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Yet, these were small amenities that did not mask the horrible conditions of the camps very well.
Most of those within the camps were American citizens, and should not have had their liberties taken away with such blatant disregard for upholding American principles of freedom. Many Japanese-Americans, who were born in the U.S., paid taxes, and even bought war bonds, were treated like criminals during the relocation, "The Japanese-Americans suffered severe economic losses, personal humiliation and, in some cases, death, due to this relocation."
They were fingerprinted and arrested, forced to suffer humiliation, and not told an exact reason why for over forty-five years.
There had been extreme prejudice on the West Coast since as early as 1936.
Therefore, many Japanese-Americans felt as if though they were being placed in a position of second class citizenship. Many had their lives completely stolen from them, "These people were forced to abandon…
Roosevelt, Franklin D. Executive Order 9066: The President Authorizes Japanese Relocation. The White House 1942. Available from http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5154 . 2 Nov 2009.
Relocation of Japanese-Americans. War Relocation Authority. May 1943. Available at http://www.lib.washington.edu/exhibits/harmony/Documents/wrapam.html . 2 Nov 2009.
Takaki, Ronald. Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian-Americans. Penguin Books. 1989.
Japanese internment camps are a dark period of American history. The forced incarceration of Americans of Japanese descent was based solely on racism and a culture of fear. During World War II, Americans also counted Italians and Japanese as their archrivals but of these groups, it was only Japanese-Americans that were rounded up and placed into concentration camps. Just as African-American soldiers could not serve alongside their white counterparts, Japanese-American soldiers also had their own army units. Even before the creation of the internment camps, Japanese-Americans did not enjoy equal protection under the law, in spite of the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution.
One of the reasons for the widespread discrimination against persons of Japanese descent was competition over low-wage jobs. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, white labor organizations lobbied to exclude Asians (not just Japanese but also Chinese) laborers from working on the railroads. However,…
The provision that persons cannot be deprived of liberty without due process of law takes precedence over the war powers." Both authors therefore agree that the American Constitution prohibits the unwarranted detention of citizens based on their ethnicity alone.
Only the Chicago Daily Tribune article uses the type of language befitting an editorial. For instance, the author uses terms like "prejudice" and "hysteria" to describe the issue. The Los Angeles Times article necessarily avoids strong language like this, and yet still manages to convince readers that the internment camps were legally and ethically wrong. The author achieves a subtle editorial commentary in the selection of quotations. For example, Justice Roberts is quoted as saying that W.R.A. centers are "euphemism for concentration camps" and along with other dissenting justices on the Supreme Court "denied there was any evidence that exclusion of the Japanese was a military measure." In the Chicago Daily…
internment camps for the Japanese that were set up and implemented by president Franklin D. oosevelt. The writer explores the history leading up to the decision and the decision itself. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor the American public was outraged and stunned. American citizens had lived with a false sense of security for many years that the soil of the United States was off limits. The Civil War and the American evolution were long in the past and residents believed that the world at large would be to afraid to attack a nation as strong and powerful as the United States. The attack came without warning, killing thousands who were within its grasp. When the smoke had cleared and the bombs had stopped, the nation turned a fearful eye to the white house for guidance. At the time the president was…
Japanese camps http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jainternment.org
EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066 http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pbs.org%2Fchildofcamp%2Fhistory%2Feo9066.html
Early Implementation of the Mass Removal http://www.densho.org/learning/spice/default.asp http://www.imdiversity.com/Article_Detail.asp?Article_ID=3228
Japanese-Americans in the West Coast lived peacefully before President Roosevelt issued the Executive Order 9066 in February 1942 that condemned them to misery in internment camps in the deserts of California. Those who owned property had to sell them. Some had to give up their belongings. The Japanese-Americans could not wage any form of resistance because this would be suppressed by brute military force. Nobody would be foolhardy enough to contemplate that. The 20-year-olds were adversely affected despite the fact that some of them were later allowed to go to college, work in factories, and serve in the United States military. Life in the camps was heart-wrenching.
The young Japanese-Americans conscripted into the military had divided loyalty especially after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbour. America was their country of birth and Japan was the country of their parents and ancestors. The anti-Japanese sentiments that were aired after the Pearl Harbour…
Internment of Japanese-Americans in orld ar II
hen the national interests are threatened, history has shown that American presidents will take extraordinary measures to protect them, even if this means violating the U.S. Constitution. For example, the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act enacted immediately following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, watered down civil liberties for American citizens. Likewise, President Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus during the Civil ar just as President Franklin D. Roosevelt did during the outset of orld ar II following the Japanese sneak attack on American forces at Pearl Harbor when tens of thousands of Japanese-American citizens were interred for the duration of the war. Despite the compelling circumstances that were involved, this paper will show that the internment of Japanese-Americans during orld ar II was not only unconscionable, it was also a fragrant violation of the U.S. Constitution and should not have taken…
Crockett, Rosemary F. (2002). "America's Invisible Gulag: A Biography of German-American
Internment and Exclusion in World War II." The Oral History Review 29(2): 191-193.
Flamiano, Dolores. (2010). "Japanese-American Internment in Popular Magazines: Race,
Citizenship, and Gender in World War II Photojournalism." Journalism History 36(1):
Jeanne records her personal feelings and impressions, but also interweaves historical facts with her reconstructed internal monologue so the reader learns about the home front during World War II as well more about Jeanne's adolescence. Seeing the Japanese internment camps through the eyes of a child highlights the sweeping and irrational nature of President Roosevelt's dictate, and knowing that Jeanne's stories are true, not a fictionalized account of the camps, forces the reader to confront this episode in American history without denial or excuses. The camps were closed after the Supreme Court declared them illegal in 1944, but the camps lived on in the hearts of the interned -- the spoiled food, the constant sickness from the filthy latrines, and most of all, the reminder that the American government had declared Japanese-Americans lesser citizens, solely because of their race. They were seen a lesser immigrants in a land…
Psychological & Cultural Experience of the Victims of Japanese Internment
Executive Order 9066 was signed by President Roosevelt on February 19, 1942 ordering all Japanese-Americans and Americans of Japanese descent out of the Western United States and into "internment" camps in the Central region of the United States.
A public law was subsequently passed by Congress ratifying the Executive Order; Congress did not even deliberate on the passage of the law.
One hundred and twenty thousand people were ultimately incarcerated in ten internment camps without due process of law.
There, they were locked up behind barbed wire and lived in shacks unfit for human living. They were fed only at a sustenance level, and had no idea when or if they would return home.
They lost their jobs, their homes, their possessions, their pets, and their liberty -- not because of the hostile actions of a foreign power, but due…
December 3, 2002. http://www.pbs.org/childofcamp/project/index.html .
Ina, Satsuki Dr. "Symposium Comments: Tule Lake Reunion Symposium."
Internment History." PBS: Children of the Camps. PBS Organization. December 3, 2002. http://www.pbs.org/childofcamp/project/remarks.html .
... further, that it would be only a question of time until the entire Pacific coast region would be controlled by the Japanese.' Yet Japan's ultimate aim was not limited to California or the Pacific Coast but was global domination achieved through a race war. 'It is the determined purpose of Japan,' the report stated, 'to amalgamate the entire colored races of the world against the Nordic or white race, with Japan at the head of the coalition, for the purpose of wrestling away the supremacy of the white race and placing such supremacy in the colored peoples under the dominion of Japan.'
The presence of sizeable numbers of persons of Japanese origin in California and other Western states was seen as but the beginnings of a Japanese attempt to not merely expand territorially into the United States, but to literally substitute the existing racial order with a new scheme…
Asumah, Seth N., and Matthew Todd Bradley. "Making Sense of U.S. Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism." The Western Journal of Black Studies 25, no. 2 (2001): 82+.
Chang, Gordon H., ed. Morning Glory, Evening Shadow: Yamato Ichihashi and His Internment Writings, 1942-1945. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997.
Julie Otsuka's novel hen the Emperor was Divine explores the realities of life in the Japanese internment camps in the American southwest during orld ar Two. The novel's historical accuracy can be proven by comparing the details in the lives of those who actually did live in the internment camps, as well as with the actual executive orders and decrees used to institutionalize racism in America. The state-sanctioned racism against Asian-Americans during the internment camp phase was of course not an isolated incident, as it paralleled other types of institutionalized racism including the treatment of African-Americans and Native Americans. Moreover, the internment camps represented a culmination of anti-Asian measures. There was historical precedent for the internment camps as a specific manifestation of anti-Asian fears.
One of the earliest legalized forms of racism against Asians was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was a…
Heller, Steven. "The Artistic History of American Anti-Asian Racism." The Atlantic, 20 Feb, 2014, http://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2014/02/the-artistic-history-of-american-anti-asian-racism/283962/
History Matters. "Executive Order 9066: The President Authorizes Japanese Relocation." Accessed 8 Dec, 2014, http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5154
OCA National Office. "The Chinese Exclusion Acts: A Racist Chapter in U.S. Civil Rights History." Accessed 8 Dec, 2014, http://ocaseattle.org/2012/05/21/the-chinese-exclusion-acts-a-racist-chapter-in-u-s-civil-rights-history/
Otsuka, Julie. When the Emperor Was Divine. New York: Random House, 2002.
Gradually, though, the war effort eroded the practical and theoretical underpinnings of racism in the United States. The war stimulated the domestic economy, particularly in the industrial and manufacturing sectors. Jobs were opening up rapidly, and because so many white men were fighting the war, many black men were available to work. "For black workers orld ar II opened up opportunities that had never before existed," (O'Neil 1). The same was true for women, as the war left gaping holes in the labor market that needed to be filled in untraditional ways. At the same time as the war exposed American prejudice, "orld ar II gave many minority Americans -- and women of all races -- an economic and psychological boost." (Harris 1). The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded, and overall, the war "jump-started the civil rights movement" in the United States (Harris 1; "Identify the impact of…
Harris, Michael. "How WWII Affected America's Minorities." Los Angeles Times. 13 June, 2000. Retrieved online: http://articles.latimes.com/2000/jun/13/news/cl-40272
"Identify the impact of World War II on minority groups in America." (U.S. History)." Retrieved online: http://share.ehs.uen.org/node/6217
O'Neil, William L. "Minorities and Women During World War II." Retrieved online: http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/WWII_Women/RA/NCraig/Minorities.html
Takaki, Ronald. Double Victory. New York: Time Warner/Little Brown.
The advent of World War II saw and end of the period of economic turmoil and massive unemployment known as the Great Depression, and thus was a time of increased opportunity for many of the nation's citizens and immigrants, but the experiences of some groups during and following the war were far less positive than others. Some of this was due to the different histories that different immigrant groups had in the country, as well as the different roles that various nations played in the war itself, but often the source for the treatment of different ethnic groups was all too similar and all too simple -- racism and ethnocentrism that made the white Americans "true" citizens while others were labeled as outsiders, and those that didn't belong.
The Japanese suffered the worst during World War II; even families that had been in the country for generations and many decades…
Library of Congress. (2008). "African-American odyssey." Accessed 29 October 2010. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aointro.html
Morgan, T. (1995). "Native Americans in world war II." Accessed 29 October 2010. http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/NAWWII.html
Takaki, R. (2008). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America (Rev. ed.) Boston: Little Brown Company.
Vogel, R. (2004). "Stolen birthright: The U.S. conquest and exploitation of the Mexican people." Accessed 29 October 2010. http://www.houstonculture.org/hispanic/ conquest5.html
1. Describe Ben Kurokis early childhood and young adulthood. Be sure to include location and how he eventually joined the military.
The documentary film Most Honorable Son is about Nebraska-born Ben Kuroki, the first Japanese-American war hero. Kurokis early childhood was spent in a small farming community in Nebraska. He did well in school, but if it were not for the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Kuroki might not have pursued a military career. The bombing of Pearl Harbor inspired the entire Kuroki family to fight for their country, the United States, partly driven out of shame and a need to prove their honor and loyalty. Kurokis father encouraged him and several of his brothers to enlist, but they were turned away due to growing anti-Japanese sentiments. Eventually they were able to enlist, and Kuroki was assigned to a post in England. He pursued a specialty as a B-series air pilot…
While America prides herself on her multiculturalism and acceptance of those from all lifestyles and cultures that is not always the case, as the readings and personal experiences clearly indicate.
America has been multicultural or multiethnic for centuries, white Americans still are the majority in most areas, and their ideals, beliefs, and even prejudices dominate all of society. To fit in, immigrants must assimilate to the predominate way of thinking, acting, and feeling, even if it is against their own cultural values and beliefs. Thus, they may actually have to engage in cultural pluralism, or acting one way with their own ethnic members while acting another way in white society. There are numerous examples of this every day in society, such as the encounter the author of "A Different Mirror" had with the cabdriver. onald Takaki's family had probably been in the country longer than the cabdriver's had; yet the…
Author "Chapter 10: Japanese-Americans."
Chapter 11: "Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, and Asian-Indian-Americans."
In the White Man's Image. Prod. Christine Lesiak and Matthew Jones. American Experience, 1993.
Ly, Kuong C. "Asian: Just a Simple Word." Human Architecutre: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge. Vol. II, Issue 2, Fall 2003/Spring 2004. 119-124.
His painting (social realism) called "Approaching Storm" is a remarkable portrayal of a man walking up a hill with a bucket of water and two donkeys waiting to be told what to do. In the distance is a menacing storm. The website (Twecht.tripod) says that this farm could possibly have been a beautiful place to live at one point in time…but now it is gray and windy…all life in the painting ceases to exist" (www.twecht.tripod.com).
Dorothea Lange is among the best known of all the photographers and artists that contributed to the social realism movement during the Great Depression. Lange's most famous photograph, "Migrant Mother," shows a worried woman with two "tousle-haired children clinging to her, their faces turned away from the camera" (u, 2010, p. 1). A third child is asleep in the woman's arms. That photo -- taken in a migrant camp in California -- is…
Archives. "Portfolio: Dorothea Lange." Retrieved Dec. 7, 2010, from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/picturing_the_century/text/port_lange_text.html .
Illinois State Museum. "The Federal Art Project (FAP)" Retrieved Dec. 8, 2010, from http://www.museum.state.il.us/muslink/art/htmls/de_FAPhist.html . (2010).
The History Place. "Migrant Farm Families." Retrieved Dec. 8, 2010, from http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/lang/index.html. (2010).
Twecht Tripod. "Thomas Hart Benton: Approaching Storm, 1938." Retrieved Dec. 8, 2010,
Ansel Adams: An Analysis of the Importance of America's Most Popular Photographer
Of all the great black-and-white photographers, Ansel Adams was the blackest and the whitest. -- Kenneth Brower, 2002
Today, Ansel Adams is widely regarded as the most important landscape photographer of the 20th century, and is perhaps the most best known and beloved photographer in the history of the United States. As a firm testament to his talents and innovations, the popularity of his work has only increased over the years following his death in 1984 (Szarkowski 1-2). This photographer's most important work concerned the last remaining vestiges of untouched wilderness in the nation, particularly in the national parks and other protected areas of the American est; in addition, Adams was an early and outspoken leader of the conservation movement (Szarkowski 2). This paper provides an overview of Adams and his historical significance, followed by a discussion of…
Adams, Ansel. "The Artist and the Ideals of Wilderness." In Wilderness: America's Living
Heritage, David Brower (Ed.). San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1961.
--- -- . Letters and Images 1916-1984, Mary S. Alinder and Andrea G. Stillman (Eds.). Boston:
Little, Brown, 1988.
The court pointed out that the reason next friend status is observed to occur almost exclusively among prisoner's relatives is because a family member typically decides to step in when the competence of the prisoner is in question. The Court also argued that this case was easily distinguished from Hamdi (2002) because Newman already had a preexisting relationship with Padilla.
The government also argued that the District Court of the Southern District of New York did not have jurisdiction, since the prisoner was currently housed in Charleston, South Carolina (Padilla ex rel. Newman v. Bush, 2002). The Court rejected this argument in addition to making five other decisions: (1) Secretary of Defense umsfeld was the proper respondent to the habeas petition, (2) the Court had jurisdiction over umsfeld, (3) the President is authorized to designate Padilla an enemy combatant (without judging its merits) and therefore detain him for the duration…
Allen, Scott, Chaffee, Devon, and Hashemian, Farnoosh. (2007). Leave No Marks: Enhanced Interrogation Techniques and the Risk of Criminality. Physicians for Human Rights and Human Rights First. Retrieved 18 May 2013 from https://s3.amazonaws.com/PHR_Reports/leave-no-marks.pdf
ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union). (2012). Padilla v. Rumsfeld -- Legal Documents. ACLU.org. Retrieved 20 May 2013 from http://www.aclu.org/national-security/padilla-v-rumsfeld-legal-documents .
Beattie, Michael and Stevens, Lisa Y. (2003). An open debate on United States citizens designated as enemy combatants: Where do we go from here? Maryland Law Review, 62, 975-1027.
CCR (Center for Constitutional Rights). (n.d.). Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (Amicus): Synopsis. CCRJustice.org. Retrieved 18 May 2013 from http://ccrjustice.org/ourcases/past-cases/hamdi-v.-rumsfeld-%28amicus%29 .
The Japanese internment camps are but one manifestation of historic intolerance in the United States. The ghettoization of Jews and other perceived undesirable European groups during the early 20th century also proves that many American urban centers were founded on principles of intolerance. The geographic and cultural landscape of the United States continues to reflect intolerance: in the ways many if not most American cities remain visibly segregated into ethnic enclaves, and also how poverty and race are inextricably linked. Differential educational outcomes and income disparity are some of the hallmark signs that intolerance has become institutionalized in America.
"Since colonial times, Americans have used hatred as a common bond," (eid, et al. 2008, p. 7). Hatred has permitted the creation of social and cultural barriers that prevent passage from one social stratum to another. An in-group/out-group mentality continues to inform American culture. In-group/out-group consciousness has created a plethora of…
Reid, C. Toth, Gordon A. Crew, Catherine E. Burton, Pearson Education, Inc. (2008).
Wa Changed Eveything," authos J.L. Ganatstein and Desmond Moton ague that the Second Wold Wa benefited Canada and Canadian society. Stating that "The Second Wold Wa was the one good wa," Ganatstein and Moton claim that Wold Wa Two impoved the Canadian economy, impoved Canada's position as a wold powe, and ceated a moe just and egalitaian society (323). The aticle is divided into seveal sections, including "What the Wa Changed fo Canada," "Canada and the Wold," and "Canada and Canadians." In the fist section, "What the Wa Changed fo Canada," the authos focus mainly on the Canadian economy, noting "The Second Wold Wa saw a quantum leap in the extent and complexity of munitions poduction," (324). In the aticle's second section, the authos descibe how Wold Wa Two alteed Canada's ole in intenational politics. In the section entitled "Canada and Canadians," the authos ague that the Second Wold Wa…
references to source material and the article contains no reference documentation.
Furthermore, the authors do not discuss exceptions to their argument. The most glaring omission from the essay is the Japanese internment camps. Although Canada had "loosened up" and became more tolerant in general, the nation also demonstrated great flaws in the way it dealt with social and economic situations. Not everyone benefited from the war. Therefore, "The War Changed Everything" glorifies World War Two without admitting that not everything about the war was wonderful.
Political Party Machines and Immigration in 19th Century America
After a bitterly contested evolution ended in the liberation of England's former colonies, the fledgling American nation embarked on the precarious path towards a style of democratic governance that had never been enacted on so large a scale. While the latter part of the 18th century was defined by political idealism, as exemplified by contributions made by our nation's Founding Fathers, the 19th century soon gave rise to an insidious process of power consolidation and voter exploitation. The egalitarian political parties envisioned during the heady days of American Independence devolved into institutional party machines, typified by widespread corruption, fraudulent activities, autocratic rule, and a blatant disregard for the foundational importance of democracy. The most effective political party machines during the 19th century were ran ruthlessly by so-called "bosses," or political titans who maintained control over their jurisdiction through a combination of…
Judd, D., & Swanstrom, T. (2008). City politics. (8th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Education.
Discursive construction refers to the ways identities related to gender, ethnicity, nationality, race, or any other parameter, are constructed through discourse. Discourse implies relationship and communication, and it can also relate to power differentials. For example, Narayan (1995) refers to the "self serving collaboration between elements of colonial rights discourse and care discourse," especially related to the "white man's burden" type scenarios (p. 133). The colonizer had once framed colonization as doing the Other a favor, by "promoting the welfare of the colonized" out of a belief in presumed superiority. Thus, the discourse creates a superior/inferior binary.
Narayan, U. (1995). Colonialism and its Others. Hypatia 10(2).
Subjectivity is embedded in postcolonial discourse and identity formation. In Black Skin White Masks, the author shows how black identities are constructed subjectively as opposed to actively because the colonizer projects values and ethics onto the Other. The poetry of Derek Walcott also…
Abdulhadi, R. (2003). Where is home? Radical History Review 86.
Yosso, T.J. (2005). Whose culture has capital? Race, Ethnicity, and Education 8(1).
All because of a racially fueled hatred that exaggerated the nature of the merciless war. This image of the cruelty and heartless Japanese is what eventually allowed the American people and government to justify the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The racist attitudes clearly clouded the United State's commitment to defending Democracy, both abroad and within its own borders. One of the worst examples of this merciless prejudice was the removal of the Japanese from cities along the West Coast in Executive Order. The internment of hundreds of thousands of Japanese-Americans clearly threatened the mage of democracy here at home, in the U.S. borders. The research suggests that "after the American entry into the war against Japan, the U.S. military imposed curfews and other restrictions on persons of Japanese descent living on the West Coast, including both naturalized native American citizens, and eventually 'excluded' mot Japanese-Americans from certain Western…
Daniels, Roger. "Executive Order No. 9066." Modern American Poetry. University of Illinois. Web. http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/haiku/9066.htm
Dower, John. War without Mercy: Pacific War. Random House Digital. 2012.
Lie, John. Multiethnic Japan. Harvard University Press. 2004.
Primus, Richard A. The American Language of Rights. Cambridge University Press. 1999.
' This vague, amorphous threat posed by Japanese-Americans to the West Coast, of course, was not similarly seen in the faces of Caucasian German-Americans, against whose nation the U.S. was also in military conflict. As eloquently expressed in the dissent by Justice Murphy: "No adequate reason is given for the failure to treat these Japanese-Americans on an individual basis by holding investigations and hearings to separate the loyal from the disloyal, as was done in the case of persons of German and Italian ancestry" (4). This was unconstitutional racism depriving citizens of due process, not based in any concrete intelligence information.
Interestingly enough, during the war many Japanese-Americans served in and died for the American military forces, despite the fact that their entire race was seen as potential traitors, according to the conception of the U.S. military. The dissent of Justice Roberts expressed this sense of injustice: "On the contrary,…
This sort of behavior and scapegoating was the intellectual and cultural "easy way out" for many Americans looking for solace from the events taking place thousands of miles away, affecting the entire country. In the fog of war, as writer Barbre (2000) puts it, mistakes are made and generalizations are easily placed into existence. hen Americans were confused and scared, they looked to the easiest form of comfort, the alienation of the outsider or the "other."
Sexual Projection and the Internment of the Japanese-Americans
riter Renteln (1995) explores the role that sexual projection had in the dealing with Japanese-Americans in internment camps during II. This can be directly related to the themes within the book Snow Falling of Cedars due to the fact that Americans used their fear of the outsider (Japanese and Japanese-Americans) to project their own fears and misgivings about their sexuality and feelings of inadequacy. As author…
Barbre, C. (2000). "Review: Films: The Straight Story, Snow Falling on Cedars."
Journal of Religion and Health. Vol. 39, No. 4. pp. 383-385.
Renteln, A.D. (1995). "A Psychohistorical Analysis of the Japanese-American
Internment." Human Rights Quarterly. Vol. 17, No. 4 pp. 618-648.
There are limitations on the destruction of wiretap records. The numbers of crimes for which wiretaps can be used, the types of judges who can authorize taps have both however, been expanded.
What Does the Constitution Say?
The United States Constitution states many principles of constitutional law that must be present in for Democracy to truly exist. Democracy is characterized by freedom and liberty to think and believe individually and the freedom to express those beliefs through speech that does not trod upon or offend others. The travesties against justice n committed in the name of Democracy is an affront to all that was intended, fought, and died in attaining in America.
Freedom, liberty and justice not only in America indeed, for the entire world. ut there are limitations within the realm of freedom and justice, for it is not freedom or justice in the forcing of what is termed…
Preamble to the Constitution of the United States (nd) Legal Information Institute [Online] available at; http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.preamble.html
Dirck, Brian R. (2002) Posterity's blush: civil liberties, property rights, and property confiscation in the confederacy. Civil War History; 9/1/2002 [Online] available at;
validity of the two official U.S. government reasons: 1) military necessity and 2) protection of the Japanese-Americans, for the imprisonment of Japanese-American and Japanese Issei during orld ar II. Be specific in your reasoning and examples.
One of the most shocking decisions in the history of American injustices is the official, legalized internment of Japanese-Americans and Japanese Issei during orld ar II. hile Americans fought a war abroad for democracy, against the racist tyrant Adolph Hitler of Germany, back home Japanese-Americans and legal Japanese resident aliens were deprived of their liberty and property, simply because of their racial and ethnic heritage. The official reasons given for the internment were military necessity and the protection of the Japanese-Americans. The first statement of 'military necessity,' or national security, as a justification for internment, implied that Japanese-American and Japanese Issei was more 'suspect' than other Americans. It was assumed these Asian-Americans had divided…
Jones, Jacqueline Peter Wood, Thomas Borstelmann, Elaine May, and Vicky Ruiz. (2005) Created Equal: A Social and Political History of the United States. New York: Pearson Education.
Martis, Nancy H. (1994) "Illegal Aliens. Ineligibility for public services." California Journal#187. Retrieved 29 May 2005 at http://www.calvoter.org/archive/94general/props/187.html
Takaki, Robert. (1998) Strangers From a Distant Shore: A History of Asian-Americans. Boston: Little & Brown.
War & Human Rights Abuse: Parallelisms between Japanese-Americans in WWII and the U.S.-Iraq War (Gulf War II)
Among nations of varying cultures and societies, maintaining satisfactory political relations is a challenge. This is primarily due to differences among leaders and societies that make up this nation; thus, as a result of this diversity, it is inevitable that international relations among countries of the world may experience conflicts and antagonism with each other.
Declarations of war are one manifestation of conflicts and disagreements between two or more nations. Examples of these political conflicts are the First and Second World Wars, where devastation of the physical geography of countries and millions of deaths had occurred. Human history has, over time, illustrated how individual differences can potentially lead to bigger conflicts, thereby resulting to devastating, even deadly, results.
However, a far more important issue that should be focused on during times of war…
Cheney questions release of more photos." 11 May 2004. The New York Times Online. Available at http://www.nytimes.com .
Executive Order 9066." (1942). Available at National Archives and Records Administration.
Patriot Act and Constitutional Freedom
Thomas Jefferson said: 'The price of freedom is constant vigilance.' Unfortunately in a large nation dedicated to the individual freedom and liberty of all its citizens, the only time when the nation learns that is has not been vigilant enough is when a person, or group of persons take advantage of that freedom, and abuse the liberty of others in order to further their own destructive purposes. The tragedy of 9-11 is the most recent case in point of how a nation can take its freedom and liberty for granted, which ultimately makes a doorway for others to tear down that which has taken over 200 years to build, protect, and defend.
When our country endured similar acts of threat or war, such as the bombing of Pearl Harbor, or the expansion of communism into the Western Hemisphere in Cuba, the government has oven reacted…
The Alien and Sedtion acts. (2001) Folwells Laws of the U.S. Early America.com Accessed 1 Jan 2004. Available from http://earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/milestones/sedition/ .
Dempsey, Jim. (2003, Jan 3) Cyber Security. Center for Democracy and Security. Accessed 1 Jan 2004. Available at http://www.cdt.org/security/000404amending.shtml
Henderson, N. (2002) The Patriot Act's impact on the government's ability to conduct electronic surveillance of ongoing domestic communications. Duke Law Journal, Vol. 52.
Japanese-Americans Internment Camps During World War II. Special Collections Department, J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah. Accessed 1 Jan 2003. Available from http://www.lib.utah.edu/spc/photo/9066/9066.htm
Because, clearly, we committed acts of terrorism in dropping the bombs on Japan. The intent was to create a massive destruction to horrific that the victims could not help but surrender without further fight - which is, of course, what happened. Our new brand of terrorism is, truly, the only effective manner that certain people have of waging a war. When you do not have the technology or the resources of the largest nations in the world, but you do know how to make and plant a bomb that is likely to kill civilians and military targets as well - do you simply roll over and surrender because you might kill innocent people? If that was the case, then the United States would have never been able to wage war with anyone using bombs and missiles and rockets - the war could have only been waged by spies and snipers.…
Alperovitz, Gar. The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb. New York: Vintage, 1996.
On December 7, 1941, the nation of Japan attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. This began the official participation of the United States in orld ar II. hile armed forces were overseas fighting the nation's enemies, the United States government was trying to decide whether or not any group of people within America itself could be working for the other side. Out of this fear came one of the most atrocious acts the United States have ever perpetrated against its own citizens. Fearing internal enemies, the American government signed an order wherein anyone of Japanese descent could be questioned, arrested, detained, and interred at several camps throughout the American est. It was a policy of legal racism that served no good for the government but to instill in the people the knowledge that the government can make mistakes and it is possible to lose one's civil rights…
Burton, J., Farrell, M. And R. Lord. Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War II
Japanese-American Relocation Sites. 2000. Print.
Okubo, Mine. Citizen 13660. Seattle: University of Washington, 1983. Print.
The story of The Divine ind is one that is both poignantly sad and achingly beautiful. The book is both historical fiction and doomed romance in the vein of Romeo and Juliet where although the two youths are obviously very much in love, circumstances beyond their control conspire to keep the boy and girl apart. In Gary Disher's novel, the Second orld ar forces the lovers apart because the girl is sent to an internment camp while her Caucasian love is allowed to remain free. Even before their official separation, the prejudices of those around them were forcing a wedge between the two young people. In 1946 in the city of Broome, Australia young Hart Penrose is reflecting on his past relationship with Mitsy Senosuke, the daughter of Japanese immigrants. In his youth, Hart fell in love with Mitsy, whose father worked for Hart's father as a pearl…
Disher, Gary 2003, The Divine Wind. Scholastic.
As fascism grew in Italy, it became increasingly contentious among Italians in foreign countries, including the United States. Like the Japanese, even though thousands of Italian-Americans were fighting in the war, the government designated "all unnaturalized Italians as 'alien enemies.' This designation mandated certain registration requirements and imposed limitations on travel and property ownership. The stigma struck hardest at the first generation, which supplied the greatest number of aliens" (O'Brien and Parsons 66). However, the government did not ship off the Italians to detention centers "for their own safety," and they were able to keep their jobs, their homes, and their dignity. Interestingly, while the Italians had complaints about their treatment by the American government, their reaction to the war was to become more patriotic and "American." Many Italian-American organizations changed their names from Italian to English, and many removed the flags of Italy from their meeting halls, replacing them…
Honey, Maureen, ed. Bitter Fruit: African-American Women in World War II. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1999.
O'Brien, Kenneth Paul, and Lynn Hudson Parsons, eds. The Home-Front War World War II and American Society. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995.
Uchida, Yoshiko. Journey to Topaz. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971.
Desert Exile: The Uprooting of a Japanese-American Family.
This report analyzes regionalism in several contexts as they pertain to the movie Snow Falling on Cedars. The movie is pervasively filled with considerations relating to regionalism, outsiders vs. insiders, how insiders and outsiders mesh and the very dicey results that can ensue, how all of this plays off of national and international situations and conflicts and so forth. This movie establishes that many unique and different things can influence who interacts with who, how and why and the things that impact all of this are not just limited to race and nationality.
Movie Setting & Synopsis
The year and country this film is set in has a ton to do with why people feel the way they do and why there is such a bred animosity towards Kabuo, to the point that his guilt is almost assumed and someone very important in the movie actually withholds information that…
"Old Regionalism, New Regionalism, And Envision Utah: Making Regionalism Work." Harvard
Law Review 118.7 (2005): 2291-2313. Academic Search Premier. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.
Goodfellow, Samuel. "Fascism And Regionalism In Interwar Alsace." National Identities 12.2
(2010): 133-145. Academic Search Premier. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.
Self-Efficacy: A Definition
Social Cognitive Theory
Triangulation Data analysis
Problems for the researcher
Data Analysis and Related Literature review.
Comparison of data with other literature in the field.
Efficacy, Self-esteem, Confidence and Experience
arriers to use
Co-oping and Project design.
Teacher Integration Education.
Meta-evaluation of data and related literature.
Data Analysis and Comparison
Recommendation for Further Research
Data Review Report
Teacher efficacy in the classroom is facilitated by a number of different factors for different professions. However, in the case of the teaching classroom, and adapting to new technology, andura's belief that the environment and the person's attitude toward / interactions with the environment are reciprocally affective.
andura (1993) identified 4 specific ways that self-efficacy is formed:
Through cognitive experiences
Through motivational experiences
Their affective interactions with environment
Through selectional experiences and choices.
Bibliography of the literature dealing with teacher training in the uses of the computer in education. (ERIC No. ED 260-696)
Bushman, B. And Baumeister, R. (1998, July) Threatened Egotism, Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Direct and Misplaced Aggression: Does Self-Love or Self-Hate Lead to Violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Campus Computing Project. (1999). The continuing challenge of instructional integration and user support. Encino, CA: Retrieved November 21, 2003 from the World Wide Web: http://www.campuscomputing.net/
Christensen, R. (2002, 22 June) Effects of technology integration education on the attitudes of teachers and students.Journal of Research on Technology in Education.
Clifford, M., Kim, A. McDonald, B. (1988 Fall) "Responses to Failure as Influenced by Task Attribution, Outcome Attribution, and Failure Tolerance." The Journal of Experimental Education. Volume 57, Number 1. Pages 19-35.
S. citizenship (Bloemraad 2002). Given the ongoing need for qualified recruits by the U.S. armed forces, it just makes sense to determine the extent of enlistment in the armed forces by immigrants to identify their personal reasons for doing so. To the extent that these reasons are directly related to their desire to obtain American citizenship rather than a sense of patriotic responsibilities is the extent to which military service may represent a viable alternative to more time-consuming, expensive and complication naturalization procedures. It is important, though, to ensure that these immigrant recruits are provided with accurate information concerning how military service will affect their naturalization status and efforts to secure ultimate citizenship.
Rationale of Study
Military recruiters typically experience increases in enlistments during periods of economic downturn because of limited employment opportunities elsewhere in the private sector. Nevertheless, recruiting adequate numbers of high-quality and motivated service members is more…
Anbinder, Tyler, 2006. "Which Poor Man's Fight? Immigrants and the Federal Conscription of
1863." Civil War History 52(4): 344-345.
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Bloemraad, Irene, 2002. "The North American Naturalization Gap: an Institutional Approach to Citizenship Acquisition in the United States and Canada." The International Migration
History of the Pacific Northwest [...] how representative the lives of Mary Arkwright Hutton, Annie Pike Greenwood, and Teiko Tomita were considering the racial and class tensions of the twentieth century. ace and class have been important influences throughout the Pacific Northwest's long history. In fact, some of the most racist laws in America were in effect in the Pacific Northwest at the beginning of the twentieth century. ace and class created dissent in the population, but ultimately forged a stronger sense of area and belonging to the diverse cultural minorities that make up the area today.
Mary Arkwright Hutton was a union supporter and organizer early in the history of the area. She worked in the mining towns of Idaho, and became an avid union supporter and organizer of the men who labored in the mines. Many politicians and mine owners found her abrasive and difficult, but the men…
Amott, Teresa L., and Julie A. Matthaei. A Multicultural Economic History of Women in the United States. Boston, MA: South End Press, 1991.
Schwantes, Carlos Arnaldo. The Pacific Northwest: An Interpretive History. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.
Taylor, Quintard. "The Civil Rights Movement in the American West: Black Protest in Seattle, 1960-1970." The Journal of Negro History 80.1 (1995): 1+.
He focuses on the experiences of one Japanese-American high school senior that had to back up all of his earthly possessions to go to a camp in the California desert, whose life never was the same afterwards. The book avoids getting bogged down in politics without ignoring what led America to enter World War II. It also draws attention to the fact that many Japanese-Americans served in the American army and often felt uncomfortable because of the fact they knew their loved ones were being interned back home.
The book's message is simple -- to resist prejudice, even when it is practiced by the American government. Because the book is a paperback with few illustrations, other than the photograph on the front cover, it would be more appropriate for older readers, probably in the context of a civics or history class, where the uncomfortable subjects could be discussed openly. Also,…
The bill before me takes into account of the new realities and dangers posed by modern terrorists. It will help law enforcement to indentify, to dismantle, to disrupt and to punish terrorist before they strike." (Marcovitz, 2008) This is significant because it allows for the effective tracking of suspected terrorists activities. As a result, the overall quality and amount of intelligence gathered will allow law enforcement to determine what is taking place, before a tragedy occurs.
A third benefit of the Patriot Act is: it allows for improved coordination. A 2005 study conducted by the Justice Department showed that the Patriot Act helped intelligence / law enforcement officials to identify over 40 different terrorist organizations operating in the United States, they were able to successfully arrest 500 suspected terrorists with ties to different organizations around the world and a total of 57 people were convicted of raising money for terrorist…
Alarm Sounds and CIA Wakes Up in Nightmare Alley. (7 August 1977). NY Times, pg. E1. http://proquest.umi.com.ozone.nsc.nevada.edu:8080/pqdweb?index=0&did=121547567&SrchMode=1&sid=2&Fmt=10&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=HNP&TS=1272749966&clientId=63532
Excerpts from Court Ruling on Justice Departments Broad Powers. (19 November 2002). NY Times., pg. A 19. http://proquest.umi.com.ozone.nsc.nevada.edu:8080/pqdweb?index=3&did=730861052&SrchMode=1&sid=1&Fmt=10&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=HNP&TS=1272744494&clientId=63532
Warns of Dangers to Dams in West. (1943). NY Times, pg. 6. http://proquest.umi.com.ozone.nsc.nevada.edu:8080/pqdweb?index=0&did=88542637&SrchMode=1&sid=1&Fmt=10&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=HNP&TS=1272747703&clientId=63532
Bhonsle, R. (2007). South Asian Security Trends. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.
America: Readings in Race, Culture, and Conflict
Susan yle's book Revisiting America: Readings in Race, Culture, and Conflict explores the history of the America through the lens of the political, racial, social, and cultural issues that make up the population. The story of American history is retold. idely known stories about America's past are revisited and additional information about cultural conflict of the period is used to show a new reality to the country's past. yle's history also discusses the importance of socially constructed terminology and how the conflicts of America's past continue to shape the United States today.
The textbook includes both primary and secondary sources to explore the truth behind American history. Of particular interest are some of the historical documents, such as the transcripts from the actual Salem itch Trials. This period of American history is symbolic of all occasions where religious zealotry and fear overtake the…
Wyle, Susan. (2003). Revisiting America: Readings in Race, Culture, and Conflict. Prentice Hall.
War not only causes one country or group of people to attempt the destruction of another, but can even lead a nation or population of individuals to fear, degrade and hate their own friends, family members and other countrymen. The Civil War was a prime example of this bizarre turn of events. Those who were or would have been hospitable and friendly toward someone else yesterday, now saw that same person as the enemy who had to be attacked on the battlefield. It did not matter if these individuals had actually been part of the same country and pledged their allegiance to the same government for decades, the war had made them scorn anyone who lived across their border or wore a different color uniform.
The book No-No Boy epitomizes this change that occurred among people over night. The Japanese-mericans, who had pledged support of the United States and…
Although in 1947 President Truman pardoned the approximately 300 Japanese-Americans who refused to fight in World War II on constitutional grounds, it was not until 1990 that the first Japanese-American received redress from internment. Further, it was not until 2001 that the Japanese-American Citizens League apologized to these resisters. "What we're saying is we shouldn't be condemning or trashing people who took a stand for our community's civil rights," said Andy Noguchi, co-chair of the Recognition and Reconciliation Ceremony where these individuals received long-awaited support. "These were a group of 300 young men who stood up for the community's civil rights." The scars from wars take very long to heal.
Unfortunately, if history demonstrates anything, it is that humans do not always totally learn from their mistakes. After the September 11 tragedy, where Americans should have been even more supportive of one another, bigotry and fear arose again against the Arab-Americans and Muslims. On the negative side, innocent people were put in jail, Mosques were defaced. Arab-owned businesses were shot, Arab-Americans faced verbal and physical abuse in the streets and Internet message boards burst with anti-Arab and anti-Muslim slogans and threats. On the positive side, however, this situation was different from those in the past. The United States has become much more integrated since the 1940s. Arab-Americans live in all parts of the country, whereas most Japanese had lived on the West Coast. Numerous Arab-Americans also now have positions of political and economic authority. Further, a large number of people from all American populations quickly saw the handwriting on the wall and did all they could to be proactive and stem violence before it started.
America still has a long way to go to eliminate racism and anti-Semitism. The hope is however, that as the world becomes more global and advanced, humankind will become, as its name implies, more "kind." The other possibility, not becoming more humane, will one day destroy the world. Hatred can easily eat away at all that is good in the world and, like Kenji's leg, finally destroy the rest of the body.
Countries are very much representative of human nature. If you were to examine a microcosm of a nation at its basic level, it would be a local community or neighborhood. The people who live in the same community usually tend to share similar economic levels and cultural attitudes. Neighbors also influence the behaviors of each other. For example, affluent neighborhoods tend to have good school systems, active kids (as in after school programs), and involved parents. To a certain degree, these things are expected. This notion is applicable to the nations of China, Korea, and Japan. This paper will examine similarities and differences between these counties in a historical context. China and Japan were traditional societies that responded differently to the external stimuli of foreign relations. Korea is also similar in this regard but their foreign invaders were Japanese not estern imperialists. All three nations also suffered under…
Cumings, Bruce. "We look at it and see ourselves." London Review of Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. .
Hedges, Frank. "Japan is Speeding Korean Education." New York Times [New York City ] 6 Aug. 1939: 12. Print.
Takaki, Ronald T.. Strangers from a different shore: a history of Asian-Americans. Boston: Little, Brown, 1989. Print.
Thomson, James Claude, Peter W. Stanley, and John Curtis Perry.Sentimental imperialists: the American experience in East Asia. New York: Harper & Row, 1981. Print.
The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), the co-beneficiary of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1947, was established in Philadelphia by individuals from the Religious Society of Friends (i.e., the Quakers) in Spring 1917. The link between AFSC and the Religious Society of Friends was always tenuous as the activism of the organization was something universal that many non-Quakers around the world could celebrate, while the actual tenets of Quakerism were not nearly as popular as the peace movement that the Religious Society of Friends took part in. Initially, the goals of the committee were limited; however, over the 20th century, AFSC epitomized the pacifist convictions and social-change driving forces of Philadelphia’s Quaker-led world-class fight for peace (Ingle, 2016). The AFSC essentially helped to support and come to the aid of the victims of war, whether they were Jewish, Russian, European, African, etc. (Frost, 1992). This paper will discuss the…
Prosecuting a former President for illegal activity in his role as President would certainly increase partisan bickering; making it less likely that Obama could effectuate meaningful change in his administration. Doing that might actually cause people greater harm. For example, the economy is having a direct impact on Americans right now, diverting funds into an expensive investigation that might not even result in a realistic possibility of prosecution for Bush or other high-level officials, would be a waste of taxpayer money. Obama must consider all of those issues when making the decision whether or not to investigate Bush. The most reasonable conclusion is for him not to instigate a criminal investigation against Bush, but to correct the illegal behavior, compensate victims, and move forward.
ABCNews. "Sawyer Interviews Ford: Pardoning Nixon was 'Absolutely Essential.'" Good
Morning America. 2006. ABCNews Internet Ventures. http://www.abcnews.go.com/GMA/story?id=2753606.
The Children of the Camps Project. "Internment…
ABCNews. "Sawyer Interviews Ford: Pardoning Nixon was 'Absolutely Essential.'" Good
Morning America. 2006. ABCNews Internet Ventures. http://www.abcnews.go.com/GMA/story?id=2753606 .
The Children of the Camps Project. "Internment History." Children of the Camps. 1999.
Satsuki Ina. 25 Jan. 2009 http://www.pbs.org/childofcamp/history/index.html .
Totalitarianism's Controversial Notions
The human social animal's capacity for collective tyranny and violence in Hannah Arendt's seminal work
Since the publication of her 1951 work on The Origins of Totalitarianism, Hannah Arendt has received much criticism as a philosopher and an historian for her theory of the human, historical development of notions of society or what Arendt terms 'the social.' From the social organizations of the salon, which were loose and diffuse, and based on ideological alliances, human beings evolved in their organization, she suggests, to alliances upon material interests in the forms of classes. But the nationalist and imperialist movements of the 19th century perverted these previous mental and material social alliances in history, to create the manifestation of 'the masses' that enabled totalitarianism to take hold in Germany, Russia, and other areas of the world.
Critical to Arendt's conception of totalitarianism is her notion of the…
Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. Harcourt and Brace, 1951.
Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition. U of Chicago Press, 1998. Originally Published 1958.
To not fit in is probably one of the most difficult things a child can face, and it happens all the time in America to the children of immigrants. It is easy to talk about "celebrating your heritage," but much more difficult to do when you are a child, and have no friends because of your skin color and your culture. Now, it is easier for me, but there are still barriers in our society, and I know that throughout my life, I will have to fight those barriers to succeed and to grow as a woman, as an American, and as an Asian.
A think, after considering what I have learned in this course, that I would like to research what I do not know about my own family history, and fill in the pieces of the puzzle. Before this class, I did not think much about my family's…
Finally, torture is the best means to try to get this information from the suspect (McCoy, 2006). Taken as a whole, these circumstances are so unlikely to occur that, even if the ticking bomb scenario would justify the use of torture, it has not ever occurred and, therefore, cannot be used to justify torture.
In fact, what many people who advocate in favor of torture fail to acknowledge is that while torture may be guaranteed to elicit information from even the most reticent of subjects, there is no reason to believe that torture will elicit truthful information. The theory behind torture is that, with the application of sufficient pain and fear, people will talk, and that does appear to be true in the vast majority of cases. However, it is more important to wonder what they will say than whether they will talk. In the non-terrorist scenario, "About 25% of…
Armbruster, B. (2011, October 3). Obama's successful counterterror strategy. Retrieved March 21, 2012 from Think Progress website: http://thinkprogress.org/progress-report/obamas -successful-counterterror-strategy/
Bufacchi, V., & Arrigo, J.M. (2006). Torture, terrorism, and the state: A refutation of the Ticking-Bomb argument. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 23(3), 355-373.
Gathii, J. (2004). Torture, extra-territoriality, terrorism, and international law. Albany Law
Review, 67, 101-138. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from:
Criminal Justice System Has Had on Minorities
History and the Effects of the Criminal Justice System on Minorities -- 1940 to 1960
The 20-year period from 1940 to 1960 represented a crossroads for the United States in terms of engagement in an enormously costly world war as well as the social upheavals that resulted from the manner in which minorities in general, and Asian and African-Americans in particular, had been historically treated. While blacks had historically been the target of much of the racist views and violence in the U.S. through the mid-20th century, Asian-Americans were never far behind in the social mix and the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 just made matters worse for all concerned. Indeed, tens of thousands of Japanese-Americans were interred during the war "for their own protection," but many observers suggested this fundamental abrogation of these citizen's constitutional rights was tantamount to illegal imprisonment…
Bailey, F.Y., & Green, A.P. (1999). Law never here: A social history of African-American responses to issues of crime and justice. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Bouza, A.V. (1990). The police mystique: An insider's look at cops, crime, and the criminal justice system. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Collins, D.E. (1985). Native American aliens: Disloyalty and the renunciation of citizenship by Japanese-Americans during World War II. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Climatology, in "semi-tropical" Southern California, a place that was as dry and hot as Italy although mercifully "without the Italians," tourists even from the United States "discovered that umbrellas were useless against the drenching rains of Southern California but that they made good shade in the summer; that many of the beautifully colored flowers had no scent; that fruit ripened earlier in the northern than in the southern part of the state; that it was hot in the morning and cool at noon...jack rabbits carried water on their backshere, in this paradoxical land, rats lived in the trees and squirrels had their homes in the ground" (96; 105) Economic fortunes seemed as unstable as the weather -- wharfs, railways, hotels sprung up only to be abandoned after the bubble of expectation in the real estate market went bust (116).
However, almost despite itself, the booms and busts increased the population…
McWilliams, Cary. Southern California: An Island on the Land. First published 1946.
Gibbs Smith, 1980.
Rice, Richard B., William a. Bullough, & Richard J. Orsi. The Elusive Eden: A New
History of California. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001.
Arguments for and against the Patriot Act
The unusual events surrounding the creation and passing of the Patriot Act make it a suspect bill in many eyes. However, major media reports like this one: "Fifty-nine percent in an ABC News/ashington Post poll favor continuing the additional investigative authority in terrorism investigations that was granted to the FBI starting in 2001. President Bush urged such an extension of the Patriot Act today" (Langer) insist that there are others who support it and promote it as a protection against the kind of terrorism that was seen on 9/11. For supporters the idea of sacrificing civil liberties for security measures such as the TSA is, while unfortunate, a necessary evil. Those who oppose it, like alternative media journalist Ryan Dawson and Sen. Ron Paul, decry it as government intrusion. This paper will give arguments for and against the Patriot Act and…
Brand, Rachel. "Reauthorization of the U.S.A. Patriot Act." 20 Jan 2010. The Federalist
Society. Web. 24 Sep 2011. < http://www.fed-soc.org/publications/detail/reauthorization-of-the-usa-patriot-act >
Celente, Gerald. "Gerald Celente Predicts Ron Paul Can Win in 2012." 3 May 2010.
YouTube. 24 Sep 2011.
California istory: A Tour of the State through Three Novels
California is the nation's largest state. Within its borders it encompasses many contradictions and offers different modalities of life. The idea of an 'alternative lifestyle' may have been coined in California, but clearly there is more than one alternative offered by the state. Even the state's stereotypes, such as the 'outdoorsy' person, or the beatnik who distains social conventions, or the Pacific Rim immigrant who needs to make a new social and economic future for him or herself within the state, are diverse in their nature. California exemplifies the vastness of the American dream in imagination and financial growth.
The one connecting element between all of these stereotypes, and indeed between all of the fictional individuals that embody them over the course of elen unt Jackson's novel Ramona, Jack Keota's quasi-autobiographical The Dharma Bums, and the more recent Picture Bride…
Helen Hunt Jackson's novel catalogues Ramona was written to call attention to the terrible plight of the Mission Indians in Southern California. Their struggles are mirrored in the fate of the heroine, however. At the end of the novel, Ramona weds an Indian man, Alessandro. Her decision comes after she has decided to live with the Indians because she was not told she was a 'half breed' until she had lived for many years with whites. Eventually, the novel ends with the words that she has given birth to another "Ramona," the "daughter of Alessandro the Indian." (Jackson, Chapter XXV, novel retrieved on December 8, 2003 at ( http://www.xooqi.com/iboox/xo_0024_jackson_ramona.html ) After many years of struggle trying to find her identity, Ramona gives birth to a girl whom presumably will have no such struggles. However, the first Ramona's struggles highlight the prejudice and intolerance waged against these native people, the often insurmountable divide between white and native in terms of culture, and the persistence presence of those such as the title character whose very existence was a challenge to this divide.
Picture Bride by Yoshiko Uchida also illustrates a similar tension, between native-born Japanese individuals and recent Japanese immigrants. This internal tension is exacerbated, however, with the nation's entry into World War II, as all individuals of Japanese extraction are forced to live in internment camps, in states of filth and privation. At the beginning of the novel, a young Japanese woman named Hana comes to America to find her identity, to escape Japan and the oppression of women and arranged marriages. However, at first her new husband seems no better than what she has left. Also, Hana's own behaviors and expectations are still quite located in her past community, where female behavior is formal and contained. "Hana was overcome with excitement at the thought of being in America and terrified of the meeting about to take place. What would she say to Taro Takeda when they first met, and for all the days and years after?" (Uchida, Chapter 1, 3) Through the United States, Hana seeks liberation but finds only limitations in marriage and the law, although she also establishes an inner sense of self and identity as a woman, through contact with individuals with other ideas of how Japanese women should behave.
In contrast to these struggles, the anti-heroes of The Dharma Bums seems almost anti-climatic. Kerouac's fictional alter ego seeks a new identity in the wilderness of deserts and roads of California, hoping Buddhism will give him a new philosophical lease on life. For Kerouac, California, the farthest state from New York was the state of anti-civilization. But his community of outsiders exhibits their own cruelty. "Don't you realize all this life is just a dream? Why don't you just relax and enjoy God? God is you, you fool!" says one of Cody's friends, Ray, to a woman in a state of deep paranoia and depression. God is you, Ray believes, is the answer to his own identity struggles, however, the Dharma Bums do not find any answers, because their new viewpoints are too convoluted with their own emotional needs to give them a new, ideological lease on life. All character in all novels demonstrate that wilderness alone will not give one peace, newness is not enough -- rather, one must create one's new Californian identity with previously untapped but preexisting inner strength.
McCarthy and the Cold War
One aspect of history is that a country's so-called "friend" one day, can be an enemy the next and visa versa. The United States and Soviet Union during World War II joined ranks against the real threat of Nazi Germany. However, it did not take long after the end of the war for ussia and the United States to once again bully each other. Even before the final surrender of Germany in 1945, the two super powers rapidly found themselves in a new military and diplomatic rivalry. Meanwhile, in the United States, the economy was taking time to build and unemployment was growing. Thoughts of the Depression loomed in people's minds. The friction with the ussians, which would receive the name of Cold War, did not help. Yet it did create a scapegoat for fears and feelings of paranoia. As the tensions between the U.S.…
Barson, M. Red Scared (2001). San Francisco: Chronicle.
Bennett, D. (1988). Party of Fear. New York: Random House.
Halberstam, D. (1993). The Fifties. New York: Villard.
Lewis, P. The Fifties (1978) New York:. J.B. Lippincott, 1978.
Suppose I was asked to donate money to "Citizens for Better Schools," what would I need to find out about the group first? The first thing would be find out if they are a bona fide public charity -- a 501 C3 -- and if they were, I would examine their bylaws and mission statement. Secondly, I would locate board members and examine public statements they have made and projects they have injected themselves into. Something with a vague title like this one has could actually be a protest group trying to remove certain board members from the school board or they might be advocating to have the science textbooks changed so evolution isn't taught. I would also look through newspaper reports to find what the group has been advocating in its public pronouncements.
Should journalists have the right to protect their sources? The answer is yes. One example relates…
Department of Homeland Security. (2003). "Executive Order (EO-13284): Amendment of Executive Orders, and Other Actions, in Connection with the Establishment of the Department of Homeland Security." Retrieved March 11, 2012, from http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/releases/press_release_0072.shtm.
Executive Order 9066. "The President Authorizes Japanese Relocation." Retrieved March 12,
2012, from http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5154 .
FindLaw. "Williams v. State of North Carolina, 317 U.S. 287 (1942)." Retrieved March 12,
First was the portrayal of the Indians in the nursery rhyme. Their deaths were violent, and they certainly portrayed as minorities, and how minorities were viewed at the time. In addition, as the guests began to group together and form alliances, it seemed the film could be referring to the alliances of the Allies against Hitler and Japan in 1945. There were different groups forming alliances in the film, and they could have represented the alliances of Britain and the United States against Germany, Italy, and Japan. There were also veiled insinuations about other races, such as when one of the guests comments that the Butler could not be the killer, because the "shape of his head" indicated he was not smart enough to come up with the idea. This could have referred to the Japanese, who were consistently portrayed as buck-toothed, slant-eyed, black-haired caricatures in the newspapers of the…
And Then There Were None. Dir. Rene Clair. Perf. Barry Fitzgerald, Walter Huston, Louis Hayward, and Roland Young. Twentieth Century Fox, 1945.
Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.
Importance of the Study
The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…
Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.
Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,
2006 from http://www.CNSNews.com .
Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
Earlier in this paper it was revealed that a small unit within the Security Service was originally doing the work; but soon the espionage unit had grown to more than 1,400. On page 848 Major Vernon Kell began -- what later became an out-of-control behemoth organization -- with just "a room, a desk and a filing cabinet"; when Kell asked for a clerk to assist him, the bureaucracy was surprised that "…such extravagance was necessary" (Hiley, 848).
This juxtaposition is by way of explaining how, as the fear of the Germans expanded, and as the list of suspected spies grew enormously huge, and paranoia became so powerful that peace groups and labor groups came under suspicion, civil liberties were shoved aside. On page 853 Hiley notes that prior to October 1911, in order to open a letter that was passing through the Royal Mails, a warrant had to be signed…
Hiley, Nicholas. (1985). The Failure of British Counter-Espionage against Germany, 1907-
1914. The Historical Journal, 28(4), 835-862.
Hiley, Nicholas. (1986). Counter-Espionage and Security in Great Britain during the First
World War. The English Historical Review, 101(400), 635-670.
Cornel est. It book "The Conscious Reader" By Caroline
Affirmative Action has been a highly controversial topic in the United States ever since it initially emerged out of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960's. This issue is explored in depth in Cornell est's essay, "On Affirmative Action," which was initially published in George Currey's The Affirmative Action Debate in 1996. The principle reason why affirmative action has been so widely debated within the U.S. is that there are many within this country who believe that ultimately, this piece of legislation helped to remove qualified candidates for critical jobs and enrollment positions in institutions of higher learning in favor of under qualified minorities. est's article analyzes the various pros and cons of this issue from both sides -- those who are in favor of it and those who have traditionally opposed it. A thorough analysis of this piece…
Bowen, Deirdre. "Meeting Across the River: Why Affirmative Actions Needs Race & Class Diversity." Denver University Law Review. 2011. Web. http://www.law.du.edu/documents/denver-university-law-review/v88-4/Bowen_ToPrinter_92611.pdf
Greenburg, Jan. "New Haven, Ct. Firefighters Claim Reverse Discrimination." ABC News. 2009. Web. http://abcnews.go.com/TheLaw/SCOTUS/story?id=7393908&page=1#.UXV8STWykyc
Jensen, Richard. "No Irish Need Apply." Journal of Social History. 2002. Web. http://tigger.uic.edu/~rjensen/no-irish.htm
West, Cornell. "On Affirmative Action." The Conscious Reader. New York: Longman. 2011. Print.
Are Americans of African decent entitled to compensation for the American South's slavery past? Does the American government owe people whose ancestors were slaves reparations in the form of money, land or capitol goods? Many African-Americans and white liberals feel that black Americans are owed something and a movement in this country has been stirring for a while agitating for forced reparations by the U.S. government. (Conyers 2003) This paper will argue that reparations for slavery should not occur. It will be shown why reparations are wrong and how reparations would ultimately cause deeper divisions in our society then already exist.
Today there are increasing numbers of black professionals and scholars advocating reparations for slavery. Black lawyers have filed lawsuits against the federal government and companies that have profited from slavery. In 1989, Congressional representative John Conyers introduced H.R. 40 titled, "Commission to Study Reparation Proposals for African-Americans Act."…
Brian Kuzma Black Month Should Be History 2/14/2002 http://www.cornellreview.org/viewart.cgi?num=125 Accessed April 19, 2003
Conyers John http://www.house.gov/conyers/news_reparations.htm Accessed April 19, 2003
Damu Jean web site article http://www.campusaction.net/news/fight_racism/reparations_article.htm2003
Engerman Stanley Inikori Joseph, The Atlantic Slave Trade: Effects on Economies, Societies, and Peoples in Africa, the Americas, and Europe, Duke University Press, 1992
The urpose of a olitical Court
In the view of Henry J. Abraham (Abraham 1998, 55), "theoretically," just about any qualified law school graduate with ambitions for an important judicial appointment would appear to have a fair chance at being nominated to the U.S. Supreme Court. That is providing, of course, the candidate is politically "available" and is, in Abraham's words, "acceptable to the executive, legislative, and private forces that, in the order enumerated, constitute the powers-that-be underlying the paths of selection, nomination, and appointment in the judicial process." key phrase in Abraham's criteria is "acceptable to the...legislative" body; as has been witnessed in the past few days and weeks, some of the conservative judicial nominees - not for the High Court but put forward by resident George W. Bush for federal appeals courts slots - have not been "acceptable" to a sufficient number of U.S.…
Peter W. Sperlich. "...And then there were six: the decline of the American Jury," in Judicial Politics: Readings from Judicature, ed. Elliot E. Slotnick (Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1992), 244.
Michael C. Munger, "Comment on Ferejohn's 'Judicializing Politics, Politicizing Law'," Law and Contemporary Problems 65 (Summer 2002): 87.
Jonathan Harr, A Civil Action (New York: Random House, 1995), 488.
True Meaning of Snow
David Guterson is the young, American author of Snow Falling on Cedars which heavily consists of human nature and human emotions. Snow Falling on Cedars, narrates the trial of a Japanese man accused of murdering a white man in the post-orld ar II era. Throughout this literary work, Guterson uses elements of nature: land, trees, water and especially snow, as literal and metaphorical tools to develop and resolve conflicts.
David Guterson uses the same aspects and characteristics of nature in two different ways. First he describes in visual detail the literal or actual effects that elements of nature have on the characters in the novel. But more importantly Guterson uses nature to convey substantial and symbolic meaning in the lives of the characters in the story.
One of the elements of nature that Guterson uses as a tool to develop the conflicts in Snow Falling on…
Guterson, David. Snow Falling on Cedars. New York: Vintage Books, 1994. 75-428.
"Snow Falling on Cedars." Kirkus Reviews. 24 Mar. 2005 < .
Snow Falling on Cedars. Sparknotes. 24 Mar. 2005 .
violation of the student's Constitutional rights
The issue is whether there has been a possible violation of a student's "constitutional right to education" due to the fact that during the time she had to stay in the cage based on Mr. Billups' order she had to miss all of her other classes for that day. R: The rule is that unlike various state constitutions the federal Constitution does not contain a "right to education." The U.S. Supreme Court addressed itself to this issue in 1973 in San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez. In this decision the U.S. Supreme Court held that education is neither explicitly nor impliedly guaranteed as a "fundamental right" in the U.S. Constitution (Constitutional Requirements Governing American Education -- Federal constitutional Requirements, State Constitutional Issues, Conclusion, p. 1). Therefore, a constitutional right to education of student Li could not have been violated by Mr. Billups. I:…