Jean Watson is one of the reputable contributors in the contemporary nursing field. She is rather well-known for her work namely, Theory of Human Caring. Other than this eminent theory, she has presented various research papers which have made visible addition to theoretical work in the field of nursing. Her work on caring has also been included in the standard education related to patient care and has been adopted by many nursing schools and institutes globally. Watson's theoretical model is rather well-known for presenting the scientific application of the practice of patient's care as it emphasizes on not only eliminating the ailment but enhances the overall health of the patient in physical, mental and psychological frame of reference.
Watson was born in 1940 and had her graduation completed from Virginia in 1961. Her Bachelors was completed in Colorado in 1964 which further lead to her Masters education in Psychiatric and mental health in 1966. Furthermore, she did her PhD in education psychology and counseling (Tomey & Alligood, 2002). She has also been honored with six doctoral degrees from different countries. Where Watson is well-known for her work done in theoretical nursing, she is also famous for her non-profit organization called as Watson Caring Science Institute. She has also been working as an educationist and was formerly operating as the Dean of Nursing in University of Colorado. She was also a Leader of National League of Nursing. Her literary work The Philosophy and Science of Caring has been acted as the source of inspiration for many (Nursing Theory, 2012).
Many of us aim to serve mankind in our own way where nursing has been a selection of many because of its direct impact on human health and development. Watson can be regarded as the leader of such individuals as she has developed theoretical models which will help these individuals achieve their desired goals by adopting the methodologies defined by her theory. Her theoretical contribution aims at guiding the nurses as to how they should care for their patients and this intent of caring should develop in suitable health plans that would make addition to patient's overall well-being.
Caring is the essential element in the field of nursing and it focuses on promoting health than aiming of curing the current ailment. Her theoretical work provides a direction which leads the present day nurses to visualize a holistic approach towards patient's health care. According to the theories presented by Watson, Caring which acts as the basis for nursing is present in every cell of our society. However, it is not transferred from one generation to another; rather it has made transitions in the field of nursing and has shown adoptions to its environment.
As per the theory of Watson, nurses are expected to demonstrate care however this care should aim for patient's development while accepting patient has who he or she is yet keeping an eye on what he or she may become or is expected to become. The theory further explains that caring consists of various factors known as Carative factors (Watson, 1997b, p. 50). These factors include Faith-Hope, Sensitivity to self and others, Helping-trusting, human care relationship, Expressing positive and negative feelings, Creative problem-solving caring process, Transpersonal teaching-learning, Supportive, protective, and/or corrective mental, physical, societal, and spiritual environment, Human needs assistance, Existential-phenomenological-spiritual forces. (Watson, 1988, p. 75). Furthermore, Transpersonal caring relationship and caring occasion/Caring moment, are two more important elements of this theory.
Watson further designs the order for these human needs into biophysical and psychosocial needs of high and low order respectively. These biophysical needs include food and fluid, elimination, and ventilation. Lower-order psychophysical needs include activity-inactivity and sexuality. Higher-order psychosocial needs include achievement, affiliation, intrapersonal-interpersonal need, and self-actualization.
There are other major conceptions provided by Watson through her theory. These concepts include humans, their health, society surrounding them and the basic concept of nursing. As per her, human health is not a simple concept leading to only physical betterment. It entails a high degree of complete portfolio of physical, mental and social development of a human with integrated highly maintained daily function and the elimination of any sickness or any other causative agents leading to illness.
Watson also presents a nursing structure which is at…