Japanese Internment Camps Essays (Examples)

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Japanese WWII Both the Chicago

Words: 590 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61734140

The provision that persons cannot be deprived of liberty without due process of law takes precedence over the war powers." Both authors therefore agree that the American Constitution prohibits the unwarranted detention of citizens based on their ethnicity alone.

Only the Chicago Daily Tribune article uses the type of language befitting an editorial. For instance, the author uses terms like "prejudice" and "hysteria" to describe the issue. The Los Angeles Times article necessarily avoids strong language like this, and yet still manages to convince readers that the internment camps were legally and ethically wrong. The author achieves a subtle editorial commentary in the selection of quotations. For example, Justice Roberts is quoted as saying that W.R.A. centers are "euphemism for concentration camps" and along with other dissenting justices on the Supreme Court "denied there was any evidence that exclusion of the Japanese was a military measure." In the Chicago Daily…… [Read More]

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Political Science Japanese Internment

Words: 5176 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76791469

internment camps for the Japanese that were set up and implemented by president Franklin D. oosevelt. The writer explores the history leading up to the decision and the decision itself. There were six sources used to complete this paper.

When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor the American public was outraged and stunned. American citizens had lived with a false sense of security for many years that the soil of the United States was off limits. The Civil War and the American evolution were long in the past and residents believed that the world at large would be to afraid to attack a nation as strong and powerful as the United States. The attack came without warning, killing thousands who were within its grasp. When the smoke had cleared and the bombs had stopped, the nation turned a fearful eye to the white house for guidance. At the time the president was…… [Read More]

References

Japanese camps http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jainternment.org

EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066 http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pbs.org%2Fchildofcamp%2Fhistory%2Feo9066.html

Early Implementation of the Mass Removal http://www.densho.org/learning/spice/default.asp http://www.imdiversity.com/Article_Detail.asp?Article_ID=3228
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Japanese-Americans in the West Coast Lived Peacefully

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58717013

Japanese-Americans in the West Coast lived peacefully before President Roosevelt issued the Executive Order 9066 in February 1942 that condemned them to misery in internment camps in the deserts of California. Those who owned property had to sell them. Some had to give up their belongings. The Japanese-Americans could not wage any form of resistance because this would be suppressed by brute military force. Nobody would be foolhardy enough to contemplate that. The 20-year-olds were adversely affected despite the fact that some of them were later allowed to go to college, work in factories, and serve in the United States military. Life in the camps was heart-wrenching.

The young Japanese-Americans conscripted into the military had divided loyalty especially after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbour. America was their country of birth and Japan was the country of their parents and ancestors. The anti-Japanese sentiments that were aired after the Pearl Harbour…… [Read More]

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Internment of Japanese Americans in WWII

Words: 1529 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92346889

Internment of Japanese-Americans in orld ar II

hen the national interests are threatened, history has shown that American presidents will take extraordinary measures to protect them, even if this means violating the U.S. Constitution. For example, the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act enacted immediately following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, watered down civil liberties for American citizens. Likewise, President Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus during the Civil ar just as President Franklin D. Roosevelt did during the outset of orld ar II following the Japanese sneak attack on American forces at Pearl Harbor when tens of thousands of Japanese-American citizens were interred for the duration of the war. Despite the compelling circumstances that were involved, this paper will show that the internment of Japanese-Americans during orld ar II was not only unconscionable, it was also a fragrant violation of the U.S. Constitution and should not have taken…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crockett, Rosemary F. (2002). "America's Invisible Gulag: A Biography of German-American

Internment and Exclusion in World War II." The Oral History Review 29(2): 191-193.

Flamiano, Dolores. (2010). "Japanese-American Internment in Popular Magazines: Race,

Citizenship, and Gender in World War II Photojournalism." Journalism History 36(1):
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Farewell to Manzanar Japanese-American Family

Words: 1701 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89022112

Jeanne records her personal feelings and impressions, but also interweaves historical facts with her reconstructed internal monologue so the reader learns about the home front during World War II as well more about Jeanne's adolescence. Seeing the Japanese internment camps through the eyes of a child highlights the sweeping and irrational nature of President Roosevelt's dictate, and knowing that Jeanne's stories are true, not a fictionalized account of the camps, forces the reader to confront this episode in American history without denial or excuses. The camps were closed after the Supreme Court declared them illegal in 1944, but the camps lived on in the hearts of the interned -- the spoiled food, the constant sickness from the filthy latrines, and most of all, the reminder that the American government had declared Japanese-Americans lesser citizens, solely because of their race. They were seen a lesser immigrants in a land…… [Read More]

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Japanese American's Psychological Problems Resulted From Internment

Words: 1782 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84480733

Psychological & Cultural Experience of the Victims of Japanese Internment

Executive Order 9066 was signed by President Roosevelt on February 19, 1942 ordering all Japanese-Americans and Americans of Japanese descent out of the Western United States and into "internment" camps in the Central region of the United States.

A public law was subsequently passed by Congress ratifying the Executive Order; Congress did not even deliberate on the passage of the law.

One hundred and twenty thousand people were ultimately incarcerated in ten internment camps without due process of law.

There, they were locked up behind barbed wire and lived in shacks unfit for human living. They were fed only at a sustenance level, and had no idea when or if they would return home.

They lost their jobs, their homes, their possessions, their pets, and their liberty -- not because of the hostile actions of a foreign power, but due…… [Read More]

December 3, 2002.  http://www.pbs.org/childofcamp/project/index.html .

Ina, Satsuki Dr. "Symposium Comments: Tule Lake Reunion Symposium."

Internment History." PBS: Children of the Camps. PBS Organization. December 3, 2002.  http://www.pbs.org/childofcamp/project/remarks.html .
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Anthropology Japanese-American Internment During the

Words: 5857 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22390575

... further, that it would be only a question of time until the entire Pacific coast region would be controlled by the Japanese.' Yet Japan's ultimate aim was not limited to California or the Pacific Coast but was global domination achieved through a race war. 'It is the determined purpose of Japan,' the report stated, 'to amalgamate the entire colored races of the world against the Nordic or white race, with Japan at the head of the coalition, for the purpose of wrestling away the supremacy of the white race and placing such supremacy in the colored peoples under the dominion of Japan.'

The presence of sizeable numbers of persons of Japanese origin in California and other Western states was seen as but the beginnings of a Japanese attempt to not merely expand territorially into the United States, but to literally substitute the existing racial order with a new scheme…… [Read More]

Bibliography

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001051692

Asumah, Seth N., and Matthew Todd Bradley. "Making Sense of U.S. Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism." The Western Journal of Black Studies 25, no. 2 (2001): 82+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=29225288

Chang, Gordon H., ed. Morning Glory, Evening Shadow: Yamato Ichihashi and His Internment Writings, 1942-1945. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997.
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Otsuka Julie Otsuka's Novel When the Emperor

Words: 1196 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68468675

Otsuka

Julie Otsuka's novel hen the Emperor was Divine explores the realities of life in the Japanese internment camps in the American southwest during orld ar Two. The novel's historical accuracy can be proven by comparing the details in the lives of those who actually did live in the internment camps, as well as with the actual executive orders and decrees used to institutionalize racism in America. The state-sanctioned racism against Asian-Americans during the internment camp phase was of course not an isolated incident, as it paralleled other types of institutionalized racism including the treatment of African-Americans and Native Americans. Moreover, the internment camps represented a culmination of anti-Asian measures. There was historical precedent for the internment camps as a specific manifestation of anti-Asian fears.

One of the earliest legalized forms of racism against Asians was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Heller, Steven. "The Artistic History of American Anti-Asian Racism." The Atlantic, 20 Feb, 2014,  http://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2014/02/the-artistic-history-of-american-anti-asian-racism/283962/ 

History Matters. "Executive Order 9066: The President Authorizes Japanese Relocation." Accessed 8 Dec, 2014,  http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5154 

OCA National Office. "The Chinese Exclusion Acts: A Racist Chapter in U.S. Civil Rights History." Accessed 8 Dec, 2014,  http://ocaseattle.org/2012/05/21/the-chinese-exclusion-acts-a-racist-chapter-in-u-s-civil-rights-history/ 

Otsuka, Julie. When the Emperor Was Divine. New York: Random House, 2002.
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WWII the United States Entered

Words: 1011 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71170487

Gradually, though, the war effort eroded the practical and theoretical underpinnings of racism in the United States. The war stimulated the domestic economy, particularly in the industrial and manufacturing sectors. Jobs were opening up rapidly, and because so many white men were fighting the war, many black men were available to work. "For black workers orld ar II opened up opportunities that had never before existed," (O'Neil 1). The same was true for women, as the war left gaping holes in the labor market that needed to be filled in untraditional ways. At the same time as the war exposed American prejudice, "orld ar II gave many minority Americans -- and women of all races -- an economic and psychological boost." (Harris 1). The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded, and overall, the war "jump-started the civil rights movement" in the United States (Harris 1; "Identify the impact of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Harris, Michael. "How WWII Affected America's Minorities." Los Angeles Times. 13 June, 2000. Retrieved online:  http://articles.latimes.com/2000/jun/13/news/cl-40272 

"Identify the impact of World War II on minority groups in America." (U.S. History)." Retrieved online: http://share.ehs.uen.org/node/6217

O'Neil, William L. "Minorities and Women During World War II." Retrieved online: http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/WWII_Women/RA/NCraig/Minorities.html

Takaki, Ronald. Double Victory. New York: Time Warner/Little Brown.
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U S Immigrants the Black and

Words: 1360 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77168393

The advent of World War II saw and end of the period of economic turmoil and massive unemployment known as the Great Depression, and thus was a time of increased opportunity for many of the nation's citizens and immigrants, but the experiences of some groups during and following the war were far less positive than others. Some of this was due to the different histories that different immigrant groups had in the country, as well as the different roles that various nations played in the war itself, but often the source for the treatment of different ethnic groups was all too similar and all too simple -- racism and ethnocentrism that made the white Americans "true" citizens while others were labeled as outsiders, and those that didn't belong.

The Japanese suffered the worst during World War II; even families that had been in the country for generations and many decades…… [Read More]

References

Library of Congress. (2008). "African-American odyssey." Accessed 29 October 2010.  http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aointro.html 

Morgan, T. (1995). "Native Americans in world war II." Accessed 29 October 2010.  http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/NAWWII.html 

Takaki, R. (2008). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America (Rev. ed.) Boston: Little Brown Company.

Vogel, R. (2004). "Stolen birthright: The U.S. conquest and exploitation of the Mexican people." Accessed 29 October 2010.  http://www.houstonculture.org/hispanic/ conquest5.html
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Rabbit in the Moon Along

Words: 3346 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83928762

While America prides herself on her multiculturalism and acceptance of those from all lifestyles and cultures that is not always the case, as the readings and personal experiences clearly indicate.

America has been multicultural or multiethnic for centuries, white Americans still are the majority in most areas, and their ideals, beliefs, and even prejudices dominate all of society. To fit in, immigrants must assimilate to the predominate way of thinking, acting, and feeling, even if it is against their own cultural values and beliefs. Thus, they may actually have to engage in cultural pluralism, or acting one way with their own ethnic members while acting another way in white society. There are numerous examples of this every day in society, such as the encounter the author of "A Different Mirror" had with the cabdriver. onald Takaki's family had probably been in the country longer than the cabdriver's had; yet the…… [Read More]

References

Author "Chapter 10: Japanese-Americans."

Chapter 11: "Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, and Asian-Indian-Americans."

In the White Man's Image. Prod. Christine Lesiak and Matthew Jones. American Experience, 1993.

Ly, Kuong C. "Asian: Just a Simple Word." Human Architecutre: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge. Vol. II, Issue 2, Fall 2003/Spring 2004. 119-124.
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Social Realism and the Great

Words: 1168 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40038938

His painting (social realism) called "Approaching Storm" is a remarkable portrayal of a man walking up a hill with a bucket of water and two donkeys waiting to be told what to do. In the distance is a menacing storm. The website (Twecht.tripod) says that this farm could possibly have been a beautiful place to live at one point in time…but now it is gray and windy…all life in the painting ceases to exist" (www.twecht.tripod.com).

Dorothea Lange

Dorothea Lange is among the best known of all the photographers and artists that contributed to the social realism movement during the Great Depression. Lange's most famous photograph, "Migrant Mother," shows a worried woman with two "tousle-haired children clinging to her, their faces turned away from the camera" (u, 2010, p. 1). A third child is asleep in the woman's arms. That photo -- taken in a migrant camp in California -- is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Archives. "Portfolio: Dorothea Lange." Retrieved Dec. 7, 2010, from  http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/picturing_the_century/text/port_lange_text.html .

Illinois State Museum. "The Federal Art Project (FAP)" Retrieved Dec. 8, 2010, from  http://www.museum.state.il.us/muslink/art/htmls/de_FAPhist.html . (2010).

The History Place. "Migrant Farm Families." Retrieved Dec. 8, 2010, from http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/lang/index.html. (2010).

Twecht Tripod. "Thomas Hart Benton: Approaching Storm, 1938." Retrieved Dec. 8, 2010,
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Art and Photography

Words: 4140 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95799636

Ansel Adams: An Analysis of the Importance of America's Most Popular Photographer

Of all the great black-and-white photographers, Ansel Adams was the blackest and the whitest. -- Kenneth Brower, 2002

Today, Ansel Adams is widely regarded as the most important landscape photographer of the 20th century, and is perhaps the most best known and beloved photographer in the history of the United States. As a firm testament to his talents and innovations, the popularity of his work has only increased over the years following his death in 1984 (Szarkowski 1-2). This photographer's most important work concerned the last remaining vestiges of untouched wilderness in the nation, particularly in the national parks and other protected areas of the American est; in addition, Adams was an early and outspoken leader of the conservation movement (Szarkowski 2). This paper provides an overview of Adams and his historical significance, followed by a discussion of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adams, Ansel. "The Artist and the Ideals of Wilderness." In Wilderness: America's Living

Heritage, David Brower (Ed.). San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1961.

--- -- . Letters and Images 1916-1984, Mary S. Alinder and Andrea G. Stillman (Eds.). Boston:

Little, Brown, 1988.
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Judical Review of Indefinate Detention

Words: 4831 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99965301

The court pointed out that the reason next friend status is observed to occur almost exclusively among prisoner's relatives is because a family member typically decides to step in when the competence of the prisoner is in question. The Court also argued that this case was easily distinguished from Hamdi (2002) because Newman already had a preexisting relationship with Padilla.

The government also argued that the District Court of the Southern District of New York did not have jurisdiction, since the prisoner was currently housed in Charleston, South Carolina (Padilla ex rel. Newman v. Bush, 2002). The Court rejected this argument in addition to making five other decisions: (1) Secretary of Defense umsfeld was the proper respondent to the habeas petition, (2) the Court had jurisdiction over umsfeld, (3) the President is authorized to designate Padilla an enemy combatant (without judging its merits) and therefore detain him for the duration…… [Read More]

References

Allen, Scott, Chaffee, Devon, and Hashemian, Farnoosh. (2007). Leave No Marks: Enhanced Interrogation Techniques and the Risk of Criminality. Physicians for Human Rights and Human Rights First. Retrieved 18 May 2013 from  https://s3.amazonaws.com/PHR_Reports/leave-no-marks.pdf 

ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union). (2012). Padilla v. Rumsfeld -- Legal Documents. ACLU.org. Retrieved 20 May 2013 from http://www.aclu.org/national-security/padilla-v-rumsfeld-legal-documents.

Beattie, Michael and Stevens, Lisa Y. (2003). An open debate on United States citizens designated as enemy combatants: Where do we go from here? Maryland Law Review, 62, 975-1027.

CCR (Center for Constitutional Rights). (n.d.). Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (Amicus): Synopsis. CCRJustice.org. Retrieved 18 May 2013 from http://ccrjustice.org/ourcases/past-cases/hamdi-v.-rumsfeld-%28amicus%29.
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Intolerance American History Is Unfortunately

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10795086

The Japanese internment camps are but one manifestation of historic intolerance in the United States. The ghettoization of Jews and other perceived undesirable European groups during the early 20th century also proves that many American urban centers were founded on principles of intolerance. The geographic and cultural landscape of the United States continues to reflect intolerance: in the ways many if not most American cities remain visibly segregated into ethnic enclaves, and also how poverty and race are inextricably linked. Differential educational outcomes and income disparity are some of the hallmark signs that intolerance has become institutionalized in America.

"Since colonial times, Americans have used hatred as a common bond," (eid, et al. 2008, p. 7). Hatred has permitted the creation of social and cultural barriers that prevent passage from one social stratum to another. An in-group/out-group mentality continues to inform American culture. In-group/out-group consciousness has created a plethora of…… [Read More]

Reference

Reid, C. Toth, Gordon A. Crew, Catherine E. Burton, Pearson Education, Inc. (2008).
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War Changed Everything Authors J L Granatstein and

Words: 945 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91054621

Wa Changed Eveything," authos J.L. Ganatstein and Desmond Moton ague that the Second Wold Wa benefited Canada and Canadian society. Stating that "The Second Wold Wa was the one good wa," Ganatstein and Moton claim that Wold Wa Two impoved the Canadian economy, impoved Canada's position as a wold powe, and ceated a moe just and egalitaian society (323). The aticle is divided into seveal sections, including "What the Wa Changed fo Canada," "Canada and the Wold," and "Canada and Canadians." In the fist section, "What the Wa Changed fo Canada," the authos focus mainly on the Canadian economy, noting "The Second Wold Wa saw a quantum leap in the extent and complexity of munitions poduction," (324). In the aticle's second section, the authos descibe how Wold Wa Two alteed Canada's ole in intenational politics. In the section entitled "Canada and Canadians," the authos ague that the Second Wold Wa…… [Read More]

references to source material and the article contains no reference documentation.

Furthermore, the authors do not discuss exceptions to their argument. The most glaring omission from the essay is the Japanese internment camps. Although Canada had "loosened up" and became more tolerant in general, the nation also demonstrated great flaws in the way it dealt with social and economic situations. Not everyone benefited from the war. Therefore, "The War Changed Everything" glorifies World War Two without admitting that not everything about the war was wonderful.
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Party Machines and Immigrants

Words: 824 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46988047

Political Party Machines and Immigration in 19th Century America

After a bitterly contested evolution ended in the liberation of England's former colonies, the fledgling American nation embarked on the precarious path towards a style of democratic governance that had never been enacted on so large a scale. While the latter part of the 18th century was defined by political idealism, as exemplified by contributions made by our nation's Founding Fathers, the 19th century soon gave rise to an insidious process of power consolidation and voter exploitation. The egalitarian political parties envisioned during the heady days of American Independence devolved into institutional party machines, typified by widespread corruption, fraudulent activities, autocratic rule, and a blatant disregard for the foundational importance of democracy. The most effective political party machines during the 19th century were ran ruthlessly by so-called "bosses," or political titans who maintained control over their jurisdiction through a combination of…… [Read More]

References

Judd, D., & Swanstrom, T. (2008). City politics. (8th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Education.
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Cultural Capital Colonialism Oppression Race and Others

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18913681

Discursive construction refers to the ways identities related to gender, ethnicity, nationality, race, or any other parameter, are constructed through discourse. Discourse implies relationship and communication, and it can also relate to power differentials. For example, Narayan (1995) refers to the "self serving collaboration between elements of colonial rights discourse and care discourse," especially related to the "white man's burden" type scenarios (p. 133). The colonizer had once framed colonization as doing the Other a favor, by "promoting the welfare of the colonized" out of a belief in presumed superiority. Thus, the discourse creates a superior/inferior binary.

Narayan, U. (1995). Colonialism and its Others. Hypatia 10(2).

2.

Subjectivity is embedded in postcolonial discourse and identity formation. In Black Skin White Masks, the author shows how black identities are constructed subjectively as opposed to actively because the colonizer projects values and ethics onto the Other. The poetry of Derek Walcott also…… [Read More]

Reference

Abdulhadi, R. (2003). Where is home? Radical History Review 86.

Yosso, T.J. (2005). Whose culture has capital? Race, Ethnicity, and Education 8(1).
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Race and World War II

Words: 1854 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2715907

All because of a racially fueled hatred that exaggerated the nature of the merciless war. This image of the cruelty and heartless Japanese is what eventually allowed the American people and government to justify the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

The racist attitudes clearly clouded the United State's commitment to defending Democracy, both abroad and within its own borders. One of the worst examples of this merciless prejudice was the removal of the Japanese from cities along the West Coast in Executive Order. The internment of hundreds of thousands of Japanese-Americans clearly threatened the mage of democracy here at home, in the U.S. borders. The research suggests that "after the American entry into the war against Japan, the U.S. military imposed curfews and other restrictions on persons of Japanese descent living on the West Coast, including both naturalized native American citizens, and eventually 'excluded' mot Japanese-Americans from certain Western…… [Read More]

References

Daniels, Roger. "Executive Order No. 9066." Modern American Poetry. University of Illinois. Web.  http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/haiku/9066.htm 

Dower, John. War without Mercy: Pacific War. Random House Digital. 2012.

Lie, John. Multiethnic Japan. Harvard University Press. 2004.

Primus, Richard A. The American Language of Rights. Cambridge University Press. 1999.
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Korematsu vs U S Korematsu v

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49885574

' This vague, amorphous threat posed by Japanese-Americans to the West Coast, of course, was not similarly seen in the faces of Caucasian German-Americans, against whose nation the U.S. was also in military conflict. As eloquently expressed in the dissent by Justice Murphy: "No adequate reason is given for the failure to treat these Japanese-Americans on an individual basis by holding investigations and hearings to separate the loyal from the disloyal, as was done in the case of persons of German and Italian ancestry" (4). This was unconstitutional racism depriving citizens of due process, not based in any concrete intelligence information.

Interestingly enough, during the war many Japanese-Americans served in and died for the American military forces, despite the fact that their entire race was seen as potential traitors, according to the conception of the U.S. military. The dissent of Justice Roberts expressed this sense of injustice: "On the contrary,…… [Read More]

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American Fears and Bigotry Toward

Words: 741 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47362742



This sort of behavior and scapegoating was the intellectual and cultural "easy way out" for many Americans looking for solace from the events taking place thousands of miles away, affecting the entire country. In the fog of war, as writer Barbre (2000) puts it, mistakes are made and generalizations are easily placed into existence. hen Americans were confused and scared, they looked to the easiest form of comfort, the alienation of the outsider or the "other."

Sexual Projection and the Internment of the Japanese-Americans

riter Renteln (1995) explores the role that sexual projection had in the dealing with Japanese-Americans in internment camps during II. This can be directly related to the themes within the book Snow Falling of Cedars due to the fact that Americans used their fear of the outsider (Japanese and Japanese-Americans) to project their own fears and misgivings about their sexuality and feelings of inadequacy. As author…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barbre, C. (2000). "Review: Films: The Straight Story, Snow Falling on Cedars."

Journal of Religion and Health. Vol. 39, No. 4. pp. 383-385.

Renteln, A.D. (1995). "A Psychohistorical Analysis of the Japanese-American

Internment." Human Rights Quarterly. Vol. 17, No. 4 pp. 618-648.
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Government Constitutional Non-Compliance During Times

Words: 2083 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83202410

There are limitations on the destruction of wiretap records. The numbers of crimes for which wiretaps can be used, the types of judges who can authorize taps have both however, been expanded.

What Does the Constitution Say?

The United States Constitution states many principles of constitutional law that must be present in for Democracy to truly exist. Democracy is characterized by freedom and liberty to think and believe individually and the freedom to express those beliefs through speech that does not trod upon or offend others. The travesties against justice n committed in the name of Democracy is an affront to all that was intended, fought, and died in attaining in America.

Freedom, liberty and justice not only in America indeed, for the entire world. ut there are limitations within the realm of freedom and justice, for it is not freedom or justice in the forcing of what is termed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Preamble to the Constitution of the United States (nd) Legal Information Institute [Online] available at; http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.preamble.html

Dirck, Brian R. (2002) Posterity's blush: civil liberties, property rights, and property confiscation in the confederacy. Civil War History; 9/1/2002 [Online] available at; http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:92589648&num=38&ctrlInfo=Round9a%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult&ao=

Conan, Neal (2001) Analysis: Civil liberties during times of war. Talk of the Nation (NPR) 10-23-2001 [Online] available at: ttp:/ / www.highbeam.com/library/oc3.asp? DOCID 1P1:47695690&num=25&ctrlInfo=Round9a%3AProd% 3ASR3AResult&ao=

Taylor, Guy (2004) Judge strikes down part of Patriot Act; FBI can't demand company files.(NATION)the Washington Times; 9/30/2004 http://www.highbeam.com/library / doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:122667026 & num=83&ctrlInfo=Rou nd9a%3A Prod%3ASR%3AResult&ao=
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Executive Order 9066 Current Debates

Words: 3109 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59262504



And what of the details of this imprisonment? ere the camps liveable? Did they provide basic community services, like public education, privacy for families, civic news communications? The original "evacuation" to the camps was traumatic in itself for many of the Japanese-Americans, who were given a week or less to gather belongings, settle any long-term obligations they might have in their communities, say goodbye to friends and loved ones, and report a camp. The starkness of the evacuation is evident in the signs pasted every time a neighborhood was targeted for evacuation:

all persons of Japanese ancestry, both alien and non-alien, weill be evacuated from the above area by 10 o'clock noon on...evacuees must carry with the on dparture for the Assembly Center the following property: a. bedding and linens for each member of the family; b. toilet articles for each member of the family; c. extra clothing for each…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Daniels, R., 1988. Asian America. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Kurashige, L., 2002. Japanese-American Celebration and Conflict: A History of Ethnic Identity and Festival, 1934-1990., Berkeley: University of Californial Press.

McClatchey, V.S., 1921. "Japanese Residents Can Never Be Assimilated,"in Asian-Americans: Opposing Viewpoints, Dudley, W., ed., 1997. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, pp. 81-88.

Persico, J., 2001. Roosevelt's Secret War. New York: Random House.
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Executive Order Less Than Two Months After

Words: 710 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74664885

Executive Order

Less than two months after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, bringing the United States into orld ar II, the federal government made a decision to remove many Japanese (the majority of whom were Japanese-American citizens) from the west coast of the U.S., allegedly for security reasons. This paper reviews that decision and the ramifications from Executive Order 9066.

The main justification for Executive Order 9066 was that some Japanese on the west coast allegedly "…posed a threat to national security," according to Roger Daniels, professor of English at The University of Illinois and author of Prisoners without Trial: Japanese-American in orld ar II. The executive order signed by President Franklin Roosevelt (9066) caused about 120,000 Japanese (two-thirds were American citizens) to be confined to camps (some called them "concentration camps" but they were in no way death camps such as the Nazis had put…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Daniels, Roger (1993). Prisoners without Trial: Japanese-American in World War II. New York:

Hill and Wang.

Privacy SOS. (2003). Japanese-American Internment Camps. Retrieved December 16, 2012,

from http://www.privacysos.org.
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Human Behavior and the Social Environment

Words: 3381 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95117353

Farewell to Manzanar

The intact Wakatsuki family consisted of Papa George Ko, Mama Riku Sugai, ill the eldest, Eleanor, Woodrow or Woody and Jeanne, the youngest, who co-authored "Farewell to Manzanar (2001) (Sparknotes 2005)" with her would-be husband, James. Jeanne was born on September 26, 1934 in Inglewood, California. She spent early childhood with her Japanese family in Ocean Park where her father worked as a fisherman, until things began to change. This is the background of the autobiographic novel written by Jeanne and her husband, as she interpreted the events, the environment and the characters. eing born in the U.S., Jeanne has identified more with American culture and is the most independent of the Watsukis children.

On December 7, 1941, Japan staged a surprise night-time bombing of the U.S. naval base in Pearl Harbor in the island of Oahu in Hawaii. Its 360 airplanes destroyed 18 U.S. ships and…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Comella, Pamela A. (2001). A Brief Summary of Bowen Family Systems Theory. Bowen Theory.  http://www.bowentheory.com/abriefsummaryofbowenfamilysystemstheorycomella.htm 

2. Creek, Rock. (2003). Images of Manzanar. Sierra Nevada Webring. http://www.owensvalleyhistory.com/manzanar2/page/29.html

3. Houston, Jeanne and James Houston. (2001). Farewell to Manzanar. Hungry Minds, Inc.

4. -- .(2005). Sparknotes, Inc. LLC.  http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/manzanar.html
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Validity of the Two Official U S Government

Words: 973 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58883742

validity of the two official U.S. government reasons: 1) military necessity and 2) protection of the Japanese-Americans, for the imprisonment of Japanese-American and Japanese Issei during orld ar II. Be specific in your reasoning and examples.

One of the most shocking decisions in the history of American injustices is the official, legalized internment of Japanese-Americans and Japanese Issei during orld ar II. hile Americans fought a war abroad for democracy, against the racist tyrant Adolph Hitler of Germany, back home Japanese-Americans and legal Japanese resident aliens were deprived of their liberty and property, simply because of their racial and ethnic heritage. The official reasons given for the internment were military necessity and the protection of the Japanese-Americans. The first statement of 'military necessity,' or national security, as a justification for internment, implied that Japanese-American and Japanese Issei was more 'suspect' than other Americans. It was assumed these Asian-Americans had divided…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jones, Jacqueline Peter Wood, Thomas Borstelmann, Elaine May, and Vicky Ruiz. (2005) Created Equal: A Social and Political History of the United States. New York: Pearson Education.

Martis, Nancy H. (1994) "Illegal Aliens. Ineligibility for public services." California Journal#187. Retrieved 29 May 2005 at  http://www.calvoter.org/archive/94general/props/187.html 

Takaki, Robert. (1998) Strangers From a Distant Shore: A History of Asian-Americans. Boston: Little & Brown.
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War and Terrorism

Words: 843 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70800887

War & Human Rights Abuse: Parallelisms between Japanese-Americans in WWII and the U.S.-Iraq War (Gulf War II)

Among nations of varying cultures and societies, maintaining satisfactory political relations is a challenge. This is primarily due to differences among leaders and societies that make up this nation; thus, as a result of this diversity, it is inevitable that international relations among countries of the world may experience conflicts and antagonism with each other.

Declarations of war are one manifestation of conflicts and disagreements between two or more nations. Examples of these political conflicts are the First and Second World Wars, where devastation of the physical geography of countries and millions of deaths had occurred. Human history has, over time, illustrated how individual differences can potentially lead to bigger conflicts, thereby resulting to devastating, even deadly, results.

However, a far more important issue that should be focused on during times of war…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cheney questions release of more photos." 11 May 2004. The New York Times Online. Available at  http://www.nytimes.com .

Executive Order 9066." (1942). Available at National Archives and Records Administration.
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Constitutionality of the Patriot Act

Words: 3077 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22490381

Patriot Act and Constitutional Freedom

Thomas Jefferson said: 'The price of freedom is constant vigilance.' Unfortunately in a large nation dedicated to the individual freedom and liberty of all its citizens, the only time when the nation learns that is has not been vigilant enough is when a person, or group of persons take advantage of that freedom, and abuse the liberty of others in order to further their own destructive purposes. The tragedy of 9-11 is the most recent case in point of how a nation can take its freedom and liberty for granted, which ultimately makes a doorway for others to tear down that which has taken over 200 years to build, protect, and defend.

When our country endured similar acts of threat or war, such as the bombing of Pearl Harbor, or the expansion of communism into the Western Hemisphere in Cuba, the government has oven reacted…… [Read More]

Bibliography.

The Alien and Sedtion acts. (2001) Folwells Laws of the U.S. Early America.com Accessed 1 Jan 2004. Available from http://earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/milestones/sedition/.

Dempsey, Jim. (2003, Jan 3) Cyber Security. Center for Democracy and Security. Accessed 1 Jan 2004. Available at http://www.cdt.org/security/000404amending.shtml

Henderson, N. (2002) The Patriot Act's impact on the government's ability to conduct electronic surveillance of ongoing domestic communications. Duke Law Journal, Vol. 52.

Japanese-Americans Internment Camps During World War II. Special Collections Department, J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah. Accessed 1 Jan 2003. Available from http://www.lib.utah.edu/spc/photo/9066/9066.htm
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Decision to Use the Atomic

Words: 1585 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58194182

Because, clearly, we committed acts of terrorism in dropping the bombs on Japan. The intent was to create a massive destruction to horrific that the victims could not help but surrender without further fight - which is, of course, what happened. Our new brand of terrorism is, truly, the only effective manner that certain people have of waging a war. When you do not have the technology or the resources of the largest nations in the world, but you do know how to make and plant a bomb that is likely to kill civilians and military targets as well - do you simply roll over and surrender because you might kill innocent people? If that was the case, then the United States would have never been able to wage war with anyone using bombs and missiles and rockets - the war could have only been waged by spies and snipers.…… [Read More]

References

Alperovitz, Gar. The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb. New York: Vintage, 1996.
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Citizen on December 7 1941 the Nation

Words: 1969 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95889433

Citizen

On December 7, 1941, the nation of Japan attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. This began the official participation of the United States in orld ar II. hile armed forces were overseas fighting the nation's enemies, the United States government was trying to decide whether or not any group of people within America itself could be working for the other side. Out of this fear came one of the most atrocious acts the United States have ever perpetrated against its own citizens. Fearing internal enemies, the American government signed an order wherein anyone of Japanese descent could be questioned, arrested, detained, and interred at several camps throughout the American est. It was a policy of legal racism that served no good for the government but to instill in the people the knowledge that the government can make mistakes and it is possible to lose one's civil rights…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Burton, J., Farrell, M. And R. Lord. Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War II

Japanese-American Relocation Sites. 2000. Print.

Okubo, Mine. Citizen 13660. Seattle: University of Washington, 1983. Print.
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Divine Wind the Story of the Divine

Words: 1210 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72524679

Divine ind

The story of The Divine ind is one that is both poignantly sad and achingly beautiful. The book is both historical fiction and doomed romance in the vein of Romeo and Juliet where although the two youths are obviously very much in love, circumstances beyond their control conspire to keep the boy and girl apart. In Gary Disher's novel, the Second orld ar forces the lovers apart because the girl is sent to an internment camp while her Caucasian love is allowed to remain free. Even before their official separation, the prejudices of those around them were forcing a wedge between the two young people. In 1946 in the city of Broome, Australia young Hart Penrose is reflecting on his past relationship with Mitsy Senosuke, the daughter of Japanese immigrants. In his youth, Hart fell in love with Mitsy, whose father worked for Hart's father as a pearl…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Disher, Gary 2003, The Divine Wind. Scholastic.
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Topaz and Desert Exile The

Words: 1324 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58482082

As fascism grew in Italy, it became increasingly contentious among Italians in foreign countries, including the United States. Like the Japanese, even though thousands of Italian-Americans were fighting in the war, the government designated "all unnaturalized Italians as 'alien enemies.' This designation mandated certain registration requirements and imposed limitations on travel and property ownership. The stigma struck hardest at the first generation, which supplied the greatest number of aliens" (O'Brien and Parsons 66). However, the government did not ship off the Italians to detention centers "for their own safety," and they were able to keep their jobs, their homes, and their dignity. Interestingly, while the Italians had complaints about their treatment by the American government, their reaction to the war was to become more patriotic and "American." Many Italian-American organizations changed their names from Italian to English, and many removed the flags of Italy from their meeting halls, replacing them…… [Read More]

References

Honey, Maureen, ed. Bitter Fruit: African-American Women in World War II. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1999.

O'Brien, Kenneth Paul, and Lynn Hudson Parsons, eds. The Home-Front War World War II and American Society. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995.

Uchida, Yoshiko. Journey to Topaz. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971.

Desert Exile: The Uprooting of a Japanese-American Family.
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Regionalism This Report Analyzes Regionalism in Several

Words: 2886 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84786682

Regionalism

This report analyzes regionalism in several contexts as they pertain to the movie Snow Falling on Cedars. The movie is pervasively filled with considerations relating to regionalism, outsiders vs. insiders, how insiders and outsiders mesh and the very dicey results that can ensue, how all of this plays off of national and international situations and conflicts and so forth. This movie establishes that many unique and different things can influence who interacts with who, how and why and the things that impact all of this are not just limited to race and nationality.

Movie Setting & Synopsis

The year and country this film is set in has a ton to do with why people feel the way they do and why there is such a bred animosity towards Kabuo, to the point that his guilt is almost assumed and someone very important in the movie actually withholds information that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Old Regionalism, New Regionalism, And Envision Utah: Making Regionalism Work." Harvard

Law Review 118.7 (2005): 2291-2313. Academic Search Premier. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.

Goodfellow, Samuel. "Fascism And Regionalism In Interwar Alsace." National Identities 12.2

(2010): 133-145. Academic Search Premier. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.
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Teacher Attitudes and Perceptions About Curriculum Innovation in Learning and Technology

Words: 22121 Length: 76 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4872492

Self-Efficacy: A Definition

Social Cognitive Theory

Triangulation Data analysis

Teacher Self-Efficacy

Problems for the researcher

Data Analysis and Related Literature review.

aseline Group

Gender Deviation

Age Deviation

Comparison of data with other literature in the field.

Everyday Integration

Efficacy, Self-esteem, Confidence and Experience

arriers to use

Integration paradigm.

Co-oping and Project design.

Organizational Climate

Teacher Integration Education.

Meta-evaluation of data and related literature.

Data Analysis and Comparison

Recommendation for Further Research

Data Review Report

Teacher efficacy in the classroom is facilitated by a number of different factors for different professions. However, in the case of the teaching classroom, and adapting to new technology, andura's belief that the environment and the person's attitude toward / interactions with the environment are reciprocally affective.

andura (1993) identified 4 specific ways that self-efficacy is formed:

Through cognitive experiences

Through motivational experiences

Their affective interactions with environment

Through selectional experiences and choices.

Cognitive Experiences

andura…… [Read More]

Bibliography of the literature dealing with teacher training in the uses of the computer in education. (ERIC No. ED 260-696)

Bushman, B. And Baumeister, R. (1998, July) Threatened Egotism, Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Direct and Misplaced Aggression: Does Self-Love or Self-Hate Lead to Violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Campus Computing Project. (1999). The continuing challenge of instructional integration and user support. Encino, CA: Retrieved November 21, 2003 from the World Wide Web:  http://www.campuscomputing.net/ 

Christensen, R. (2002, 22 June) Effects of technology integration education on the attitudes of teachers and students.Journal of Research on Technology in Education.

Clifford, M., Kim, A. McDonald, B. (1988 Fall) "Responses to Failure as Influenced by Task Attribution, Outcome Attribution, and Failure Tolerance." The Journal of Experimental Education. Volume 57, Number 1. Pages 19-35.
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Except for the Indigenous Native

Words: 8783 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72367303

S. citizenship (Bloemraad 2002). Given the ongoing need for qualified recruits by the U.S. armed forces, it just makes sense to determine the extent of enlistment in the armed forces by immigrants to identify their personal reasons for doing so. To the extent that these reasons are directly related to their desire to obtain American citizenship rather than a sense of patriotic responsibilities is the extent to which military service may represent a viable alternative to more time-consuming, expensive and complication naturalization procedures. It is important, though, to ensure that these immigrant recruits are provided with accurate information concerning how military service will affect their naturalization status and efforts to secure ultimate citizenship.

Rationale of Study

Military recruiters typically experience increases in enlistments during periods of economic downturn because of limited employment opportunities elsewhere in the private sector. Nevertheless, recruiting adequate numbers of high-quality and motivated service members is more…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anbinder, Tyler, 2006. "Which Poor Man's Fight? Immigrants and the Federal Conscription of

1863." Civil War History 52(4): 344-345.

Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.

Bloemraad, Irene, 2002. "The North American Naturalization Gap: an Institutional Approach to Citizenship Acquisition in the United States and Canada." The International Migration
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History of the Pacific Northwest

Words: 1311 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1099285

History of the Pacific Northwest [...] how representative the lives of Mary Arkwright Hutton, Annie Pike Greenwood, and Teiko Tomita were considering the racial and class tensions of the twentieth century. ace and class have been important influences throughout the Pacific Northwest's long history. In fact, some of the most racist laws in America were in effect in the Pacific Northwest at the beginning of the twentieth century. ace and class created dissent in the population, but ultimately forged a stronger sense of area and belonging to the diverse cultural minorities that make up the area today.

Mary Arkwright Hutton was a union supporter and organizer early in the history of the area. She worked in the mining towns of Idaho, and became an avid union supporter and organizer of the men who labored in the mines. Many politicians and mine owners found her abrasive and difficult, but the men…… [Read More]

References

Amott, Teresa L., and Julie A. Matthaei. A Multicultural Economic History of Women in the United States. Boston, MA: South End Press, 1991.

Schwantes, Carlos Arnaldo. The Pacific Northwest: An Interpretive History. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.

Taylor, Quintard. "The Civil Rights Movement in the American West: Black Protest in Seattle, 1960-1970." The Journal of Negro History 80.1 (1995): 1+.
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Stanley Jeffrey I Am an

Words: 365 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8366010

He focuses on the experiences of one Japanese-American high school senior that had to back up all of his earthly possessions to go to a camp in the California desert, whose life never was the same afterwards. The book avoids getting bogged down in politics without ignoring what led America to enter World War II. It also draws attention to the fact that many Japanese-Americans served in the American army and often felt uncomfortable because of the fact they knew their loved ones were being interned back home.

The book's message is simple -- to resist prejudice, even when it is practiced by the American government. Because the book is a paperback with few illustrations, other than the photograph on the front cover, it would be more appropriate for older readers, probably in the context of a civics or history class, where the uncomfortable subjects could be discussed openly. Also,…… [Read More]

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Patriot Act Throughout American History

Words: 3395 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25860760

The bill before me takes into account of the new realities and dangers posed by modern terrorists. It will help law enforcement to indentify, to dismantle, to disrupt and to punish terrorist before they strike." (Marcovitz, 2008) This is significant because it allows for the effective tracking of suspected terrorists activities. As a result, the overall quality and amount of intelligence gathered will allow law enforcement to determine what is taking place, before a tragedy occurs.

A third benefit of the Patriot Act is: it allows for improved coordination. A 2005 study conducted by the Justice Department showed that the Patriot Act helped intelligence / law enforcement officials to identify over 40 different terrorist organizations operating in the United States, they were able to successfully arrest 500 suspected terrorists with ties to different organizations around the world and a total of 57 people were convicted of raising money for terrorist…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alarm Sounds and CIA Wakes Up in Nightmare Alley. (7 August 1977). NY Times, pg. E1. http://proquest.umi.com.ozone.nsc.nevada.edu:8080/pqdweb?index=0&did=121547567&SrchMode=1&sid=2&Fmt=10&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=HNP&TS=1272749966&clientId=63532

Excerpts from Court Ruling on Justice Departments Broad Powers. (19 November 2002). NY Times., pg. A 19. http://proquest.umi.com.ozone.nsc.nevada.edu:8080/pqdweb?index=3&did=730861052&SrchMode=1&sid=1&Fmt=10&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=HNP&TS=1272744494&clientId=63532

Warns of Dangers to Dams in West. (1943). NY Times, pg. 6. http://proquest.umi.com.ozone.nsc.nevada.edu:8080/pqdweb?index=0&did=88542637&SrchMode=1&sid=1&Fmt=10&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=HNP&TS=1272747703&clientId=63532

Bhonsle, R. (2007). South Asian Security Trends. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.
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Extinction of the Native American Indians

Words: 4659 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25418348

Extinction of the Native American

The area of the world that is now known as the United States of America used to belong to various tribes of people which are now known as Native Americans as opposed to their old name, Indians, which was a misnomer based on the erroneous idea that explorers from Europe did not know that such a large land mass existed and that by crossing the Atlantic Ocean, they had made it to the country of India. hen Europeans first arrived in this country, they were highly outnumbered by populations of Native Americans. The United States of America is a nation that was built on the ideas of life, liberty, pursuit of happiness, and freedom for all persons. Yet, that freedom has been won only through the genocide of hundreds of thousands of people. In the course of a few centuries, the Native American peoples have…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Alexis de Tocqueville. Tocqueville and Beaumont on Race. 1831.

Benjamin Franklin. Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America. The Norton Anthology

of American Literature. 1782.

Bruce Johnson. Encyclopedia of American Indian History. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2008.
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Revisiting America Readings in Race Culture and Conflict

Words: 955 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16827015

America: Readings in Race, Culture, and Conflict

Susan yle's book Revisiting America: Readings in Race, Culture, and Conflict explores the history of the America through the lens of the political, racial, social, and cultural issues that make up the population. The story of American history is retold. idely known stories about America's past are revisited and additional information about cultural conflict of the period is used to show a new reality to the country's past. yle's history also discusses the importance of socially constructed terminology and how the conflicts of America's past continue to shape the United States today.

The textbook includes both primary and secondary sources to explore the truth behind American history. Of particular interest are some of the historical documents, such as the transcripts from the actual Salem itch Trials. This period of American history is symbolic of all occasions where religious zealotry and fear overtake the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Wyle, Susan. (2003). Revisiting America: Readings in Race, Culture, and Conflict. Prentice Hall.
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Boy War Not Only Causes One Country

Words: 588 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16791527

Boy

War not only causes one country or group of people to attempt the destruction of another, but can even lead a nation or population of individuals to fear, degrade and hate their own friends, family members and other countrymen. The Civil War was a prime example of this bizarre turn of events. Those who were or would have been hospitable and friendly toward someone else yesterday, now saw that same person as the enemy who had to be attacked on the battlefield. It did not matter if these individuals had actually been part of the same country and pledged their allegiance to the same government for decades, the war had made them scorn anyone who lived across their border or wore a different color uniform.

The book No-No Boy epitomizes this change that occurred among people over night. The Japanese-mericans, who had pledged support of the United States and…… [Read More]

Although in 1947 President Truman pardoned the approximately 300 Japanese-Americans who refused to fight in World War II on constitutional grounds, it was not until 1990 that the first Japanese-American received redress from internment. Further, it was not until 2001 that the Japanese-American Citizens League apologized to these resisters. "What we're saying is we shouldn't be condemning or trashing people who took a stand for our community's civil rights," said Andy Noguchi, co-chair of the Recognition and Reconciliation Ceremony where these individuals received long-awaited support. "These were a group of 300 young men who stood up for the community's civil rights." The scars from wars take very long to heal.

Unfortunately, if history demonstrates anything, it is that humans do not always totally learn from their mistakes. After the September 11 tragedy, where Americans should have been even more supportive of one another, bigotry and fear arose again against the Arab-Americans and Muslims. On the negative side, innocent people were put in jail, Mosques were defaced. Arab-owned businesses were shot, Arab-Americans faced verbal and physical abuse in the streets and Internet message boards burst with anti-Arab and anti-Muslim slogans and threats. On the positive side, however, this situation was different from those in the past. The United States has become much more integrated since the 1940s. Arab-Americans live in all parts of the country, whereas most Japanese had lived on the West Coast. Numerous Arab-Americans also now have positions of political and economic authority. Further, a large number of people from all American populations quickly saw the handwriting on the wall and did all they could to be proactive and stem violence before it started.

America still has a long way to go to eliminate racism and anti-Semitism. The hope is however, that as the world becomes more global and advanced, humankind will become, as its name implies, more "kind." The other possibility, not becoming more humane, will one day destroy the world. Hatred can easily eat away at all that is good in the world and, like Kenji's leg, finally destroy the rest of the body.
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Japan Korea and China Different or Similar

Words: 1187 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95118879

Asian Studies

Countries are very much representative of human nature. If you were to examine a microcosm of a nation at its basic level, it would be a local community or neighborhood. The people who live in the same community usually tend to share similar economic levels and cultural attitudes. Neighbors also influence the behaviors of each other. For example, affluent neighborhoods tend to have good school systems, active kids (as in after school programs), and involved parents. To a certain degree, these things are expected. This notion is applicable to the nations of China, Korea, and Japan. This paper will examine similarities and differences between these counties in a historical context. China and Japan were traditional societies that responded differently to the external stimuli of foreign relations. Korea is also similar in this regard but their foreign invaders were Japanese not estern imperialists. All three nations also suffered under…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Cumings, Bruce. "We look at it and see ourselves." London Review of Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. .

Hedges, Frank. "Japan is Speeding Korean Education." New York Times [New York City ] 6 Aug. 1939: 12. Print.

Takaki, Ronald T.. Strangers from a different shore: a history of Asian-Americans. Boston: Little, Brown, 1989. Print.

Thomson, James Claude, Peter W. Stanley, and John Curtis Perry.Sentimental imperialists: the American experience in East Asia. New York: Harper & Row, 1981. Print.
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Normative Ethics Should Obama Seek

Words: 1780 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34760667

Prosecuting a former President for illegal activity in his role as President would certainly increase partisan bickering; making it less likely that Obama could effectuate meaningful change in his administration. Doing that might actually cause people greater harm. For example, the economy is having a direct impact on Americans right now, diverting funds into an expensive investigation that might not even result in a realistic possibility of prosecution for Bush or other high-level officials, would be a waste of taxpayer money. Obama must consider all of those issues when making the decision whether or not to investigate Bush. The most reasonable conclusion is for him not to instigate a criminal investigation against Bush, but to correct the illegal behavior, compensate victims, and move forward.

orks Cited

ABCNews. "Sawyer Interviews Ford: Pardoning Nixon was 'Absolutely Essential.'" Good

Morning America. 2006. ABCNews Internet Ventures. http://www.abcnews.go.com/GMA/story?id=2753606.

The Children of the Camps Project. "Internment…… [Read More]

Works Cited

ABCNews. "Sawyer Interviews Ford: Pardoning Nixon was 'Absolutely Essential.'" Good

Morning America. 2006. ABCNews Internet Ventures. http://www.abcnews.go.com/GMA/story?id=2753606.

The Children of the Camps Project. "Internment History." Children of the Camps. 1999.

Satsuki Ina. 25 Jan. 2009  http://www.pbs.org/childofcamp/history/index.html .
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Politics During Holocaust

Words: 1868 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24164507

Holocaust Politics

Totalitarianism's Controversial Notions

The human social animal's capacity for collective tyranny and violence in Hannah Arendt's seminal work

Since the publication of her 1951 work on The Origins of Totalitarianism, Hannah Arendt has received much criticism as a philosopher and an historian for her theory of the human, historical development of notions of society or what Arendt terms 'the social.' From the social organizations of the salon, which were loose and diffuse, and based on ideological alliances, human beings evolved in their organization, she suggests, to alliances upon material interests in the forms of classes. But the nationalist and imperialist movements of the 19th century perverted these previous mental and material social alliances in history, to create the manifestation of 'the masses' that enabled totalitarianism to take hold in Germany, Russia, and other areas of the world.

Critical to Arendt's conception of totalitarianism is her notion of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. Harcourt and Brace, 1951.

Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition. U of Chicago Press, 1998. Originally Published 1958.
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Consciousness of the Lives of

Words: 1891 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76165044

To not fit in is probably one of the most difficult things a child can face, and it happens all the time in America to the children of immigrants. It is easy to talk about "celebrating your heritage," but much more difficult to do when you are a child, and have no friends because of your skin color and your culture. Now, it is easier for me, but there are still barriers in our society, and I know that throughout my life, I will have to fight those barriers to succeed and to grow as a woman, as an American, and as an Asian.

A think, after considering what I have learned in this course, that I would like to research what I do not know about my own family history, and fill in the pieces of the puzzle. Before this class, I did not think much about my family's…… [Read More]

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Ethics and the War on

Words: 3193 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47292008

Finally, torture is the best means to try to get this information from the suspect (McCoy, 2006). Taken as a whole, these circumstances are so unlikely to occur that, even if the ticking bomb scenario would justify the use of torture, it has not ever occurred and, therefore, cannot be used to justify torture.

In fact, what many people who advocate in favor of torture fail to acknowledge is that while torture may be guaranteed to elicit information from even the most reticent of subjects, there is no reason to believe that torture will elicit truthful information. The theory behind torture is that, with the application of sufficient pain and fear, people will talk, and that does appear to be true in the vast majority of cases. However, it is more important to wonder what they will say than whether they will talk. In the non-terrorist scenario, "About 25% of…… [Read More]

References

Armbruster, B. (2011, October 3). Obama's successful counterterror strategy. Retrieved March 21, 2012 from Think Progress website: http://thinkprogress.org/progress-report/obamas -successful-counterterror-strategy/

Bufacchi, V., & Arrigo, J.M. (2006). Torture, terrorism, and the state: A refutation of the Ticking-Bomb argument. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 23(3), 355-373.

Gathii, J. (2004). Torture, extra-territoriality, terrorism, and international law. Albany Law

Review, 67, 101-138. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from:
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History and the Affects the Criminal Justice System Has Had on Minorities

Words: 2016 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4865747

Criminal Justice System Has Had on Minorities

History and the Effects of the Criminal Justice System on Minorities -- 1940 to 1960

The 20-year period from 1940 to 1960 represented a crossroads for the United States in terms of engagement in an enormously costly world war as well as the social upheavals that resulted from the manner in which minorities in general, and Asian and African-Americans in particular, had been historically treated. While blacks had historically been the target of much of the racist views and violence in the U.S. through the mid-20th century, Asian-Americans were never far behind in the social mix and the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 just made matters worse for all concerned. Indeed, tens of thousands of Japanese-Americans were interred during the war "for their own protection," but many observers suggested this fundamental abrogation of these citizen's constitutional rights was tantamount to illegal imprisonment…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, F.Y., & Green, A.P. (1999). Law never here: A social history of African-American responses to issues of crime and justice. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.

Bouza, A.V. (1990). The police mystique: An insider's look at cops, crime, and the criminal justice system. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

Collins, D.E. (1985). Native American aliens: Disloyalty and the renunciation of citizenship by Japanese-Americans during World War II. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
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Carey Mcwilliams Southern California An

Words: 1279 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95285744



Climatology, in "semi-tropical" Southern California, a place that was as dry and hot as Italy although mercifully "without the Italians," tourists even from the United States "discovered that umbrellas were useless against the drenching rains of Southern California but that they made good shade in the summer; that many of the beautifully colored flowers had no scent; that fruit ripened earlier in the northern than in the southern part of the state; that it was hot in the morning and cool at noon...jack rabbits carried water on their backshere, in this paradoxical land, rats lived in the trees and squirrels had their homes in the ground" (96; 105) Economic fortunes seemed as unstable as the weather -- wharfs, railways, hotels sprung up only to be abandoned after the bubble of expectation in the real estate market went bust (116).

However, almost despite itself, the booms and busts increased the population…… [Read More]

Works Cited

McWilliams, Cary. Southern California: An Island on the Land. First published 1946.

Gibbs Smith, 1980.

Rice, Richard B., William a. Bullough, & Richard J. Orsi. The Elusive Eden: A New

History of California. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001.
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Patriotic Act Arguments for and Against the

Words: 3462 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70325965

Patriotic Act

Arguments for and against the Patriot Act

The unusual events surrounding the creation and passing of the Patriot Act make it a suspect bill in many eyes. However, major media reports like this one: "Fifty-nine percent in an ABC News/ashington Post poll favor continuing the additional investigative authority in terrorism investigations that was granted to the FBI starting in 2001. President Bush urged such an extension of the Patriot Act today" (Langer) insist that there are others who support it and promote it as a protection against the kind of terrorism that was seen on 9/11. For supporters the idea of sacrificing civil liberties for security measures such as the TSA is, while unfortunate, a necessary evil. Those who oppose it, like alternative media journalist Ryan Dawson and Sen. Ron Paul, decry it as government intrusion. This paper will give arguments for and against the Patriot Act and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brand, Rachel. "Reauthorization of the U.S.A. Patriot Act." 20 Jan 2010. The Federalist

Society. Web. 24 Sep 2011. <  http://www.fed-soc.org/publications/detail/reauthorization-of-the-usa-patriot-act >

Celente, Gerald. "Gerald Celente Predicts Ron Paul Can Win in 2012." 3 May 2010.

YouTube. 24 Sep 2011.
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California History

Words: 775 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35893436

California istory: A Tour of the State through Three Novels

California is the nation's largest state. Within its borders it encompasses many contradictions and offers different modalities of life. The idea of an 'alternative lifestyle' may have been coined in California, but clearly there is more than one alternative offered by the state. Even the state's stereotypes, such as the 'outdoorsy' person, or the beatnik who distains social conventions, or the Pacific Rim immigrant who needs to make a new social and economic future for him or herself within the state, are diverse in their nature. California exemplifies the vastness of the American dream in imagination and financial growth.

The one connecting element between all of these stereotypes, and indeed between all of the fictional individuals that embody them over the course of elen unt Jackson's novel Ramona, Jack Keota's quasi-autobiographical The Dharma Bums, and the more recent Picture Bride…… [Read More]

Helen Hunt Jackson's novel catalogues Ramona was written to call attention to the terrible plight of the Mission Indians in Southern California. Their struggles are mirrored in the fate of the heroine, however. At the end of the novel, Ramona weds an Indian man, Alessandro. Her decision comes after she has decided to live with the Indians because she was not told she was a 'half breed' until she had lived for many years with whites. Eventually, the novel ends with the words that she has given birth to another "Ramona," the "daughter of Alessandro the Indian." (Jackson, Chapter XXV, novel retrieved on December 8, 2003 at (http://www.xooqi.com/iboox/xo_0024_jackson_ramona.html) After many years of struggle trying to find her identity, Ramona gives birth to a girl whom presumably will have no such struggles. However, the first Ramona's struggles highlight the prejudice and intolerance waged against these native people, the often insurmountable divide between white and native in terms of culture, and the persistence presence of those such as the title character whose very existence was a challenge to this divide.

Picture Bride by Yoshiko Uchida also illustrates a similar tension, between native-born Japanese individuals and recent Japanese immigrants. This internal tension is exacerbated, however, with the nation's entry into World War II, as all individuals of Japanese extraction are forced to live in internment camps, in states of filth and privation. At the beginning of the novel, a young Japanese woman named Hana comes to America to find her identity, to escape Japan and the oppression of women and arranged marriages. However, at first her new husband seems no better than what she has left. Also, Hana's own behaviors and expectations are still quite located in her past community, where female behavior is formal and contained. "Hana was overcome with excitement at the thought of being in America and terrified of the meeting about to take place. What would she say to Taro Takeda when they first met, and for all the days and years after?" (Uchida, Chapter 1, 3) Through the United States, Hana seeks liberation but finds only limitations in marriage and the law, although she also establishes an inner sense of self and identity as a woman, through contact with individuals with other ideas of how Japanese women should behave.

In contrast to these struggles, the anti-heroes of The Dharma Bums seems almost anti-climatic. Kerouac's fictional alter ego seeks a new identity in the wilderness of deserts and roads of California, hoping Buddhism will give him a new philosophical lease on life. For Kerouac, California, the farthest state from New York was the state of anti-civilization. But his community of outsiders exhibits their own cruelty. "Don't you realize all this life is just a dream? Why don't you just relax and enjoy God? God is you, you fool!" says one of Cody's friends, Ray, to a woman in a state of deep paranoia and depression. God is you, Ray believes, is the answer to his own identity struggles, however, the Dharma Bums do not find any answers, because their new viewpoints are too convoluted with their own emotional needs to give them a new, ideological lease on life. All character in all novels demonstrate that wilderness alone will not give one peace, newness is not enough -- rather, one must create one's new Californian identity with previously untapped but preexisting inner strength.
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Mccarthy and the Cold War One Aspect

Words: 2922 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28567492

McCarthy and the Cold War

One aspect of history is that a country's so-called "friend" one day, can be an enemy the next and visa versa. The United States and Soviet Union during World War II joined ranks against the real threat of Nazi Germany. However, it did not take long after the end of the war for ussia and the United States to once again bully each other. Even before the final surrender of Germany in 1945, the two super powers rapidly found themselves in a new military and diplomatic rivalry. Meanwhile, in the United States, the economy was taking time to build and unemployment was growing. Thoughts of the Depression loomed in people's minds. The friction with the ussians, which would receive the name of Cold War, did not help. Yet it did create a scapegoat for fears and feelings of paranoia. As the tensions between the U.S.…… [Read More]

References

Barson, M. Red Scared (2001). San Francisco: Chronicle.

Bennett, D. (1988). Party of Fear. New York: Random House.

Halberstam, D. (1993). The Fifties. New York: Villard.

Lewis, P. The Fifties (1978) New York:. J.B. Lippincott, 1978.
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Eisenhower Dwight D Eisenhower Transformed

Words: 2098 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71836125

The Soviet threat continued to loom, propelling Eisenhower squarely into a second term. He had endeared himself to the American public as a strong anti-communist president, a decorated war hero who would keep America strong, prosperous, and triumphant.

Eisenhower's fiscal and domestic policies reflected his rather un-epublican belief in social services. Eisenhower expanded the Social Security program, raised the minimum wage, supported low-income housing projects, and created the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Among his most significant domestic legacies was his commissioning of the nationwide highway system. Eisenhower was truly a Car Culture president who helped make American culture into what it is today.

In spite of his support for social programs, Eisenhower failed to become a civil rights leader. He was "at best a tepid supporter of civil rights" who actually opposed school integration (Miller Center of Public Affairs). Eisenhower's stagnation and lack of leadership in this primary…… [Read More]

References

Miller Center of Public Affairs. University of Virginia. Retrieved June 30, 2007 at http://www.millercenter.virginia.edu/index.php/academic/americanpresident/eisenhower

Simkin, J. "Dwight D. Eisenhower." Spartacus Educational. Retrieved June 30, 2007 at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAeisenhower.htm#cooliris

Vuono, C.E. & Stone, M.P.W. (1990). Dwight David Eisenhower: The Centennial. Retrieved June 30, 2007 at http://www.army.mil/cmh/brochures/Ike/ike.htm

The White House. "Dwight D. Eisenhower." Retrieved June 30, 2007 at http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/de34.html
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American Government Should the President

Words: 1099 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41516617



Suppose I was asked to donate money to "Citizens for Better Schools," what would I need to find out about the group first? The first thing would be find out if they are a bona fide public charity -- a 501 C3 -- and if they were, I would examine their bylaws and mission statement. Secondly, I would locate board members and examine public statements they have made and projects they have injected themselves into. Something with a vague title like this one has could actually be a protest group trying to remove certain board members from the school board or they might be advocating to have the science textbooks changed so evolution isn't taught. I would also look through newspaper reports to find what the group has been advocating in its public pronouncements.

Should journalists have the right to protect their sources? The answer is yes. One example relates…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Department of Homeland Security. (2003). "Executive Order (EO-13284): Amendment of Executive Orders, and Other Actions, in Connection with the Establishment of the Department of Homeland Security." Retrieved March 11, 2012, from http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/releases/press_release_0072.shtm.

Executive Order 9066. "The President Authorizes Japanese Relocation." Retrieved March 12,

2012, from  http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5154 .

FindLaw. "Williams v. State of North Carolina, 317 U.S. 287 (1942)." Retrieved March 12,
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Rene Clair Its Specific Value

Words: 1069 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51756984

First was the portrayal of the Indians in the nursery rhyme. Their deaths were violent, and they certainly portrayed as minorities, and how minorities were viewed at the time. In addition, as the guests began to group together and form alliances, it seemed the film could be referring to the alliances of the Allies against Hitler and Japan in 1945. There were different groups forming alliances in the film, and they could have represented the alliances of Britain and the United States against Germany, Italy, and Japan. There were also veiled insinuations about other races, such as when one of the guests comments that the Butler could not be the killer, because the "shape of his head" indicated he was not smart enough to come up with the idea. This could have referred to the Japanese, who were consistently portrayed as buck-toothed, slant-eyed, black-haired caricatures in the newspapers of the…… [Read More]

References

And Then There Were None. Dir. Rene Clair. Perf. Barry Fitzgerald, Walter Huston, Louis Hayward, and Roland Young. Twentieth Century Fox, 1945.
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Executive Orders Abuse Power The Best Known

Words: 977 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80251534

Executive Orders Abuse Power?

The best known directives consist of executive orders and presidential proclamations, but there are many other documents that have a similar functional and effects. educed to their basic core, presidential directives are merely written, rather than oral, instructions or declarations that are handed down by the President. Authority for these directives must come from either the Constitution or statutory delegations. Yet the President's authority to issue directives goes beyond express language in the Constitution (Gaziano, 2001).

The President's authority to issue executive orders is limited by the extent of his powers and by other power given to Congress. If the President's power is derived from a constitutional grant of power, Congress remains free to reverse or adjust the fundamental authority. Congress also has some leeway in defining the procedures the President must carry out in the exercise of that power, even though there are some constitutional…… [Read More]

References

Executive order (United States). (2012). Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/topic/Executive_order_%28United_States%29

Executive Orders and Presidential Directives. (2001). Retrieved from http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/judiciary/hju72142.000/hju72142_0.htm

Gaziano, T. (2001). The Use and Abuse of Executive Order and Other Presidential

Directives. Retrieved from http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2001/02/the-use-
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San Francisco

Words: 855 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49837274

history of town descriptioins of important locations landmarks or special places government/population/weather/education entertainment/festivals/sporting events pictures/map other information of interest

The European began their exploration of the an Francisco Bay Area and its various islands in 1592, but the an Francisco Bay was not mapped until 1775. ir Francis Drake visited an Francisco in 1579. The Presidio of an Francisco and Mission Dolores were founded in 1776. In the 1820's ships from Boston first came to barter along the san Francisco coast, and in 1846, members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day aints arrived and settled in an Francisco. In 1848, gold was first discovered in California, which brought many other people from all over the United tates westward, especially in 1849, in search of quick riches. The population of an Francisco and its surrounding areas increased quickly after that. The terrible an Francisco earthquake and fire occurred in…… [Read More]

San Francisco is well-known for entertainment. It has its own symphony; its own ballet company, and its own opera company, as well as many theaters and cinemas. Other cultural entertainments include museums and lectures throughout the city. Some well-known festivals are the Martin Luther King Birthday Celebration held each year on January 9; the Chinese New year Celebration on January 17; the Independent Film Festival held each February; and the annual March 17 St. Patrick's Day Parade.

San Francisco also has many sporting events, featuring major league football, baseball, and basketball leagues. Soccer is also popular, both to play and as a spectator sport. San Francisco has football, baseball, and basketball stadiums. It is the home of famous sports teams, including the San Francisco Giants and the San Francisco 49 ers.

The city of San Francisco is very scenic in many ways, and some beautiful pictures of San Francisco, both historical and current, may be found on the website A Timeline of San Francisco History,  http://www.zpub.com/sf/history/sfh2.html , visited December 2, 2004. Many maps of San Francisco, both large overall maps and smaller maps of various sections of the city, can be found on the internet. Among these are an expandable map of either the whole city or parts of the city on the website Map of San Francisco, visited December 1, 2004, at  http://sfheart.com/mapofsan.html . All in all, San Francisco is a beautiful, scenic, exciting city, definitely worth visiting and getting to know.
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Predominantly Latino Gangs Mara Salvatrucha

Words: 17380 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44825476



Government

Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.

Importance of the Study

The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…… [Read More]

References

Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.

Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,

2006 from  http://www.CNSNews.com .

Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
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British Counter-Intelligence Did British Counter-Intelligence

Words: 1679 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82487495

Earlier in this paper it was revealed that a small unit within the Security Service was originally doing the work; but soon the espionage unit had grown to more than 1,400. On page 848 Major Vernon Kell began -- what later became an out-of-control behemoth organization -- with just "a room, a desk and a filing cabinet"; when Kell asked for a clerk to assist him, the bureaucracy was surprised that "…such extravagance was necessary" (Hiley, 848).

This juxtaposition is by way of explaining how, as the fear of the Germans expanded, and as the list of suspected spies grew enormously huge, and paranoia became so powerful that peace groups and labor groups came under suspicion, civil liberties were shoved aside. On page 853 Hiley notes that prior to October 1911, in order to open a letter that was passing through the Royal Mails, a warrant had to be signed…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hiley, Nicholas. (1985). The Failure of British Counter-Espionage against Germany, 1907-

1914. The Historical Journal, 28(4), 835-862.

Hiley, Nicholas. (1986). Counter-Espionage and Security in Great Britain during the First

World War. The English Historical Review, 101(400), 635-670.