarettes altogether. In fact, it is impossible to justify any logical distinction between the current illegal status of marijuana (at the federal level and in almost all of the individual states) and the fact that a slightly different cultivated vegetation that is empirically linked to almost half a million preventable premature deaths annually is still perfectly legal to market at great financial profits. However, from a practical perspective, the U.. already had experience during the Prohibition era of the 1920s with the difficulties of trying to ban alcohol. In addition to widespread violation by otherwise law-abiding citizens, that ban created such a tremendous opportunity for profit associated with the black market production and distribution of alcohol that…… [Read More]
Mass Media Influences
It has long been known that the media has a strong influence on the public, and when television and other media presents strong messages on any particular topic, like smoking for example, society is impacted. This paper presents quality references in order to cover important aspects of the media, the issues it promotes, its history, it tactics, and its impacts.
Technological Transitions and Digital Technologies Influence Society
Author Paul Boyer explains that through "mediated communicative processes" individuals help to shape society. In those communicative processes there are to be found "complex interactions of human agency, social institutions," along with the various media-driven communicative processes that are the foundations of society (Boyer, 2012). The media that people use -- including today's Internet, television, print media, and radio -- shape both "national political conversations" and a number of aspects of social relationships (Boyer, 213).
And since the…… [Read More]
"Perhaps less dramatic because of their ubiquitous presence and legal status, nicotine and alcohol are often consumed together for physiological and/or social reasons. Both drugs stimulate dopamine release, and work synergistically to increase dopamine levels" (Menke, 2009). Similarly, the concept of enjoying a drink and a cigarette makes some people think that they live in a permissive environment, this standing as proof that they live in a democrat society. Moreover, "the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA, 1 998) reports that between 80% and 95% of alcoholics smoke" (Menke, 2009). It is thus difficult to consider the outcome that the smoking ban has had on bars and restaurants without actually checking for convincing data. In spite of the fact that many bar and restaurant owners complained in regard to how their businesses were severely affected by the smoking ban, reality seems to be different. The smoking ban was…… [Read More]
life we are always faced with situations where the rights on one individual overlap those of another, causing a legal conflict that is often decided upon in the court of law. In many cases, these are private rights, but we are sometimes in a situation when the rights delimitation is imposed by the government, as is the case with the tobacco industry and smoking regulations and delimitations.
The problem with smoking in public places bares much resemblance in Canada, Europe or the United States. The right of smoking individuals to smoke in public places was gradually and constantly diminished to the degree that nowadays smoking in restaurants, offices or any closed locations. The movement against smoking in public places seems to have started in Canada in the early 1990s, when the City of Toronto emitted a series of by-laws, referred to as The Workplace Smoking y-law. This law "requires all…… [Read More]
cannot control the urge, then the employee might consider seeking outside professional help with the addiction. Since a person's car is private property, however, it is unlikely that any non-smoking ban would extend to that area. However, the smoker would need to take steps to ensure that their clothing and work supplies did no retain the odor of smoke. In essence, other than in the privacy of one's own car and home, thus any place that one could potentially harm someone else with smoke, is legally favoring the non-smoker (Grensing-Pophal, 1999).
Co-Workers Can Sue Over Excessive Perfume in the Workplace. (28 August 2009). Godlike
Productions. etrieved from: http://www.godlikeproductions.com/forum1/message869754/pg1
Indoor Air Quality in Hospitality Venues Before and After Implementation of a Clean Indoor Air
Law. (12 November 2004). Center for Disease Control -- MMW. etrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5344a3.htm
Negative Ions: More Scientific esearch. (2010). Comtech esearch. etrieved from:
Tobacco Facts,"…… [Read More]
Flandes-Stepans, M., Wilhelm, S.L., & Dolence, K. (2006). Smoking Hygiene: Reducing Infant Exposue to Tobacco. Biological eseach fo Nusing, 8(2), 104-114.
Consideing the title of the wok, one would believe that the poblem statement would explain ways to educe infant exposue; when in fact the aticle commences by explaining the lage monetay buden that smoking elated issues has bought about in the medical field. The aticle then begins to explain the coelation that exists between the smoking patten of the mothe and the level of exposue to Envionmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). Finally, it is explained that a stong coelation has been made between beastfeeding and educed ETS; howeve it is also stated that in fact a child is moe likely to have elevated levels & symptoms associated with ETS if the beastfeeding mothe is a smoke. It is also stated that thee is a distinct coelation between the smoking patten…… [Read More]
Not even 50 years ago, many people felt skeptical about the hazards of cigarette smoking. Although increasing numbers of studies showed that some connection existed between tobacco and lung and heart ailments, questions still remained about the true effects on health. In 1964, however, the United States Surgeon General Luther Terry confronted 200 media reporters in a State Department auditorium for two hours and completely changed the course of history. For the first time, the American government made it official: Smoking causes lung cancer. How much of an impact did this warning and other warnings to come by the Surgeon General and additional interested parties in the future alter the numbers of people smoking nationwide? The results are not too promising.
After the Surgeon General's first announcement, there was an immediate reaction. At this time, about 46% of people smoked in the U.S. When Americans heard the Surgeon…… [Read More]