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For Pollock, the expression of his style was directed by "some type of mysterious, psychic force which seemed to take control of his hands and feet" 12 which may explain why some people have viewed his paintings as being accidental in nature, meaning that Pollock applied the paint without any sense of pattern or structure. This view is patently wrong, for after studying any of Pollock's paintings, it becomes clear that he did indeed possess a "madness to his method" when painting. As .H. Friedman points out, "There is something of the mystical in Pollock's materials which motivates not only the painter but also the viewer. Perhaps it is the random fall and scatter of the paint which best express the sum of the work's overall artistic qualities." 13 number of Pollock's best works are not small in scale, for they are entire pieces of canvas stretching at times more…
Cernuschi, Claude. Jackson Pollock: Meaning and Significance. New York: Westview Press,
Friedman, B.H. Jackson Pollock: Energy Made Visible. New York: McGraw-Hill Book
Landau, Ellen. Jackson Pollock. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1998.
"When I am in my painting, I'm not aware of what I'm doing. It is only after a sort of "get acquainted" period that I see what I have been about. I have no fears about making changes, destroying the image, etc., because the painting has a life of its own. I try to let it come through." (Jackson Pollock)
Using this method he produced beautiful canvases with interlocking and interlaced colors which were completely abstract, such as Full Fathom Five and Lucifer which were both painted in 1947. There were developments and enhancements in his technique of painting and later he would create a style which was characterized by a crisscrossing of lines in black and whites and muted colors. An example of his later style is the painting Ocean Grayness (1953.
The renowned critic of modernism and art Herbert Read, stated that the originality of Pollock's work could…
Chipp, H.B. Theories of Modern Art. University of California Press. London. 1968.
Jackson Pollock. February 25, 2005. http://www.constable.net/arthistory/glo-pollock.html
Jackson Pollock: Abstract Expressionist. February 24, 2005. http://www.jasonvoos.com/jpol.html
Jackson Pollack.1912-1956. February 24, 2005 http://www.connect.net/ron/pollack.html
Jackson Pollock observed, "The modern painter cannot express his age, the airplane, the atom bomb, the radio, in the old forms of the Renaissance or any other past culture. Each age finds its own technique." Choose three works of mid-twentieth century art that illustrate this idea and discuss them in detail. How does the technique of these particular works help convey the reality of the modern world?
Jackson Pollock was indeed correct when he expressed such a notion. The experiences, thoughts and ideas of the modern painter simply cannot be captured via the old forms of the Renaissance or some other antiquated culture or generation. Each generation does in fact find its own technique because its absolutely necessary to do so. There is no other way possible. One can examine three arbitrary works from nearly any decade and find this to be remarkably true, particularly perhaps in the mid-twentieth century…
Convergence" by Jackson Pollock -- Jack the Dripper's masterpiece of technique and meaning
Although abstract impressionism often causes viewers to sneer that they too could do 'that,' in other words, abstractly scatter paint on a canvas, the deliberation of design and the ideas behind the 1952 work of "Convergence" by the mature Jackson Pollock suggests otherwise. hen one gazes at the massive canvas, something beyond mere painterly splattering is clearly 'going on' because of the artist's use of his considerable technical skills and his ideological agenda in creating this masterpiece of abstract expressionism.
First of all, the technical deliberation of the work is reflected in its title -- "Convergence." The chaos of the color deliberately fails to come together in a kind of overwhelming busyness, in a way that creates a sense of 'modern life' to the viewer's eye. Everything in the color splattering is chaotic and disconnected. Lines and…
briefing " Should U.S. support European unification? "Dwight D. Elsenhower 1957
Since Jackson Pollock painted in a number of different styles and genres during his lifetime, it is with some difficulty that one can identify his aims and goals. During his career which began in earnest during the 1930's and spanned until his death in the 1960's, Pollock produced works that were indicative of cubism, surrealism, and abstract expressionism. However, it was his innovations in the Abstract Expressionist mode of paintings that enabled him to garner the most fame, and for which his name and works are still acclaimed today. As such, it would be accurate to state that the overall significance of Pollock's work lies in the fact that he was able to use them to express -- in approaches that were novel at the time -- virtually everything about a painter, including his conscious and unconscious…
Legacy of Jackson Pollock
The artist Jackson Pollock was renowned for using non-traditional methods to create very untraditional pieces of art. At the time that he was working and up to the modern historical moment, many people look at a piece by Pollock and do not see it as art. Instead, they may likely proclaim that it is just lines or random colors on a canvas and thus does not have the intrinsic meaning of more traditional pieces of artwork. Either one understood modern art and accepted it as a new and innovative type of art, or one was likely to deride anything in modernity as just a mess on canvas or whatever medium the artist chose to work in. Despite this perspective, Pollock and artist like him began a whole new artistic movement which is known as modernism. hat is considered to be modern art has been the source…
Clark, T.J. "Clement Greenberg's Theory of Art." Critical Inquiry. 9. No. 1. (1982): 139-156.
Jachec, Nancy. "Modernism, Enlightenment Values, and Clement Greenberg." Oxford Art
Journal. 21. no. 2 (1998): 123-132.
Kaprow, Allan. "The Effect of Recent Art Upon the Teaching of Art." Art Journal. 23. No. 2.
On the work 'Convergence' by Jackson Pollock, the viewer can see that, in spite of the total abstract nature of the picture the artist displays the mastering of the technique and training necessary to create a painting. Pollock used contrasting colors to create optic vibrancy. This composition is made only of the three main colors of the spectrum and the use of black and white lines that create depth and space effect to the entire composition. The free lines that spread all over the support construct a texture of visual noise that leads the eye to the key points of the painting, the colored highlights and dark corners. The colored lines merging in every direction invite the viewer to search, in the apparent anarchy of the composition, a hidden drawing carrying the message that the artist wants to deliver.
Jackson Pollock. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from: Albright-Knox Art Gallery…
Jackson Pollock. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from: Albright-Knox Art Gallery Web Site: http://www.albrightknox.org/ArtStart/lPollock.html
2003). Jackson Pollock 1912-1956. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from: The American Museum of Beat Art Web site: http://www.beatmuseum.org/pollock/jacksonpollock.html
Realist Painting Style and Realism
The Realist style owes its existence to the Realist concept. "Realism is democracy in art," Courbet believed. (Nochlin, xiii) Taking that as the credo upon which the works of the artists were constructed, the style itself can be nothing if not anti-academic, anti-historical, anti-conservative. Indeed, whether brushstrokes or pen markings or etching into stone or metal form the image, the underlying attitude is one of freedom, attention to the gross characteristics of form, dismissal of mere decoration for its own sake, and obvious celebration of anything. The self-consciousness of the finely chosen brushstroke or marking is gone, in favor of a brushstroke or marking that favors expression of the interplay between what is seen and the seer. Gone is any demand from outside the artist to make things appear lovelier, grander, more stately than they perhaps really are. It is, in short, art with the…
Crook, Malcolm "French elections, 1789-1848." History Today, 1 March 1993.
Daumier, Honore. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 10 January 2004.
Dolan, Therese. Honore Daumier. (Review) The Art Bulletin. 1 March 1998.
Dorozynski, Alexander. "Audacity: 200 years of French innovation 1789-1989. (AMERICAN HERITAGE Magazine Special Report), Forbes, 24 July 1989.
The argument that I have been making is a twofold one. The first branch of this argument is that Pop Art, while it incorporates ordinary images and commercial motifs and tropes just as does commercial design, it does so in different ways and for different reasons than does purely commercial work. It is because the motivations of the Pop Artist (and I suppose we might say of the art objects themselves) are so different from the motivations of commercial designers that Pop Art must qualify as art. Rather than simply giving his audiences pretty pictures, arhol made them work to understand his creations -- and this seems to me to be a pretty good definition of what art is and what the artist does. And once this condition is met, it really does not matter how much (if any) money the artist makes from the work.
Yes, arhol ended up…
Davies, Stephen. The Philosophy of Art. New York: Wiley-Black, 2006.
Madoff, Stephen Henry. Pop Art: A Critical History. Berkeley: U. Of California Press, 1997.
Sandler, Irving. Abstract Expressionism and the American Experience: A Reevaluation. New York: Hudson Hills Press, 2009.
Warhol, Andy. Andy Warhol: Art from Art. Berlin: Schellmann, 1994.
Coplans, John. Andy Warhol. England: The Curwen press, 1989
Kinsman, Jane, "Soup can mania." Artonview, no. 49 (2007): 38-9.
Ratcliff, Carter. Andy Warhol. New York: Abbeville Press, 1983.
Revy, Louisiana. Andy Warhol and his world: Nykredit, 2000
Image 1 :
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Image 3 :
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Bauer, Claudia. Andy Warhol. Nw York: Prestel, 2004.
Coplans, John. Andy Warhol. England: The Curwen press, 1989
Kinsman, Jane, "Soup can mania." Artonview, no. 49 (2007): 38-9.
They experimented, they felt the need to invent, to innovate, to improvise and to foster new ways of expressions, new means, in order for them to go forward and to have something new and significant to say in art. They had to break with the conventions of the traditional art in order to do that.
y the mid twentieth century, New York became the center of the art world, as it managed to gather some of the most significant names in modern art at the time. The 9th Street Show from 1952 in New York, simply put New York on the map by gathering numerous names of the contemporary artists on both sides of the Atlantic, with a special accent on abstract expressionism. Thus, the paintings of artists like Clyfford Still, Willem de Kooning, Mark Rothko and Robert Motherwell, started to speak to the rest of the world at a…
By the mid twentieth century, New York became the center of the art world, as it managed to gather some of the most significant names in modern art at the time. The 9th Street Show from 1952 in New York, simply put New York on the map by gathering numerous names of the contemporary artists on both sides of the Atlantic, with a special accent on abstract expressionism. Thus, the paintings of artists like Clyfford Still, Willem de Kooning, Mark Rothko and Robert Motherwell, started to speak to the rest of the world at a scale comparable to the scale of their art works. They certainly made an impact, although most of the world did not know what to make out of them at first.
Another major name in the abstract expressionist movement is that of Arschile Gorky. His biography, like that of the rest of the American abstract expressionists at the middle of the twentieth century, became intrinsically related to his body of work. First, he experimented with mastering the more conventional art movement styles, such as expressionism and cubism, then he went on to a style that became entirely of his own.
Although the paintings of the abstract expressionists are unique as their individualities and life experiences were unique, they share one feature they break with conventions, adopting completely new ways of expression while admitting the
As they became confident in their new style, however, the artists followed a timeline to maturity. Part of that maturity included the method of painting, or gesture. Unlike classical artists, the abstract expressionists dripped paint on canvases, used nontraditional tools or no tools at all, and insisted that the finished product was an expression of the artist, or the artist's signature. The result of this type of painting was both original and striking. Another aspect of the movement's mature style included an understanding of the "expressive potential of color," using color to achieve the "sublime" and move out of the accepted understanding of memory and experience (Paul 2008).
Thus, Abstract expressionism combined feeling and emotion, unusual technique, and expressive colors with an abstract mode to make a lasting impression on the United States' art culture.
Paul, Stella. (2008). Abstract Expressionism. etrieved August 9, 2008, from the
Metropolitan Museum of…
Paul, Stella. (2008). Abstract Expressionism. Retrieved August 9, 2008, from the
Metropolitan Museum of Art Web Site: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/abex/hd_abex.htm
Adams, Henry. om and Jack: he Intertwined Lives of homas Hart Benton and Jackson Pollock. New York, NY: Bloomsbury Press, 2009. Print.
Jackson Pollock and homas Hart Benton both shared a love of art as well as an intense friendship that not only challenged but also changed American art. his book focuses on the portrait of such a friendship through displaying both the styles of the artists. In terms of relationship, Pollock studied under Benton as a student. In fact, Adams explains Pollock's only formal training came from Benton, thus becoming a sort of surrogate father to Pollock. Adam also covers some of the more odd facets of their lives such as Pollock's romantic love for Benton's wife. From there, Pollock branches away from Benton and achieves success as an artist. he personal drama Adams unfolds along with vivid description of the artwork allows for great insight into the lives…
This book covers the life and story of artist, Thomas Hart Benton. It begins with description of his birth. Benton was born at the end of the 19th century in Missouri. The books goes on to explain Benton becoming the first artists to be featured on the cover of the famous magazine, Time as well as paying homage to him as the true original. The book explains of Benton's time in NY and even his time with Jackson Pollock.
Xroads.virginia.edu,. 'Thomas Hart Benton - Biography'. N.p., 2015. Web. 8 Mar. 2015.
This is a website featuring a quick and short biography on the artist, Thomas Hart Benton. The webpage mentions Hart gained fame in major cities such as Paris, Chicago, and New York. It states Benton, born in rural Neosho, Missouri, would go on to depict rural life subject matter such as Ku Klux Klan members, oppressed farmers, and big business, that all played negative parts in society at the time. The webpage also mentioned Benton's meeting with a fellow artist, Diego Rivera.
Mull over the relationship between art and popular culture since 1950. Focus your discussion on 3 or 4 artists.
The world of art has seen two distinct trends in recent decades since the mid-20th century. On one hand, high art has become less central to most people's lives. Other, more visceral forms of popular media have claimed the attention of the public in the incarnations of photography, film, and television. There is no longer a reliance upon visual representations such as sketching and painting to commemorate historical and personal occasions. But as a result of this divide between popular and high culture and the increasing significance of pop culture, high art has begun to adopt many themes and even the visual style of many popular works to justify its existence. As pop culture becomes part of every person's framework of reference, the elements of pop art have been co-opted and…
"Andy Warhol." The Art Story. Web. 17 Dec 2014.
"Barbara Kruger." The Art History Archive. Web. 17 Dec 2014.
Busche, Ernst A. "Roy Lichtenstein." Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, 2009.
"Jackson Pollock: Early photos of the action painter at work." Time. Web. 17 Dec 2014.
New York Art
New York's Post II Art Scene
After orld ar II, so many parts of Europe were in ruin. Economies were shattered, new governments worked to gain mandates for their authority and the people of Europe's countless and once rich cultural centers struggled to establish new identities. And following more than a decade of fascism, genocide and territorial war, many of the intellectually and culturally elite talents had departed the content for a context more hospitable to freedom and creativity. Relative to what they found in the spread of fascism, the United States would prove itself not just as the newly dominant military and commercial power in the world but also art center of the world. ith devastation persistent throughout the great cities of Europe, New York emerged as the capital of the modern art world and so many of the innovations that would extend there from in…
Dayton Art Institute (DAI). (2010). Post World War II. Daytonartinstitute.org.
Rothko, M. (1944). Slow Swirl at the Edge of the Sea. Museum of Modern Art.
Vogel, C. (2006). A Pollock is Sold, Possibly for a Record Price. The New York Times.
Later, perhaps inevitably as a consequence of his fascination with cinema, arhol began to make films and to engage in non-static works of performance-based art ("Andy arhol," PBS: American Masters, 2006).
In such art of the 1950s the way in which the art was perceived was as equally important as the image of the art. Disposable and even trashy images and products could be, with the use of irony and a performance space that put the works in 'quotations,' turned into artistic works, to make a statement about American popular culture. Not all Pop Art 'happenings' were inspired by cinema, however. For example, Claus Oldenberg 1961 created a plastic 'store' of manufactured goods, like pies, that reminded him of his childhood general store: "Unlike the slick, mechanical appearance of some pop art, they [the pies] are splotchy and tactile. Oldenburg's manipulation of scale and material unsettle our expectations about the…
Andy Warhol." PBS: American Masters. 20 Sept 2006. 25 Mar 2008. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/database/warhol_a.html
Teaching Art Since 1950." National Gallery of Art. 199. 25 Mar 2008. http://www.nga.gov/education/classroom/pdf/artsince1950.pdf
Un Chien Andalou." Salvador Dali and Louis Bunuel. 1929.
Varendoe, Kirk. Online NewsHour: Jackson Pollock. 11 Jan 1999. 25 Mar 2008. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/entertainment/jan-june99/pollock_1-11.html
Art History: Post ar
The global impact of the Second orld ar II on the society, politics, culture and technology was reflected how art produced after 1945 was changing in appearance and feeling. The rapid significant changes were a reflection of the intense and sometimes radical responses made by artists. Artists' works during this period responded to or questioned the nature personal and national identity, gender/race issues, the emergence and growth of media and/or mass culture. orks of art also responded to the existing definitions of art and its relationship to the environment. In the aftermath of the Second orld ar, the core of estern Art shifted from Europe to the United States and resulted in the use of new materials and techniques. Post war social, political, economic and cultural needs contributed to changes in strategies used by artists, art production, and how artists express themselves.
Aesthetic Strategies used by…
Alberro, Alexander, and Blake Stimson. Conceptual Art: A Critical Anthology. Boston, MA: MIT, 1999. Print.
Ciment, James. Postwar America: An Encyclopedia of Social, Political, Cultural, and Economic History. Vol. 14. New York: Routledge, 2015. Print.
Davies, Stephen, Kathleen M. Higgins, Robert Hopkins, Robert Stecker, and David E. Cooper. A Companion to Aesthetics. 2nd ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2009. Print.
Day, Michael, and Al Hurwitz. Children and Their Art: Art Education for Elementary and Middle Schools. 9th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.
The concept of color value may be better illustrated by impressionist artists like Renoir. In "The Skiff," Renoir depicts a boat on a placid pond using different shades, or values, of blue:
Capitalizing on color value in this case adds considerable depth and nuance to the painting, as well as texture.
Texture: Texture is most obvious in three-dimensional and especially in multimedia artwork. Sculptor Giacometti molded metal, preserving its naturally bumpy texture as in the following depiction of a man walking:
One of the distinguishing features of Giacometti's work is his use of texture. Instead of smoothing the metal to create a more realistic sculpture, the artist lets the texture become an essential defining element of the artwork. Multimedia artist Louise Nevelson sometimes carved niches into wood, thereby achieving the same type of textural experience:
In fact, the Nevelson piece also illustrates the visual function of Pattern.…
Here, the discus thrower is using the space around his body. The sense of motion is palpable, even though the image is wholly static it seems as if the discus thrower is moving through space. In two-dimensional art, space is created using visual illusions. The following panel of Hieronymous Bosch's "Garden of Earthly Delights" depicts some figures in the foreground and some in the background extending toward the horizon:
The result is the sense of depth and space, which are not actually present on the canvas.
Yet art history continues to privilege prodigious output and monumental scale or conception over the selective and the intimate.
In the two sculptures discussed here, Bourgeois and Nevelson prove that they are equal to the task provided by the male-dominated realm of art history. In doing so, they have created two of the more innovative and confrontational works of feminist art of the 20th century.
The spider is a recurring motif in the work of Bourgeois. The spider installed at the National Gallery in ashington is one of many that she has made in her career. Bourgeois uses the spider to represent the figure of the mother - a person she loves dearly, but also has mixed feelings about. Unlike Bourgeois's sculpture, which can be viewed from any angle, Sky Cathedral is more like a painting, in that it is intended to be viewed from the front only.
Chadwick, Whitney. 2002. Women, Art, and Society. London: Thames & Hudson.
Showalter, Elaine. 2007. Lumps, Bumps, Bulbs, Bubbles, Bulges, Slits, Turds, Coils, Craters,
Wrinkles and Holes. Tate Etc. 11.
"Hopefully, I am evolving as an artist and a designer, and Digital Kitchen seems to be a place that [offers me the best] chance at getting to the next level" (Remson, 2002, p. 6).
There are always "next levels" for Carson. Looking at his design for the book the Architecture of Patterns, at first the eye sees the + signs and interprets them as crosses in a cemetery. A closer look and maybe they are just "X's" turned on their sides. Small, smaller, with a few very large + positioned on the cover. The book title is blurred and interrupted by the +'s. Carson's design for Quicksilver and Pukas Surfboards is rowdy; a surfboard shape is permeated with circles and a macrame-like swirl connecting to what could be a bow. it's bizarre, but it's pure Carson. The Bark catalog design uses fonts creatively, a patented Carson approach. "Born on the…
Adweek. "End of Print?" 44.42, (1994): p. 32.
Blackwell, Lewis, and Carson, David. The End of Print: The Grafik Design of David Carson.
San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2000.
Carson, David. "click: dcd work, bio, clients." Retrieved Nov. 17, 2010, from http://www.davidcarsondesign.com/?dcdc=top/t .
Pissarro took a special interest in his attempts at painting, emphasizing that he should 'look for the nature that suits your temperament', and in 1876 Gauguin had a landscape in the style of Pissarro accepted at the Salon. In the meantime Pissarro had introduced him to Cezanne, for whose works he conceived a great respect-so much so that the older man began to fear that he would steal his 'sensations'. All three worked together for some time at Pontoise, where Pissarro and Gauguin drew pencil sketches of each other (Cabinet des Dessins, Louvre).
Gauguin settled for a while in ouen, painting every day after the bank he worked at closed.
Ultimately, he returned to Paris, painting in Pont-Aven, a well-known resort for artists.
Le Christ Jaune (the Yellow Christ) (Pioch, 2002) Still Life with Three Puppies 1888 (Pioch, 2002)
In "Sunny side down; Van Gogh and Gauguin," Martin…
Bailey, Martin. (2008). Dating the raindrops: Martin Bailey reviews the final volumes in the catalogues of the two most important collections of Van Gogh's drawings. Apollo Magazine Ltd. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Martin. (2005) "Van Gogh the fakes debate. Apollo Magazine Ltd. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-127058183.html . Bell, Judith. (1998). Vincent treasure trove; the van Gogh Museum's van Goghs. Vincent van Gogh's works from the original collection of his brother Theo. World and I. News World Communications, Inc. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
In this reading, Dobyns' "Counterparts" is his statement of personal philosophy that argues the only way to reach the Apollonian ideals is to work with, and embrace, the Dionysian and thus create a whole, or a yin-yang. This practice of using the Dionysian in order to achieve the Apollonian is a common strategy used in Dobyns' poetry.
Likewise, poet Frank O'Hara also uses Apollonian themes in the majority of his works. Like Dobyns, Frank O'Hara is also an American poet. He is best known as being a key member of the New York School of poetry.
O'Hara is known for his ability to write provocative and provoking poetry that was composed immediately, sometime even over the time frame of a lunch break. Thus, both high and low brow cultural references are common in O'Hara's work, as they are in Dobyns'.
O'Hara was good friends and deeply inspired by numerous leading…
When geniuses are alive they make people uncomfortable in the ways that they challenge accepted artistic and intellectual concepts. People reject geniuses, and prefer more mainstream representations of art and literature in popular culture. But true geniuses still manage to affect the culture they live in, even if they do not gain fame and fortune. And after they die, people finally show respect to geniuses, and acknowledge their influence in culture and their ability to honestly tell the stories of people's daily lives. This has always been the case. Bach was an obscure church organist who is now one of the most famous composers who ever lived and Mozart was unappreciated and died in a pauper's grave. Jackson Pollock's Abstract Impressionism is reflected in advertising today, but its nonrepresentational style frightened people in his day, and even popular great artists like Picasso and Shakespeare were not fully appreciated, or at…
Berkshire Hathaway is one of the most interesting cases of successful investments. Under the inspirational leadership of Warren Buffett, the company's evolution is a great object of study for both scholars and investors. This paper aims at pointing out the key points in Berkshire's history, Buffett's influence, how the company's structure was built, what is its current financial status and whether an investor should consider buying its stock.
In a 1999 article from Business Week, Warren Buffett, the force behind the Berkshire Hathaway Business, was described as follows: "If Buffett had a business card, it would identify him as chairman and chief executive of Berkshire Hathaway Inc. But he is far better known -- indeed, world-famous -- as the greatest stock market investor of modern times. The figures, though often cited, still astound: Had you put $10,000 into Berkshire when Buffett bought control of it in 1965, you'd have $51…
1.Mergent online financial information service www.mergent.com
2. Gale online financial information service www.hoovers.com
3. Bianco, Anthony, "Warren the Buffett You Don'tknow; Ace stockpicker, of course -- and now, an empire-builder" Business Week. New York: July 5, 1999., Iss. 3636; pg. 54
4. Berkshire Hathaway's history -- part 1 and 2
Westerns soon developed into a staple of TV land. The independence and strength of the characters epitomized the ideals that made America so unique. Families sat down with their TV dinners to watch such shows as " Gunsmoke," the Lone Ranger," the Rifleman," Have Gun, Will Travel," and " Maverick." You were not anybody unless you could sing the theme songs of each show.
Moviegoers were also being drawn into the theaters by the monster/science-fiction movies. About 500 film features and shorts were produced under this broad theme in the 1950s and early 1960s, explains the 50s B-Movie website. ne might argue convincingly that never in the history of motion pictures has any other genre developed and multiplied so rapidly in so brief a period. As Paul Michael comments, "n a sheer statistical basis, the number of fantasy and horror films of the 1950s... has not been equaled in any…
Our American Century: The American Dream, the 1950s.. Editors of Time Life. Richmond-Virginia, Time Life, 1997.
Ross, Kelly. Existentialism. 2003. Retrieved from website April 19, 2005. http://www.friesian.com/existent.htm
Western Movie Encyclopedia. Western Movie. Retrieved from website April 18, 2005. http://www.localcolorart.com/search/encyclopedia/Western_movie
Art and Architecture
Architecture and Art
In a recent visit to Chicago, I observed the Chicago Picasso which was a gift to the city by the famed artist Pablo Picasso. Located in the downtown Chicago loop, the monument stands 58 feet tall, weighs 162 tons and is constructed of Cor-Ten (corrosive tensile) steel. Pablo Picasso gave this massive work of art to the city of Chicago, even though he'd never been to the city, and never went during his lifetime. The unpaid work was based on a 42-inch-tall version Pablo crafted. It was later executed by U.S. Steel Corporation ("Chicago Sculptures," 2011).
It is reported that Pablo Picasso never named his creation nor gave an explanation as to what it represents. The 3-D piece of art looks different from every angle. People have stated that it resembles a baboon; mainly because of the close-set eyes and flaring nostrils. Also, the…
Chicago Sculptures. (2011). Professional Safety, 56(4), 64.
Cunningham, B. (2011, June 5). City in Bloom. New York Times. p. 4.
The Warhol Bubble. (2012). Wilson Quarterly, 36(1), 72-73.
Windy City Windfall. (1966). Time, 88(13), 83.
Modernism in art triumphed from the 19th century onward and in the early 20th century virtually changed the way art came to be perceived. From the Abstractionists to the Cubists to the Surrealists to the followers of Dada, the modernists continually reinvented themselves with newer and wilder movements, firmly rejecting tradition and all its preoccupations. It was only fitting, however, that modern artists should break so completely with the past: modern society had split from the old world with the Protestant Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, the Scientific Revolution, and the Romantic Era, all of which followed one on the heels of the other. This paper will trace the history of the final era -- the modernist -- by examining five works of five different painters of the modernist era: Franz Marc's "Fate of the Animals," Pablo Picasso's "Guitar and Violin," Marcel Duchamp's "found" artwork "Fountain," Salvador Dali's Surrealist masterpiece…
Dali, Salvador. "The Persistence of Memory." Wikipaintings. Web. 14 Feb 2013.
Duchamp, Marcel. "Fountain." Tate.org.uk. Web. 14 Feb 2013.
Greenberg, Clement. "Avant-Garde and Kitsch." Art and Culture. MA: Beacon Press,
Marshall Executive Brief #3 Trade Policy Greece and France
This brief will discuss critical issues of trade policy, including global trade, global currency exchange, business strategy and operations, R&D, human resources, accounting and finance.
Global Trade and Currency Exchange
Free trade is a system where the governments of two countries do not discriminate between the imports and exports of the other country. In particular, free trade in the modern sense applies to tariffs and other trade barriers, or the non-existence thereof. Ricardo described free trade in terms of absolute and comparative advantage. Usually, this concept is described using a simplistic, fictional world in which there are two countries and maybe only two goods. In this example, countries should produce the good in which they have comparative advantage, and in doing so the two countries combined with have a higher aggregate output than if only the country with absolute…
2012 General Mills Annual Report. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9MTQ5MTc4fENoaWxkSUQ9LTF8VHlwZT0z&t=1
EC. (2013). What is the common customs tariff? European Commission. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/customs/customs_duties/tariff_aspects/
Formiani, R. (2004). David Ricardo: Theory of free international trade. Economic Insights. Retrieve April 18, 2013 from http://www.dallasfed.org/assets/documents/research/ei/ei0402.pdf
Vincent Van Gogh, Frank Lloyd right and Madeleine Vionnet. hat did this 19th century artist, architect, and fashion designer share in common? Very simply: They all incorporated Japanese techniques into their works of genius. hen Commodore Perry opened the doors to this Eastern country in 1853, an abundance of unique and influential styles of art rushed out and captured the imaginations of artists throughout the estern world. As author Emile Zola once said,
It is certain that our students painting with black bitumen, were surprised and enhanced by these horizons, these beautiful vibrating spots of the Japanese painters in watercolours. There was a simplicity of means and an intensity of effect which struck our young artists and then influenced them with a painting filled with air and light
This flow of Japanese artistic riches and influence continues to this day. Ask any graphic designers including those at alt Disney Company…
Coburn, F.W. "Mr. Benson's Birds," The Boston Herald, November 16, 1913, 28.
Encyclopedia of Visual Art. Grolier Educational Corp., 1984 printing. Danbury, CT: 1983.
Gardiner, Debbi. Japan, Inc., January 2003. Anime in America. http://www.japaninc.net/article.php?articleID=972.Visited 8/03/03.
Japan Economic Society, November/December 2002. Impact of the Kimono on Modern Fashion. http://www.jef.or.jp/en/jti/200211_016.html . Visited 8/04/03.
Peter Voulkos, a clay sculpturist who died in 2002, was important because he brought clay forward as an artistic medium in its own right. Until Voulkos demonstrated the art of clay, people tended to think of "pottery" as either functional ware, a craft, or a tool for "real" artists such as bronze sculptors. The movement he started came to be known as the American "clay revolution." (Chattopadhyay, 2001)
orn in ozeman, Montana on January 29, 1924, Peter Voulkos earned a achelor of Science in Applied Art in 1951 from Montana State College, and a Master of Fine Arts in 1952 from the California College of Arts and Crafts (Voulkos & Co., 2003)
After a stint at the Los Angeles Country Art Institute, where he chaired the ceramics department, he accepts a teaching position at the University of California, erkley, which he kept until his retirement in 1985 (Chattopadhyay, 2001). During…
Balistreri, John. 2002. "Peter Voulkos - An Affirmation of Art and Life." Ceramics Art & Perception, May.
Chattopadhyay, Collette. 2001. "Peter Voulkos: Clay, Space, and Time." Sculpture 20:2, March.
Slivka, Rose. 1999. "The Dynamics of Destruction - clay works of Peter Voulkos." Art in America, Jan.
Voulkos & Co. 2003. "Voulkos in Black & White." Last updated Nov. 1, 2003. Accessed via the Internet 7/17/04. http://www.voulkos.com/core.html
Portraits: Talking ith Artists at the Met, The Modern, The Louvre, And Elsewhere
Attempting to put art into words can be like trying to put that proverbial lightning in a bottle: art often seems to defy description, much as art critics attempt to do so. Even artists themselves often struggle with articulating the concepts behind their works. Various attempts over the years have been made to make art, particularly abstract modern art more intelligible, including trying to film the artist Jackson Pollock painting one of his famous 'drip' paintings from below the surface of a piece of glass. In the book Portraits: Talking with Artists at the Met, the Modern, the Louvre, and Elsewhere, the New York Times art critic Michael Kimmelman adopts a different technique and actually asks prominent modern artists to talk about art in front of paintings and photographs at various museums. Not only does he ask…
Kimmelman, Michael. Talking With Artists at the Met, the Modern, the Louvre and Elsewhere.
New York: Random House, 1998.
Attn: Adrian Johnson
Letter to the Editor
In response to the recent article, eview of Abstract Expressionism, about the failures of Abstract Expressionism, it is important to remember the how American art during the 1930s embodied democratic values. In the 1930s, America was experiencing a depression that is commonly known as the Great Depression. This period was characterized by significant economic difficulties and collapse that culminated in a war. While the country was renowned as a land of opportunity and hope during this period, the Great Depression changed people's perception regarding the United States since it became a nation of despair and depression. Given the underlying economic situation in this period, artwork and the field of art in general was seemingly irrelevant as many artists were experiencing tremendous economic challenges and remained unemployed (Hittner, n.d.).
However, the series of social liberal recovery programs initiated…
Fisher, K. (n.d.). Expressing the Age: How the Painting of Jackson Pollock Displayed the Political Culture of Abstract Expressionism. Retrieved December 19, 2016, from https://philologiavt.org/philologia/article/view/113/79
Griffey, R. (2014, September). Thomas Hart Benton's America Today Mural. Retrieved December 19, 2016, from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/bent/hd_bent.htm
Hittner, A.D. (n.d.). Art of the Thirties. Retrieved December 19, 2016, from http://www.antiquesandfineart.com/articles/article.cfm?request=966
Pollack and othko
The 1930s art world enjoyed several different creative styles. The Social ealists painted works that normally depicted a social message and, with Edward Hopper, even oppression. The egionalists also felt a need to show the trials of daily life. However, others began to see things in greater abstraction. Hans Hoffman was interested in expressive abstract art, and the American Abstract Artists favored a more mathematical perspective1. By the 1940s, the younger artists wanted to break away from earlier methods and pursue a method to show reality in a more unpredictable and immediate fashion. Jackson Pollack and Mark othko exemplified this new style. As othko said in a letter to the editor of the New York Times in 1943: "We are for flat forms becaue they destroy illusions and reveal truth."
This new artwork technique sprang from a non-realist language, searching for "power of color, internal luminosity and…
Anfam, David. Abstract Expressionism (World of Art). New York: Thames & Hudson, 1990
Baigell, Matthew. Story of American Painting. New York: Praeger, 1971.
Craven, David. Abstract Expressionism as Critical Critique. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Diehl, Gaston. The Moderns. New York: Crown, 1970.
1. Executive summary
While the extraction of natural gas by means of hydraulic fracturing is a decade- long practice, of late, it has witnessed immense development owing to advancements in the area of horizontal drilling which enables gas and oil operators to now harness earlier- unprofitable natural gas reserves within rock formations. Extant extraction- related policies combine state-federal alliances and voluntary endeavors by private organizations. More unprejudiced, scientific studies providing details on how fracturing and extraction potentially affect environmental media like water and air are essential, in addition to those focusing on natural gas surges’ long- term effects on local societies. Primary models and hypotheses may offer a basis to reasonably discuss possible effects.
Maintenance of the current state of affairs with regard to free market rules and governmental policies will potentially continually check short- run public expenses; however, it will not contribute sufficiently to furthering response to concerns regarding…
The precedence set by this attorney, though it was not answered by a maelstrom of other counties resurrecting rarely if ever used common laws, does prove interesting, on the issue of rape as well as many other laws that are hardly if ever used but not stricken from the books, as of yet.
Though Idaho is no longer considered a "common-law" state with regard to domestic situations, i.e. regarding the determination of marital status and on other issues it is legitimately still very demonstrative of common law history, a fact that can be attested to by the ability of a single do-gooder to choose to enforce a law that was previously ignored. Other issues, such as common property, among domestic partners, are a later adoption of a common law practice, in Idaho. For the most part it makes sense that legal situations in low population areas could and possibly still…
Aho, J.A. (1990). The Politics of Righteousness: Idaho Christian Patriotism. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.
American Prosecutors Research Institute State Rape Statutes p. 8 Retrieved November 20, 2007 at http://www.arte-sana.com/articles/rape_statutes.pdf
Bonner, J.R. (2002). Reconceptualizing VAWA's "Animus" for Rape in States' Emerging Post-VAWA Civil Rights Legislation. Yale Law Journal, 111(6), 1417.
Bryden, D.P., & Lengnick, S. (1997). Rape in the Criminal Justice System. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 87(4), 1194-1384.
(owland, 1953, p. 204) (Hallisey, 2003, p. 696)
The Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] Chronicle (Mah-mvam-sa)) is primarily a history of Buddhism in Ceylon though it gives reliable information on political history. It is perhaps unjust to maintain that India had no sense of history whatever, but what interest she had in her own past was generally concentrated on the fabulous kings of a legendary golden age, rather than the great empires which had risen and fallen in historical times. (Basham, 1954, p. 44)
Literature and art reflected the lives of the ruling class along side those historical narratives of Buddha, as can be seen in the first example. Medieval revivals also attempted to rejoin these depictions through restorative works that demanded the attention of many to the idea of a foreign king effectively expressing the Sinhalese culture. (Holt, 1996, p. 41) the tradition is long standing in the region and…
Basham, a.L. (1954). III History: Ancient and MedievalEmpires. In the Wonder That Was India: A Survey of the Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent before the Coming of the Muslims (pp. 44-78). New York: Grove Press. Retrieved May 13, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6357327
Basham, a.L. (1954). The Wonder That Was India: A Survey of the Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent before the Coming of the Muslims. New York: Grove Press.
This work demonstrates the historical context of the region, in relation to faith and art as well as the political. It demonstrates the modern emphasis on rediscovering treasures of ancient and modern faiths.
On the contrary, if I had been able to be a clergyman or an art dealer, then perhaps I should not have been fit for drawing and painting, and I should neither have resigned nor accepted my dismissal as such. I cannot stop drawing because I really have a draughtsman's fist, and I ask you, have I ever doubted or hesitated or wavered since the day I began to draw? (Van Gogh, Letter to Theo, April 1882).
That he was a talented artist was undeniable. Yet, art was no substitute for religion, and, further still, art was no direct avenue to sanctifying grace. Van Gogh's increasing sense of alienation and feeling of despair would continue unabated -- evidenced by he and his brother Theo's inability to live together for long; the inability of his dream of an artists' collective (the artistic equivalent of a kind of monastic community) to come…
Fritillaries. (2006). Musee d'Orsay. Retrieved from http://www.musee-
Garrigou-Lagrange, R. (1938). The Three Ways of the Spiritual Life. London: Burns
hen Johnson defeated Jeffries, however, it unleashed white violence against blacks nationwide. "In ashington, D.C., the ashington Bee reported, 'hite ruffians showed their teeth and attacked almost every colored person they saw upon the public streets'."
Similar events occurred in New York City and tiny towns in the deep South. By the time Jackie Robinson left the Negro Leagues, the backlash was not nearly so pronounced. Arguably, the Negro Leagues kept violence at bay, while producing athletes of exceptional quality without risking Jim Crow law violence.
That, of course, is shining a favorable light on a tradition that is not worthy of accolade, and that arguably prevented numerous black ballplayers from receiving a fraction of their worth.
Today, few people understand the sociological factors that prevented black and white baseball players from competition with each other, as opponents or as members of racially mixed teams. They therefore know even…
Ayers, Edward L. 1993. The Promise of the New South: Life after Reconstruction. New York: Oxford University Press. Place of Publication: New York.
Bennett, Lerone, Jr. 1994. "Jack Johnson and the great white hope: historic boxer. Ebony, April. Available from www.findarticles.com. Accessed 7 February 2005.
Big Labor Day Celebration," (original document) Norfolk Journal and Guide, 8 September, 1917; available at http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5054/ . Accessed 7 February 2005.
Bill 'Bojangles' Robinson." 2004. International Tap Association, 13 December. Available from. http://www.tapdance.org/tap/people/bojangle.htm . Accessed 9 February 2005.
He also asserts that government participation in the arts beyond its role as a consumer can pose significant hindrances to the artistic processes. He claims that politics tends to "seek stability, compromise, and consensus," and as a result avoids supporting art that may "offend majority opinion or go over its head" (38). The market, on the other hand, has "liberated artists…from the potential tyranny of mainstream market taste" (23).
Is Government Funding Necessary or Appropriate?
There are many who disagree with Cowen, claiming that public funding for the arts is crucial to maintaining a vibrant, diverse, and forward-thinking creative community. These arguments are generally characterized by the theory that, while art as a market commodity is a healthy and valuable part of the artistic culture, there must also be a forum for art as a public good. This forum cannot be trusted to the market, which may or may not…
Becker, Howard. 1982. Art Worlds. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Cowen, Tyler. 1998. In Praise of Commercial Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Jenkins, Henry. 2006. Convergence Culture: Where old and new media collide. New York: New York University Press.
McChesney, Robert. 2004. The Problem of the Media. New York" Monthly Review Press.
My letters to my brother Theo often touch upon this theme."
Q: hat was your relationship like in Arles?
Gaugin: "I would say that Vincent definitely needed me more than I needed him. Vincent was always looking for a friend, you know -- a kindred spirit. His brother Theo was sympathetic but separate from him. In me he found someone who shared his passion for art and who understood what he was trying to accomplish. But Vincent was unstable and our relationship was often frustrated by his inability to reconcile himself to the artist's lonely lot. I, certainly, was more comfortable being a loner."
Van Gogh: "My sojourn in Arles in a rented yellow house, which I depicted on canvas in my typically thickly-applied, brightly colored 1888 painting, would end in a kind of portentous delirium. Gauguin's stay and my increasing reliance upon the Frenchman proved a misstep. Gauguin's insufferable…
Gayford, M. The Yellow House. NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2008. Print.
Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2003. Print.
Kyziridis, T. "Notes on the History of Schizophrenia." 2005. Web.
Michelangelo’s Creation of Adam
The Creation of Adam (1512) as conceived and depicted by Michelangelo represents a significant moment in art history because it brings a humanistic style of expression and sense of realism to the art world that had not existed prior. The work is focused almost exclusively on the Body as a subject. The two figures—God the Father and Adam—represent the majesty of the human anatomy in its ideal form: muscular, flexible, unique, authentic, poised, admirable, beautiful and proportional. In the painting, God is mostly draped with a thin cloth; Adam is completely nude and his position (reclined with one knee propped up while he stretches backwards and reaches forward languidly) suggests one of royalty being wakened after a long slumber. Indeed, the idea that Adam is like royalty is one that Michelangelo infuses into the scene giving the painting its high-minded rapturous quality, which is much in…