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Jewish Community Essays (Examples)

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Jewish Identity or the Way
Words: 1461 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61663017
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Jewish Identity in Modern Times: Jonathan Sacks, in an article Love, Hate and Jewish Identity appropriately sums up the dilemma of Jewish self-identity in modern times by stating: "Until the beginning of the 19th century, Jews defined themselves as the people loved by God. Since then most Jews...have defined themselves as the people hated by Gentiles." This is probably because in pre-modern times, the Jewish child felt no significant 'identity conflict' as he grew up into adulthood in isolated, self-contained Jewish communities. This state of relatively secure Jewish 'self-identity' was, however, severely disrupted by the advent of enlightenment in modern times, which forced the Jewish community to interact with the political, cultural, and economic forces outside their limited, self-contained Jewish society.

Jewish self-identity in modern times, however, is not as simplistic as stated by Sacks. According to Michael a. Meyer, apart from enlightenment (which is an ongoing process), the other…


History of the Jews." (n.d.) History World. Retrieved on April 5, 2007 at 

Meyer, M.A. (1990). Jewish Identity in the Modern World. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Sacks, J. (1997, November). "Love, Hate and Jewish Identity." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 26+.

The negative Jewish identity also gave rise to Jewish self-hatred; Karl Marx, himself a Jew, once wrote that Judaism was not a religion or a peoplehood but the egoistic desire for gain, and the love of money. (Meyer, 40)

Jewish Home Lifecare Mission &
Words: 1163 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14921839
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Towards of the goal of fulfilling the mission to "help those we care for to experience the best life possible," nursing services provided at the Sarah Neuman Center include:

Twenty-four nursing in a secure residential setting.

Twenty-four medical coverage supported by onsite and on-call physicians.

Onsite medical specialist consulting services.

Individualized therapy sessions, to include speech therapy, physical therapy, art and music therapy.

Nutritional services supported by staff dietitians.

Onsite pharmaceutical and laboratory services. (Sarah Neuman, para. 9)

Patients that require long-term residential care are often transferred to the Bronx nursing home which provides all of the above services, in addition to highly individualized care services and therapies for "more complex clinical needs" (Bronx, para. 4). These needs include-but are not limited to-progressive Alzheimer's, severe vision impairment, severe speech and swallowing impairments, and chronic kidney disease requiring hemodialysis.

Structural Support of Mission

That each facility essentially provides the same services…

Works Cited

"Bronx." Jewish Home Lifecare, 2010. Web. 01 January, 2011.

"Manhattan." Jewish Home Lifecare, 2010. Web. 01 January, 2011.

"Sarah Neuman." Jewish Home Lifecare, 2010. Web. 01 January, 2011.

"Research Institute on Aging." Jewish Home Lifecare, 2010. Web. 01 January,

Jewish Affairs in and Around
Words: 1181 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93947490
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For those like Ezra, such a situation threatened the very survival of the nation and faith itself. However, in addition to the idea of the "imperiled nation" embedded in the Jewish psyche during the time (and, perhaps during modern time as well), it also pointed to the lax state of Jewish life and ritual in Jerusalem during this period -- as well as the turmoil that must have existed at the time these reforms were implemented.

Although it might be imagined that at the very lease the social reform concerning mixed marriages would result in emotional turmoil -- it also resulted in real danger. This is because following his declaration that mixed marriage should be immediately dissolved, the Samaritans and other involved groups were understandably offended to a degree in which violent attack against the Jewish community became a real possibility. As a result, Ezra decided to embark on rebuilding…


Bible Web. "Ezra and Nehemiah." 2004. Retrieved from Web site on October 2, 2004

Donnel, J. Rabbi. "What Does God Pray?" (2004) Web site. Retrieved on October 2, 2004 

Mechon Mamre. "Ezra / Nehemiah -- translated from the Hebrew Bible" 2004. Retrieved from Web site on October 2, 2004 

Medial, D. "Ezra." Web Page. 2002. Retrieved from Web site on October 2, 2004, from

Jewish American Intermarriage
Words: 1189 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17899245
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Jewish-American Intermarriage

The United States of America has become a symbol of freedom to the rest of the world. People from nations everywhere come to this country in pursuit of the "American Dream," for America grants people opportunities that are hard to find elsewhere. In the past few centuries, our country has become a melting pot for many different ethnicities and cultures; while groups still maintain their diverse identities, many of them adapt to an American way of life. This has been the case for Jewish-Americans. Once a major target of anti-Semitism, American Jews have truly established themselves in this nation and have even earned the respect and acceptance of many. This assimilation of Jews into American society has caused a substantial increase in intermarriage, ironically increasing the possibility of destroying what is left of Jewish identity and unity.

On a positive note, the intermarriage of Jewish-Americans has become a…

Works Cited

Feagin, Joe R., and Feagin, Clairece B. Racial & Ethnic Relations: Seventh Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 2003.

Sailor, Steve. "Interracial Marriage Gender Gap Grows." 14 March 2003. 24 Nov. 2003

Jewish Humor Different Authors Present
Words: 694 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87770981
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A Jewish joke is, as Raskin suggests, one that transcends time. The Jewish joke may even transcend cultural context because the family of Jews spread around the world can use humor as a thread of connection. However, Jewish jokes do not stagnate. They evolve in order to reflect the lives and culture of the people who understand them.

Another common feature of Jewish jokes is that they reflect pain and suffering by turning sorrow into laughter. To the authors who address Jewish humor in Freudian terms such as Abrami, Jewish humor is defined by masochism. The anger that Jews could be directing externally is instead redirected at the self and at the community. Freud would have understood the phrase self-hating Jew, and wrote extensively about the ways Jewish jokes transfer anger related to political and social oppression into humor. Some authors focus on the ways Jewish humor capitalizes on stereotypes,…

Works Cited

Abrami, Leo M. "Psychoanalyzing Jewish Humor." My Jewish Learning. Retrieved online:

Bermant, Chaim. What's the joke?: A study of Jewish humour through the ages. Weidenfeld and Nicolson 1986.

Raskin, Richard. Life is Like a Glass of Tea: Studies of Classic Jewish Jokes. Aarhus University Press, 1992

Spalding, Henry D. Encyclopedia of Jewish Humor. Middle Village, 2001.

Jewish Religion Also Known as Judaism --
Words: 2099 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 31806783
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Jewish religion also known as Judaism -- is the religion of the Torah, which begins with the "Five Books of Moses and encompasses the Old Testament" (Neusner, 1992, 8). Judaism honors its beginnings as part of the creation of the whole world, Neusner explains. Jews believe that God created the world "…and for ten generations, from Adam to Noah, despaired of creation." Following those ten generations, from Noah to Abraham, God was waiting for humans to finally "…acknowledge the sovereignty of one God," who was authentically the unseen power that created heaven and earth (Neusner, 9).

Most historians explain that Judaism is a "monotheistic faith" (there is but one God) and Jews in turn often find this God "…beyond [humans'] ability to comprehend" and nevertheless Jews believe God is present in everyone's life every day (Pelala, 2013). Moreover Jews believe that each person was created "b'tzelem Elohim" (meaning "in the…

Works Cited

Kol Emeth. (2012). About Us. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from .

Neusner, Jacob. (1992). A Short History of Judaism: Three Meals, Three Epochs. Minneapolis,

MN: Fortress Press.

Pelala, Ariela. (2013). What do Jews believe? Jewish Beliefs. Retrieved April 15,

Jewish Both Chaim Bermant and
Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85813121
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Both Bermant and Raskin show how all Jewish humor, and for Raskin, individual jokes, can be traced to Biblical times in light of Talmudic and other Rabbinical writings. Raskin addresses rabbinic judgment, man vs. God, ethnic disparagement, and even the humor in the Ten Commandments. Jewish mother jokes cannot be ignored in any analysis of Jewish humor, and both authors address the role of Jewish mother jokes and how they can be traced to the Bible. Raskin discusses the original function of Groucho Marx's resignation joke and places it also within a historical framework that extends back in time to the Bible and forward to oody Allen. The meaning of life is a rich topic of discussion in Jewish humor, traced through to the Bible and played out in variations of the joke of the dying Rabbi.

The connection between Jewish humor and Biblican humor is not immediately apparent to…

Works Cited

Bermant, Chaim. What's the joke?: A study of Jewish humour through the ages. Weidenfeld and Nicolson 1986.

Raskin, Richard. Life is Like a Glass of Tea: Studies of Classic Jewish Jokes. Aarhus University Press, 1992

Spalding, Henry D. Encyclopedia of Jewish Humor. Middle Village, 2001.

Telushkin, Joseph. Jewish humor: What the best Jewish jokes say about the Jews. Harper Collins, 1998.

Jewish Faith in Life and Death of
Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72084774
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Jewish Faith in Life and Death

Of the main components of the human life cycle, dying is probably the one most people prefer to avoid or at least ignore until the last possible moment. Nevertheless, even though many of us prefer not to think about it, death is as much part of humanity as birth and life. Hence, every religion has its particular views on death and rituals to help those who have passed on their way to whatever concept of the afterlife exists in that religion. In this, the Jewish religion is not unique. Centuries of tradition still survive today as modern Jews practice the ancient art of their religion, both in life and when death occurs. When considered in terms of Foucault's "Technologies of the Self," one might say the elaborate Jewish rituals surrounding dying and death can be seen from the viewpoint of both self-care and self-renunciation.…


Diamant, A. (1998). Saying Kaddish: How to comfort the dying, bury the dead, and mourn as a Jew. New York: Shocken Books.

Foucault, M. (1988). Technologies of the Self. Retrieved from: 

Lamm, M. (2000). The Jewish Way in Death and Mourning. New York: Jonathan David Publishers, Inc.

Jewish Russian Heritage
Words: 2752 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52544953
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Jewish-ussian heritage. The writer details the emergence of the Jewish faith in ussia, the radical actions taken to stop its growth and existence and the more recent developments that have created it to begin a resurgence. The writer used ten sources to complete this paper.

Jewish-ussian heritage

In the past two decades the former Soviet Union has gone through many different changes, with the biggest one being the dismantling of its very existence and government and the slow process of rebuilding it from the ground up. In the former Soviet Union there were many strict rules and the heavy arm of Communism was felt throughout the state. One of the things that was heavily mandated was the freedom of religion. The Jewish faith had encountered severe opposition in the Soviet Union for many years and all but the most stubborn Jews had been driven out of the land many years…


Messianic Jews gaining ground in Russia By Alexandra Alter

Jewish heritage in Russian children's literature Olga Maeots Russia ( )

The Fate of Jews immediately after the Russian Revolution

The revolutions across Europe

Jewish Women in America Preserving Jewish Tradition
Words: 770 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22854225
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Jewish Women in America: preserving Jewish Tradition.

Women play an important role in the preservation of the Jewish identity within families and larger communities. Women hold many positions in society that aid this role including more traditional roles for women, such as mother or teacher, as well as contemporary roles, such as writer, politician, or other professional. Jewish women in America face the challenge of facing a rapidly changing contemporary society while continuing to uphold and pass down, to new generations, ancient traditions rich in symbolism and meaning. This essay will briefly introduce three prominent American Jewish Women who have played a contemporary role in upholding and preserving Jewish Tradition in the broadest sense.

The Jerusalem Post printed a special piece, in celebration of Shavuot, on "The Fifty Most Influential Jews in the World." The list included seven women, two of which are Americans: the first one uth Ginsburg, Associate…

Resources -- NOT FORMATTED


To Create your Citations: 

Article: "The Fifty Most Influential Jews in the World"

Jewish Holidays
Words: 1376 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60389057
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The Shabbat painting

Illustrated in a naive style devoid of perspective, with vibrant simplistic colors, Meyers seems to wish to convey the scene precisely as he viewed it when a child. The commentator notes that there is a symmetry to the room, and she may be right in that the shabbat table is centerpiece as though the whole atmosphere orbits around and reflects from the shabbat which indeed it does, Shabbos defining and transforming the entire day.

What is interesting is that the children are sitting around the table as though ready to eat while the mother seems to be blessing the candle. Most pictures of the era, and, indeed, customary in many contemporary homes is that the children stand by the side whilst the mother lights, and that this is done quite a while before actually eating the meal. This, at least, was the custom too in Apt…

Jewish Women's Archive This Week
Words: 998 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 87426022
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Indirectly, the effect of the magazine may be measurable in examining other publications and their seeming agreements with/reactions to articles and ideas in the American Jewess, but it would be difficult to establish a causal relationship here.

-- What was the effect on changes in the Jewish community on the American Jewess' articles and content? This question is really just the reverse of that above, but conclusions and conjectures composed in response to this question will have a higher degree of certainty and reliability, as the forces and influences from society on the publication would almost necessarily have been greater than vice-versa in order to keep the publication in print. The fact that it did not stay in print very long, of course, might suggest that the publication did not change enough with the times in order to maintain a stable readership and thus the economic means to continue, but…

Tracing a Jewish Theme Through Jewish History
Words: 3791 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 28097176
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Jewish Monotheism

Historians of Judaism actually date the strong Jewish emphasis on monotheism somewhat later than expected within Jewish history. The archaeological discovery of idols and artifacts indicating cultic participation from the time of Israel's presence in Canaan has seemed to indicate a relative laxity in actual practice before the Babylonian captivity, while textual criticism seems agreed that most of the Torah's foregrounded statements of strong monotheism date from textual recensions during the Babylonian captivity, and thus substantially post-date both the J-writer and the E-writer of the Old Testament (Moberly 217). But the strong emphasis on monotheism which comprises the first commandment given by Yahweh to Moses is a defining feature of Judaism in prevailing polytheistic cultures where the Jews can define their religion in opposition, so to speak. I would like to examine three separate ways in which Jewish monotheism defined itself against a kind of prevailing cultural polytheism.…

Works Cited

Ferrill, Arther. Caligula, Emperor of Rome. London: Thames and Hudson, 1991. Print.

Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents. Translated with an introduction by James Strachey. New York: W.W. Norton and Co, 1962. Print.

Freud, Sigmund. Moses and Monotheism. Translated by Katherine Jones. London: Hogarth Press, 1939. Print.

Gay, Peter. Freud: A Life for Our Time. New York: Norton, 1998. Print.

Jewish Organized Crime as Much
Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 54710596
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But as obvious as their presence might have been, Jewish crime remained a hushed subject in the history of Jews in the U.S. This oversight was intentional and by no means an evidence of lack of criminal activities in Jewish circles. In fact it was the nefarious activities of Jewish entrepreneur Joseph Seligman that led to the stock market crash in late 1800s as Ginsberg notes:

"[the crash] ruined thousands of investors, implicated President Grant, and led to a Congressional investigation of [Jay] Gould and Seligman ... Similarly, in the early 1890s, Jacob Schiff collaborated with E.H. Harriman in the latter's attempts to wrest control of the Northern Pacific ailroad from J.P. Morgan and James Hill ... When the price of the Northern Pacific Stock collapsed, the entire market crashed in the notorious 'Black Thursday' panic that led to a nationwide economic depression." [Ginsberg., p. 73]

Thus Jewish organized crime…


Ginsberg, Benjamin. The Fatal Embrace: Jews and the State. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1994.

Silberman, Laurence J. Mapping Jewish Identities. New York University Press, New York & London, 2000

Katcher, Leo (1959/1994). The Big Bankroll. The Life and Times of Arnold Rothstein, New York: Da Capo Press

Jewish Women's Response to the
Words: 2820 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97565872
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The eyes of the women... showed how cruelly one was once again torn from the illusion of a normal middleclass existence.... That more and more each day the Jew was becoming fair game was the devastating realization that underscored every experience of this kind (Kaplan, 1998, p. 52)."

The look of the German woman, on the other hand, became one of increasing masculinity with their sense of superiority, which could not have been achieved without denigrating all things Jewish, including Jewish women. Irene Guenther (2004) writes"

On May 10, 1933, Propaganda Chief Goebbels met with Bella Fromm to discuss a fashion show that was being planned at the racetrack club in Berlin. Fromm, the social columnist for the Vossische Zeitung, one of several newspapers published by Ullstein Verlag, had been staging these shows for quite some time. At their meeting, Goebbels informed Fromm that he was satisfied with her…

Works Cited

Cosner, Shaaron, and Victoria Cosner. Women under the Third Reich: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998. Questia. 7 Apr. 2008  

Jewish-American Experience and the Yiddish Radio Project
Words: 2637 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34489046
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Jewish-American Experience and the Yiddish Radio Project

he Jewish-American Culture in Yiddish

Oral history has become one of the most important historical movements of the last two centuries. hrough oral histories in either interview or preservation of recordings that were produced in earlier times, the history of the modern era is being retold and saved. Yiddish is a dying language the last of the Yiddish speakers are being lost and a small determined group known as the Yiddish Radio Project, in collaboration with National Public Radio is trying to save the voices of this language and culture. hrough a very successful attempt to save these voices old acetate recordings never, meant to be played repeatedly are being restored and recorded into a format that can be heard. (

he history of the Jewish people in America and specifically the rich culture surrounding the Yiddish language are being retold through the…

The abhorrent conditions and tragedies that were perpetrated upon the European Jews in Nazi controlled countries were unreal to so many people even if they personally knew and loved people who had died there. The real life stories of the survivors and the seemingly insurmountable task of finding traces of so many lost people brought a sense of hopelessness and guilt to so many Jews elsewhere who had escaped the fate of death and/or survival of the extremes of the conditions. Through the Yiddish radio phenomena people who felt separate from and yet strongly moved by the events in Europe could hear the voices and tears of real people who had been found after many years sometimes and even more miles usually and were reunited with loved ones they had given up hope of ever seeing again. The mass grief of the whole surviving Jewish culture was given voice for hope through this incredible effort. (SPP 2002 ( )

Listening to and reading the words and sounds of the New York Jewish Immigrant scene through the recordings of the Yiddish Radio Project gives any interested party a wealthy of information about the reality of life in New York of immigrants of every background. It tells the story of losses and gains triumphs and tragedies that should never be forgotten. Through the work of Dave Isay and all those who have made this possible there has been a piece of oral history collected that will hopefully live eternally within the memory of America.

Sound Portraits Productions. 2002 "The Yiddish Radio Project" 13 May 2003

Jewish History
Words: 5166 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85257744
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Jewish history was promoted by the scribes or the Levites in early Jewish history and later on the popular educator and teachers promoted learning of the scriptures within the Jewish people so that history would be preserved however, at the time Christianity emerged this factor influenced the ancient writings in terms of how this history was related.

Some of Jewish history is so ancient that it has only been related by word of mouth however, there are writings which support history as it is told of the Jewish people. Furthermore, Christianity's emergence affected the form in which some of these ancient writings were reproduced and even the forms of recorded history characterized as genuine and credible Jewish history.


In the initiative of attempting to understand Jewish history, it is necessary to understand the varying influences upon the recorded history of the Jewish people and it is most particularly to…


Spiro, Rabbi Ken (2007) The Miracle of Jewish History. Jewish Literacy. Aish. 2007.

Fisher, Eugene J. (2008) Jewish-Christian Relations 1989-1993. International Council of Christians and Jews. A Bibliographic Update. Online available at 

Dubnow, S.M. (2005) Jewish History. Plain Label Books. ISBN:1603031006,M1 

Spiro, Rabbi Ken (2007) Why Study History. Crash Course in Jewish History. Jewish Literacy. Aish. 2007.

Jewish-Americans From 1865 to Present
Words: 2635 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67008816
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The creation of the state of Israel in Palestine lent Jews in America a degree of legitimacy. And Jewish-Americans were now on the cusp of a new reality.

Unit IV: 1946-1976

In the 1950s the Anti-Defamation League sought to have the immigration laws of decades prior repealed. President Truman was sympathetic to the millions of displaced persons, a good portion of which were Eastern Europeans of Jewish descent. Even though America was largely outraged at news of the Holocaust, many Americans reserved the suspicion that Jews were crooked bankers secretly poised for world domination. The immigration laws were not repealed.

The 1950s also saw a debate concerning the census of 1960: should it contain religious questions? Here was an issue that embraced social, political and religious points all at once. The way Jewish-Americans faced the issue had repercussions for the entire nation. The book Protestant-Catholic-Jew had helped establish the idea…

Reference List

General Grant's Infamy. (2010). Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved from 

Goodkind, S.B. (1918). Prominent Jews in America. Toledo, OH: American Hebrew

Publishing Company.

Hollinger, D. (2009). Communalist and Dispersionist Approaches to American Jewish

Is Einstein's Theory of Relativity Jewish Science
Words: 1025 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28950784
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Einstein's Theory of Relativity Jewish Science?

This study examines the work of Gimbel (2012) entitled "Einstein's Jewish Science: Physics at the Intersection of Politics and Religion" and specifically pages 112-217 and seeks to answer the question of how the categorization of Einstein and others functions from a sociological perspective. This study seeks to answer as to if Einstein as a second-class Jewish citizen also resounded in the Jewish community itself and particularly among the Jewish intelligentsia and how important this is for understanding the nature of religion? This study will answer as to whether there are Jewish aspects to liberal universalism and if so what was found in the reading of Gimbel. Finally, this study will answer as to what was found to be most interesting and most insightful and what was found to be contentious in Gimbel's work.

Gimbel: Categorization of Einstein and Function from Sociological Perspective

Gimbel conducts…


Gimbel, S. (2012). Einstein's Jewish Science: Physics at the Intersection of Politics and Religion, Pages 112-217

Weinstein, D. And Zakai, A. (nd) Exile and Interpretation: Reinventing European Intellectual History in the Age of German Tyranny and Barbarism. (Or "How German-Speaking Jewish Intellectual Exiles -- Hans Baron, Karl Popper, Leo Strauss, Erich Auerbach -- Transformed Modern Intellectual History"). Retrieved from: 

Zeve, Rosenkranz (2013) Steven Gimbel, Einstein's Jewish Science: Physics at the Intersection of Politics and Religion. The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Spring 2013), pp. 160-164. Retrieved from:,%20Einstein 's%20Jewish%20Science.pdf

American Jewess the Jewish-American Woman
Words: 2848 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74502117
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1896 saw the expansion of the American Jewess with the opening of a New York office, though the content of the magazine appeared largely unchanged at the beginning of 1897. The January issue of the publication contains many articles that were themed similarly to the previous issues of the magazine, though there is a decidedly more practical nature to many of the articles included in the issue. "Household hints" and similar sections had been regular appearances in the magazine since its inception, but this issue contains articles on creating happiness in the home and on the history of the shoe -- with a definite feminist-Jewish perspective. hile still engaging in abstract, intellectual and scholarly pursuits, the content of the magazine is also shifting towards direct daily usefulness.

The issues began to shorten noticeably as 1897 progressed, and as the number of articles depleted the ratio of directly targeted articles…

Works Cited

Jewish Women's Archive. "This Week in History - "The American Jewess" begins publication." Accessed 6 March 2010. 

Rothstein, Jane H.. "Rosa Sonneschein." Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. 20 March 2009. Jewish Women's Archive. Accessed 6 March 2010. .

Sarna, Jonathan and Golden, Jonathan. "The American Jewish Experience in the Twentieth Century: Anti-Semitism and Assimilation." National Humanities Center. Accessed 6 March 2010. 

The American Jewess, 1895-1899. Accessed 6 March 2010.

Crisis in Jewish Faith the
Words: 533 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32397321
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There was much political turbulence and the Jews hoped for national liberation. The Maccabaean revolt set the stage for all future hope of the restoration of God's people from exile. One thing the different groups of Jews generally agreed upon was that as long as there was Roman occupation, everyone would remain in exile. Most all of them agreed that it was Israel's sin that had led them to this exile. One group of Jews, the Pharisees, committed themselves to strict purity with hope for a reconstituted and restored Israel.

The Jewish people were monotheistic -- that is, they believed in one God, and they believed in one God at a time in history when surrounding cultures -- including the ones dominating them (specifically the Romans during Jesus' time) -- were polytheistic (they believed in many gods) and they used idols to represent their gods. The Jews never used idols…

Race in Your Community My
Words: 1558 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72080301
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Not everyone is fond of Italian-Americans. Many believe that anyone with an Italian name must in some way be connected to the Mafia, and thus are leery of personal relationships, fearing some godfather figure lurks in the shadows somewhere. And I have seen Asians be the target of several types of discrimination, from hiring practices to business patronage. There has always been discrimination against African-Americans in some form or another. Today, it is the general belief of many that all African-American youth belong gangs, which is much like the idea that all Italian-Americans are Mafia.

Stereo-typing is common. In fact it could be considered normal, since everyone, no matter the color of their skin or ethnic background, is guilty of it. Each group sees the other as different, the same in many respects, but different nonetheless. My great-grandmother may indeed be rolling in her grave over the fact that my…

Works Cited

City Council: Yonkers, New York. Retrieve July 23, 2005 at 

Yonkers New York. Retrieved July 23, 2005 at,_New_York 

Yonkers1 New York. Retrieved July 23, 2005 at

Franklin Delaney Roosevelt's Attitude Towards the Jewish
Words: 1417 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 51340018
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Franklin Delaney oosevelt's attitude towards the Jewish problem during the War. I have read and heard such contradictory accounts spanning from Jews who congratulate for his involvement to some scholars and others who criticize him for an alleged anti-Semitism. Being that this is a famous personality that we are talking about and a prominent President of the U.S.A.; I felt that enlightenment on the subject was important. I wanted to go to the source, and therefore I accessed original documents from the collections of the Franklin D. oosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. These, compounded with other sources, are the results that I found.

By the 1940s, news had already reached the U.S.A. about the concentration camps which Edward . Murrow described (December, 13, 1942),as "A horror beyond what imagination can grasp . . . there are no longer 'concentration camps' -- we must speak now only of 'extermination camps.'" (FD…


Beschloss, M. The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman and the Destruction of Hitler's Germany NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002.


Feingold, HL The Politics of Rescue: The Roosevelt Administration and the Holocaust, 1938-1945 New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1970.

Jewish Civilization Time Periods of
Words: 1408 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52724854
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While the Jews eventually did find a King - King Saul, their king was not a supreme ruler with complete control over the people and the land. Again, the Jews indicated their diversity and divergence from the surrounding cultures. Their king was supposed to be a model Jew, one the people could emulate and admire. This period of the Israelite kingdoms was a time of growth and change that would end in a tumultuous exile of the Jews to Babylonia, one of the first of many Jewish exiles and persecutions. Many scholars believe King Saul helped aid the fall of the Jews by not taking on the nation of Amalek and eradicating it. The nation hated Jews and their religion, and caused many of the early Jewish troubles in the area. Saul did not take them on, and many feel this was his fatal flaw (Spiro). After a brief rule…


Edelheit, Hershel, and Abfaham J. Edelheit. History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.

Spiro, Rabbi Ken. "The Time of the Judges." 2007. 26 March 2007.

Jewish Child and Family Services
Words: 1527 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Interview Paper #: 24097828
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Love and non-judgmental acceptance may be the most important things. Yes, money can help a person find a niche in life, but money is insufficient to get a person off the street. Following up later with some of the residents, I discovered that many would have returned to the streets a long time ago, despite their opportunity of free accommodation and food, were it not for the friends and care that they felt in these homes. Many of them, over and again, reiterated the bonds that they had formed one with another and, sometimes, with the staff members themselves. Some, through the staff members, had found support in the external community.

This presence of support was particularly evident in the foster home. There the 'foster parents' seemed to have a reputation for providing unconditional love, and I was greatly struck with the way that some of the residents, particularly the…

Jewish Ethics
Words: 2214 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 55107923
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The Scope of Jewish Ethics

When one thinks of the ethics of any religion, behavior of the individual often comes to mind initially. However, the behavior of the micro informs the macro, as the creators of the code of Jewish ethics are well aware. This paper will examine the scope of Jewish ethics as they pertain to the economic and health spheres, two arenas where there needs to be strong connections to ethical codes. The scope of Jewish ethics pertains to all arenas and subjects where the safety, wellness, happiness and potential of the individual and collective are concerned.

Dorff and Mackler discuss that the Jewish tradition acknowledges that there is a collective duty to care for one another; this duty only pertains to what is reasonably within human power (321). However, as the authors suggest, this naturally brings up the notion as to how much medical care do people…

Environment Nursing - Community Health
Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 39231089
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Elderly individuals are also "more likely to take prescription medicines that impair the body's ability to regulate its temperature or that inhibit perspiration" (Heat stress in the elderly, 2009, CDC).

hat levels of prevention are warranted in the situation? hat might a community health nurse do to intervene?

The immediate concern is removing the residents to a safer area during oppressively hot days with bad air quality. For residents who wish to exercise, arranging for transport to a local cooling center where they can exercise is one option. For round-the-clock care, however, the unit overall must be maintained with a proper air conditioning and ventilation unit. The community health nurse must stress that this is to be done ASAP, otherwise the nurse will report the facility for health code violations. Until the unit is repaired, the nurse can provide supportive instruction to help residents deal with the heat, such as…

Works Cited

Asthma and the elderly. (2009). Retrieved March 24, 2009 at 

Heat stress in the elderly. (2009). Center for Disease Control (CDC). Retrieved March 24, 2009 at

Heatstroke and the elderly. (2009). North Shore - Long Island Jewish Health System.

Retrieved March 24, 2009 at

Nursing and Jewish Faith
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Nursing and Jewish Faith

Currently, about 6 million Jewish reside in the U.S. These Jews might subscribe to the Orthodox, Conservative, or Reform paths of Jewish faith, or they might be secular and non-aligned. Even though devout customs and degrees of following among these paths of Judaism differ extensively, nurses must gradually come to terms with the religious customs of Judaism to extend the utmost complete care. (Jewish Perspectives on Pregnancy and Childbearing) This paper shall deal with patients having strong Jewish faith which are the Orthodox Jews and the role of a nurse in providing special considerations to this particular community. The orthodox Jews constitute a special cultural class and they devote their complete lives preaching about Torah. Their religious faiths are shown in every facet of their lives, in health as well as illness. (Special considerations for Orthodox Jewish patients in the emergency department) The manners in which…

Ancient Jewish Weddings in Ancient Jewish Custom
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Ancient Jewish Weddings

Weddings in Ancient Jewish Custom

There is an example of a wedding feast from the gospel of Luke that is not of the famous Cana Wedding Feast that takes place at the beginning of Jesus' ministry, but a gathering in the house of a Pharisee. The Pharisees and scribes invited Jesus there because, as always they were trying to test Him. It was on the Sabbath, and there had already been some discussion of this seminal event in the Jewish week, but the discussion had changed because Christ had been asked to heal a man who walked up to him who had dropsy (an abnormal swelling due to excessive water retention). He asked them if they thought it was lawful to heal a man on the Sabbath, and as they were testing Him, they did not answer. So, he told them that they would definitely take their…


Celine. (2010). Difference between Talmud and Torah. Retrieved from miscellaneous/difference-between-talmud-and-torah/

Orthodox Judaism. (2010). A guide to Jewish wedding tradition. Retrieved from 

Rich, T.R. (2011). Marriage. Retrieved from 

West, J. (2003). Ancient Israelite marriage customs. Quartz Hill School of Theology. Retrieved from

Black White and Jewish by Rebecca Walker
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Black, White, Jewish

Black, White, and Jewish -- the Source of All Rebecca Walker's Angst?

Rebecca Walker's memoir Black, White, and Jewish, is subtitled "Autobiography of a Shifting Self." Walker states that is a woman who is most comfortable "in airports" because they are "limbo spaces -- blank, undemanding, neutral." (3) In contrast, because of her multi-racial and multi-ethnic identity, she is both never 'neutral' and also never quite 'of a color.' nly in airports to the rules of the world completely apply to her as well as to the rest of the world, Walker states -- and even then, this statement has an irony, given the recent events and controversies over airport racial profiling that occurred after the book's publication. The book does on to describe, with great poignancy, the author's perceived difficulty of living with a dual, often uncomfortable identity of whiteness and blackness, of Jewishness and 'gentileness.'…

One might ask Walker, however, if this sense of alienation from one's own parents, from one's own past identity, even one's own ancestry, is a condition of a multi-racial and mixed religious background, or a product of American adolescence? But the conventional existence eventually chosen by her father suggests that a White man can return to the mainstream after spurning all these things as a rite of adolescent passage, while Walker cannot. Walker's physical appearance forces her into a continual existence of protest, whether she chooses to conform or not. Even her mother's bohemian existence is chosen, and offers the comfort of ancestry, even an enslaved one.

How constructed, however, one might ask is the idea of ancestry and connection? The unbroken line between African-Americans might itself, one say, be a construction, a tracing together between various Africans who were enslaved centuries ago. An African-American immigrant from Haiti might be 'read' the same by white eyes as one from South Carolina, causing a sense of identity diffusion because of societal mis-reading, as one cannot always see Rebecca Walker's Jewishness upon her. Making a social argument about the destructive legacy of the 1960's from hurt, from the depression and parental and personal conflict that seems to be characteristic of American adolescence is difficult. Individuals of different sexualities, of conflicted relationships even with homogenous paths might make the same argument of placenessness, of existing in a space they must create, rather than find. Although Rebecca Walker's book is a powerful personal testimony, it does not quite hold up -- nor perhaps should it aspire to -- as a sociological document. It is written, as the author admits, with emotion and in her own blood, and cannot admit the alternative perspectives of other American twenty and thirty-somethings undergoing similar identity crisis.

But unlike the identity crisis of leaving and returning to the bosom of the family, Walker has no family to return to -- her parents are divorced and have returned from their respective crisis of identities, into the bosoms of their own ethnic identities. They have been changed and perhaps improved by their heightened cultural exposure. But after her own rebellion, Rebecca Walker has no place to comfortably rest and return to -- except, ironically, the airport, she might say. "I am flesh and blood but I am also ether," she states at the end of her work. She attempts to create anew rather than return to ancestors, like her parents, and this re-creation is a constant source of consternation.

Identification With the Jewish Victims
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All of this had been made possible due to the fact that with every man, or every ten men or every million people killed by the Nazis, the prisoner community only grew stronger and more indifferent to the thought of dying.

A reason for why Plath chose to refer to the Holocaust in her poem would be that she considered the occurrence to be one of the worst acts of violence done by man. Thus she would relate to the Holocaust in her poem to present people with the passion of her feelings at the time.

Nevertheless, with all the brave people who stood strong when others would have run and hide, Plath shows that the Holocaust did indeed affect Jewish people everywhere. The scars of the Holocaust are still visible, according to Plath, with the woman in the poem still recalling, and being haunted by the disaster. The human…

Works Cited

Plath, Sylvia. Lady Lazarus.

Rebekah Nathan in Community and
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First, an individual must have a secure, local identity, and only then he or she can move out into the wider community and make a contribution. This is the importance of local affiliation -- it gives am emotional security to individuals, and enables them to feel recognized for who they 'truly' are as people.

This is also why it is critical that local and nationalist organization are not be shunned or feared, despite the rhetoric of 'American values,' and that we are all 'the same.' We cannot do away with community, and the common, human, personal need for local, regional, and national ties. Rather these local organizations should be appreciated for the gifts they give to their participants, and to the larger world. The danger of a false cosmopolitanism is that it can become another word for the melting pot, or the shaking off of any sense of heritage or…

Medieval Period Papal Bull's Regulations Covered Jewish
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medieval period papal bull's regulations covered Jewish behavior, lifestyle, and [clothing] living areas. hat mentality? Catholic Church response gentile population time period?

Medieval period papal bulls and other regulations covered Jewish behavior, lifestyle, clothing and living areas

The medieval papal bulls issued regarding the Jews during the Middle Ages did occasionally protect Jewish rights, such as the bull in 1205 by Innocent III which issued the statement that Jews should not be forced to convert, a radical notion at the time. However, Jews were still prohibited from dining with Christians and owning Christian slaves, underlining their unequal status ("Bulls, Papal," Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2008). Other papal bulls seemed to feed the fires of anti-Semitism such as the 1218 bull of Honorarius III which forced Jews to wear clothing that marked them as separate from Christians and demanded that Jews pay a tithe (ten percent of their income) to the local church…

Works Cited

"Bulls, Papal." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2008. [9 May 2013] 

Halsall, Paul. "Pope Innocent III: Protest to Philip Augustus of France Against Royal Protection

of Jewish Money-Lenders, 1204." Medieval Sourcebook. October 1998. [9 May 2013]

Connected Immigrant Communities Chaney 2010
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Meng and Meurs (2009) examine the effects of intermarriage, language, and economic advantage. They find that immigrants who have some skill in the dominant language of the country to which they immigrate tend to intermarry and earn more income (Meng and Meurs). Marrying outside of one's culture may influence language acquisition due to social and economic needs to advance within the adopted culture.

Moua and Lamborn (2010) note that ethnic socialization practices by parents of immigrant adolescents strengthen the ethnic heritage connection between adolescent, parent, and ethnic community. These include native language use, marriage ties, taking part in cultural events, sharing history, and preparing traditional foods (Moua and Lamborn). As noted previously, immigrant parents tend to congregate in ethnic communities, where they are essentially immersed in the ethnic culture. The native language is often the most utilized if not the exclusive language in the home. However, children are acculturated into…


Akresh, I. "Contexts of English Language Use among Immigrants to the United States." International Migration Review (2007): 930-955.

Bacallao, M and P. Smokowski. "The Costs of Getting Ahead: Mexican Family System Changes After Immigration." Family Relations (2006): 52-66.

Blatchley, L and M. Lau. "Culturally Competent Assessment of English Language Learners for Special Education Services." Communique: Newspaper of National Association of School Psychologists May 2010: 1-8.

Bleakley, H and A. Chin. "Age at Arrival, English Proficiency, and Social Assimilation Among U.S. Immigrants." American Economic Journal of Applied Economics (2010): .

Hispanic Community in the United States Hispanic-American's
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Hispanic community in the United States. Hispanic-American's have influenced many aspects of today's American culture such as art, religion, and education since the early 1600's. It will outline the influx of the Spanish explorers and the defense of the border between the United States and Mexico. The paper will also examine the influence of the food, colorful clothing, art, and the educational reform that has come about to meet the needs of the Hispanic children in the school system. This culture has made such a lasting impact in America that is deserves to be studied and researched more in-depth to gain more appreciation and insight to its lasting contribution.

Hispanic-American Cultural Diversity

Hispanic-American's have influenced many aspects of today's American culture such as art, religion, and education since the early 1600's. The borders of Mexico have long been the subject of territorial disputes and have many people have died to…

Works Cited

Baker-White, Tracy.

Folk Art: The Spanish Tradition." USA Today, March 1999:

Firmat, Gustavo. "Cuban Americans," Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia. 1993

1997 Microsoft Corporation.

Conservative Orthodox and Conservative Judaism
Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38643895
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Jewish culture and practice has been heterogeneous since the diaspora, and remains so in the 21st century. In the United States, Jews generally classify themselves as being Orthodox, Conservative, or eform. This albeit overly simplified tripartite division began in the late 19th to early 20th century, as increasing numbers of Jews immigrated to the United States. The nature of Jewish thought, culture, and worship has changed significantly during the last hundred or so years even among the Orthodox, and there is great diversity and plurality in the world's Jewish communities.

Orthodox Judaism is, as the term suggests, fundamentalist in its approach to Jewish law and scripture. The Torah is believed to be the direct transmission of the word of God, including the oral Torah ("Movements of Judaism," n.d.). As such, the contents of the written and oral Torah are considered immutable. Orthodox Jews follow Jewish law and custom to a…


Carroll, B.J. (2015). Orthodox Jews, and Reform, Secular, and Conservative Jews. Retrieved online: 

"Movements of Judaism." (n.d.). Retrieved online:

American Jewish Writers Have Come
Words: 1771 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 21811646
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Catherine Rainwaterhand finds in the writer Ozick, along with Hazzard and Redmon a common ground in that their work is witnessing some of their deepest concerns. "Each of these writers contemplates the "welling together" of "impressions" and experiences in a "flow of time" that sweeps humans along toward apparently predestined ends. Caught up in this flow, the characters of these three contemporary authors find only tentative meaning and design in an indefinite, incomplete past" (Rainwaterhand, 69). Rainwaterhand points out that the characters of these three authors are haunted by their own past, just as their creators must be hunted not only by their own personal past, but also by that of their people and the whole world. And when you are born in New York, living with your Jewish family in Bronx and growing up in the 1930s in a country that was going through a Great Depression, amid anti-Semitic…

Works Cited

Bloom, Harold. Cynthia Ozick. Chelsea House, 1986

Lowin, Joseph. Cynthia Ozick. Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved: Nov 11, 2008. Available at 

The Many Faces of Cynthia Ozick. 1997. Retrieved: Nov. 11, 2008. Available at

Atrocities Happening in Recent Modern History of
Words: 1622 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 43147157
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atrocities happening in recent modern history of civilization. The two orld ars in the first part of the 20th century have demonstrated the human capacity to inflict harm and destruction on its peers. Perhaps one of the most significant event in the history of the Second orld ar is that of the genocide that took place on the Jewish community. During the war and immediately afterwards more than six million Jews are reported to have been massacred by the Nazi forces

However, despite the fact that the holocaust that took place during this time is mostly attributed to the Nazi forces and Adolf Hitler's plan to exterminate the Jewish population, there are numerous accounts of historians that point out the fact that the SS German troops would have been unable to achieve this great atrocity without the assistance of the local populations such as the Polish or the French. One…

Works Cited

Dallaire, Romeo. Shake Hands With The Devil: The Failure Of Humanity In Rwanda. Carroll & Graf/Avalon, 2005

Gross, Jan T. Neighbours: The Destruction of the Jewish Community at Jewabne, Poland.Princeton University Press, 2002 .

Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995

Steiner, George. "Poland's willing executioners." The Guardian. April 08, 2001.  (accessed April 23, 2013).

Modern Middle East History
Words: 1600 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57126716
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"Diaspora" is a Greek term meaning "to disperse," or "to scatter," and is often applied to the Jews and their dispersion out of the land of Israel. Many scholars point to the year 588 B.C., when the kingdom of Judea was conquered by the Babylonians as the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora. ("Diaspora") The Jews were forced to relocate to Babylon where, even after the Persians conquered the Babylonians and allowed the Jews to return to Judea, many remained. It was also when the Babylonians conquered Judea that many Jews fled to Egypt, where they created a Jewish community in exile that continued for centuries. After the return of the Jews to Judea in 538 B.C., the entire area became embroiled in a series of conflicts that resulted in the creation of a Hellenic culture throughout the middle east. As a result, Jews spread out from their traditional homeland…

Works Cited

"Balfour Declaration." Avalon Project. Web. 8 Dec. 2012. 

"Diaspora." Jewish Encyclopedia. Web. 8 Dec. 2012.

Correlation of Alcoholism to Parenting Styles
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Correlation of Alcoholism to Parenting Styles

Correlation of Parenting Styles to Alcohol Drinking Frequency in the Brooklyn Modern Orthodox Jewish Community.

Do the parenting styles in the Modern Orthodox Jewish community differentially correlate with self-reported alcohol use of Jewish College Freshmen males within the Orthodox Brooklyn Borough Park community (18-26)?

In general, the four parenting styles have a significant correlation on the behavior and attitudes of youngsters in college (Beck et al., 2004). Further investigation is required to demonstrate how these parenting styles correlate with the population in the Borough Park Jewish community. It has been demonstrated that college freshmen from different universities can be indulged in alcoholic habits given different parenting styles (O'Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner, & Wolfson, 2008).


The freshmen are increasingly using internet thus they preferred to be surveyed online too, rather than being handed questionnaires on paper (O'Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner, & Wolfson, 2008). The…

Yang et al. (2010) suggested that parents can play an effective role in controlling the behavior of freshmen to avoid alcohol use. Hence, there should be friendly and effective communication between parents and children in the growing ages of youth, since the children can seek advice from the parents in the process (Yang et al., 2010). Bowlby & Ainsworth (1982), discussed that the attachment and relationship between parents and children improved when they communicated more often and thus a good parenting style can make it easier for the children to overcome problem barriers later (Bowlby & Ainsworth, 1982). The child personality visibly gets affected by any of the parenting styles (i.e. Authoritarian, Authoritative, Permissive, and Uninvolved) (Bowlby & Ainsworth, 1982). The level of influence however may vary.

Unreasonably high interference during the years of college or very low involvements is not productive factors in avoiding frequency of alcohol use (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). The freshmen that have stressed (strained) relationships with parents are found to easily fall prey to alcohol use as well as abuse (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). Since to them, relationships are not very important, they are less worried about their personal health too (Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Changalwa et al., 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007).

In severe cases, where the children are the victims of psychological stress at home based on a

Zionism the Concept of Zionism
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In 300 BC, Jews were again exiled to Egypt by Ptolemy. His capture of Jerusalem led to the deportation of thousands of individuals to Egypt, and still others left of their own accord. Those that were left were often assigned to Ptolemy's garrison, since they were extremely loyal. These exiled Jews formed the Jewish colony in Alexandria, but again, the Jews were spread even further apart into the Diaspora (Harding, 58).

In 70 AD, Judea was yet again destroyed when Titus, son of emperor of Rome Vespasian, destroyed the Temple. Jewish captives were put to death, or taken to Rome (Harding, 92). Following the revolt of Bar Kochba in 136 AD, even more Jews were exiled. Still more Jews left due to economic conditions, and were scattered in Cyprus, Syria, Alexandria, and elsewhere (Isseroff, 1).

The resulting Diaspora produced a longing for the Jewish homeland, and an overall sense of…

Works Cited

Abushaqra, Baha. "The Heresy of Jewish Zionism." Media Monitors Network. 23 July 2003. 24 November 2008. .

Coggins, R.J. Introducing the Old Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Corrigan, Edward C. "Jewish Criticism of Zionist." Middle East Policy Council Journal 35.4 (1991).

Edelheit, Hershel. History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary. Boulder: Westview, 2000.

History in All This Poetry
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Speaking of the United States, for example, since 9/11, there has been an increased in intolerance regarding Muslims. This prejudice toward Muslims has also sparked increased intolerance for Christian people, as Christianity is the dominant religion in America and is the religion most often associated with American culture. 1492 is also the fabled year with the Spanish armada arrived on the shores of what we know now as the United States of America. Therefore this film is a strong choice as it is an intersection of the history of the country and the history of my family.

How we remember our world, national, and personal history is often closely related to the geography and nature of the spaces wherein we lived and migrated to. These are the connections that I see among the texts by Nabokov, Bishop, and "The Passion of Joshua the Jew." These issues from history continue to…


Bishop, Elizabeth. Geography III. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008.

McAlpine, Erica Levy. "Elizabeth Bishop and the Aesthetic Uses of Defense." Literary Imagination, 14.3 (2012): 333-350.

Nabokov, Vladamir. Speak, Memoryu. New York: First Vintage International Edition, 1989.


Women's Rights in Judaism
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Women in Judaism: An Evolving Role in Religion and Society

Many laymen to Judaism look inward into the religion and view Jewish women as oppressed, their lives and choices dictated to them by the men who surround them. From rabbis to husbands to the ible itself, the belief has generally been that women have been essentially inferior to men since the dawn of the religion centuries ago. However, in taking a contemporary view toward women in Judaism, and in marking the significant strides that the sex has made throughout the centuries, one can immediately see that all it takes to understand the power and respect that Jewish women afford themselves is merely to take a closer look. In viewing the changes and struggles that Jewish women have been through throughout the centuries as well as taking a strictly-religious view in understanding the way Jewish people view God to have made…


Bernbaum, Tova. (2011). "The Curse of Eve." A Jewish Perspective on Women in Society. Web.

Retrieved from:  / jewish/The-Curse-of-Eve.htm. [Accessed on 28 November 2012].

Fishelov, David. (2010). "Biblical Women in World and Hebrew Literature." Jewish Women's

Archive. Web. Retrieved from:  [Accessed on 28 November 2012].

Alcohol Drinking Among Young Jews
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Paenting Style Influence on Excess Alcohol Intake Among Jewish Youth

Clinical Psychology

The health hazads that ae associated with adolescent alcohol use ae well documented, and thee is gowing ecognition among policymakes and clinicians alike that moe needs to be done to addess this public health theat. The pupose of this study was to examine the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish college students in the United States. The study daws on attachment theoy, social leaning theoy, and a paenting style model as the main theoetical famewoks to evaluate the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish adolescents to develop infomed answes to the study's thee guiding eseach questions concening the elationship between peceived paenting style and excess alcohol use of male, Jewish, college students aged 18-26 yeas, the elationship between academic achievement and the alcohol use fequency of male Jewish…

references to gender.

Scoring: The PAQ is scored easily by summing the individual items to comprise the subscale scores. Scores on each subscale range from 10 to 50.

Author: Dr. John R. Buri, Department of Psychology, University of St. Thomas, 2115

Summit Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55105.

Source: Buri, J.R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Assessment, 57, 110-119

Alcohol Drinking Among Young Jews
Words: 23424 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 99740327
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Paenting Style Influence on Excess Alcohol Intake Among Jewish Youth

Clinical Psychology

The health hazads that ae associated with adolescent alcohol use ae well documented, and thee is gowing ecognition among policymakes and clinicians alike that moe needs to be done to addess this public health theat. The pupose of this study was to examine the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish college students in the United States. The study daws on attachment theoy, social leaning theoy, and a paenting style model as the main theoetical famewoks to evaluate the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish adolescents to develop infomed answes to the study's thee guiding eseach questions concening the elationship between peceived paenting style and excess alcohol use of male, Jewish, college students aged 18-26 yeas, the elationship between academic achievement and the alcohol use fequency of male Jewish…

references to gender.

Scoring: The PAQ is scored easily by summing the individual items to comprise the subscale scores. Scores on each subscale range from 10 to 50.

Author: Dr. John R. Buri, Department of Psychology, University of St. Thomas, 2115

Summit Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55105.

Source: Buri, J.R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Assessment, 57, 110-119

Drinking With Younger Jews
Words: 24280 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 42632920
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Paenting Style Influence on Excess Alcohol Intake Among Jewish Youth


Maste of Science, Mental Health Counseling, College, Januay, 2008

Clinical Psychology

Anticipated; Decembe, 2016

The health hazads that ae associated with adolescent alcohol use ae well documented, and thee is gowing ecognition among policymakes and clinicians alike that moe needs to be done to addess this public health theat. The pupose of this study will be to examine the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish college students in the United States. The study daws on attachment theoy, social leaning theoy, and a paenting style model as the main theoetical famewoks to evaluate the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish adolescents to develop infomed answes to the study's thee guiding eseach questions concening the elationship between peceived paenting style and excess alcohol use of male, Jewish, college students aged 18-26…

references to gender.

Scoring: The PAQ is scored easily by summing the individual items to comprise the subscale scores. Scores on each subscale range from 10 to 50.

Author: Dr. John R. Buri, Department of Psychology, University of St. Thomas, 2115

Summit Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55105.

Source: Buri, J.R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Assessment, 57, 110-119

Rhineland Massacres of 1096 Are
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The shifting perceptions of 1096, particularly when seen against the backdrop of the historical

"reality, have much to teach us."

The development of the Rhineland Massacres, often looked at in history as a linear first example of official Jewish mass persecution by the Christians, wavers in importance to the modern scholar, as well as the modern Jew and Christian. Was it a warm up for mass persecution, or a warm up for crusade actions against the Muslims? Historically it is safe to say that it is all of these things, an important period in Jewish and Christian history. One that would have served as a good lesson for detractors of reinvigoration of anti-Semitism that pervaded not only the Nazi mentality but that of much of western thought, notorious anti-Semites existed all over the world during the rise of the Nazi regime. In fact the WWII genocide could be seen as…


Abulafia, Anna Sapir, ed. Religious Violence between Christians and Jews: Medieval Roots, Modern Perspectives. New York: Palgrave, 2002.

Bell, Dean Phillip. Sacred Communities: Jewish and Christian Identities in Fifteenth-Century Germany. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2001.

Chazan, Robert. God, Humanity, and History: The Hebrew First Crusade Narratives. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2000.

Chazan, Robert. In the Year 1096: The First Crusade and the Jews. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1996.

European Jewry in the History
Words: 3632 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95073229
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These new laws applied to native-born Jews only; foreign, that is, Russian, Jews still suffered from restrictions. This division between native and foreign Jews was of importance then and still exists in present-day German law as it did in the days of the German empire, the eimar Republic, and the Nazi regime. (Cohn 10)

These old standards left the door open for new and modern forms of the same archaic segregations and prejudices.

hen the Nazis rose to power, they revived many of the old evils. Restrictions on Jews owning businesses or entering certain professions were instituted, ghettos were reestablished, and special taxes were placed on the Jewish community at large rather than on individuals. The new ghettos were governed by Nazi-appointed Jewish officials, the Judenrat, right up to the point when the entire ghettos were "cleansed" and the inhabitants either shot out of hand or deported to extermination camps.…

Works Cited

Christie, Clive. "Unity and Diversity: A Critique of Religion and Ethnicity in Europe." The Ecumenical Review 47.1 (1995): 12+. Questia. 23 Oct. 2004 .

Cohn, Michael. Jewish Bridges: East to West. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1996.

Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition.

Spinoza as a Controversial Figure
Words: 2886 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20345518
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It was with the Treatise on God, Man, and his ell-Being, that Spinoza challenged the rabbinate by advocating complete freedom of thought. According to Jewish tradition, dissent was traditionally confined to people in the clergy. However, Spinoza proposed "a priesthood of all believers" (Edelstein, Part 2).

Perhaps the greatest threat posed by Spinoza was that his discussions with the Jews of Constantinople had become religious services. Although the tradition began innocently enough, when the discussions ran into the time for evening prayers, they soon began to threaten the rabbinate. Spinoza was neither a rabbi, but rabbis were not necessary for religious services. ithin a short period of time, Spinoza's beliefs became integrated into the religious services; there was some modification of traditional prayers to reflect a deist interpretation of God. By 1665, Spinoza had hundreds of followers and the established rabbinate was extremely wary of him. Therefore, they determined to…

Works Cited

Deutscher, Isaac. "Message of the Non-Jewish Jew." American Socialist. 19 Mar. 2005 .

Dutton, Blake D. "Benedict De Spinoza." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2004. The University of Tennessee at Martin. 19 Mar. 2005 .

Edelstein, Johnathan. "Spinoza in Turkey: Part 1." Anthony Mayer; Alternative History. 2002.

Imperial College London. 19 Mar. 2005

Mishnah Represents the Attempt at
Words: 1492 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63364246
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Labor relations are mentioned in almost all five sections of the idolatry chapter. In the first section, Jews are listed as possible helpers for Roman basilica-builders, bath-builders, scaffolds, or stadiums. Gentiles are not mentioned as possible construction labor for the Jewish population. On the other hand, Jews do appear to play a key role as merchants during the Roman Empire. Several passages in the chapter on idolatry relate to what can and cannot be sold to a Gentile, and when. Rules establish boundaries between the business partners, so that they are not on equal footing. The authors of the Mishnah are either reacting to or creating social stratifications that are necessary for the preservation of group identity. The social stratifications and normative boundaries might also have been important for the economic cohesiveness of Jewish communities during Roman times. In other words, the taboos against the selling of certain goods might…

Yiddish as a First Language in Ultra-Orthodox
Words: 3999 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60238313
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Yiddish as a first language in Ultra-Orthodox Jewish communities, compared to the use of local vernacular (for example, Hebrew in Israeli-ased Jews, or English in London and New York-ased Jews): in Hasidic Jews, the use of Yiddish is widespread, whereas in other Jewish groups, the local vernacular is more common.

This paper discusses the reasons behind these differences, and looks at the functions that Yiddish serves in these Hasidic Jew communities. The paper also looks at the effects of outside pressures has on the use of Yiddish, and on issues of identity in general.

The paper also looks at the religious issues related to the use of Yiddish, and at heritage issues in general. The paper also looks in detail at the use of Yiddish as a cultural isolating mechanism, as a way to create barriers between Hasidic Jews and non-Hasidic Jews, and also Hasidic Jews and non-Jews (gentiles).



Abraham, J.E. (1985). Perceptions of English Learning in a Hasidic Jewish Sect.

Abrams, D. And Hogg, M.A. (2000). Social Identity: Constructive and Critical.

Belcove-Shalin, J. (1995). New World Hasidim: Ethnographic Studies of Hasidic Jews in America.

Ben-Rafael, E. Language and Social Division -The Case of Israel.

Holocaust affected Israeli society and culture and how Jews memorialize/emember it today

There exists no doubt regarding the massacre of the Jews during the phase of World War II and its impact on the lives of the Jewish people and the people who were near and dear to them. A dissention is required against those who assert that the tragedy never occurred, irrespective of whether they hold an opposite perspective to the Holocaust theory or just outright vehemence against Jews. The Holocaust stands for the lowest extreme of Jewish impotence. The affected Jews of the Holocaust were distraught due to it, both by direct means and indirectly, and as a continuance their kith and kin, near and dear ones, were separated by space. The holocaust has been termed rightly as a "Tragic legacy." It has also been looked upon as an unauthentic episode.


Just due to the fact they…


Anderson, Frank. "Holocaust Atrocity and Suffering." Vol.47. Middle East Studies, Vol.30, 1991, 164-177

Ben-Amos, Avner; Bet-El; Ilana. "Holocaust Day and Memorial Day in Israeli Schools: Ceremonies, Education and History" Israel Studies, Vol. 4, 1999, 258-284

Davison, Todd. "The Holocaust experience." International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol, 24, 1994, 153-165

Najarian, James. "Experiences of Holocaust Survivors." Mid East Quarterly, Vol.56, 1993, 114-128

Women as Rabbis the Ordination
Words: 3899 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85405568
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Conservative Jews use a different prayer book and have somewhat shorter services. Some of the prayers are in English, while in the Orthodox synagogue the entire service is in Hebrew.

Reform Jews take a radical approach and declare that revelation is not central to belief and that even the commandments in the Torah can be discarded if they conflict with the demands of modern living. Reformed Jews agree that God may have revealed Himself to Moses, but they deny that God revealed the Torah as an eternal covenant with His people.

In America, the different Jewish sects have taken a different approach to maintaining their specific community and have shaped their different synagogues to reflect differences in belief. Reform and Conservative synagogues have no separate section for men and women, who sit together during the services. In Orthodox practice, separation of the sexes is an absolute law. The reason given…


Adler, Ruth. Engendering Judaism: An Inclusive Theology and Ethics. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1998.

Asheri, Michael. Living Jewish. New York: Everest House, 1978.

Bronner, Leila Leah. From Eve to Esther: Rabbinic Reconstructions of Biblical Women. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1994.

Darr, Katheryn Pfisterer. Far More Precious Than Jewels. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster/John Knox, 1991.

Origins of Christianity the History
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Their respective roles were regarded as complementary, and both were necessary for the maintenance of society" (Joy, n.d.).

There is a sense of evolution in the position of the Jewish woman in the sense that in time they came to be given certain rights to be part of the society and not only as part of the family environment. However, even so "as the roles of women came to be socially constructed, women's human contributions appeared to be of less significance" (Joy, n.d.). Therefore, it is rather hard to consider the Jewish woman as being equal to the man, particularly because the nature of their relation was one based on environments of manifestations which could not be compared.

Nonetheless, although women were considered to be of limited use in the traditional way of perceiving life and they were seen as equal only through the perspective of the role they played…


Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994.

Dickerman, Lysander. "The Condition of Woman in Ancient Egypt." Journal of the American Geographical Society of New York, Vol. 26, No. 1 (1894), pp. 494-527.

Furseth, Inger. "Women's Role in Historic Religious and Political Movements." Sociology of Religion. 2001. 3 April 2008 

Geffen, Rela M. Celebration & Renewal: Rites of Passage in Judaism. Jewish Publication Society, 1993.

Jesus Jew or Christian the
Words: 5150 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98554255
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His followers claimed He had risen as He said He would, bodily appeared to them and then bodily ascended into Heaven, as Elijah prophesied. This experience emboldened them to come out of hiding and they gathered at the upper room of the Cenacle on the Day of the Pentecost. From then on, they openly preached the radical ethic taught by Jesus. The resurrection of Jesus is the origin of Christian worship and prayer and it directly links Jesus to God and Jesus has been called Lord, the Christ, the faithful and true witness. His followers who observed and advocated His teachings of the Good News were called Christians. Christianity was later founded and spread by the Roman soldier, Saul, who persecuted the Christians but was converted into an apostle by a direct encounter with Christ on Saul's way to Damascus. He was later renamed Paul.

Jesus as a Jew demanded…


Beeck, FJ van (1997). Who Do You Say I am? - Studying Jesus Christ. Commonweal: Commonweal Foundation. 

Cantor, N. (1994). The Jew Jesus Christ, the Nazarene. The Sacred Chain: the History of the Jews. 

Carroll, J. (2001). Jesus, a Jew? Constantine's Sword. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. http://artfuljesus.Ocatchcom/carroll.html

Dankenbring, WF. Jesus Christ Was Not a Christian. Triumph Prophetic Ministries.