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Analysis of Nursing Theory
Jean Watson is one of the reputable contributors in the contemporary nursing field. She is rather well-known for her work namely, Theory of Human Caring. Other than this eminent theory, she has presented various research papers which have made visible addition to theoretical work in the field of nursing. Her work on caring has also been included in the standard education related to patient care and has been adopted by many nursing schools and institutes globally. Watson's theoretical model is rather well-known for presenting the scientific application of the practice of patient's care as it emphasizes on not only eliminating the ailment but enhances the overall health of the patient in physical, mental and psychological frame of reference.
Watson was born in 1940 and had her graduation completed from Virginia in 1961. Her Bachelors was completed in Colorado in 1964 which further lead to…
Fitzpatrick, J.J., Whall, A.L. (2005). Conceptual models of nursing: analysis and application. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Nursing-Theory. (2012). Biography of Jean Watson. Retrieved from http://nursing-theory.org/nursing-theorists/Jean-Watson.php
Tomey, A.M. & Alligood, M. (2002). Nursing Theorists and their Work; 5th Edition. Singapore: Mosby, Inc. p. 145.
Watson, J. (1988). Nursing: Human science and human care. A theory of nursing (2nd printing). New York: National League for Nursing.
discuss major advantages disadvantages Jean Watson's Theory clinical practice . How nurses explain Watson's theory Human Caring nurse coworker? . Peer-reviewed references
Major advantages and disadvantages of Jean Watson's Theory in clinical practice
One of the major advantages of Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring is that it is a holistic system of care. Watson's Theory of Caring stresses the need to treat the whole person through caring and openness. It embraces scientific theory, but does not believe that science alone can accomplish all of the goals of nursing. In modern medicine, quite often patients complain that there is insufficient regard for how their illness and treatment affects their lifestyles. For example, when deciding to take a drug, a patient may want to discuss how the side effects will impact his or her life and weigh the potentially negative effects against the benefits provided by the medication, rather than…
Cara, Chantal. (2003). Continuing educ.: A pragmatic view of Jean Watson's Caring Theory.
International Journal for Human Caring. 7(3):51-61. Retrieved February 21, 2011 at http://www.watsoncaringscience.org/pdf/Pragmatic_View.pdf
Fawcett, J. (2002). The nurse theorists: 21st century updates - Jean Watson. Nursing Science
Quarterly, 15(3), 214-219. Retrieved February 21, 2011 at http://www.watsoncaringscience.org/pdf/fawcett_nsq.pdf
Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring or Caring Science involves exercising core practices/principles. "Watson's theory of human caring focuses on holistic care and the authentic relationship between caregivers and patients" (Lukose, 2011, p. 27). The evolution from Carative to Caritas involves five principles. These are practice of equanimity and loving-kindness, enabling deep faith of other like colleague, family, or patient (otherwise known as authentic presence). The other is cultivation of one's own "spiritual practice" lending towards completeness of mind/spirit/body, a beyond the ego experience. The fourth is "Being" or the caring-healing environment. Lastly, openness to miracles or inexplicable life events.
The core concepts or ideas of the theory include a relational sense of caring for the self and of others. Transpersonal caring relationship or going beyond ego is the second one. The third is caring moment/caring occasion. This means heart-focused encounters with other people. The fourth is multiple ways of…
Donchin, A. (2004). Converging Concerns: Feminist Bioethics, Development Theory, and Human Rights. Signs, 29(2), 299-324. doi:10.1086/378104
Falk Rafael, A. (2000). Watson's Philosophy, Science, and Theory of Human Caring as a Conceptual Framework for Guiding Community Health Nursing Practice. Advances in Nursing Science, 23(2), 34-49. doi:10.1097/00012272-200012000-00005
Hattakhit, U., Boonyun, N., & Engebretson, J. (2014). Creating a Caring Atmosphere in an Intensive Stroke Care Unit: an Action Research Approach. The International Conference on Graduate Students Research Work, 1.
Lukose, A. (2011). Developing a Practice Model for Watson's Theory of Caring. Nursing Science Quarterly, 24(1), 27-30. doi:10.1177/0894318410389073
"Transpersonal Caring acknowledges unity of life and connections that move in concentric circles of caring-from individual, to other/s, to community, to world, to Planet Earth, to the universe." (3, Watson).
This theory serves as a comprehensive guide to nurses in patient care. Caring is institutionalized in the sense that it is seen as a whole separate science that nurses need to excel in. Watson maintains that the core of nursing is healing and therefore everything that promotes healing such as healthy patient-nurse relationship, carative factors etc. is seen as an important component of caring science. She describes basis of nursing as "those aspects of nursing that actually potentiate therapeutic healing processes and relationships; they affect the one caring and the-one-being-cared-for" (2, p. 50). TIM is an important term used by the theorist. Watson uses this term to describe the essential tasks connected with caring in the field of nursing. "Trim'…
Watson, J. (1988). Nursing: Human science and human care. New York: National League for Nursing.
Watson, J. (1997).The theory of human caring: Retrospective and prospective. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10(1), 49-52.
Jean Watson: Theory of Human Caring: Retrieved online 14th October 2004:
Jean atson has shed much light in terms of the relationship between the idea of "caring" and the healing process. atson developed a theory that included ten factors of caring and how they can practically be applied in a nursing setting. It is important for nursing students to understand an somehow incorporate these ideas into their own personal approach to nursing. The purpose of this essay is to examine an article that examined how atson's ten components are evaluated by students in relation to their instruction. I will relate this article to important nursing concepts, and how it is important to my own personal approach to nursing.
ade & Kasper (2006) examined the importance of caring in nursing by identifying a means to measure the efficacy in teaching this theory in the article I examined. They assumed that caring is now a widespread theory of nursing practice, but noticed that…
Wade, G. & Kasper, N. (2006). Nursing students' perceptions of instructor caring: an instrument based on Watson's theory of transpersonal caring. Journal of Nursing Education, May 2006, 45, 5, 162-168. Retrieved from http://www.uvisa.cl/html/cursos2006/proceso- enfermeria/docs-anexos-curso/complementarias-modulo1/jean%20watson.pdf
Watson, J. (1988a). New dimensions of human caring theory. Nursing Science Quarterly, 1(4), 175-181.
Nursing: Jean Watson's Human Caring Theory
Jean Watson's Human Caring Theory
Caring science is a branch of science that appreciates unity of life and explores individuals' duty of care to themselves, others, the environment, the world, and the universe. Jean Watson's human caring theory is one of the key building blocks of caring science -- it explores the practice of care in the nursing profession, or rather, how nurses ought to demonstrate care to their patients. Watson suggests that the practice of caring is central to the nursing profession because it enhances growth and creates an accepting environment, where everyone is accepted for who they are (Nursing Theory, 2013). She posits that effective caring requires nurses to incorporate spiritual dimensions into their practice and their interaction with patients so that they are in a better position to understand their patients' perspectives and consequently, nurture a mutual bond.
Watson divides his…
Griffin, M.T. & Landers, M.G. (2014). Extant Nursing Models and Theories: Grand and Middle Range Theories in Nursing. In J. Fitzpatrick & G. McCarthy (Eds.), Nursing Research and Practice: Making Nursing Knowledge Development Explicit (pp. 15-34). New York, NY: Springer
Nursing Theory. (2013). Jean Watson: Nursing Theorist. Nursing Theory. Retrieved 10 January 2015 from http://nursing-theory.org/nursing-theorists/Jean-Watson.php
Application of Theory to the Practice Problem of Nurse Staffing
Nursing theories are important in shaping how practitioners discharge their duties or make decisions related to the service delivery in healthcare. The following study explores and applies a middle range theory to an identified problem in nursing. Theory can be applied to solve nursing challenges especially in the management of nursing care services. The study will demonstrate the benefits of applying theory to solve a nursing dilemma. Jean Watson’s human caring theory and Patricia Benner's Skill Acquisition theory have been applied to examining and addressing the problem of nursing shortage.
A Brief Summary of the Problem
Nursing shortage is a common problem in many nations, and the United States suffers from the same problem. Sometimes, retired nurses have been approached to cover the gap in various health facilities (Grant, 2016). The shortage is characterized by a few nursing staff who…
Grant, R. (2016). The U.S. Is Running Out Of Nurses. The Atlantic. Retrieved Oct. 21, 2017, from https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2016/02/nursing-shortage/459741/
Kritek, P. B. & Hickey, M. (2011). Change leadership in nursing: How change occurs in a complex hospital system. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company
Schmidt, N. A., & Brown, J. M. (2015). Evidence-based practice for nurses: appraisal and application of research. Jones & Bartlett Publ. Incorporated
Smith, M. J., & Liehr, P. R. (2014). Middle range theory for nursing. New York: Springer.
Watson, J., & Watson, J. (2012). Human caring science: A theory of nursing. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Professional Practice Model: Jean atson's Caring Model
The objective of this study is to examine the philosophy of Jean atson's Caring Model and to provide the organizational definition and state the organization's mission and vision statement. Several definitions of the concept will be identified in the nursing literature. Finally, this work will state how this concept supports the professional model chosen.
The work of Jean atson and Roxie Foster (2003) reports a proposed model entitled 'The Attending Nursing Caring Model' (ANCM) held to be an "exemplar for advancing and transforming nursing practice within a reflective, theoretical, and evidence-based context." (p.360) It is reported that nurses who are unable to "practice within a caring context are reported to be hardened, oblivious, robot-like, frightened and worn down." (Swanson, 1999, cited in atson and Foster, 2003, p. 361) atson and Foster (2003) additionally note that nurses are "torn between the human caring model…
Gessner, G. (n.d.) Nursing Model: Jean Watson's Caring Theory. Georgetown University. Retrieved from: https://blogs.commons.georgetown.edu/gtg6/files/Nursing-Model.pdf
Lachman, VD (n.d.) Applying the Ethics of Care to Your Nursing Practice. Ethics, Law, and Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Jean Watson's Human Caring Theory has become entrenched in all aspects of nursing practice, inseparable from the art and science of nursing. Watson's philosophy of caring evolved into the science of caring, as evidence-based practice can support the efficacy of carative factors. However, Watson understood also that caring was a moral imperative of nursing care that extends beyond the traditional medical model toward a new transpersonal paradigm. To promote this paradigm in a concrete manner, Watson proposed what she termed Carative Factors, or the Processes of Caritas, which inform the science of caring. These ten factors include the following. First, practicing loving-kindness means developing a "caring consciousness," (Watson Caring Science Institute, 2010, p. 2). Second, the nurse is authentically present in the moment with the patient. Third, caring requires one to cultivate a spiritual practice with the goal of transcending the ego. Fourth, it is necessary to develop authentic…
Aurora University (2014). Mission, themes, and roles. Retrieved online: http://www.aurora.edu/academics/undergraduate/nursing/mission.html#axzz3JaC0deP0
Johnson, J. (2011). Creation of the Caring Factor Survey-Care Provider Version (CFS-CPV). In Measuring Caring. Ed. Nelson, J. & Watson, J. Springer.
Lachman, V.D. (2012). Applying the ethics of care to your nursing practice. Ethics, Law, and Policy 21(2).
Lukose, A. (2011). Developing a practice model for Watson's Theory of Caring. Nursing Science Quarterly 24(1), 27-30.
The questions ask the patient about the respect he or she received and include such statements as: "My caregivers have responded to me as a whole person, helping to take care of all my needs and concerns," which the patient must rate on a scale of strong agreement to disagreement (Nelson & atson 2006). Showing such care is of equal importance as giving expedient treatment to the sick. The patient's feelings are a vital part of the nursing process, and treating and attending to those feelings is one of the central duties of the nurse. The nurse must foster an environment that is positive on a medical, environmental, and spiritual and psychological level. The person is always whole and complete on all of these levels, regardless of illness, and the nurse must acknowledge the patient's subjectivity and his or her connection with this different but equally valuable and integrated human…
Jean Watson's theory selected as framework at St. Joseph Hospital, Orange, California." (2006). Evidence-Based Nursing. Retrieved 24 Apr 2008. http://evidencebasednursing.blogspot.com/2006/09/jean-watsons-theory-selected-as.html
Nelson, J. & Jean Watson. (2006). "Caring Factor Scale." INOVA Healthcare. Retrieved 24 Apr 2008 http://hschealth.uchsc.edu/son/faculty/jw_caritaspractice.htm
Watson, Jean. "Evolution of the Theory." University of Colorado Denver, College of Nursing. Retrieved 24 Apr 2008 http://hschealth.uchsc.edu/son/faculty/jw_evolution.htm
Caritas and Caring Relationship
Jean Watson's theory of caring has long been an important and profound theoretical framework for the practice and study of nursing, and has helped to revitalize the discipline in the current area. This theory has also led to significant changes in the ways in which nursing is carried out by many practitioners and in many institutions, contributing to more comprehensive and holistic approaches to patient care and developing deeper emotional and spiritual ties between individuals during the provision of care. The establishment of the Watson Caring Science Institute and its activities such as the International Caritas Consortium has led to an even more widespread adoption of caring techniques and a greater appreciation for the direct and practical benefits that this approach to nursing practice can have. The website for the WCI and the ICC provides an excellent overview understanding of the concept of caring in…
His assistance and support was both scientifically sound and, more importantly, spiritually supportive and extremely respectful of and responsive to my philosophical beliefs and my personal psychological orientation and inclination.
Based substantially on his valuable input, I made the decision to transfer my father to hospice. The hospice doctor also demonstrated carative nursing in his sensitive response to my sister's concerns that placing our father in hospice and directing that medical intervention efforts be withheld was tantamount to just allowing him to die prematurely. He explained to her the clinical significant objective scientific basis upon which it was clear that even the most aggressive medical intervention would be unable to prolong his life for more than a few weeks and that the relative value of those extra three weeks from his perspective were just not worth the amount of discomfort and confusion just to slightly prolong the same inevitable end…
Delaune, S. And Ladner, P. (2002), Fundamental of Nursing, Standard and Practice. New York: Thomson.
Fawcett, J. (2005). Analysis and Evaluation of Conceptual Models of Nursing, St. Louis,
Finfgeld-Connett, D. "Meta-synthesis of caring in nursing." Journal of Clinical Nursing,
Watson Human Care Theory
The Significance of Watson Human Care Theory in handling dying patients
It is imperative to integrate a psychosocial treatment strategy in handling dying patients. This is based on the knowledge that dying patients could have lost hope leading to depreciation of an illness. In any case, most of the acute illnesses could have been contained at the primary stage of development. Healing or ailing is primarily managed by the mind and not the techniques applied in the medical arena. This study is critical in proving the essentiality Jean Watson's theory of human caring. I will heavily relate to the study to respond to necessities of a dying patient. In particular, the discussion will analyze how the theory is significant in exploring the comfort levels required in the general treating and healing process.
I replicate my approach from an article I adopted from the Danish…
Brunjes, C. (2012). Using the Power of Hope to Cope with Dying: The Four Stages of Hope (Google eBook). New York: Linden Publishing
Byrne, A., & Byrne, D. (1992). Psychology for Nurses: Theory and Practice. New York:
Chesnay, M., & Anderson, B. (2008). Caring for the Vulnerable: Perspectives in Nursing
Watson Job Aid
Watson job-aid: Jean Watson's caring science
Transpersonal Caring Nursing
Principles for nurses, even principles on a subject as important as caring, can seem overly vague and theoretical unless they are put into practical terms. Nursing theorist Jean Watson has attempted to define her idealistic concept of Transpersonal Caring Nursing in a behavioral as well as a theoretical sense. Watson's list of 'behaviors' make her theory relatable to nurses in the field, as well as those who teach nursing theory. Transpersonal nursing views nursing as "concentric circles of caring-from individual, to others, to community, to world, to Planet Earth, to the universe. Caring science investigations embrace inquiry that are reflective, subjective and interpretative as well as objective-empirical" (Vance 2010: 1). Caring science is empirical in the sense that it is based upon nursing science. However, it is also willing to incorporate the philosophical, artistic, spiritual, and kinesthetic into…
Theory. (2011). Watson Caring Science Institute. Retrieved August 23, 2011 at http://www.watsoncaringscience.org/index.cfm /category/80/theory.cfm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Nursing and Care Theories
Two of the major theories of nursing have been published by Jean Watson and by John Paley, who each have taken markedly distinct approaches to conceptualizing nursing care in a theoretical construct. Paley looks at some of the darker elements of nursing, using frames of "slave morality" and applying Nietzschean ideologies to the manifestation of contemporary nursing theory. Jean Watson has approached the theoretical foundation of nursing from a very different perspective over a long career focusing on the compassionate element of nursing care as it applies to human and humane experiences in care and loss.
Jean Watson, who hails from West Virginia, was educated at the University of Colorado and was appointed Distinguished Professor of Nursing and endowed Chair in Caring Science at the same university. Dr. Watson's degrees are in nursing and psychiatric-mental health nursing and PhD in educational psychology and counseling. Dr. Watson…
Paley, J. (2002), Caring as a slave morality: Nietzschean themes in nursing ethics. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 40: 25 -- 35.
Meleis, Ibrahim Afaf (1997). "Theoretical Nursing: Development & Progress" 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott.
Taylor Carol, Lillis Carol (2001) The Art & Science Of Nursing Care. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott.
Potter A Patricia, Perry G. Anne (1992) Fundamentals Of Nursing -- Concepts Process & Practice. 3rd ed. London: Mosby Year Book.
Nursing diploma, Providence Hospital School of Nursing. Bachelor of Science- Catholic University of America-1939, Master of Science in Nursing Education-1945.
Graduated Pottstown, Pennsylvania Hospital School of Nursing-1931. B.A. in interpersonal psychology- Bennington College, Vermont-1943, M.A. in psychiatric nursing- Teachers College, Columbia-1947, Ed.D in curriculum development-Columbia University-1953.
Diploma in Nursing, Cook County School of Nursing- 1944. Bachelor of Science in Nursing -University of Chicago-1949, Master of Science in Nursing- Wayne State University-1962.
University of Colorado at Boulder-1964, M.S. in psychiatric and mental health nursing-1966, Ph.D. in educational psychology and counseling-1973.
Philosophy of Nursing
Humans participate in ongoing interchange and communication between themselves and their environments to function and stay alive.
Peplau considered Nursing as therapeutic, meant to help a sick individual in need of health care.
Holistic perspective, believing environment plays a key role in 'wholeness'.
Caring represents the core of…
Claywell, L. (2013). LPN to RN transitions. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Fawcett, J., & Desanto-Madeya, S. (2013). Contemporary nursing knowledge: Analysis and evaluation of nursing models and theories. F.A. Davis.
Meleis, A. I. (2012). Theoretical nursing: Development and progress. Philadelphia [etc.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Watson, J. (2008). Nursing: The philosophy and science of caring. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.
As noted, although Abdellah's theory was patient-centered and involved the care of the patient, it was clinically based and emphasized the science of nursing. Such findings fit well with Jean Watson's theory of nursing, or caring science, which encompasses a humanitarian, human science orientation to the human caring processes and experiences. However, Watson's theoretical frame comes from a metaphysical basis rather than a scientific one. Caring science consists of the arts and humanities in addition to science. Watson states that "A caring science perspective is grounded in a relational ontology of being-in-relation, and a world view of unity and connectedness of all." The concept of Ttranspersonal Caring recognizes unity of life and interrelationships that move in concentric circles of caring -- from individuals, to the community, to the world, to the planet Earth, and to the universe (Watson School).
Watson (Intervarsity, 2005) emphasizes that due to the rise of bureaucratic…
Dodds, V. (2002). Nursing Spectrum. Career Management Magazine. Retrieved November 3, 2007. http://community.nursingspectrum.com/MagazineArticles/article.cfm?AID=7936
Haase, P.T. (1990) the origins and rise of associate degree nursing education. New York: Duke University Press
Intervarsity (2005). Discussion of nursing theories and underlying world views.
Website retrieved November 4, 2007. http://ncf.intervarsity.org/facgrad/forum/nsgtheories.html
Applying atson's Nursing Theory to Assess Patient Perceptions of Being Cared for in a Multicultural Environment" describes the validness and authentication of the nursing theory of care by Jean atson. She was of the view that the best which a nurse can give to the patient is care as humans are naturally gifted with it and it is irrespective of ethnical, racial, cultural or social basis. The article describes the implications of this theory in such environment where the nurses and their patients have ethnical and cultural difference and they do not even understand each other's language. It is a case study designed to explore Saudi patient's perceptions of important caring behaviors by staff nurses. It was concluded by the data obtained that the patients rated overall caring behaviors as most important irrespective of their cultural differences with the caregiver. Hence atson's theory was proved in a multicultural environment, but…
Nicely, Bruce. (2011). Virginia Henderson's principles and practice of nursing applied to organ donation after brain death. Progress in Transplantation, Vol 21, No. 1, March 2011.
Wakifa et.al. (2009). Applying Watson's Nursing Theory to Assess Patient Perceptions of Being Cared for in a Multicultural Environment. Joumal of Nursing Research, VOL 17, NO 4, DECEMBER 2009.
Walling, Allan. (2006). Therapeutic modulation of the psycho-neuroimmune system by medical acupuncture creates enhanced feelings of well being. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners; Apr 2006; 18, 4; ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source pg. 135
James Dewey atson
The Discovery of DNA was one of the most important discoveries in the history of Humanity, and it was accomplished by James atson and Francis Crick. Their discovery of the structure of DNA allowed scientists to begin to understand the mechanism behind inheritance. hile many scientists over the years had studied heredity, beginning with Gregor Mendel, no one had been able to discover the exact mechanism for how heredity actually works. It was not until the technology of the time advance to a point where scientists could determine the structure of molecules that the discovery of the structure of genetic material could be determined. After much research, and some failures, two scientists, working together, finally determined the molecular structure of the genetic molecule, allowing for the study of the exact mechanism to begin. James atson was one of the scientists responsible for the discovery of the DNA…
"Biography James Watson." Nobelprize.org. Nobel Prize Organization. 1964. Web. 14 April 2011.
"James D. Watson, Chancellor Emeritus" Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Web. 15 April 2011.
Remote Nursing Theory
Remote Nursing and Jean Watson's Theory of Caring
Despite the identification of a clear role and responsibility for nurses in the area of remote and rural medical care, providing primary medical assistance to individuals and communities in geographically isolated areas, there have been significant barriers demonstrated to the effective networking and planning of nursing efforts, resources, and personnel in this area (Coyle et al. 2010). Though this problem is largely one that is practical in nature and requires a fix found in policy and infrastructure, the problem can ultimately be seen as one that is rooted in theory and philosophy. Simply put, nurses attempting to provide care to remote individuals and communities are not equipped with the proper tools, training, or resources to provide effective care, and this has also affected the focus of nursing in this arena such that results of nursing attempts in this area…
An application of Jean Watson's Theory of Caring in Nursing could definitely help to provide a renewed focus on those aspects of rural and remote care that are most essential to patient needs, and that will lead to a greater level of satisfaction and involvement by nurses. Essentially, this theory of nursing insists that the carative rather than the curative aspects of nursing practice and patient outcomes be focused on, which also automatically means treating the whole patient and improving their quality of life rather than simply trying to address specific symptoms and/or diseases (Watson 199; Rafael 2000). Caring for the patient rather than trying to cure the patient leads to a very different perspective in nursing, and this perspective can be applied to whole communities as well as to individuals.
The usefulness of this theory in regards to rural and remote nursing care and practice is difficult to overstate. By approaching rural communities and individuals simply with the focus of providing the best possible care, rather than attempting to provide cures that seem more readily available in less remote settings, nurses would be able to achieve greater levels of self-defined efficacy while at the same time improving the quality of life and the quality of care for their patients (Watson 1999; Rafael 2000). An application of this theory would not immediately address the practical problems of policy and infrastructure that face rural and remote care, but it would provide a solid foundation for the improvement of care in this area -- improvement that research has shown must be brought about by nurses (Coyale et al. 2010). This foundation can then be used to encourage greater official attention to and coordination of the issue.
Incorporating this theory into this area of practice begins simply with changing the mental and emotional fous of care.
When most people are asked 'what do nurses do," there is a strong likelihood that the word 'caring' will arise in the conversation. Many nurses, particularly new nurses, identify caring as one of the personal qualities that attracted them to the profession. However, caring can be a very nebulous concept, as even non-nurses give 'care' to others and non-nurses can be 'caring' people. Nursing, in an effort to create an empirical and academic basis for itself as a discipline has fought against the idea that nursing is just about caring. However, it cannot 'ignore' the idea of caring, given that one of the concepts that distinguishes nursing from other forms of medical care is its patient-centric and individualistic perspective.
I have chosen caring as the concept I will focus on in this paper, with a specific focus on Jean Watson's Theory of Caring, given that it is one of…
Cara, Chantal. (2011).A pragmatic view of Jean Watson's caring theory.
Universite de Montreal. Retrieved www.humancaring.org/conted/Pragmatic%20View.doc
Giguere, Barbara. (2002). Assessing and measuring caring in nursing and health science. Nursing Education Perspectives. Retrieved http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3317/is_6_23/ai_n28962844/
Gross, Terry. (2011). Grant Achatz: The chef who lost his sense of taste. Fresh Air. NPR.
Health care, and that too, a quality health care is one of the most basic needs of any human being. In current times, where the fast paced lives are getting faster each day, work stresses are increasing, streets are being storm with junk foods and fast foods, and pollution and congestion is increasing, human lives are getting more and more prone to physical and mental diseases. As a result, the importance of health care systems and health care facilities increases. While, surgeons and doctors are generally seen as the captain of the ship as far as health sector is concerned, very important personnel of the health sector are the nurses. Once quite ignored, the importance of the nursing profession was highlighted by Florence Nightingale, one of the nursing pioneers. Florence Nightingale broke the conventional perceptions associated with the profession of nursing and took it to a new level, explored various…
Lee, H. & Winters, C. (2006). Rural nursing: concepts, theories and practice. New York:
Joel, A. & Kelly, L. (2002). The nursing experience: trends, challenges and transitions. New York: Mc Graw Hill.
Lumby, J. & Picone, D. (2000). Clinical Challenges: focus on nursing. St. Leonards, N.S.W: Allen and Unwin.
theories currently being used in the field of nursing today. While each has their respective positive and negative points, all are useful in certain nursing settings, and can assist nurses in their positions. This paper will discuss two of those theorists, Jean Watson and Jean Piaget. Each theory will be discussed and explained, and examples of how each can be applied in the field of nursing will be discussed. This paper will show that both theories, though very different, can be useful in the field of nursing.
The Theory of Human Caring, created by Jean Watson, was originally developed based on Watson's experiences as both a teacher and in the nursing profession. According to Watson, the theory was created to explain those values of nursing that differ from the values of "curative factors," those of doctors and specialists. The Theory of Human Caring is devised based on the explicit values,…
Erci, B., Sayan, A., Kilic, D., Sahin, O., & Gungormus, Z. (2000). The effectiveness of Watson's caring model on the quality of life and blood pressure of patients with hypertension. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41 (2), 130-139.
Evans, R. (1973). Jean Piaget: The Man and His Ideas. New York, N.YE.P. Dutton & Co., Inc.
Watson, J. (1979). Nursing: The philosophy and science of caring. Boston, M.A.: Little Brown.
Watson, J. (1988). Nursing: Human science and human: A theory of nursing. New York, N.Y.: National League for Nursing.
Theoretical Foundations of Nursing:
Nursing can be described as a science and practice that enlarges adaptive capabilities and improves the transformation of an individual and the environment. This profession focuses on promoting health, improving the quality of life, and facilitating dying with dignity. The nursing profession has certain theoretical foundations that govern the nurses in promoting adaptation for individuals and groups. These theoretical foundations include theories, theory integration, reflection, research and practice, and assimilation.
Grand Nursing Theory:
There are several grand nursing theories that were developed by various theorists including the Science of Unitary Human Beings by Martha ogers, Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model, and Systems Model by Betty Neuman. Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model is based on the consideration of the human being as an open system. She argues that the system reacts to environmental stimuli via cognator and regulator coping techniques for individuals. On the other hand, the…
American Sentinel (2012). 5 Steps for Nurses to Stay Updated with Health Care Changes.
Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.nursetogether.com/5-steps-for-nurses-to-stay-updated-with-health-care-changes
Andershed, B. & Olsson, K. (2009). Review of Research Related to Kristen Swanson's Middle-range Theory of Caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 598-610.
"Application of Theory in Nursing Process." (2012, January 28). Nursing Theories: A
The profession of nursing offers many different things to many different people. For me, caring and helping people heal has always interested me and has made me feel like I am on the right path I life. The purpose of this essay is to explain my perspectives on nursing and why I feel that this profession is not only of great importance to me and my family, but also positively affecting my community and environment as well. This essay will first show the need for nurses in today's society and how well trained nurses can make a significant impact in the overall quality of life for everyone involved. Also this essay will address Jane Watson's theory of caring as a main academic influence on my nursing approach.
I was born in a relatively poor part of the world in Jamaica where many of the things that are…
Courchane, C. (2011). With nurse shortage looming, America needs shot in the arm. The Washington Times, 6 June 2011. Retrieved from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/jun/6/with-nurse-shortage-looming-america-needs-shot-in-/?page=all
Current Nursing (2012). "Jean Watson's Philosophy of Nursing." 26 Jan 2012. Retrieved from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Watson.html
Rowe, J. (2012). Why Nurses Need More Authority. The Atlantic, 7 May 2012. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2012/05/why-nurses-need-more-authority/256798/
Caring in Nursing
Over time, nursing and caring have largely been regarded synonymous. With that in mind, it is important to note that quite a number of caring theories have been developed based on caring as a central concept. Some of these theories include the Cultural Care theory by Leininger as well as the Human Caring theory by Jean Watson whose development took place in 1970's. In this text, I will concern myself with caring as a concept in nursing. In so doing, I shall come up with a detailed evaluation of the nature of the practice theory gap most particularly in Bahrain as far as nursing is concerned.
Caring in Nursing: A Definition
To begin with, it is important to note that caring behaviors in the context of nursing can be taken to be those approaches as well as practices that are evidenced by nurses as they seek to…
Barker, A.M. (2009). Advanced Practice Nursing: Essential Knowledge for the Profession. Jones and Bartlett Learning
Callara, L.E. (2008). Nursing Education Challenges in the 21st Century. Nova Publishers
Chitty, K.K. (2005). Professional Nursing: Concepts and Challenges. Elsevier Health Sciences
Cody, W.K. (2006). Philosophical and Theoretical Perspectives for Advanced Nursing Practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning
Job Aid Matrix
Over the decades, the nurse has been playing a critical role in determining the underlying amounts of support that are provided to patients. As, they serve as a caregiver as well as friend, who is has a vital role in helping to alleviate suffering and allowing those they are working with to overcome the difficulties they are facing. At the heart of helping the nurse to be more effective, is the Caring and Healing Model for Nursing. This is designed to provide practical applications that will help health care practitioners in achieving these objectives. To fully understand how this is can be utilized requires: providing an explanation of the new professional model of caring-healing practices, conducting an examination of the philosophy itself, the steps that are used to enhance learning / original scholarship mentoring and what steps can disseminate the Caring Science mode of clinical / educational…
Dr. Jean Watson's Human Caring Theory. (2011). Watson Caring Science. Retrieved from: http://www.watsoncaringscience.org/index.cfm /category/61/10-carnitas-processes.cfm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Watson's origin of human life is tied to notions that one's soul possesses a body that is not restricted by objective space and time. The lived world of the experiencing person is not well-known by external and internal notions of time and space, but shapes its own time and space. "Nursing is a human science of persons and human health-illness experiences that are mediated by professional, personal, scientific, esthetic, and ethical human care transactions. The process of nursing is human care" (Fawcett, 2002).
The main concept of Watson's theory is transpersonal human caring which is best understood within the concepts of three subsidiary concepts: life, illness and health.
Human life is defined as spiritual, mental and physical being which is continuous in time and space.
Illness is not automatically a disease. Illness is turmoil or disharmony with a person's inner self or soul at some level or disharmony within the…
Fawcett, Jacqueline. (2002). Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring. Retrieved July 28, 2009,
from DeSales University Web site: http://www4.desales.edu/~sey0/watson.html
Obesity. (2009). Retrieved July 28, 2009, from MedicineNet.com Web site:
Daily Hassles Scale; Beck Depression Inventory; and Ways of Coping Questionnaire
The Daily Hassles and Uplifts (HSUP) scale, created by ichard S. Lazarus and Susan Folkman, measures participants attitudes about daily events characterized (by them,) as either "hassles" or "uplifts." Instead of focusing on potentially stressful events as overwhelming and frustrating, the tool provides participants with a way in which they can regard them as life-changing thereby growth producing, and positive. The Uplifts scale suggests positive aspects of daily life and counteracts stress and consists of three scales: the Hassles scale, the Uplift scale, and the Combined scale.
The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, BDI-II), created by Dr. Aahron Beck, is a 21-question multiple choice self-inventory (each item scored on a scale of 0-3) and one of the most widely used instruments for measuring depression. It believes that depression stems from cognitive attitudes and breaks depression into three categories: affective, physical,…
Beck AT, Steer RA, Ball R, Ranieri W (December 1996). "Comparison of Beck Depression Inventories -IA and -II in psychiatric outpatients." Journal of personality assessment 67 (3): 588 -- 97.
Lazarus, R. & Folkman, S. Hassles & Uplifts. Mind garden http://www.mindgarden.com/products/hsups.htm
Lazarus, R. & Folkman, S. Ways of Coping Questionnaire Mind garden http://www.mindgarden.com/products/wayss.htm
Pearson. BDI-II. Assessment & Information
Philosophy statement of the Olympic College Practical Nursing Program, according to the Olympic College's official website, is that this one-year program resolves to prepare graduates to provide safe, direct patient care as licensed practical nurses in a variety acute care, long-term care, home health, and ambulatory care settings. Olympic College stresses the importance of critical thinking as well as compassion in the development of the nurse as a medical practitioner.
The nursing theorist Jean atson stated that she essentially believed that nursing was an "inter-subjective" human process and placed a high value on the caring relationship between the nurse and the recipient of care. (Souriel, 1996) In contrast, according to the ashington State Legislature, the nursing process is defined as a "systematic problem solving approach" to medical care that "has the goal of facilitating an optimal level of functioning and health for the client, recognizing diversity. Effective nursing, states the…
Olympic College Practical Nursing Program. (2005) Official website. Retrieved 21 Feb 2005 at http://www.oc.ctc.edu/index.html
Souriel, S. (24 Aug 1196)"An Analysis and evaluation of Watson's theory of human care." Advanced Nursing. 2:400-4.
Washington State Legislature. (2005) "Nursing Laws." Official website. Retrieved 21
http://www.leg.wa.gov/WAC/index.cfm?section=246-840-700& ; fuseaction=section
One of the complexities of 21st century medicine is the evolution of nursing care theories in combination with a changing need and expectation of the stakeholder population. Nurses must be advocates and communicators, but must balance these along with an overall philosophy of ethics while still remaining mindful of budgets and the need for the medical institution to be profitable. It seems as if these issues comprise a three-part template for nursing: respect for patient value & individuality, education of patients, and cognition and respect for the realities of contemporary medicine. In many ways, too, modern technology has advanced further than societal wisdom, especially when confronting the issue of death. The modern nurse's role is to create a nurse-patient culture that encourages the individual to take responsibility for their healthcare and, in partnership with the nurse, to be involved in their recovery. The modern complexities of…
Basford, L. And O. Slevin. (2003). Theory and Practice of Nursing: An Integrated Approach to Caring Practice. New York: Nelson Thomas.
Beckstead, J. And Beckstead, L. (2004). A multidimensional analysis of the epistemic origins of nursing theories, models and frameworks. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 43
Cohen, J. (1991). Two portraits of caring: a comparison of the artists - Leininger
Nursing Timeline Week 2 • Create a 700- 1,050-word timeline paper historical development nursing science, starting Florence Nightingale continuing present. • Format timeline, word count assignment requirements met
Historical development of nursing timeline
The foundation of modern nursing. Before, nursing was largely the profession of disreputable people and not exclusively female. Based on her experiences during the Crimean War, Florence Nightingale strove to make it a respectable profession with uniform, professional standards. Her approach reduced the death toll in hospitals by 2/3rds during the Crimean War (Florence Nightingale, 2012, Biography: 1). She established the Nightingale Training School and wrote her foundational Notes on Nursing (Florence Nightingale, 2012, Biography: 2-3). Nightingale's canons of nursing compromised everything from an emphasis on proper sanitation to how the nurse should socially interact with the patient.
1880: Famed Civil War nurse Clara Barton founds the American ed Cross.
1909. Hildegard Peplau is born. Heavily influenced…
Betty Neuman's Systems Theory, 2012, Current Nursing. Retrieved:
Clara Barton. (2012). The Civil War. Retrieved: http://www.civilwarhome.com/bartonbio.htm
Doctor of Philosophy. (2012). School of Nursing. Retrieved:
Likewise, Callista oy's Adaptation Model of Nursing provides a contextual bridge between the internal physiological determinants of patient health and the crucial aspects of external environment that typically influence patient health and (especially) patient perceptions and attitudes about health and medical or nursing interventions. Together, application of the principles promoted by Watson's Caring Model and by oy's Adaptation Model of nursing complement my clinical training in a manner that I believe enables me to contribute the most to my patients, to my profession, and to myself as a nurse.
Dobratz, M.C. "Moving nursing science forward within the framework of the oy
Adaptation Model." Nursing Science Quarterly, Vol. 21; (2008): 255-259.
Fawcett, J. (2005). Analysis and Evaluation of Conceptual Models of Nursing, St. Louis,
Pipe, T.B., Kelly, a., LeBrun, G.; Schmidt, D., Atherton, P., and obinson, C. "A
prospective descriptive study exploring hope, spiritual well-being, and quality of…
Dobratz, M.C. "Moving nursing science forward within the framework of the Roy
Adaptation Model." Nursing Science Quarterly, Vol. 21; (2008): 255-259.
Fawcett, J. (2005). Analysis and Evaluation of Conceptual Models of Nursing, St. Louis,
Personal Definition of Nursing
Like most facilities, my institution stresses that it cares for its patients. Its belief in the value of caring and the place of caring at the center of nursing practice has caused it to make Jean Watson's Human Caring Theory the core of its philosophy. Watson's theory states that caring is an interpersonal science and a "caring environment is one that offers the development of potential while allowing the person to choose the best action for himself or herself at a given point in time" (Jean Watson's theory of nursing, 2012, Current Nursing). One critical assumption that I see implemented in my practice is the idea that "caring is more 'healthogenic' than is curing. A science of caring is complementary to the science of curing" (Jean Watson's theory of nursing, 2012, Current Nursing). Nursing may be a science, but nurses must always remember that…
Jean Watson's theory of nursing. (2012). Current Nursing. Retrieved:
Nursing models of care. (2013). Highland Hospital. Retrieved:
Wishing to Pursue Graduate Study
Dr. Paul Farmer of Partners in Health was asked in an interview if he knew at a young age what he wanted to do or if it was an idea that evolved over time. He replied: "You can…grow into what you want to do…grow into your aspirations." I took that to mean that personal experiences can open our eyes to possibilities and that small successes can focus our attention on goals that once seemed too lofty. I have learned the importance of taking one step at a time and striving to excel in every stage before reaching for the next level. Like a rock climber, I have also learned to visualize my next handhold -- and picture myself achieving that goal even as I reach for it.
Despite some difficult life circumstances, I have been graced by my origins and my experiences as an immigrant.…
Florence Nightingale (d.1910), founder of modern nursing is born.
Florence Nightingale is widely credited for developing what has been called an 'environmental' theory of nursing. When Nightingale began to practice her craft during the Crimean War, there were no professional protocols for how nurses should behave, nor was nursing a standardized profession. Nightingale suggested the need for cleanliness and well-ventilated areas to facilitate the healing of patients. She also stressed the need for psychological relief from the distress of illness for the sick. "Patients are to be put in the best condition for nature to act on them, it is the responsibility of nurses to reduce noise, to relieve patients' anxieties, and to help them sleep" ("Theory of Florence Nightingale," 2014).
1860: Nightingale establishes the first nursing school in London
1873: First nursing school founded in the United States
1882: Clara Barton founds the American ed Cross, charter…
Betty Neuman's systems model. (2012). Current Nursing. Retrieved from:
Clara Barton. (2014). American Red Cross. Retrieved from:
Timeline: Historical Development of Nursing Science
Nurse Science Timeline
Timeline 1850-2010: Historical Development of Nursing Science
Florence Nightingale begins her nursing training in Alexandria, Egypt at the Institute of St. Paul.
Florence Nightingale, in Paris, visits the Daughters of Charity in their Motherhouse in Paris to learn their methods.
Florence Nightingale goes to Turkey with 38 volunteer nurses to assist in caring for the injured of the Crimean War. (October21)
Mary Seacole leaves London to establish a "British Hotel" at Balaklava in the Crimea. (January 31)
Biddy Mason is granted her freedom and moves to Los Angeles. She works as a nurse and midwife and becomes a successful businesswoman.
1857 -- Ellen anyard creates the first group of paid social workers in England and pioneers the first district nursing program in London.
1860 -- Florence Nightingale, Notes on Nursing: What it is and What it is Not…
"History and famous nursing theories." (2011). NursingAvenue.com Retrieved August 23, 2011, from http://www.nursingavenue.com/Nursing-Theories.html
Kendall, C. (2010, Apri 15). The history of nursing. Helium Retrieved August 23, 2011, from http://www.helium.com/items/1805546-nursing-history-theory-and-timeline
"Notable nurse timeline." (2011). timetoast Retrieved August 23, 2011, from http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/8652
"Nursing theory development bullets." (2011). Scribd, inc Retrieved August 23, 2011, from http://www.scribd.com/doc/14083218/Nursing-Theory-Development-bullets
Nursing and the E
The Emergency oom is often one of the most visible parts of healthcare for political debate. It is also one of the most difficult environments for a modern nurse. It is interesting that one of the founders of modern nursing had emergency experience prior to developing her overall theories. Nightingale also looked at negatives and positives that are the conditions, which could help make people recover and reach their actual potential, as also noted by Maslow hierarchy of needs. She did not look or speak directly of the disease per se, but rather, looked at air, clean water, environment, and sanitation. She published her book in1860 with the title a "Notes on Nursing: What it Is and What it Is Not," connecting human beings and quality of human life, and comparing the stagnant sewage she saw in Scutari, as well as in London. She…
Americans at Risk. (March 2009). Families USA. Retrieved from:
Patient Perceptions in the Emergency Department: Physicians, Physician Assistants,
Nurse Practitioners. (30 August 2010). Retrieved from: http://idiopathicmedicine.wordpress.com/2010/08/30/patient-perceptions-in-the-emergency-department-physicians-physician-assistants-nurse-practitioners/
Quality of Care Provided by Nurse Practitioners
Cost and quality of healthcare access are two inter-related concepts that are central to the healthcare debate in the United States of America. The study will compare the effectiveness of quality and costs between NP and physicians. To achieve this purpose, the study will be guided y the following research questions; how does the cost of care provided by nurse practitioners compare to that of physicians: and how is the quality of care provided by nurse practitioners? The Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring is adopted for this study. The study will be conducted in five different hospitals that have health services being provided by both NP and physicians. Study participants will be selected from hospital databases with the help of hospital staff to establish which patients will be more suited for the study. esearch questionnaires will be used for data collections. The…
Allen, J. K., Himmelfarb, C. R. D., Szanton, S. L., & Frick, K. D. (2014). Cost-effectiveness of nurse practitioner/community health worker care to reduce cardiovascular health disparities. The Journal of cardiovascular nursing, 29(4), 308.
Fletcher, C. E., Copeland, L. A., Lowery, J. C., & Reeves, P. J. (2011). Nurse practitioners as primary care providers within the VA. Military medicine, 176(7), 791-797.
Kapu, A. N., Kleinpell, R., & Pilon, B. (2014). Quality and financial impact of adding nurse practitioners to inpatient care teams. Journal of Nursing Administration, 44(2), 87-96.
Litaker, D., MION, L. C., Planavsky, L., Kippes, C., Mehta, N., & Frolkis, J. (2003). Physician -- nurse practitioner teams in chronic disease management: the impact on costs, clinical effectiveness, and patients' perception of care. Journal of interprofessional care, 17(3), 223-237.
(2008). The study measures public opinion concerning two scenarios: one in which the kidney donor is given a fixed financial compensation; and one in which the donor is provided with health insurance coverage for life. According to the findings of the study, "although almost half of the respondents (46%) were reluctant towards introducing a system with fixed compensation to increase the number of living kidney donors, still 25% of the general public reacted positively." (Kranenburg, 1039) This study would conduct a similar comparative discussion, but would expand the number of available options discussed and would use a different sample population, as discussed in the subsequent section.
Subjects and Sampling Technique:
The subjects will be drawn from amongst nursing professionals working in randomly selected renal specialty facilities and wards. Initial contact will be made by phone with a Director of Nursing at selected facilities requesting participation. Those that agree will receive…
Conesa, C.; Rios, a.; Ramirez, P.; Sanchez, J.; Sanchez, E.; Rodriguez, M.; Martinez, L.; Ramos, F. & Parrilla, P. (2009). Attitude of Primary Care Nurses Toward Living Kidney Donation. Transplantation Proceedings, 37(9), 3626-3630.
Kranenburg, L.; Schram, a.; Zuidema, W.; Weimar, W.; Hilhorst, M.; Hessing, J. & Busschbach, J. (2008). Public Survey of Financial Incentives for Kidney Donation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 23(3), 1039-1042.
Neyhart, C. & Colaneri, J. (2004). Living Anonymous kidney donation: A solution to the organ donor shortage? Nephrology Nursing Journal. Online at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ICF/is_3_31/ai_n17207253/
Watson, J. (2007). Theory of Human Caring: Theory Evolution. University of Colorado at Denver. Online at http://www.nursing.ucdenver.edu/faculty/jw_evolution.htm
Nursing Concept Analysis: Caring
Caring is a concept central to nursing theory. Indeed, an esteemed constellation of nurses throughout history, including Nightingale, Watson, Henderson, and Benner, have integrated the concept of care into their theory and praxis. Caring has been considered a foundational element of nursing such that "compassion and therapeutic relationships" are viewed as essential "underpinnings" of nursing (Skillings, 2008). As with most disciplines, the complexities that accompany professional practice in contemporary settings can pose unanticipated challenges. The ethic of caring that is fundamental to nursing endures an onslaught of competing priorities, barriers to compassionate practice, and adaptations inherent to modern healthcare institutions (Skillings, 2008).
Most behaviors that the nursing discipline considers caring are readily recognized, such as "attentive listening, comforting, honest, patient, responsibility, providing information to the patient can make an informed decision, touch, sensitivity, respect, calling the patient by name" (Vance, 2003). Categorically, many nurse practitioners…
Brenner, P. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Dewar, B. & Cook, G. (2013). Developing compassion through a relationship centered appreciative leadership programme. Nurse Education Today, 14(9), 1258-1264.
Fry, N.A. (1993). Beyond professional caring: teaching nursing students the art of Christian caring. Paper delivered at the Faith and Learning Seminar at Union College in Lincoln, Nebraska in June of 1993. Retrieved from http://ict.aiias.edu/vol_10/10cc_167-185.htm
Leininger, M.M. (1991). Culture care, diversity and universality: A theory of nursing. New York, NY: National League of Nursing Press, p. 35.
The National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists - The NACNS was founded in 1995, specifically to enhance and promote the unique and high-value contributions that clinical nurses make to the health and well-being of individuals, families, groups, and communities in their particular branch of healthcare. They also have a foundation, scholarship programs, a journal and discussion portal, various levels of conferences, scholarship programs, honors and awards, and the ability for advanced certification. A Clinical Nurse Specialist is a licensed N who has graduate preparation (MA or PhD) in nursing specifically as a Clinical Nurse Specialist. This field of healthcare goes beyond the duties of an LPN or N, or even charge nurse, and deals with either advanced levels of clinical specialization, or broader, community and national health concerns. The field requires a rather significant academic bent, and the association is designed to support and enhance that paradigm focus (CNS -…
About ENA. (2010, January). Retrieved October 2010, from Emergency Nurses Association: http://www.ena.org/about/Pages/Default.aspx
About the ACNM. (2010, February). Retrieved from American College of Nurse-Midwives: http://www.midwife.org/members.cfm
CNS - Who We Are and What We Do. (2010, January). Retrieved October 2010, from National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists: http://www.nacns.org/AboutNACNS/MissionStatement/tabid/57/Default.aspx
Kozier, B., Erb, G. & Blais, K. (1997), Professional nursing practice (3rd edition),
Leadership Vision in Nursing
Over the last several decades, nurses have been playing an important role in the quality of health care services that are provided to patients. Part of the reason for this is because, they are being called upon to fill many of the traditional roles that were often reserved for doctors. As these health care professionals, are seen as someone who is able to provide leadership in areas that may often go unnoticed. This is when a nurse can truly make a difference by: doing something more that will have a positive impact on those around them. Evidence of this can be seen with Jean Watson and her Caring Theory on Nursing, which involved seven different principals. This would redefine the way health care solutions were being provided, with nurses playing a major role in helping to offer support to patients. As a result, this is a…
Alleyne, J. (2007). Building the Capacity for Evidence-Based Nursing. Journal of Nursing Management, 15 (2), 230 -- 243.
Swearingen, S. (2009). A Journey to Leadership. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 40 (3), 107-114
Watson, J. (2008). Nurisng. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
nursing -- caring, empathy and ethics. The author (Lachman, 2012) uses numerous examples, each of which show the positive impacts of caring. Along with examples of ethical decisions that must be made, and with theories on caring and empathy put forward by scholars, the paper examines morality, competence, and the "reciprocal" relationships between nurses and their patients. That is, caring for a patient is reciprocal because if the needs of the patient are met, there is reciprocity -- the giving of care and the receiving and acknowledgement of that care giving.
Summary of Key Points
On page 113 Lachman references several leading theorists and scholars that have provided important research and results on nursing ethics and the caring concepts alluded to in the Introduction. Dr. Jean atson has a caring theory (112) that has three main components: a) carative factors; b) the "transpersonal caring relationship"; and c) the "caring occasion/caring…
French, Peter. (1999). The development of evidence-based nursing. Journal of Advanced
Nursing, 29(1), 72-78.
Lachman, Vicki D. (2012). Applying the Ethics of Care to Your Nursing Practice. Ethics, Law,
and Policy, 21(2), 112-115.
But each has very individual needs. The practice of nursing encompasses the art of knowing when and how to motivate patients back to health.
This poem speaks to some of the core values embedded in nursing. Caring is central what to nurses do. Nurses must promote health, healing, and hope in response to the human condition. For many nursing is a way of giving back. They enjoy helping others; this provides a sense of purpose to their lives. The lines that begin, "The kiss has everything to do with sons who look at us and disappear, daughters who line their eyes with blue and borrow our too-loud laughter," reminds us that the recipient of nursing care is not limited to just the patient; family, friends, and others are all recipients of the care being given. Everyone that comes in contact with the process is affected in one way or another.…
Watson, J. (2003). The implications of caring theory. Watson caring science institute. Retrieved on January 26, 2012, from http://www.watsoncaringscience.org/index.cfm /category/88/the-implications-of-caring-theory.cfm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Ethics in Nursing
Every professional in the field of healthcare has a special responsibility and obligation to treat patients with care and dignity -- and at all times there should be an ethical approach as well. Nurses, too, is a vitally important component of healthcare, are nurses are certainly bound by ethical rules and values, and this paper delves into the various aspects of ethics in nursing.
Ethics and Nursing
"Codes of ethics refer to systems of rules and principles by which a profession is expected to regulate the moral behavior of its members and demonstrate its responsibility to society" (Numminen, et al., 2011, p. 710).
Ethics in nursing boils down to taking responsibility for providing good care to patients, being fair, professional and just, Zane olf writes in the peer-reviewed journal Nursing. But there is more to it than just offering professional care, olf continues. The author, who is…
Kangasniemi, Mari. (2010). Equality as a central concept of nursing ethics: a systematic literature review. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Science, 24(4), 824-832.
Lachman, Vicki D. (2012). Applying the Ethics of Care to Your Nursing Practice. Nursing.
Numminen, O.H., Leino-Kilpi, H., van der Arend, A., and Katajisto, Jouko. (2011).
Caring for ody and Soul
Critiquing Research Report
Modern nursing practice has focused more and more on treating the whole person, through four domains (Chan, 2009). These are physical, mental, social, and spiritual. Of the four, the spiritual domain is the most neglected. A retrospective study recently found that nurses with religious beliefs are more likely to extend spiritual care. The greater their spiritual perceptions, the more frequently they include a spiritual dimension to their care of patients (Chan). However, not many nurses are able to extend care in this domain.
Jean Watson's Theory of caring is applied as theoretical framework. Her concept sees caring as a process of transpersonal caring. It is something exceeding the self and recognizing the relationship as "mutual and reciprocal (Goliath, 2008)." It is in this environment that the nurse connects with the patient under his specific circumstances. Watson uses 10 carative factors in applying…
Chan, MF. (2009). Factors affecting nursing staff in practicing spiritual care. Vol 19
Journal of Clinical Nursing: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Deal, B. (2010). A pilot study of nurses' experience of giving spiritual care. Vol 15 # 4
The Qualitative Report: Nova Southeastern University. Retrieved on May 18, 2011
Cultural Competency in Nursing
The basic knowledge in nursing or medical studies needs substantial facilitation in order to be effective and appropriate towards addressing the needs and preferences of the patients. Watson notes the need to integrate humanistic aspect into the career or nursing profession. He also believes on the need for the establishment of the caring relationship between the patients and nurses thus demonstration of unconditional acceptance of the patients in any condition. Nurses should integrate holistic and positive treatment with the aim of promoting health through knowledge and interventions thus elimination of interruptions during treatments or 'caring moments'. Modern patients have diverse problems and issues because of the cultural differences, races, and ethnicity thus the need to enhance the operations of the nurses. There is need to ensure that the nurses obtain cultural competencies with the aim of enhancing their ability to address diverse issues and problems faced…
Anderson, N.L.R., Calvillo, E.R., & Fongwa, M.N. (2007). Community-based approaches to strengthen cultural competency in nursing education and practice. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 18(1), 49S-59S.
Beach, M.C. (2005). Cultural competency: A systematic review of health care provider educational interventions. Cultural Competency, 43(4), 356-373.
Campinha-Bacote, J. (2002). The process of cultural competence in the delivery of healthcare services: A model of care. The Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(3), 181-185.
Rosswurm and Larrabee, (1999). A Model for Change to Evidence-Based
Historical Development Of Nursing Science
Timeline: History of nursing
Florence Nightingale publishes her Notes on Nursing, which includes her thirteen canons of nursing. This book was the first book to establish nursing as a unique profession that required specific skills and attributes. Nightingale drew upon her experiences as a nurse during the Crimean War and called for more intensive education of future nurses (Theory of Florence Nightingale, 2012, Nursing Theories).
The American Civil War was a bloody, prolonged conflict. Nurses such as Walt Whitman, Louisa May Alcott, Clara Barton, and Dorothea Dix distinguished themselves serving on the battlefield. As a result of the Battle of Bull un, Barton and Dix created a nursing corps to deal with the need to treat the fallen in a systematized fashion. There were few hospitals in existence at the time. Also, at the time the profession was largely made up of men (Stein…
Betty Neuman. (2012). Theories of Nursing. Retrieved:
Development of nursing theories. (2012). Nursing Theories. Retrieved:
Nursing Proposal -- Evidence-Based
The utilization of call lights particularly in hospital settings has recently been put under study as a function of various aspects of nursing including shortages, rounds and analyses of patient outcomes. The proper scheduling of nursing rounds may be essential to enhance the capability of nurses to tackle common or ordinary patient issues relative to more dire needs that have to be regarded as the primary/main target for the use of call lights by patients. Besides patients' general well-being and safety while hospitalized, nursing employees are also concerned with how satisfied the patients are. On a rather fundamental level, hospital settings that enable patients to experience peace of mind allow them to heal quicker than those that do not; these patients are highly likely to relay less stressful communications to those around them, and have a higher possibility of clearer perspectives that allow them to distinguish…
American Nurses Association (ANA). (2006). Assuring patient safety: The employer's role in promoting healthy nursing work hours for registered nurses in all roles and settings. Retrieved from http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofNursing/workplaceNurse
(AACN). The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (2001, March 3). Mandatory Overtime. Retrieved from http://www.aacn.org/WD/Practice/Content/PublicPolicy/mandatoryovertime.pcms?menu=Practie
Bae, S. (2010).Mandatory overtime regulations and nurse overtime. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice, 11(2), 99-107.
Bae, S-H. (2013). Presence of nurse mandatory overtime regulations and nurse and patient outcomes. Nursing Economics, 31(2), 59-68. Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/806796
Nightingale met a friend Richard Monckton Miles in 1842. Then in 1844, Nightingale asked Dr. Howe if she could do a charitable job in a hospital like the catholic nuns, and refused her marriage to her cousin, Henry Nicholson. By 1845, Nightingale started training herself in the nearby Salisbury Hospital, but her parents were not happy about it, seeing nursing as an inappropriate job for a well to do woman like their daughter. In the next year, Nightingale began teaching herself from the government blue books. In the meantime, Monckton Miles wanted to marry her, but soon she travelled to Rome, Italy with friends to avoid him. Britain unlimited, 2009). Finally, after she attended the Herbert's Charmouth convalescent home, her knowledge was recognized. In 1849, after refusing finally to Miles proposal, she decided to go to Egypt while accompanying her friends, the Bracebridges. They then travelled through Europe, and ended…
(Source: Cody, 2006, p. 259).
Differences Between Nightingale's Theory and Emancipatory Knowing -- When Nightingale thought about the benefits of a well-ventilated room, she was not basing her view on previous knowledge. Emancipatory progress is now evident in the way world healthcare approaches a patient's room -- typically well-ventilated and clean (Beck, 2005, pg. 140). Nightingale was born in an era were by women has very little voice most of the work done by women were in-house work so most of Nightingale's major innovation was providing place for women to work with and for women (Selanders, 2005, pg., 83). Today with Emancipatory knowledge we see a more educated workforce of both men and women in nursing. Although in the late 19th century there were still arguments regarding Nightingale's visions, today's theorists use her broad-based knowledge as a best -- practice template for modern conceptions (Attewell, 2005).
The Legacy of Nightingale Part 1 -- Nursing Ethics -- Most modern ethical theorist are based on traditions dating back as far as Ancient Greece. However, medical, and in particular nursing, ethics are clearly a post-Nightingale logical evolution (never a conclusion). The philosophical combination of advocacy and ethics, while still remaining true to the realities of budgets and the need for a medical institution to
Patricia Benner Theory
21st century nursing is an evolving, rewarding, but challenging occupation. Unlike nurses in the past, the modern nurse's role is not limited to the physician's assistant, but rather takes on a critical partnership role with both doctor and patient. This role is multicimensional: advocate, caregiver, teacher, researcher, counselor, translator, and case manager. Of course, care is of the upmost importance and includes those activities that assist the client physically mentally and emotionally. This requires a holistic approach to the patient as a person, not a disease, number or statistic (Mariano, 2005). Using nursing theory and scholarship can help aid a nurse's toolbox as well as keep the nurse current with practice and philosophical ideas. Case histories, for instance, provide a way to examine different aspects of nursing theory with tangible, tactical solutions, as well as points for strategic discussion (Alligood, 2009, intro).
From Novice to Expert. (September 16, 2011). Nursing Theories. Retrieved from: http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Patricia_Benner_From_Novice_to_Expert.html
Alligood, M. And A. Tomey. (2005). Nursing Theory: Utilization & Application. Denver, CO:
Altman, T. (2007). An Evaluation of the Seminal Work of Patricia Benner. Content Management Group -- Contemporary Nursing. 25 (2): 114-23. Retrieved from: http://nnppositionpaper.wikispaces.com/file/view/An+Evaluation+of+the+Seminal+Work+of+Patricia+Benner+Theory+or+Philosophy.pdf
skills development and levels of knowledge acquisition based on clinical experience. Nurses move from novice making decisions based on rules to expert who are able to see connections between actions and outcomes using critical thinking
Some claim that expert nursing comes from habituation in making decisions. Benner (2001), for instance, posits 5 different levels of development that the nurse moves through: novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. Each one builds on the other as the nurse uses the reflection gained from her experience to improve her practice. Each of these five different levels constitute proficiency and skill not only in practical labor, but also in other components -- such as skilled communication and mentoring -- that are integral to the field of nursing. The novice nurse, for instance, tends to see the patient as an object made up of discrete pieces of information / data and specific tasks that…
Benner, P. Tanner, C., Chesla, C. (1996) Expertise in nursing practice: Caring, clinical judgement and Ethics, New York. Springer Carper, B.A. (1978), Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing Advances in Nursing Science, 1 (16), 13-23.
Sackett, D. (2009) Various Research Design Classifications In Clinical Research for Surgeons (Ed.. Mohit Bhandari, Anders Joensson, pp. 31-47). NY: Thieme
Wit: Susie’s Nursing Metaparadigm
One of the pivotal characters in the movie Wit (2001) is that of Susie Monahan. Susie a nurse who has little knowledge of the poetry of John Donne so dear to the protagonist Vivian Bearing. Yet Susie shows expert mastery of the role of a healthcare provider in relation to her patients. Regarding the nursing paradigm of patient, environment, health, and nursing, Susie again and again demonstrates that she regards the patient as central in the ethical responsibilities of the nurse (Nikfarid, et al., 2018). Other characters, particularly the physicians and researchers handling Vivian’s case, place their own research needs above the needs of the patient. Vivian, although highly educated, admits she knows little of cancer research and does not fully understand she is being used as a test subject for research from which she is unlikely to benefit. For Susie, the patient is always first…
Myra's case is just one instance of many that a mental health nurse encounters on a regular schedule.
Nursing is best practiced when it follows the intentions of its founder Florence Nightingale who urged that nursing should be a practice that should literally provide for and care for the patient. Nursing, in other words, should be purely patient-centered. This caring extends to all aspects not just to the illness so that one treats the patient in a holistic way, considering all components of the patient such as the family, his or her social needs, hobbies, desires, spiritual inclinations and so forth. When done in this way, nursing extends itself from an automatic, robotic procedure to something that can motivate the nurse and uplift the patient (Watson, 1998). 'Nursing', in other words, extends to caring for the patient as a whole.
An effective nurse will strive to accomplish her best in…
Sansoni, J et al. (2004) Anxiety and depression in community-dwelling, Italian Alzheimer's disease caregivers, retrieved from International Journal of Nursing Practice: 10: 93-100.
Hayslip, B et al. (2008) Predictors of Alzheimer's disease caregiver depression and burden: what noncaregiving adults can learn from active caregivers. Educational Gerontology, 34: 945-969,
Broe, K et al. (2007) A Higher Dose of Vitamin D Reduces the Risk of Falls in Nursing
Home Residents: A Randomized, Multiple-Dose Study JAGS 55:234 -- 239
Home health visits can be a useful method of identifying potential and actual health issues. Visiting the patient's home may provide the opportunity to identify issues which may not be readily apparent at a medical office. The home health visit is meant to assist in the promotion of the patient's health maintenance; limit further disability, and increase baseline health.
The visiting nurse will gain the ability to build a caring, professional, trusting, patient focused relationship. The home health nurse will be able to assist the patient by identifying, procuring and providing education for interventional items. The nurse will also know how to facilitate the communication of identified patient needs, in the home, to interdisciplinary members of the health care team (Liebel, Powers, Friedman, & Watson, 2012, p. 80).
The patient has been prescribed oxygen for home use by her physician. The patient states the she has not…
Firstly, in Piagetian manner, the subject is confronted with a moral dilemma, that is, a short story in which two or more moral principles oppose each other. He or she is asked to make a choice. Secondly, the interviewer uses intensive probing, that is, why-questions, and questions which stimulate the respondent to consider varying situational contexts. Thirdly, stage scoring of interview is based on well conceived and meaningful measurement units.Through the confrontation with moral dilemmas, the subject is stimulated to consider moral norms rather than merely technical knowledge of solving a problem (most people suggest a technical solution first, which seems an appropriate strategy in most every-day decision making).(Kolhberg)
There are six levels of leaders, according to the combined works of Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohberg, and obert Kegan. esearch shows the majority of leaders are level four leaders or level five leaders. Level four leader 'Achiever' is categorized as…
Cherry, Kendra.(2012)About.com guide. Kohlbergs Therory of Moral
Development.Retrieved from website:
Motivation in Behavior
a) What does Tolman's theory of animal learning tell us about the motivation for human learning?
Unlike John Watson, B.F. Skinner and the other strict behaviorists, or the ussian physiologists like Ivan Pavlov, Edward C. Tolman argued that the behaviorist theory that learning was a matter of stimulus-response (S-) and positive and negative reinforcement was highly simplistic. Although he rejected introspective methods and metaphysics, he increasingly moved away from strict behaviorism into the areas of cognitive psychology. In short, he became a mentalist without actually using that term to describe himself and concluded that all behavior was "purposive" (Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 428). All of his experiments with rats moving through mazes at the University of Berkeley proved to his satisfaction that behavior was actually the dependent variable, with the environment as the independent variable, with mental processes as intervening variables. Tolman summarized this basic theory, which he…
Leaf, J.B. et al. (2010). "Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting and No-No Prompting in Two-Choice Discrimination Learning with Children with Autism." Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, No. 2 (Summer 2010), pp. 215-28.
Lerner, R.M. (2002). Concepts and Theories of Human Development, (3rd ed.) Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Lund, S.K. (2009). "Discrete Trial Instruction in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention" in E.A. Boutot and M. Tincani (eds). Autism Encyclopedia: The Complete Guide to Autism Spectrum Disorders. Prufrock Press, Inc.
Hergenhahn, B.R. (2009). An Introduction to the History of Psychology, (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth
In this, the individual does soak up the behaviors of those he or she is associated with. Yet, this is out of mimicking others behavior, with no regard for self gain. On the other hand, Bandura placed more emphasis as development being based on a balance between the environment and one's internally set goals. From this perspective, the individual mimics behaviors that lead to the achievement of certain goals, specifically engineering a more personal purpose to what is learned.
Bandura can also be seen as contrasting the theories of Jean Piaget as well. Once again, the two place a huge role on the nature of social environments on learning and development. Still, there are clear differences. First, there are clearly issues in regards to when the stages of development actually occur. The two present different age ranges for the important stages. Then, there is the increased importance of the social…
A person's development includes the changes that continue throughout one's life. Development is usually described in periods of time, so there is consistency among different theories that describe the stages that people go through in their learning process. The most widely used way of classifying developmental periods consists of the following order: the prenatal period, infancy, early childhood, middle and late childhood, and adolescence.
Healthy brain development during the pre-birth period is best when the mother has a nutritionally balanced diet, takes needed vitamins and does not abuse substances. When this is not followed, there is the possibility of brain development and behavior/learning problems such as learning disabilities. My mother is a Cherokee Indian who, like many Native Americans, was raised in a terrible physical and emotional situation. She was only 15 years old when she became pregnant with me. Because she was young, poor and basically alone…