1000+ documents containing “cancer”.
The medical name for cancer is malignant neoplasm. There are approximately forty different types of cancers, including a few varieties of leukemia and lymphoma. Cancer is a disease that has increased in frequencies in countries such as the United States of America during the latter part of the 20th century and into the 21st. In fact, according to statistics gathered by leading clinics in the U.S.A., cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S.A. This paper will describe some approaches to cancer treatment. Cancer treatment certainly includes treatments to fight the disease, but there are also treatments that support the person carrying the disease, as well as anyone who is close to the cancer patients and functions as part of the patient's support system in some way. The paper will offer some tips toward prevention of cancer, diagnosis of cancer, and describe the different stages of cancer.….
American Cancer Society. (2012) Cancer Basics. Available from: http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/CancerBasics/index . 2012 July 13.
Dugdale, III, MD, D.C, & Zieve, MD, D. (2010) Cancer. U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002267/ . 2012 July 10.
National Cancer Institute. (2012) Cancer Topics. Available from: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics . 2012 July 12.
KNOWING MORE AOUT CANCER
Approach to the Care of Cancer
The integrative approach to cancer treatment is the most widely used by cancer patients today as it is the most comprehensive (Nelson, 2011). It is the method used by integrative oncology, which combines complementary therapeutic approaches and conventional therapies. As a combination, the integrated approach covers natural and botanical products, nutrition, acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine and mind-body therapies. It fits together the best conventional therapies with the wide range of effective complementary modes. Its approach to personalized care in cancer treatment seeks out the unique and total requirements of every patient while targeting the tumor (Nelson).
A 2008 report said that 40% of adults and 12% of children with cancer in the U.S. use complementary medicine and spend $34 for it (Nelson, 2011). It said that cancer survivors are also more likely to use complementary therapies than the general population at 43%….
ABCT (2010). Coping with cancer. Fact Sheets. Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies. Retrieved on June 2, 2012 from http://www.abct.org/doc/Members/FactSheets/CopingWithCancerldoc
CWA (2012). Cancer diagnosis and staging. Lesson 3 Cancer 101. Cambodian Women's
Association. Retrieved on June 2, 2012 from http://www.ethnomed.org/patient-education/cancer.general-cancer/lesson-three.eng.ppt
Info (2012). Cancer complications. Info.com. Retrieved on June 2, 2012 from http://www.topics.info/Cancer-Complications_3416
Cancer Drug Development
Special health needs
Process (decision, steps) involved in program
Benefits of program
Cancer is amongst fatal diseases that involve abnormal growth of body cells resulting is unusual growth and division of cells. The result is tumor formation effecting one particular or many parts of the body. Since there is high probability of cancer cells invading the neighboring tissues of body parts, early detection and careful treatment of cancer is deemed absolutely necessary. The treatment is not only costly but involves multi-stage radiation treatments (Castro, 2001). More than 13% of human deaths world over are caused by cancer related diseases. Since the treatment of cancer diseases is costly throughout the world, new drug development also involves multi-million &D on cancer drugs. Series of rigorous tests are conducted in laboratories before cancer drugs are approved for being administered to patients. Drug development process involves preclinical and translational work. This white paper is….
Castro, J.B.D. (2001). Cancer: Cause, Care & Cure. B. Jain Publishers.
Elwyn, G., O'Connor, A., Stacey, D., Volk, R., Edwards, A., Coulter, A., ... & Whelan, T. (2006). Developing a quality criteria framework for patient decision aids: online international Delphi consensus process. Bmj, 333(7565), 417.
Helixor. (2013). Integrative Cancer Therapy. Retrieved from: [ http://www.helixor.com/site.php?mainkat=02&subkat=01&id=22 ]
McIllmurray, M.B., Thomas, C., Francis, B., Morris, S., Soothill, K., & AL-HAMAD, A. (2001). The psychosocial needs of cancer patients: findings from an observational study. European Journal of Cancer Care, 10(4), 261-269.
Under normal circumstances, cells deemed to be normal multiply when the human body needs them. When they are no longer needed, these cells die. However, for an individual with cancer, the growth as well as division of cells tends to be rather abnormal. The death of cancerous cells also differs from that of normal body cells. In this text, I concern myself with cancer. In so doing, I highlight the approach to the care of the disease while describing both its diagnosis and staging. Further, in addition to highlighting a number of complications occasioned by cancer and how they can be treated, I also describe the side effects of treatments. Lastly, with a special emphasis on the psychological/physiological side effects of care, I provide recommendations on the best approaches to handle the said side effects.
The Approach to Care of Cancer
In this section, I will largely limit myself to the palliative….
Cancer in the United States
Cancer is one of the most deadly diseases in the United States. The disease affects both men and women at almost equal rates. Although the treatment for cancer is extremely advanced and sophisticated, whether or not an individual survives cancer depends on various factors including how early the illness is detected. In addition, the survival rates of cancer are highly relevant to the region of the body or bodily system cancer that the cancer strikes. Individual health habits and family history also bear a relation to the incidences of cancer. This essay discusses the prevalence of cancer in the United States, its causes, its prevention, and details incidences of cancer including a personal account of cancer of how cancer affected my family.
Prevalence of Cancer
According to the American Cancer Society (ACS) there were 1,529,560 incidences of cancer in 2010. This number includes cancer in all bodily sites….
However, because healthy cells can repair damage more effectively, the cancerous cells in an area sustain more damage from the treatment. In order to help the healthy cells recover from the radiotherapy, after five days of treatment a patient will often have two days without the treatment.
Radiotherapy may be used as a curative treatment, by which the aim is to completely cure the cancer and destroy the tumor. When used as a curative treatment, the treatment may go on for an extended period of time, depending on the size and location of the tumor. As a palliative treatment, the aim is to relieve symptoms of the cancer. This is not usually done for an extended period of time, but rather done in one day or several days. As a neoadjuvant treatment, the aim of radiotherapy is to shrink a tumor, or help prevent it from spreading, in conjunction with….
Cancer Help UK. NHS Health Information. 2002. http://www.cancerhelp.org.uk/
McTaggart, Lynne. "Doctor's Handwriting - Alternative Treatments for Cancer." The Ecologist.
Monro, Jean A. "Treatment of Cancer with Mushroom Products." Archives of Environmental Health. August, 2003.
Quillin, Patrick. Beating Cancer with Nutrition. Nutrition Times Press, 2001.
, about 700,000 deaths per annum); Bone (Leukemia) (cancer of the blood or bone marrow and characterized by an abnormal proliferation of white blood cells); Lymphoma (Lymphatic) (cancer that begins in the lymphocytes of the immune system then presents as a solid tumor, many types, many treatments); Brain (Neuro/Nervous) (abnormal growth of cells within the brain, can be cancerous or non-cancerous, 50,000 U.S. cases per annum, 13,000 deaths per annum); Skin (basal/squamous cell carcinoma, or malignant melanoma) (malignant growth on skin in different levels and different sizes, at an early stage may be detectable and curable); any Endocrine (Pinial, Pituitary, Thyroid, Thymus, Adrenal, Pancreas (invasive cancer of the endocrine system, various types of cancer, dependent upon robustness);, and male prostate, testes or female uterous, ovaries) (cancerous growth on the ovary or testes, non-specific symptoms, earlier diagnosis results in higher survival rates) (Weinberg).
Typical Treatments -- Traditional Cancer treatments vary, dependent upon….
This type of prevention involves the complete removal of both breasts and all breast tissue. By having this operation individuals are able to completely eliminate the risk of having breast cancer. In most cases this procedure is only done on women who have many members of their family (mothers, grandmothers, aunts) that have been diagnosed or died from breast cancer. In such instances there is usually a genetic reason why members of the same family have acquired breast cancer or other types of cancer. It is actually a genetic defect in which the proto-oncogene mutates and becomes an oncogene. Basically the job of the proto-oncogene is to create the code for the protein that controls cell division. When the proto-oncogene is defective the protein can not be produced properly. Without the proper production of the protein cancers are more likely to develop.
The survival rates for cancer depend upon what….
Cancer Center egistries
The number of cancer deaths around the world has been calculated to be approximately four million each year with an overall incidence rate of 143 per 100,000 people per year. At both the national and community level, cancer registration schemes are essential to research into the nature and causation of cancer, to the preparation of health service resources and cancer control programs, and to the evaluation of their success. Cancer registration is therefore part of most modern health information systems (Jensen & Whelan, n.d.).
Cancer registration is often defined as the process of ongoing, organized compilation of data on the incidence and characteristics of reportable neoplasms with the idea of helping to evaluate and manage the impact of malignancies on the community. The cancer registry is the office which tries to gather, store, analyze and interpret data on persons with cancer. A hospital-based cancer registry reports all cases in….
Jensen, 0. M. & Whelan, S. (n.d.). Chapter 4. Planning a cancer registry. Retrieved from http://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdfs-online/epi/sp95/sp95-chap4.pdf
Mariani, M. (2003). You're a what? Cancer registrar. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/2003/fall/yawhat.htm
Young, J.L. (n.d.). Chapter 13. The hospital-based cancer registry. Retrieved from http://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdfs-online/epi/sp95/sp95-chap13.pdf
Cancer Registry Systems
A cancer registry is a gathering of all cancer related data from all relevant cancer patients. This data may include items such as demographics, medical histories, diagnostic findings, and follow up assessment information. The data provides health care experts with the means to develop, implement, assess and evaluate current and future treatments and therapies. The aims of this line of work is preventing and controlling cancer (National Cancer Registrars Association (NCRA), 2006). The registry represents a remarkable instrument that provides the necessary data to run statistical analysis regarding prevalence, success rates, morbidity and mortality rates for each type of cancer and is critical in aiding in research for etiology and prevention (German, et al., 2008).
The job duties of cancer registrar include to collecting, analyzing, maintaining, and organizing accurate and constant information on patients with any form of a cancerous conditions. The position also requires a high level of….
German, R., Wike, J., Wolf, H., Schymura, M., Roshala, W., Shen, T., & Schmidt, B. (2008). Quality of cancer registry data: Findings from CDC-NPCR's breast, colon, and prostate cancer data quality and patterns of care study. Journal of Registry Management, 67-74.
Mariani, M. (2004). You're a what? Cancer registrar. . Occupational Outlook Quarterly Online, 34-35.
National Cancer Registrars Association (NCRA). (2006). About NCRA. Alexandria, VA: NCRA.
These behaviors need to be taken more seriously in order to prevent further deaths.
3. Several different cancers affect women and men separately. The cancer most prevalent in women is breast cancer, which kills over 40,000 women in America each year, (National Cancer Institute, 2008). Breast cancer is followed by lung cancer and colorectal cancer, (Medicinenet.com, 2008). Men are most afflicted by prostate cancer, which is then followed also by lung and colorectal cancer. The most vicious and notorious cancers, which are responsible for the most amount of deaths in the United States are lung cancer and breast cancer. Together these two cancers are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths per year.
Medicinenet.com. "Leading Cancers in omen, Men, & Children." www.medicinenet.com.2008. Retrieved on 4 May, 2008 at http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25264
National Cancer Institute. "Cancer in omen." U.S. Institutes of Health.
A www.cancer.gov.2008. Retrieved 4 May, 2008 at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/womenscancers.
Medicinenet.com. "Leading Cancers in Women, Men, & Children." www.medicinenet.com.2008. Retrieved on 4 May, 2008 at http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25264
National Cancer Institute. "Cancer in Women." U.S. Institutes of Health.
A www.cancer.gov.2008. Retrieved 4 May, 2008 at
One of the ways cancer has changed Rollin's outlook on life is how she is "less worried about what people think of me, both professionally and socially." Her self-consciousness is gone because to worry about what other people think is so trivial compared with the reality of mortality. Rollins also claims, "I am less concerned about where my career is going." Her career is only a small part of who Rollins is. In fact, Rollins notes that if it were not for getting cancer she never would have had the courage to take a sabbatical to write a book. Cancer gave Rollins the courage to pursue creative pursuits and take great risks in life. Rollins also takes risks by spending money. She admits that she used to be cheap before she got sick and now, five years later, she has become willing to fly first class and splurge on things….
Common approaches to further exploring the anxiety experienced by adolescent daughters of cancer patients have commonly included qualitative measures. Spira and Kenemore (2004) small vignettes of actual interviews are presented as to give further insight to the anxious tendencies regarding changes in familial roles and the relationship with their mother. This approach has several cons, including the in-depth exposition of intimate fears regarding such changes and loses. It can also provide a clearer picture of the reoccurring fears regarding their own position with the disease for further analysis, (Spira & Kenemore, 2004). This can then provide structure for psychological constructs regarding treatment and grief counseling for such individuals.
However, there are also a few negative ramifications which are present within qualitative measures to study the true depth of the affect breast cancer has on patient's adolescent daughters. Qualitative studies can sometimes jeopardize the usability of the variables involved within the study.….
American Cancer Society. (2006). Breast Cancer Facts and Figures 2005-2006. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society.
Armistead, L., Klein, K., & Forehand, R. (1995). Parental physical illness and child functioning. Clinical Psychology Review, 15 (5), 409-422.
Baruch, G. (1981). Moral tales parents' stories of encounters with the health profession. Sociology of Health and Illness, 3 (3), 275-296.
Bryman, a. (1988). Quantity and quality in social research. Routledge, London.
4 months in the placebo group. (P=0.01) [Kyogo et.al] an earlier study by Nestle et.al (1998) had showed promising results. In that study, a small group of renal cancer patients were vaccinated with RNA-transfected dendritic cells. T cell response was noted in most of the treated patients and a follow up study conducted after 19 months showed that 7 out of 10 patients still survived. [Jian et.al, 2008] Other vaccines such as the 'Heat shock protein' (HSP) vaccine introduced in clinical trials have only showed mixed results and have not been responsive in all patients. Oncophage is one HSP that has been approved in Russia for renal cancer patients. [Kyogo et.al]
TREGS (a new outlook at Immunotherapy)
A relatively new and much less explored path in the immunotherapeutic research is the focus on the role of TREGS (regulatory T cells). All the techniques discussed above were concerned with boosting the host with….
1) Olivera J. Finn, 'Cancer Immunology', the New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 358:2704-2715, Available online at, http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/short/358/25/2704
2) Jian -- Quing Gao & Naoki Okada et.al, " Immune cell Recruitment and Cell-Based System for Cancer Therapy," Pharmaceutical Research 2008, April; 25(4): 752 -- 768
3) Kyogo Itoh & Akira Yamada et.al, "Recent Advances in Cancer Vaccines: An Overview," Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 2009 39(2):73-80;
4) Wu Xuesong & Lee, Vivian C. et.al, "Chemokine Receptors as Targets for Cancer Therapy," Current Pharmaceutical Design, Volume 15, Number 7, March 2009, pp. 742-757
This study attests that looking good makes oral cancer patients feel good about themselves. Cosmetic rehabilitation training should be part of oral nursing care. [Huang S, 2008]
2006 study by Millsopp et.al looked at facial disfigurement in oral and oropharyngeal cancer cases post surgery. The researchers specifically studied the type of support that was offered to patients who had reported distress pertaining to their appearance after their surgeries. Of the 278 patients who had undergone surgical treatment for oral and oropharyngeal cancer between 1995 and 1999 at the Liverpool University dental hospital, 114 patients had expressed distress about their appearance in the University of Washington Quality of Life Scale (UWQOL). However, when the researchers cross checked the clinical notes for these patients only 7 of them had any mention about appearance dissatisfaction and among them only 4 received cosmetic rehabilitation. (2 scar revisions and 2 oral rehabilitations). This research clearly….
Robert S, Livingston P, White V and Gibbs a, Jun 2003, 'External breast prosthesis use: experiences and views of women with breast cancer, breast care nurses, and prosthesis fitters. Cancer Nursing, 26(3): 179-86
Hill O & White K, Jan 2008, 'Exploring women's experiences of TRAM flap breast reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer.' Oncology Nursing forum 35(1): 81-8
LGFB, 'An Innovative Global Program Serving Cancer Patients Expands its Reach', Accessed Dec 3rd 2008, Available at, http://www.lookgoodfeelbetter.org/women/explore/more_stories/global_program.htm
Kobayashi M, Sugimoto T. et.al (Oct 2008), 'Association between self-esteem and depression among patients with head and neck cancer: a pilot study' Head & Neck 30(10):1303-9.
Cancer The medical name for cancer is malignant neoplasm. There are approximately forty different types of cancers, including a few varieties of leukemia and lymphoma. Cancer is a disease that…Read Full Paper ❯
Cancer Care KNOWING MORE AOUT CANCER Approach to the Care of Cancer The integrative approach to cancer treatment is the most widely used by cancer patients today as it is the most…Read Full Paper ❯
Cancer Drug Development Economic issues Special health needs Process (decision, steps) involved in program Benefits of program Cancer is amongst fatal diseases that involve abnormal growth of body cells resulting is unusual growth and…Read Full Paper ❯
Cancer Under normal circumstances, cells deemed to be normal multiply when the human body needs them. When they are no longer needed, these cells die. However, for an individual with…Read Full Paper ❯
Cancer in the United States Cancer is one of the most deadly diseases in the United States. The disease affects both men and women at almost equal rates. Although the…Read Full Paper ❯
However, because healthy cells can repair damage more effectively, the cancerous cells in an area sustain more damage from the treatment. In order to help the healthy cells…Read Full Paper ❯
, about 700,000 deaths per annum); Bone (Leukemia) (cancer of the blood or bone marrow and characterized by an abnormal proliferation of white blood cells); Lymphoma (Lymphatic) (cancer that…Read Full Paper ❯
This type of prevention involves the complete removal of both breasts and all breast tissue. By having this operation individuals are able to completely eliminate the risk of…Read Full Paper ❯
Cancer Center egistries The number of cancer deaths around the world has been calculated to be approximately four million each year with an overall incidence rate of 143 per 100,000…Read Full Paper ❯
Cancer Registry Systems A cancer registry is a gathering of all cancer related data from all relevant cancer patients. This data may include items such as demographics, medical histories, diagnostic…Read Full Paper ❯
These behaviors need to be taken more seriously in order to prevent further deaths. 3. Several different cancers affect women and men separately. The cancer most prevalent in women…Read Full Paper ❯
One of the ways cancer has changed Rollin's outlook on life is how she is "less worried about what people think of me, both professionally and socially." Her self-consciousness…Read Full Paper ❯
Common approaches to further exploring the anxiety experienced by adolescent daughters of cancer patients have commonly included qualitative measures. Spira and Kenemore (2004) small vignettes of actual interviews are…Read Full Paper ❯
4 months in the placebo group. (P=0.01) [Kyogo et.al] an earlier study by Nestle et.al (1998) had showed promising results. In that study, a small group of renal cancer…Read Full Paper ❯
This study attests that looking good makes oral cancer patients feel good about themselves. Cosmetic rehabilitation training should be part of oral nursing care. [Huang S, 2008] 2006 study…Read Full Paper ❯