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Jesus in Beijing: How Christianity Transforming China Changing Global Balance Power
'Jesus in Beijing' is a book authored by Aikman. The book has taken a keen interest on transformation and the changes taking place in the international power balance and a keen eye on the society within China. Aikman has focused on how the religion of Christianity is slowly penetrating deeper into the society under the rule of the government. The book circulates on the most important Christian matter and Christianity itself within the environs of the society. The book illustrates the idea of churches transforming into socialist protestant, Catholics party sponsored and an array of home-based churches. From this book, home churches are not constitutionally allowed in China. Aikman also censors out that these churches are composed of an assortment of persons believed to be part of the middle class in the society. The author percepts that these modern…… [Read More]
In truth, much of the negative connotations given to the Islamic religion are inaccurate (Rogers, 2006). Most Muslims are peaceful individuals who want to submit to the will of God and live their lives without being bothered by other individuals. They have tolerance for other religions, and do not set out to kill any individuals who choose not to belong to the Islamic religion (Rogers, 2006). There is very little unbiased information about Islamic individuals and their culture, and this does not help the tolerance level of those who are not Islamic (Rogers, 2006). As the Islamic religion continues to spread into the United States and other countries, perhaps individuals will become more tolerant of the Muslim individuals.
Trying to 'Westernize' Islam does not work, as Muslims believe very strongly in their faith and they want to keep it traditional and holy. There is no need for Christians or others…… [Read More]
The Jews insisted on their law against blasphemy:
We have a law, and according to our law, He ought to die, because He made
Himself the Son of God (John 19:6-7)"
The apostle and evangelist John concludes his gospel with:
ut these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing, you may have life in His Name (John 20:31)."
The Resurrection of Jesus from the grave and His ascension were events He Himself predicted and were witnessed by His first followers. Jesus is the only person who fulfilled all the prophecies in the Scriptures (1 Cor 15:3-4) about the Messiah who would come to redeem man from sin and restore him to fellowship with God. These followers faithfully attested to these events that prove Jesus' divinity and that He is the Son of God, God the Son Whom the Father…… [Read More]
Similarly, the author does not step away from the West. Confining himself to a Western framework prevents Pelikan from delivering any genuinely worthwhile analysis of the role of Jesus through the centuries. Instead, the book Jesus Through the Centuries becomes merely informative. In many ways the book tells readers what they already know but fills in some of the details. A scholastic work that is well-documented, Pelikan's work earns an encyclopedic role. Jesus through the Centuries is a scholastic work with well-documented source material. It will not, however, change a reader's perspective or point-of-view because it is not an effective critique on the meaning behind Jesus' role through the centuries.
The subtitle of Jesus through the Centuries summarizes Pelikan's purpose: to explore Jesus' "place in the history of culture." Organized chronologically from the New Testament to the twentieth century, Jesus through the Centuries can also be read thematically. For example,…… [Read More]
Jesus as a Real Historical Figure
Jesus as a Historical Figure
Whether or not Jesus was a real historical figure is a subject of much debate in scholarly communities. Proponents of the theory that Jesus was an actual historical figure support their theory with evidence that stories related in the New Testament's stories of Jesus coincide with actual historical events. Opponents of the idea of a historical Jesus rely on the fact that there is not one single thing that definitively establishes the existence of the man Jesus Christ. Regardless of whether or not Jesus actually existed, there is substantial historical support for the idea that a man such as Jesus could have existed during that historical time period and performed tasks such as Jesus performed.
To understand Jesus as a historical figure, it is important to understand Jesus' culture. First and foremost, Jesus was a Jew. The influence of…… [Read More]
To become a Muslim, one must simply accept that there is only one God and that Mohammed was his messenger. The words "Islam" and "Muslim" are both derived from the Arabic word for "peace." The traditional Muslim greeting is "Peace be unto you" (Wisdom Fund). Christians often use the phrase "Peace be with you" at the close of the worship services.
Both Christians and Muslims worship God in prayer. Both Christians and Muslims believe that there is one God. It is important in both religions that people accept the teachings of their guidebooks and live their lives accordingly. Neither religion advocates violence, and yet terrible violence has been committed in the name of each religion. The violence is not true to the teachings of either Jesus or Mohammed.
There are some great differences between the Christian and Muslim traditions and yet we can also see some commonalities. In a peaceful…… [Read More]
Jesus and Mohammed
The Two Great Messengers of God, Jesus and Mohammed: Comparing the Importance and Differences of Jesus and Mohammed
In my paper I would like to say how two of the most influential people in all of religious history would have to have been either Jesus or Muhammad. From the moment they were born and extending far beyond their deaths they were both solely responsible for the founding and the continuation of their respective religions. The influences and religious experiences of these two people shaped the future of both religions. A look at the lives of these two men and the impacts of their deaths follows. A comparison of how both the men influenced their religions and also how they are both revered and worshiped in today's societies will happen as well. All of these things will try to explain how the preaching and messages these two men…… [Read More]
IMPACT OF THE DEATH OF JESUS AND MOHAMMED a. Mohammed
Mohammed died around the age of 65 and a power struggle set in relating to who his successor would be which resulted in the development of several sects of Islam with the two primary sects being the Sunni Muslims and the Shi-ite Muslims.
When Jesus was crucified and died on the cross his body was prepared for burial and placed in a burial cave. On the third day Mary Magdalene went to the tomb and found it empty and then she saw Jesus alive. Jesus appeared to his disciples before ascending to heaven. ecause Jesus died as a substitute sacrifice for the sins of mankind all that believe in him and confess him as their savior are forgiven of their sins and are able to enter the Kingdom of Heaven.
III. DESCRIPTION OF WORSHIP OF JESUS AND MOHAMMED…… [Read More]
Jesus, God and Man
The book, Jesus, God and Man, contributes to the ongoing theological discussion regarding the key issues to Christians and Catholics. If Jesus was God in the flesh, then he is the unique expression of complete divinity, and complete humanity. If Jesus was God, then the core teachings of Christianity are separate, and distinct from all other religions on the planet. If Jesus was God, his request of "take up your cross and follow me" has implication that is different in substance, and content than all other religions of the modern era which were founded by men who said, in essence, that their's was a path of peacefulness which lead toward a closer communion with the divine.
The thesis of the book is that Jesus indeed is God. The author responds to modern theologians which have diligently tried to change this core doctrine of the church over…… [Read More]
" Relgious leaders worried about loss of power and income ("iography of Mohammed," 2005). This is an interesting parallel to Jesus' life, because Jesus also worried the religious leaders of his time for similar reasons (Wikipedia, 2000). Mohammed and Abu Talib fled Mecca, and his uncle hid him in a fortified castle away from the city.
Within ten to fifteen years (accounts vary), Mohammed moved to the city of Medina, where he and his teachings were welcomed ("iography of Mohammed," 2005). He rapidly became the city's leader, becoming the judge, ruler, and law-giver for the city. He aligned himself with the two most powerful tribes, and led a ware against the Meccans in the name of Allah. Mohammed's army was victorious, and he gradually became accepted in Mecca as well. Six years after his victory, he led his first pilgrimage to Mecca, and Islamic missionaries began carrying the new religion…… [Read More]
In “Jesus Shaves,” David Sedaris writes about the comical but complex losses of translation when trying to explain a religious festival in a second language. All the students in the class are learning French as a second language, but come from different backgrounds. The author is American, but classmates are from Poland, Morocco, and Italy. In fact, the Moroccan student is the one that triggers the theme of cultural relativism when she asks the class to explain Easter. Thus forced, most of the first time, to explain a festival that they had so deeply taken for granted, everyone in the class including the teacher struggles to find the words. The students understandably trip over their limited vocabulary and grammar, let alone their lack of historical, theoretical, or religious studies expertise. Yet even the teacher, with her full command of English, cannot provide the Moroccan student with a definitive or satisfactory…… [Read More]
Mathew’s Gospel on Spirituality of Forgiveness
Forgiveness is a virtue that contributes immensely to a believer’s spiritual growth. It is the key to unlocking Gods power. Believers must learn to forgive all those who need forgiveness because in so doing, they cleanse themselves of resentment and bitterness. Many people lack forgiveness not only towards those who hurt them but also towards themselves. Holding grudges and resentment against people who have done terrible things to them hinders many believers from seeing miracles in their lives. Forgiveness plays a great role in the spiritual growth of a believer because the contrary is what most often comes between people and God.
In the first half of the book, Jesus’ response to conflict and aggression sets a standard different from that of the scribes and Pharisees. The system of the scribes and Pharisees holds that if a person encounters a conflict. When someone is…… [Read More]
The story of the wedding feast at Cana is one of the most poignant tales in the Bible. Yet it is not because Jesus turned water into wine; his miracle often overshadows the true message of the role Mary plays in the ministry of Christ. In this story, a mother’s love becomes a pivotal turning point for Jesus. It is as if Jesus needed to hear his mother’s faith in him in order to properly commence his ministry. Jesus for the first time assumes a position of spiritual leadership. Although he already had with him his disciples, never before the wedding feast at Cana did Jesus demonstrate the magnitude of his presence. Even before he knew it himself, Mary as his mother recognized the time had come. In many ways, the incident represents a rite of passage for Jesus.
This is also one of the few stories in the Bible…… [Read More]
The field is represented as the earth, which was once free of weeds and negative influences. The seeds the followers of the Lord, some of whom have been corrupted by the devil, the enemy of the Lord. God has chosen not to separate the good from the bad right away, but instead to allow each seed to grow to fruition and prove him or herself as wheat or a weed, "Let both grow together until the harvest" (Matthew 13:30). The harvest as the apocalypse, where the Lord will weed out the sinful and only accept the good seeds, or the wheat, into the Kingdom of Heaven. Even the messages of the foreshadowing of the evelation were something known by the people of the time, who were typically of Jewish faith; "Jesus' message was shaped by Jewish eschatology; that is, Jesus proclaimed the end of all time," (Charlesworth 4). Thus, Jesus…… [Read More]
The tempting figure of Satan serves as a much more prominent actor in the film's plot, not simply causing Jesus to suffer for forty days and forty nights in the desert, nor show Jesus all he will have if he abandons his father, but has an abiding visual presence, offering Jesus a view of paradise that is something to be created upon earth, with human physical desires and a human, physical body that Jesus must ultimately give up to fulfill his destiny. This Satan does not tempt Jesus with visions of power, or another dark kingdom as he does in the gospels, but with the tempting nature of human life on earth as good in and of itself -- a theme that is not present in any of the gospels, perhaps because Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John took a less salutary view of earthly life, given the circumstances the Gospel…… [Read More]
The impact each has had on their respective followers, as well as the millions of other individuals who choose not to follow their teachings is overwhelming in nature. For two individuals who lived so many centuries ago to still hold sway over such a large portion of the population is a testament to their influence. Currently both Mohammed and Jesus are honored on special days throughout the year, and more than that they are also venerated and revered every single day by millions of faithful followers of their respective teachings.
The teachings of Jesus are currently being presented through the Christian Bible and primarily through the four gospels of the New Testament. These four books were written approximately forty to sixty years after the death of Jesus and relate the stories of his life and times. "hat Christians believe about Jesus' life and teachings is based largely on biblical texts,…… [Read More]
Jewish leaders, rather than a teacher of a profound ideology that changed the world. The martyring of Jesus is a significant part of his legacy, true, but it is not the only aspect of Jesus' legacy of significance that is highlighted in the gospel narratives. The bloody nature of the death of Jesus also shifts the emphasis from Jesus' mind to Jesus' body. Even in the gospels, although the suffering of Jesus is highlighted when the passion is discussed, the bloody and horrific nature is less at the forefront, than the Roman soldier's cruelty and taunting of Jesus as king of the Jews, unlike in the film, where the torture of Christ, rather than his worldly humiliation commands the viewer's visual attention. This may be an unfortunate aspect of any film that focuses on the passion of Jesus alone, because film is a visual rather than a verbal medium, and…… [Read More]
Jesus as Healer in First Century Judaism
This is a paper that analyzes Jesus as a healer at the time when he had to deal with first century Judaism.
Jewish law in the Old Testament prevented idolatry practices that prevailed before Judaism had an influence over people. Pagan rituals often consisted of worshippers making sacrifices to idols, and the initial prophets went through hardships to help these people change their ways. To begin with, the task of changing their beliefs was momentous, as preaching about a God that cannot be seen was difficult and opposed easily. However, with the grace of God, the prophets succeeded after persisting for many years.
As a result of the efforts of the prophets that came before Jesus, the Jewish world was well-versed in all the laws that they were given through the prophet Moses. These laws were rigid because they aimed at ameliorating the…… [Read More]
As an adolescent, Mohamed managed to make use of his businessman nature and his remarkable communicational skills. At the age of twenty five he was entrusted with taking care of the caravans of a rich widow which he later married. Being very fond of religion, Mohamed paid a great interest to udaism and Christianity, but was quick to dispose of both of them as he didn't share the principles of the two. He often visited a temple in Mecca where people were worshiping three hundred and sixty Gods. Mohamed felt attracted by Allah, the moon God, and began to claim that the moon God had been the one true God people should worship. As a very religious man that he had been, Mohamed was known to dedicate several weeks to the divinity by praying in a cave near Mecca where he allegedly had numerous visions of God and of heaven.…… [Read More]
It is accepting Jesus as the Son of God or even a spiritual figure that many cannot grasp. In this regard, history can be interpreted as too narrow for an understanding of Jesus. In fact, history is often interpreted as too narrow for religious or spiritual belief of any sort. These types of historical documents and data are labeled mythology. Because Jesus' arrival coincided with a great deal of relatively recent mythology such as Greek mythology, the Epic of Gilgamesh, and others, many students of history may find it easy to lump all of these spiritual beliefs together as myths. Similarly, that Jesus performed miracles is a second facet of Jesus' existence that many have a hard time grasping. Some, who believe in practicality and science above the spiritual, suggest that he was simply performing tricks that the uneducated population did not know any better than to accept. Thus, while…… [Read More]
It increasingly seems unlikely that Christ will show up on a white horse to purge the world of sin. If this is necessary to the ideology of salvation, then one might do well to scoff at it. It does not seem to be legitimate to project that Christ will save the world from the evil which is wrecked upon it by humans or by nature. Indeed, it seems remarkably irresponsible for a modern human to merely sit waiting for Christ to save the world rather than take active steps as part of the social community to assure that the world is preserved. (for example, it has been suggested that ush's radical policy in the Middle East is "literally and determinedly drawn, consciously and unconsciously, toward the enactment of such a [endtimes] scenario, as he believes, for God's sake" [Hill] if this were true, it would be a perfect example of…… [Read More]
Julius believed the darkness was "induced by God" (21). Josephus is another historian whose work became popular because it "provided rich information on a few figures in the New Testament" (Voorst 83). John the Baptizer is mentioned with "extensive treatment" (83) and Jesus is mentioned in relations to James' death. Here he names Jesus as the brother of James that is "called Christ" (83). Josephus' most popular mention of Jesus where he is recorded as a man because his "nature and form were human, but his appearance was superhuman and his works were divine" (85). Josephus does not call him an angel but he finds it difficult to call him a mere man. Jesus is noted for opposing the law but never doing anything shameful. Josephus also writes that Jesus was followed by many and he also goes into the Pilate affair, noting that the "miracle-worker" 86) was "no criminal,…… [Read More]
His followers claimed He had risen as He said He would, bodily appeared to them and then bodily ascended into Heaven, as Elijah prophesied. This experience emboldened them to come out of hiding and they gathered at the upper room of the Cenacle on the Day of the Pentecost. From then on, they openly preached the radical ethic taught by Jesus. The resurrection of Jesus is the origin of Christian worship and prayer and it directly links Jesus to God and Jesus has been called Lord, the Christ, the faithful and true witness. His followers who observed and advocated His teachings of the Good News were called Christians. Christianity was later founded and spread by the Roman soldier, Saul, who persecuted the Christians but was converted into an apostle by a direct encounter with Christ on Saul's way to Damascus. He was later renamed Paul.
Jesus as a Jew demanded…… [Read More]
The birth of Jesus satisfies these prophetic requirements, singling him out as the one and true messiah.
3. After his baptism and temptation, Jesus returns to his hometown of Nazareth and reads from the book of Isaiah. Several other times, references are made to other books of the Bible, especially as prophecy that Jesus fulfilled. The Jesus film itself is based on the Gospel of Luke. What is the significance of the Bible for understanding who Jesus is?
The bible represents a record of God dealings within the context of human history. As a quasi-historical document the bible allows readers to benefit by having knowledge that they could not otherwise have. Additionally, when taken as a complete unit the books of the bible work in harmony to speak eloquently of God's will. Jesus is the focal point of the bible and a consistent interpretation of who Jesus is begins with…… [Read More]
The comparison between HIV and leprosy is a proper framework for this examination. Today, HIV is still a stigmatized disease in many communities, but the predominate view is that its sufferers should not be outcasts of society, though the once were. Foundations have arisen to find a cure, and charities often donate to those with HIV in many countries, so that sufferers can obtain their medication. Today, HIV and AIDS, as well as other diseases like cancer, are prime issues in politics, as leaders try to fund scientific efforts to cure them. In Jesus' time, however, lepers, or those with contagious diseases, were seen as outcasts by society. They, too, were political issues, but the issue was how to contain the sufferers, not how to help them. Thus, with this contemporary view of Jesus' political time in light of contemporary politics, one can see how Jesus could quite easily have…… [Read More]
The four gospel books in the New Testament are the principal foundation of the information regarding the life of Jesus. These books include Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. The four books tell the story of the life of Jesus, but from different perspectives. Christian faith depends on the four gospel books that narrate the historical life of Jesus. As a result, if the provisions in these four books are a correct historical account of Jesus, then the faith of Christians is practical. Moreover, if indeed Jesus rose on the third day from the departed, the claim that Jesus is the Son of God is rational. If the claim that Jesus taught the people many things highlighted in the four gospel books, then believing in Him is the only means through which Christians can have everlasting life. Although the gospel books particularly Matthew, Mark and Luke demonstrate the synoptic problem,…… [Read More]
Jesus' Testimony to the Pharisees in John 8:58
The Gospel of John reveals a number of "I AM" assertions made by Jesus Christ. They are bold declarations through which Christ makes a powerful point, namely that he IS divine. However, the language that Jesus uses also conveys a message about the mystery of His Person. He uses words and formulas that are deeply meaningful for the Hebrews to whom He speaks. "I AM" after all is more than a mere subject followed by a predicate. It is the name of God as He called Himself when He spoke it to Moses in the Old Testament. Therefore when Jesus says to the Jews, "efore Abraham was, I AM" (John 8:58), he is deliberately equating Himself with the God of the Old Testament by using the language of that God.
At its most basic level, Jesus' "I AM" assertion in John 8:58…… [Read More]
There is only a small moment of this doubt in the Gospels, when Jesus is in the Garden of Gethsemene wishing that he did not have to die. However, in this movie it is more than that. Jesus does not really understand what message his death will send, and he is just hoping that his death will have an impact. This Jesus also feels that helping people is trapping. He is disturbed to some degree by the hoards of people wanting his help, when he is surrounded by the lepers and ill people wanting healing. However, in the Gospels Jesus said that those are exactly the kinds of people he wants to be followed by: the ill, not the healthy, and the foolish, not the wise. His feelings of being trapped in the movie are more like those experienced by a celebrity being pursued by the Paparazzi than by Jesus.…… [Read More]
Jesus fulfill symbolism underly
Jesus fulfills the symbolism apparent in the Feast of Tabernacles in many different ways, although most of these ways are related to one another. During this feast, Jesus was able to feed 500 people (who had gathered for the upcoming Passover feast) while only utilizing the substance of two fish and five relatively diminutive loaves of bread. There is important symbolism in this fact, which is related to nourishment. In a literal sense, Jesus was able to feed the bodies of this great number of people. In a figurative sense, however, he was providing spiritual nourishment, since he was the son of Christ (a fact which would soon become apparent after his ensuing crucifixion and resurrection) (Musser, 2013). Thus, this action symbolizes the fact that believing in and following Christ will lead to spiritual fulfillment.
Jesus was able to fulfill this symbolism by providing spiritual nourishment…… [Read More]
Jesus to Luther
A Review of the Course "From Jesus to Luther"
Key Ideas of the Course
The key ideas of the course were those which were emphasized by each of the ten sessions. Each session helped break the history of Christianity into sections, beginning with Christ Himself and how He was the fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecies. I found Fulton Sheen to be a complementary source when it came to understanding this sense of fulfillment: Fulton Sheen (1990) makes clear in his "Life of Christ" that the sacrifice of the Old Law finds its ultimate perfection in the sacrifice of the ew Covenant established by Jesus Christ during the Passover of His 33rd year. Sheen explains the relation between Jesus' words at the Last Supper and the Passover by explaining how the Passover itself signified a new sacrifice for the Jews: "The old promise made to Israel in…… [Read More]
Hebrews 5:1-6 explains why Jesus, who was not of a priestly caste, became endowed with the status of High Priest and serves humanity in this critical function. These readings explicate the underlying meanings of scripture as it pertains to Jesus’s qualifications, qualities, roles, and duties as High Priest. Modeled after Aaron, the High Priest must have three core qualities. First, a High Priest must be singled out, special, and unique. Second, the High Priest cannot be self-appointed or even appointed by human beings. Only God can appoint the High Priest. In other words, the High Priest is called by God to serve. Third, the High Priest must have a set of qualities that include empathy for those who are weak and sinful, humility, and patience.
The primary role served by the High Priest is that of intermediary between God and humanity. Pilch (n.d.) offers the best metaphor of the intermediary…… [Read More]
John D. Laing asks an important question when he raises the question of what military chaplains can do in Jesus' name. He focuses particularly upon evangelicals. To answer the larger theological question of whether or not evangelicals can serve as military chaplains while still remaining true to their conservative biblical beliefs/evangelistic commitments, this essay will examine specifically the issues raised in chapters six and seven.
oth chapters six and seven both speak to tandem issues, namely the War on Terror and the ability of military chaplains to minister to the needs of troops affected by their wartime experiences.
Certainly, no one who has experienced the trauma of living (and surviving) in a combat environment can return home the as same person who left home. Whether physically, mentally, or even spiritually wounded, their grief and loss are profound. The have lost their innocence, their previous sense of self, and…… [Read More]
He describes how he dines with the members of Antipas' court, "thus maintaining the table-fellowship connection of Mark and Daniel," (Freyne 98). Therefore, the account of government practices which can be validated by other reliable sources show the New Testament as presenting clear and reliable sources for the historical validity of the figure of Jesus. Thus, modern researchers have found great truths and reliable correlations between the figure of Jesus and the occurrences of government within the ancient world.
The Biblical cannon also present more specified elements of correlation, such as Jesus' relationship with John the Baptist. John was a reliable historical figure, whose existence has long been assumed as historically accurate and backed up with sources verifying his locations and actions during and before the time of Jesus. In fact, the beginning of Jesus' ministry was heavily defined by his relationship with John the Baptist. Very little was recorded…… [Read More]
The Gospel of Luke, as has been mentioned here, is very similar to that of Mark in its narrative and in describing Jesus, the man. This is an element of the Gospels about which authors Nickle and Brown agree. There is, too, a strong belief that the Gospel of Luke was written by a "missionary colleague of the Apostle Paul (Nickle, 1980, p. 125)." The Book of Luke is the most extensive and detailed account of the life of the historical Jesus of any other book in the Bible. "hen this Gospel is joined by its companion volume, Acts and Apostles, they together make up about twenty-seven percent of the New Testament (Nickle, 1980, p. 125)." The most distinctive characteristic of the Book of Luke, is that it is sequenced with Acts and Apostles (Nickle, 1980). Luke is unique in that his book goes beyond the life of Jesus, into…… [Read More]
It is clear that the Roman and Jewish authorities were concerned about the development of the early church. Craig points out that, had the tomb been occupied, it would have been an easy matter for those authorities to indicate Jesus' dead body as a means of disproving the notion that he resurrected. However, there is no evidence to suggest that they did so.
In his second rebuttal, Ludemann reiterates his disbelief that a supernatural resurrection could have occurred. Then, he goes on to say that he will offer an alternative explanation for the events. He believes that Paul's experience with Jesus, which Ludemann has previously explained away as a vision, does capture the nature of all of the disciples' experience with a post-mortem Jesus. He also reiterates the point that the Gospels are not reliable as a historical source given how far removed they were from the events in question.…… [Read More]
The presence of Catholicism and Protestantism had a terrible effect on the Native Americans. People who presumably wanted to act according to the will of God only managed to deny several basic rights to the Pueblos.
hen Jesus came, the corn mothers went away: marriage, sexuality, and power in New Mexico, 1500-1846 proves the passionate convictions of Gutierrez involving the overall situation that the Pueblos found themselves in along with the Spanish conquest. The Spanish basically dissolved the Pueblo society and replaced it with one that promoted European values. As a result of this event, the Pueblos lost most of their cultural identity, being forced to subject to the absurd laws presented by the Spaniards. Gutierrez does not present his readers with solid information relating to the Spanish interventions in the Pueblo society. The fact that part of the book is based on myths and journals raises problems and minimizes…… [Read More]
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…… [Read More]
Many of the writings cited were produced decades after Christ died, and not by men who knew him but by those reacting to the stories they heard. The gospels as well were accounts written by men who did not know Jesus directly, and the desire to promote a religious ideal and to help shape the emerging church makes some of these suspect. Many existing writings and stores were brought together in the form we know today long after Jesus died, as was true of many of the Jewish writings cited by Powell, from the Babylonian Talmud. Much of what is known of the historical Jesus derives from the Epistles in the New Testament, notably the letters written by Paul, who has much to say about the teachings of Jesus as known at that time. These accounts have great value because they were written so early, some two decades before the…… [Read More]
He considers that one would be an ignorant if he were to declare himself a true Christian without being acquainted with parts of the Old Testament.
It would be wrong if someone were to interpret the Old Testament on the basis of the information in the New Testament. This would mean that the New Testament is the perfect interpretation of the Old Testament. However, the truth is that the more recent text is only one of the interpretations that people can make when relating to the Old Testament, thus meaning that the older document can be interpreted in a series of ways, each being different from the other. The New Testament is however one of the most accurate interpretations made by people with regard to the Old Testament.
Similar to how the information in the New Testament offers little to no occasions to be fought, right's book contains numerous solid…… [Read More]
Oscar Cullmann, Nolan, and Genezio Boff. Oscar Cullmann can be described as a Christian theologian within the Lutheran tradition. His most notable work involved the ecumenical movement. He was in part accountable for the formation of dialogue between the oman Catholic and Lutheran traditions.
Nolan was born in the city of Cape Town, South Africa. He is of English descent and is a fourth-generation South African. Influenced by Thomas Merton, Nolan became fascinated to the idea of spiritual life. Ultimately, Nolan joined the Dominican Order by 1954, studying in ome and South Africa eventually receiving a doctorate.
Born with the name Genezio Darci Boff, Boff hails from Concordia, Santa Catarina. Boff entered the Franciscan Order by 1959 being ordained as a Catholic priest by 1964. He spent subsequent years studying to earn a doctorate in philosophy and theology at the University of Munich, in 1970. His doctoral thesis studied measures…… [Read More]
Alice Camille agrees, noting that when Jesus tells the others, "It is finished" (John 19:30), he is reinforcing the notion that the sacrifice has been made. Camille points out that this death is "no helpless surrender, but a deliberate action, freely chosen" (Camille). Because the words were spoken from the cross, they have the "power to create reality" (Camille). Up until this point in history, the word was the word and with this symbolic death, it becomes something tangible that people can associate with Jesus' mission. In addition, we know that the crucifixion needed to occur because it fulfills prophecy. The Bible says, "He was oppressed and afflicted, yet he did not open his mouth; he was led like a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is silent, so he did not open his mouth" (Isaiah 53:7) and "it was the Lord's will to crush…… [Read More]
Yet, before one can understand Johnson's call for a taking back of the feminine Christ, one must first understand how the feminine Christ was lost.
The starting point is with the ministries of Christ and to the point of his resurrection. This short period of time is the only time that Jesus himself was in charge of defining his philosophy, although even he recognized the fact that history would define him and not himself.
Jesus' ministry involved numerous acts of kindness, preaching and forgiveness. Many of these acts are seen as miracles, or "Signs" as the Gospel of John refers to them. These included exorcisms, walking on water, turning water into wine, and raising people from the dead. According to the Gospel of John, Jesus' ministry lasted for a period of three years. The major event of the ministry phase was the giving of the Sermon on the Mount, where…… [Read More]
Jesus and Mohammed -- Their Lives & Legacies
Jesus Christ and Mohammed are thought of historically -- and today as well -- as the two individuals that have probably had the greatest impact on the world in a spiritual and religious context. hile other iconic spiritual and religious leaders have made their mark on history and society, Jesus (who founded Christianity; today there are an estimated 2.8 billion followers) and Mohammed (Islam's most holy figure; there are an estimated 2.2 billion Muslims), Jesus was believed to be the Son of God, who came to earth to offer humans an opportunity to have everlasting life. Mohammed, on the other hand, is believed to be the prophet who received the text of Islam from God and led the growth of Islam.
This paper traces the lives of Jesus and Mohammed, compares the impact that their deaths had on society, describes the way…… [Read More]
Is Jesus the Only Savoir? Is onald H. Nash's opportunity to develop a passionate and well-developed argument answering yes: yes, Jesus is the only Savoir. However, Nash does not rest on the reader's understanding or experience of faith to make his case. The author takes a different approach, using logic and reason to explain that at least to a believer in Christ, there can be no other paradigm other than Christian absolutism. According to Nash, pluralism by its very definition violates the tenets inherent in the New Testament. It is therefore impossible for a theologian, especially a Christian one, to be a pluralist.
Nash's scapegoat, for better or worse, is John Hick. Hick is a theologian who has succumbed to the temptation of thinking pluralistically and who attempts to show that Jesus is in fact not the only savior. Nash picks apart Hick's argument by revealing the logical fallacies…… [Read More]
Fix Me Jesus
Describe how each relevant element is used.
Dance: The dancers move in rigid positions, as if they are not yet human and somehow incomplete. There are two performers on stage for the majority of the time.
Position: They two dancers, one male and one female are constantly in each other's arms. Their positions create stiff angles with their bodies and the floor. As the number progresses, the body positions become less rigid and more natural.
Movement: The movements of the two dancers seem to mimic prayer. They are reminiscent of classical ballet but at the same time there is a rigidity rather than a fluidity.
Mise-en-scene: For the majority of the time, the two dancers stand in the center of the stage. Only when they separate from one another does the scene extend past this center stage.
Music: The music of the dance is operatic. There is…… [Read More]
Gerd Theissen and Annette Merz bridge a gap between trade book and scholarly discourse with their 642-page tome The Historical Jesus: A Comprehensive Guide. This joint effort by Theissen and Merz explores the subject matter of the historical Jesus in light of primary sources, especially relying on the Gospels, both canonical and apocryphal. The book is divided into four main sections, in addition to a meaty Introduction, a "Retrospect" called "A Short Life of Jesus," and two helpful indexes, one of Biblical… [Read More]
Jesus Feed 5000 people
Seven astounding signs are there in the Gospel of John. The first one is the process of evolving water into sweet wine. Second is the instance of curing the son of royal. Third is the instance of curing of an invalid man, suffering since thirty-eight years. Fourth one is the nourishing of the 5000 starving people. The fifth one involves strolling on the water at mid-night. Sixth one is blessings to the blind man so as to enable him to see. The seventh one involves nurturing of the dead Lazarus. These symptoms provide us sufficient grounds to raise our spiritual thinking that led to regard Jesus as God. The fourth astounding symbol in John's gospel is about feeding 5000 starving people. All such wonders were performed not to exhibit His enchanting power. These were performed since Jesus had great propelling heart for His people and desired…… [Read More]
Although many modern Christians do not realize it, an understanding of Jesus' historical context is extremely helpful, perhaps even essential to true understanding of Christianity. After all, it is only once one understands the geographical, political, religious, and social environment of Jesus' time period that one can truly understand the impact of Jesus Christ. One of the reasons that a historical perspective is important is because many modern-day Christians are separated from their Jewish roots. However, one must always bear in mind that Jesus was not a Christian; Jesus was a Jew and his life and death had been foretold in Jewish prophecies for hundreds of years. In addition:
Jesus addressed his gospel- his message of God's imminent kingdom and of judgment, of God's fatherly providence, of repentance, holiness, and love- to his fellow countrymen. He preached only to Jews. Not a syllable shows that he detached this message…… [Read More]
Jesus through the Old Testament
Christopher J.H. Wright's Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament is a book written to connect the two halves of scripture, in a way that helps Christians better understand that "…it is Jesus that gives meaning and validity to the events of Israel's Old Testament history."[footnoteRef:0] Wright is an Old Testament scholar -- an Ulsterman whose own parents had been Presbyterian missionaries in razil, although he would convert and become ordained in the Anglican church, and now resides in London where he directs an international ministry. His academic background is in historical study of the Old Testament, and his first full-length book was a study of economic ethics in the Old Testament. (He confesses endearingly, but unnecessarily, in the present work that he feels much less at ease with the New Testament as a scholar.) Knowing Jesus through the Old Testament is his second work, first…… [Read More]
Jesus by E.P. Sanders
The Historical Figure of Jesus is an account of the life of Jesus the man. This is in contrast to the life of Jesus as presented by the bible.
The author looks at what we really know about Jesus's life. The emphasis is not about saying whether he is or is not the son of God, instead it just looks at what historians know about the life of Jesus. The book is in no way an attack on Christianity, it simply accepts that Jesus was a man and attempts to compile his life as a man.
At the same time, the book is not a biography of Jesus, it is more a look at what historical information exists and what it shows us about Jesus.
The author describes when the search for historical information began in the 18th century, showing us how scholars of the time…… [Read More]
lives Jesus Mohammed relation respective religion. The paper formatted APA guidelines, include research sources. Be complete steps paper: 1. Trace lives Jesus Mohammed historically.
Jesus and Mohammed
Standing as the two principal religions on the planet, Christianity and Islam are most recognized for the individuals who made it possible for them to exist. Jesus is the major figure in the world of Christianity while Mohamed is the central figure in the Islamic world. Given religion is presently one of the most debated topics, one of the best methods of understanding each of the two religious faiths would be to analyze the characters that stand at the base of each of them.
Although there is no exact evidence to demonstrate when Jesus was born, most sources point toward the belief that the act occurred somewhere before the death of King Herod the Great. There are a series of scholarly accounts meant…… [Read More]
Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went way
In the book When Jesus Came, The Corn Mothers Went way, Ramon . Guttierez's thesis appears to be that there are various points-of-view, specifically in terms of the Spanish colonialization of New Mexico. The thesis also has a wider application in terms of the invasion of the United States by Europeans in general. In this, by focusing on a single group of natives and invaders, the author's thesis is that there are many viewpoints inherent in the colonializing process. Men, women, cultures and professions interact in ways unprecedented before the pioneering Europeans came to merica. This is the stated point of the book: to provide a global view of several viewpoints, with emphasis on that of the Pueblo Indians in response to their Spanish invaders.
With this in mind, one strength of the book is its focus on various points-of-view, but specifically on…… [Read More]
Historiography in Jesus' era, or the ethics of writing good history, was also different from our own -- objective, historical accounts were rare, rather each historian wished to present his or her version of the facts.
History and belief invariably 'butt heads,' and when confronted with arguments about the life of Jesus that challenge all notions of science and history, such as the resurrection of dead: Charlesworth admits "Historians cannot answer this question" as "this question extends beyond the methodology and focus of historians" (Charlesworth 118; 121). For believers, aspects of Jesus will always exist outside of historical time, but it is the duty of those who seek the historical Jesus to put their own personal biases and agendas aside when reviewing the evidence. A singular Jesus may never emerge, but scrupulous historical and literary analysis can reveal a clearer picture of the many versions of Jesus that existed during…… [Read More]
killed Jesus? (Outline)
Who was Jesus?
Was he human? Was he God or a part of God?
What was His mission?
Why was he on a Mission?
How is Contemporary Man related to Christ's Mission?
Who Were Against Him?
Why were they against Him? What did these people accuse Jesus of?
What was the penalty for the crime that Jesus allegedly committed?
How was Jesus brought to trial?
Who were the people responsible for Jesus' case reaching trial?
Who Judged Him? Who executed Him?
Who eally Killed Jesus?
Who really killed Jesus?
The actual truth about past events, as far as accuracy is concerned, is difficult to guarantee. This is because of the fact that one cannot really rely on accounts that may have been recorded with bias. However, the records about the life of Christ, His trial, and His death, are believed to be considerably accurate. This may be…… [Read More]
Signs and Miracles:
Jesus' Performance of Eight Miracles and Proof of His Deity
he Bible offers us not only a great record of historical significance, but also proof of various elements that have led society to believe in God, in Jesus, and in the Bible itself wholeheartedly, by means of religion. hough some doubt the existence of such beings and the truthfulness of the documents that make them exist, this paper will attempt to prove that at least one aspect was, in fact, true. his relates to the fact that Jesus, the supposed Son of God, was indeed a miracle worker, and the miracles he performed made him a deity to be revered, which the following paragraphs will describe and analyze.
Jesus performed many miracles during his lifetime, and various individuals, including Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, his disciples, recount these in the Bible. he table below provides a list…… [Read More]
Areas to Compare
The Gospel of Mark
Mark 1:16-20, the Calling
Why should we focus on the First Disciples' Calling? This calling was the first of Jesus' ministry to the public. The act of Jesus was a distinction in Jewish society. According to Jewish tradition it was not a norm for Jewish teachers to go to the field and recruit disciples. It is the disciples that sought teachers. Jesus is particular in calling out his first disciples, i.e. Peter, Andrew, John and James. According to Mark, the initiative for recruiting and training to become a disciple always comes from Christ.[footnoteRef:1] [1: J. Donahue, The Theology and Setting of Discipleship in the Gospel of Mark. (Milwaukee, WI:Marquette University Pres, 1983), 15.]
Jesus did not call these disciples to repent. He only asked them to follow him. He transformed the lives of fishermen by asking them to pursue new lines of activities…… [Read More]
....Jesus learn from John the Baptist? How is the movement of Jesus different from John's?
According to Rausch, John the Baptist is "clearly a historical figure" who was not necessarily preaching anything new or revelatory (p. 1). John the Baptist works within the prophetic tradition and his teachings were rooted in Jewish Old Testament philosophy, eschatology, and theology. When Jesus went to see and meet with John the Baptist, the event "changed his life," according to Rausch (p. 4). John the Baptist may have so strongly influenced and impacted the young Jesus because of the content of his teachings: the emphasis on impending judgment and/or doom for a sinful and unrepentant humanity. Rausch also claims that there is historical and textual evidence linking Jesus's own ministry with the teachings of John. There are five main similarities between the core elements of John's teachings and Jesus's preaching, according to Rausch. The…… [Read More]
On the whole, it can be said that the first verses of Chapter 9 (Luke, 9: 1-6) are a summary of the main ideas of the entire Gospel of Luke. Even more, it makes the connection to other passages from the Gospel while at the same time explains in a more explicit manner their meaning. This is due in fact to the comprehensive, yet concise way in which the most important ideas are expressed, ideas that had been mentioned and developed before in the biblical text.
Firstly, the focal points that are mentioned relate to the authority with which the apostles were invested by Jesus. They have been given the "power and authority over all demons." (Luke, 9: 1) This idea however is seen before in the Gospel of Luke. Thus, the theme of exorcising demons is present also in Luke 4:33-37, which presents Jesus and one of His Acts…… [Read More]
Fay's purpose is to convince his readers that, regardless of who they are or how much self-confidence they have or lack, they can "share Jesus without fear." Fay not only uses examples of "cowardly" Christians sharing the gospel fearlessly, he also shows examples of true believers using his method on all kinds of people, including both well-educated and uneducated people. Fay shows the power of the Gospel and contends that the evangelist is merely a conduit for God, who is the only "convincer."
Fay assumes his readers believe the ible as he does -- literally and conservatively. If a reader does not have this save presupposition, then he or she will find little use of this book. For any Christian who approaches this book with the same presupposition concerning the inerrant protestant ible, the outcome is scathing if he or she was previously silent concerning the Gospel. In one instance…… [Read More]
Death of Jesus - Use of Dramatic License by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John
Historically there has been a constant heated debate about the degree to which the environment, culture and propriety of the early Christian church may have had on scripture. For some that answer has of coarse been to say it is all a fable to sell books, and on the other end of the spectrum the answer is that each word regardless of the stylistic literary tools used to string it to another word the collective words of the bible are the literal words of God, period. Kenneth oodward contends that Father Raymond E. Brown in his book, The Death of the Messiah chastises modern believers and non-believers alike for either rejecting the Gospels out-of-hand because they are not a work of pure historical accounting or assuming that the Gospels received no influence from the environment in…… [Read More]