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asically, the Midrash amplifies or extends the interpretation of scripture, especially regarding the first fours books of the Pentateuch, being Exodus through Deuteronomy, due to these books containing the greatest amount of biblical Halakhah, "the regulations governing the conduct of society as well as individual practice" (Goldin, 193).
In addition, the Midrash attempts to view the behavior of some of the patriarchs, such as King David, Solomon and Jacob, with much apology, meaning that some of the patriarchs are excused for their often negative behaviors while their many enemies are regarded as almost always evil in nature. Also, certain events in the books that make up the Pentateuch are seen as foreshadowing devices related to "the experiences of the patriarchs during their own times and of the future to come" (Goldin, 213). Thus, the true aim of the Midrash regarding its approach to the Torah is moral and didactic (i.e.…
Friedlander, Michael. The Jewish Religion. London: Shapiro & Vallentine, 1935.
Goldin, Judah. Studies in Midrash and Related Literature. New York: Jewish Publications Society, 1988.
Holtz, Barry W. Back to the Sources: Reading the Classic Jewish Texts. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986.
Lehrman, S.M. The World of the Midrash. New York: Thomas Yoseloff, 1961.
For those like Ezra, such a situation threatened the very survival of the nation and faith itself. However, in addition to the idea of the "imperiled nation" embedded in the Jewish psyche during the time (and, perhaps during modern time as well), it also pointed to the lax state of Jewish life and ritual in Jerusalem during this period -- as well as the turmoil that must have existed at the time these reforms were implemented.
Although it might be imagined that at the very lease the social reform concerning mixed marriages would result in emotional turmoil -- it also resulted in real danger. This is because following his declaration that mixed marriage should be immediately dissolved, the Samaritans and other involved groups were understandably offended to a degree in which violent attack against the Jewish community became a real possibility. As a result, Ezra decided to embark on rebuilding…
Bible Web. "Ezra and Nehemiah." 2004. Retrieved from Web site on October 2, 2004 http://www.bibleweb.org/BibleOverview/bo12.htm
Donnel, J. Rabbi. "What Does God Pray?" (2004) Web site. Retrieved on October 2, 2004 http://www.tbsoc.com/sermons/donnellyk5763.html
Mechon Mamre. "Ezra / Nehemiah -- translated from the Hebrew Bible" 2004. Retrieved from Web site on October 2, 2004 http://www.mechon-mamre.org/e/et/et35.htm
Medial, D. "Ezra." Web Page. 2002. Retrieved from Web site on October 2, 2004, from http://www.medialdea.net/historyguy80538/ezrajerus.htm
Jewish history was promoted by the scribes or the Levites in early Jewish history and later on the popular educator and teachers promoted learning of the scriptures within the Jewish people so that history would be preserved however, at the time Christianity emerged this factor influenced the ancient writings in terms of how this history was related.
Some of Jewish history is so ancient that it has only been related by word of mouth however, there are writings which support history as it is told of the Jewish people. Furthermore, Christianity's emergence affected the form in which some of these ancient writings were reproduced and even the forms of recorded history characterized as genuine and credible Jewish history.
In the initiative of attempting to understand Jewish history, it is necessary to understand the varying influences upon the recorded history of the Jewish people and it is most particularly to…
Spiro, Rabbi Ken (2007) The Miracle of Jewish History. Jewish Literacy. Aish. 2007.
Fisher, Eugene J. (2008) Jewish-Christian Relations 1989-1993. International Council of Christians and Jews. A Bibliographic Update. Online available at http://www.jcrelations.net/en/?id=809#Biblical%20Studies:%20Jewish%20and%20Christian
Dubnow, S.M. (2005) Jewish History. Plain Label Books. ISBN:1603031006 http://books.google.com/books?id=zdQY_pHP0FYC&dq=jewish+history&pg=PP1&ots=DDVycu70fB&source=citation&sig=r6dn9cM2TswSod-OTzjaFHqQE6Q&hl=en&prev=http://www.google.com/search?sourceid=gmail&q=Jewish+History&sa=X&oi=print&ct=result&cd=1&cad=bottom-3results#PPA20,M1
Spiro, Rabbi Ken (2007) Why Study History. Crash Course in Jewish History. Jewish Literacy. Aish. 2007.
A Jewish joke is, as Raskin suggests, one that transcends time. The Jewish joke may even transcend cultural context because the family of Jews spread around the world can use humor as a thread of connection. However, Jewish jokes do not stagnate. They evolve in order to reflect the lives and culture of the people who understand them.
Another common feature of Jewish jokes is that they reflect pain and suffering by turning sorrow into laughter. To the authors who address Jewish humor in Freudian terms such as Abrami, Jewish humor is defined by masochism. The anger that Jews could be directing externally is instead redirected at the self and at the community. Freud would have understood the phrase self-hating Jew, and wrote extensively about the ways Jewish jokes transfer anger related to political and social oppression into humor. Some authors focus on the ways Jewish humor capitalizes on stereotypes,…
Abrami, Leo M. "Psychoanalyzing Jewish Humor." My Jewish Learning. Retrieved online: http://mobile.myjewishlearning.com/culture/2/Humor/What_is_Jewish_Humor/Defining_Jewish_Humor/Psychoanalyzing_Humor.shtml
Bermant, Chaim. What's the joke?: A study of Jewish humour through the ages. Weidenfeld and Nicolson 1986.
Raskin, Richard. Life is Like a Glass of Tea: Studies of Classic Jewish Jokes. Aarhus University Press, 1992
Spalding, Henry D. Encyclopedia of Jewish Humor. Middle Village, 2001.
Both Bermant and Raskin show how all Jewish humor, and for Raskin, individual jokes, can be traced to Biblical times in light of Talmudic and other Rabbinical writings. Raskin addresses rabbinic judgment, man vs. God, ethnic disparagement, and even the humor in the Ten Commandments. Jewish mother jokes cannot be ignored in any analysis of Jewish humor, and both authors address the role of Jewish mother jokes and how they can be traced to the Bible. Raskin discusses the original function of Groucho Marx's resignation joke and places it also within a historical framework that extends back in time to the Bible and forward to oody Allen. The meaning of life is a rich topic of discussion in Jewish humor, traced through to the Bible and played out in variations of the joke of the dying Rabbi.
The connection between Jewish humor and Biblican humor is not immediately apparent to…
Bermant, Chaim. What's the joke?: A study of Jewish humour through the ages. Weidenfeld and Nicolson 1986.
Raskin, Richard. Life is Like a Glass of Tea: Studies of Classic Jewish Jokes. Aarhus University Press, 1992
Spalding, Henry D. Encyclopedia of Jewish Humor. Middle Village, 2001.
Telushkin, Joseph. Jewish humor: What the best Jewish jokes say about the Jews. Harper Collins, 1998.
Jewish religion also known as Judaism -- is the religion of the Torah, which begins with the "Five Books of Moses and encompasses the Old Testament" (Neusner, 1992, 8). Judaism honors its beginnings as part of the creation of the whole world, Neusner explains. Jews believe that God created the world "…and for ten generations, from Adam to Noah, despaired of creation." Following those ten generations, from Noah to Abraham, God was waiting for humans to finally "…acknowledge the sovereignty of one God," who was authentically the unseen power that created heaven and earth (Neusner, 9).
Most historians explain that Judaism is a "monotheistic faith" (there is but one God) and Jews in turn often find this God "…beyond [humans'] ability to comprehend" and nevertheless Jews believe God is present in everyone's life every day (Pelala, 2013). Moreover Jews believe that each person was created "b'tzelem Elohim" (meaning "in the…
Kol Emeth. (2012). About Us. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from http://www.kolemethskokie.org .
Neusner, Jacob. (1992). A Short History of Judaism: Three Meals, Three Epochs. Minneapolis,
MN: Fortress Press.
Pelala, Ariela. (2013). What do Jews believe? Jewish Beliefs. About.com. Retrieved April 15,
The United States of America has become a symbol of freedom to the rest of the world. People from nations everywhere come to this country in pursuit of the "American Dream," for America grants people opportunities that are hard to find elsewhere. In the past few centuries, our country has become a melting pot for many different ethnicities and cultures; while groups still maintain their diverse identities, many of them adapt to an American way of life. This has been the case for Jewish-Americans. Once a major target of anti-Semitism, American Jews have truly established themselves in this nation and have even earned the respect and acceptance of many. This assimilation of Jews into American society has caused a substantial increase in intermarriage, ironically increasing the possibility of destroying what is left of Jewish identity and unity.
On a positive note, the intermarriage of Jewish-Americans has become a…
Feagin, Joe R., and Feagin, Clairece B. Racial & Ethnic Relations: Seventh Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 2003.
Sailor, Steve. "Interracial Marriage Gender Gap Grows." 14 March 2003. ModelMinority.com. 24 Nov. 2003 http://modelminority.com/article338.html.
Jewish-American Experience and the Yiddish Radio Project
he Jewish-American Culture in Yiddish
Oral history has become one of the most important historical movements of the last two centuries. hrough oral histories in either interview or preservation of recordings that were produced in earlier times, the history of the modern era is being retold and saved. Yiddish is a dying language the last of the Yiddish speakers are being lost and a small determined group known as the Yiddish Radio Project, in collaboration with National Public Radio is trying to save the voices of this language and culture. hrough a very successful attempt to save these voices old acetate recordings never, meant to be played repeatedly are being restored and recorded into a format that can be heard. (www.yiddishradioprojrct.org)
he history of the Jewish people in America and specifically the rich culture surrounding the Yiddish language are being retold through the…
The abhorrent conditions and tragedies that were perpetrated upon the European Jews in Nazi controlled countries were unreal to so many people even if they personally knew and loved people who had died there. The real life stories of the survivors and the seemingly insurmountable task of finding traces of so many lost people brought a sense of hopelessness and guilt to so many Jews elsewhere who had escaped the fate of death and/or survival of the extremes of the conditions. Through the Yiddish radio phenomena people who felt separate from and yet strongly moved by the events in Europe could hear the voices and tears of real people who had been found after many years sometimes and even more miles usually and were reunited with loved ones they had given up hope of ever seeing again. The mass grief of the whole surviving Jewish culture was given voice for hope through this incredible effort. (SPP 2002 ( http://www.yiddishradioproject.org/exhibits/reunion/ )
Listening to and reading the words and sounds of the New York Jewish Immigrant scene through the recordings of the Yiddish Radio Project gives any interested party a wealthy of information about the reality of life in New York of immigrants of every background. It tells the story of losses and gains triumphs and tragedies that should never be forgotten. Through the work of Dave Isay and all those who have made this possible there has been a piece of oral history collected that will hopefully live eternally within the memory of America.
Sound Portraits Productions. 2002 "The Yiddish Radio Project" 13 May 2003 www.yiddishradioproject.org.
Love and non-judgmental acceptance may be the most important things. Yes, money can help a person find a niche in life, but money is insufficient to get a person off the street. Following up later with some of the residents, I discovered that many would have returned to the streets a long time ago, despite their opportunity of free accommodation and food, were it not for the friends and care that they felt in these homes. Many of them, over and again, reiterated the bonds that they had formed one with another and, sometimes, with the staff members themselves. Some, through the staff members, had found support in the external community.
This presence of support was particularly evident in the foster home. There the 'foster parents' seemed to have a reputation for providing unconditional love, and I was greatly struck with the way that some of the residents, particularly the…
Historians of Judaism actually date the strong Jewish emphasis on monotheism somewhat later than expected within Jewish history. The archaeological discovery of idols and artifacts indicating cultic participation from the time of Israel's presence in Canaan has seemed to indicate a relative laxity in actual practice before the Babylonian captivity, while textual criticism seems agreed that most of the Torah's foregrounded statements of strong monotheism date from textual recensions during the Babylonian captivity, and thus substantially post-date both the J-writer and the E-writer of the Old Testament (Moberly 217). But the strong emphasis on monotheism which comprises the first commandment given by Yahweh to Moses is a defining feature of Judaism in prevailing polytheistic cultures where the Jews can define their religion in opposition, so to speak. I would like to examine three separate ways in which Jewish monotheism defined itself against a kind of prevailing cultural polytheism.…
Ferrill, Arther. Caligula, Emperor of Rome. London: Thames and Hudson, 1991. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents. Translated with an introduction by James Strachey. New York: W.W. Norton and Co, 1962. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. Moses and Monotheism. Translated by Katherine Jones. London: Hogarth Press, 1939. Print.
Gay, Peter. Freud: A Life for Our Time. New York: Norton, 1998. Print.
Care Case Study
Slide 1 Footnotes
There have been enormous changes due to introduction of various cultural elements in the continuum of care. Before, when people were admitted to assisted living facilities or hospital settings, there were very little cultural elements outside of the majority culture which had sponsored the facility. For example, if a facility was associated with some sort of church or temple, there were elements of that religion present, but there was little alternatives for members of other cultures or religions.
Yet, today, there are now a much wider array of cultural elements available in assisted living homes and hospital facilities. Assisted living programs are regulated on the level of the state.
As such, different states have different types of programs and policies that impact the degree to which cultural characteristics are included or excluded within various assisted living facilities. Some programs encourage cultural elements of patients…
ALFA - Assisted Living Federation of America. (2009). Assisted Living Regulations and Licensing. Retrieved from http://www.alfa.org/State_Regulations_and_Licensing_Informat.asp
Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. (2011). Report to the Congress: Medicare Payment Policy. Retrieved from http://www.medpac.gov/documents/Mar11_EntireReport.pdf
National Caregivers Library. (2012). Independent Living Facilities. Retrieved from http://www.caregiverslibrary.org
Next Step in Care. (2012). Reducing the Stress of Hospitalization for Patients with Dementia and their Family Caregivers: A Guide. Family Caregiver Alliance. Retrieved from http://caregiver.org/caregiver/jsp/content_node.jsp?nodeid=2449#researchpractice
Einstein's Theory of Relativity Jewish Science?
This study examines the work of Gimbel (2012) entitled "Einstein's Jewish Science: Physics at the Intersection of Politics and Religion" and specifically pages 112-217 and seeks to answer the question of how the categorization of Einstein and others functions from a sociological perspective. This study seeks to answer as to if Einstein as a second-class Jewish citizen also resounded in the Jewish community itself and particularly among the Jewish intelligentsia and how important this is for understanding the nature of religion? This study will answer as to whether there are Jewish aspects to liberal universalism and if so what was found in the reading of Gimbel. Finally, this study will answer as to what was found to be most interesting and most insightful and what was found to be contentious in Gimbel's work.
Gimbel: Categorization of Einstein and Function from Sociological Perspective
Gimbel, S. (2012). Einstein's Jewish Science: Physics at the Intersection of Politics and Religion, Pages 112-217
Weinstein, D. And Zakai, A. (nd) Exile and Interpretation: Reinventing European Intellectual History in the Age of German Tyranny and Barbarism. (Or "How German-Speaking Jewish Intellectual Exiles -- Hans Baron, Karl Popper, Leo Strauss, Erich Auerbach -- Transformed Modern Intellectual History"). Retrieved from: http://college.wfu.edu/politics/exileandinterpretation/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Exile-and-Interpretation-manuscript2.pdf
Zeve, Rosenkranz (2013) Steven Gimbel, Einstein's Jewish Science: Physics at the Intersection of Politics and Religion. The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Spring 2013), pp. 160-164. Retrieved from: http://www.einstein.caltech.edu/images/news/Rosenkranz%20review%20of%20Gimbel,%20Einstein 's%20Jewish%20Science.pdf
Ancient Jewish Weddings
Weddings in Ancient Jewish Custom
There is an example of a wedding feast from the gospel of Luke that is not of the famous Cana Wedding Feast that takes place at the beginning of Jesus' ministry, but a gathering in the house of a Pharisee. The Pharisees and scribes invited Jesus there because, as always they were trying to test Him. It was on the Sabbath, and there had already been some discussion of this seminal event in the Jewish week, but the discussion had changed because Christ had been asked to heal a man who walked up to him who had dropsy (an abnormal swelling due to excessive water retention). He asked them if they thought it was lawful to heal a man on the Sabbath, and as they were testing Him, they did not answer. So, he told them that they would definitely take their…
Celine. (2010). Difference between Talmud and Torah. Retrieved from http://www.differencebetween.net/miscellaneous/religion- miscellaneous/difference-between-talmud-and-torah/
Orthodox Judaism. (2010). A guide to Jewish wedding tradition. Retrieved from http://www.orthodox-jews.com/jewish-wedding-tradition.html#axzz1qcIRRWOQ
Rich, T.R. (2011). Marriage. Retrieved from http://www.jewfaq.org/marriage.htm
West, J. (2003). Ancient Israelite marriage customs. Quartz Hill School of Theology. Retrieved from http://www.theology.edu/marriage.htm
The things that Orthodox Judaism and Jewish Renewal have in common appear to originate from the foundations of the Jewish faith. Both make use of the Jewish scriptures such as the Talmud, and both adhere to Jewish traditions in terms of holidays and general practices. Another significant similarity is the importance that both directions have for women. The Orthodoxy is reported to give significance to the feminine style of devotion to God, which includes a more emotional, nurturing relationship with him. The Renewal appears to be an inclusion of more emotional qualities in the style of worship for both women and men.
The differences are more marked, and thus easier to identify. Regarding the role of women, for example, the Jewish Renewal seeks to include women in all aspects of Jewish worship. They are thus not excluded from leadership roles or practices within the synagogue.
The style of…
Black, White, Jewish
Black, White, and Jewish -- the Source of All Rebecca Walker's Angst?
Rebecca Walker's memoir Black, White, and Jewish, is subtitled "Autobiography of a Shifting Self." Walker states that is a woman who is most comfortable "in airports" because they are "limbo spaces -- blank, undemanding, neutral." (3) In contrast, because of her multi-racial and multi-ethnic identity, she is both never 'neutral' and also never quite 'of a color.' nly in airports to the rules of the world completely apply to her as well as to the rest of the world, Walker states -- and even then, this statement has an irony, given the recent events and controversies over airport racial profiling that occurred after the book's publication. The book does on to describe, with great poignancy, the author's perceived difficulty of living with a dual, often uncomfortable identity of whiteness and blackness, of Jewishness and 'gentileness.'…
One might ask Walker, however, if this sense of alienation from one's own parents, from one's own past identity, even one's own ancestry, is a condition of a multi-racial and mixed religious background, or a product of American adolescence? But the conventional existence eventually chosen by her father suggests that a White man can return to the mainstream after spurning all these things as a rite of adolescent passage, while Walker cannot. Walker's physical appearance forces her into a continual existence of protest, whether she chooses to conform or not. Even her mother's bohemian existence is chosen, and offers the comfort of ancestry, even an enslaved one.
How constructed, however, one might ask is the idea of ancestry and connection? The unbroken line between African-Americans might itself, one say, be a construction, a tracing together between various Africans who were enslaved centuries ago. An African-American immigrant from Haiti might be 'read' the same by white eyes as one from South Carolina, causing a sense of identity diffusion because of societal mis-reading, as one cannot always see Rebecca Walker's Jewishness upon her. Making a social argument about the destructive legacy of the 1960's from hurt, from the depression and parental and personal conflict that seems to be characteristic of American adolescence is difficult. Individuals of different sexualities, of conflicted relationships even with homogenous paths might make the same argument of placenessness, of existing in a space they must create, rather than find. Although Rebecca Walker's book is a powerful personal testimony, it does not quite hold up -- nor perhaps should it aspire to -- as a sociological document. It is written, as the author admits, with emotion and in her own blood, and cannot admit the alternative perspectives of other American twenty and thirty-somethings undergoing similar identity crisis.
But unlike the identity crisis of leaving and returning to the bosom of the family, Walker has no family to return to -- her parents are divorced and have returned from their respective crisis of identities, into the bosoms of their own ethnic identities. They have been changed and perhaps improved by their heightened cultural exposure. But after her own rebellion, Rebecca Walker has no place to comfortably rest and return to -- except, ironically, the airport, she might say. "I am flesh and blood but I am also ether," she states at the end of her work. She attempts to create anew rather than return to ancestors, like her parents, and this re-creation is a constant source of consternation.
German-Jews. The history of German-Jewish conflict is widely known but many might wonder why it started in the first place. Why would Germans show such extreme hatred for an ethnic group while the other did not seem to have threatened the latter? This question is certainly strange but answer is worth seeking which also helps us understand the concepts of conformity and social perception that affects global conflicts of such magnitude. The German-Jewish conflict is as much grounded in ugly realities of imperislaims and racism as any other. Arendt discovered two important innovations that were cultivated during the rise of modern imperialism i.e. "race as a principle of the body politic" and "bureaucracy as a principle of foreign domination." (Arendt, p. 185) While racism was seriously grounded in the fear of the white man, bureaucracy emerged as a result of over exaggerated and entirely false sense of protection that white…
Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. 1976
Du Bois. The Souls of Black Folks.
Gender Studies -- the orld Split Open
hy were American women unhappy? In building her case regarding the unhappiness that women in America experienced in the 1950s, the author of The orld Split Open: How the Modern omen's Movement Changed America -- Ruth Rosen -- goes into great detail. On page 13 Rosen points out that after II in the American culture, women getting pregnant and having babies, was extremely common and normal. In fact, a woman who was not married was "an embarrassment," and the author quotes actress Debbie Reynolds (from the film The Tender Trap) as saying that marriage is "the most important thing in the world" and that a woman is not "really a woman" until she has a wedding and babies (Rosen, 13).
But after taking care of babies all day, doing housework, running errands and cooking dinner for the family -- all the while using…
Rosen, Ruth. The World Split Open: How the Modern Women's Movement Changed America.
New York: Viking, 2000.
In general, utilitarianism is an ethical system most often attributed to John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham, both 19th century social philosophers commenting on conditions arising from the Industrial evolution. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical thing one can do is any action that will maximize the happiness within an organization or society. Actions have quantitative outcomes and the ethical choices that lead to the "greatest good for the greatest number" are the appropriate decisions, even if that means subsuming the rights of certain individuals. It is considered to be a consequential outlook in the sense that while outcomes cannot be predicted the judgement of an action is based on the outcome -- or, "the ends justify the means" (obinson and Groves, 2003).
For Google, then, the issue at its core was to continue allowing censorship of Chinese issues based on governmental regulations, or simply state, we will no longer…
Deming, Stuart. (2006) the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the NewInternational Norms.
American Bar Association.
Drucker, P.F., et.al. (2001). Harvard Business Review on Decision Making. Harvard "Google vs. China." (January 14, 2010). The Washington Post. Cited in:
In the end, the capacity for gangs persist throughout history has shown that they are not merely one-dimensional juvenile delinquents, as they are often portrayed in media. They are also well-organized groups that have the ability to serve social purposes. This also shows that a reason why society still allows them to exist is because of these social functions (Branch 1997).
Nevertheless, media is also responsible for glamorizing the life of the gangsta, which may be a factor in getting adolescent and vulnerable teenagers to join gangs for the sake of being accepted and being part of a family. The outcome of which, if not death or imprisonment, is even if a gangsta decides to become a regular citizen, he will be held with contempt and suspicion by the community.
Branch, C. (1997). Chapter 1: Since the Days of Knights: Historical and Psychological Overview of Gangs. pp. 9-27. Perseus…
Branch, C. (1997). Chapter 1: Since the Days of Knights: Historical and Psychological Overview of Gangs. pp. 9-27. Perseus Books, LLC. Retrieved August 24, 2009, from Education Research Complete database.
Branch, C. (1997). Chapter 2: Developmental Aspects of Gang Membership. pp. 28-43, Perseus Books, LLC. Retrieved August 24, 2009, from Education Research Complete database.
Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor. (2000). Gangs as Alternative Transitional Structures: Adaptations to Racial and Social Marginality in Los Angeles and London. Journal of Multicultural Social Work, 8(1/2): 71-99. Retrieved August 24, 2009, from Education Research Complete database
Ruble, Nikki M. & Turner, William L. (2000). A Systematic Analysis of the Dynamics and Organization of Urban Street Gangs. The Americal Journal of Family Therapy, 28(2): 117-132. Retrieved August 25, 2009, from Education Research Complete database.
However, Edersheim also points out that Jews were more child-centered than their contemporary cultures. One example of the Jewish reverence for children is that only Jews and one other culture had prohibitions against infanticide, while other cultures openly permitted the practice.
In chapter seven, Edersheim goes on to discuss the raising of Jewish children. Different ages of children had different roles and expectations. Children learned early on the protection of the Mesusah. In addition to formal instruction, children learned by observing their parents engage in rituals. The book of Proverbs is helpful to an understanding of how Jews were to raise their children. The most important part of the education of a Jewish child was religious education. Much of this instruction came as the result of children watching their parents, because Jews lived their religion as part of their daily lives. In addition to informal instruction, some children received formal…
Julius Scott Jr.'s work of literature Jewish ackgrounds of the New Testament, is quite fascinating. The manuscript is well researched and dedicated to a number of crucial events that influenced the form of practice of both Christianity and Judaism. The author incorporates a variety of sources, both traditional and otherwise, in an attempt to reconstruct some of the critical elements in the intertestamental period that greatly influenced both of these religions for posterity. In order to better identify the central theme of this book and the author's intention in writing it, it is necessary to begin with background information about him and the scope of focus of the book to ultimately determine whether or not he has achieved his purpose with this work.
One of the most salient facets about the background of Scott Jr. is the fact that he is a Christian. The author is an emeritus professor at…
Scott, Jr., J. Julius. Jewish Backgrounds of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2006, ISBN: 978-0-8010-2240-1.
1. J. Julius Scott, Jr., Jewish Backgrounds of the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2006), 356.
2. Scott Jr., Jewish Backgrounds, 273.
Main characters in Schindler's List
During the Holocaust, Oskar Schindler who is a womanizer, war profiteer, and a Nazi member becomes the unexpected savior and hero of approximately 1,100 Polish Jews. He is a swindler and a moderately successful businessman who takes advantage of wartime to gain financial success. His business includes buying an enamelware factory previously owned by a Jew and using ingratiation and bribery to get contracts to make war supplies. At first, he was apathetic to the Jews, thinking that their situation was just a result of the war. He is a playboy who habitually cheats on his wife. He joined the Nazi party because he believes that it will help him make more money, and not for any ideological reason. According to the movie Schindler's List (2016), even though Oscar Schindler buys the factory that has been confiscated from Jewish owners and…
Keneally, T. (1993). Schindler's List. New York: Serpentine Publishing Company.
Raven, G. (1994). 'Schindler's List:' A review. Retrieved from The Journal of Historical Review: http://www.ihr.org/jhr/v14/v14n3p-7_raven.html
Schindler's List. (2016 ). Retrieved from Spark Notes: http://www.sparknotes.com/film/schindlerslist/canalysis.html
SLE. (2013). Accuracies. Retrieved from SCHINDLER'S LIST: https://schindlerslisteight.wordpress.com/historical-accuracy/truths/
O rother, Where Art Thou?
Homer in Hollywood: The Coen rothers' O rother, Where Art Thou?
Could a Hollywood filmmaker adapt Homer's Odyssey for the screen in the same way that James Joyce did for the Modernist novel? The idea of a high-art film adaptation of the Odyssey is actually at the center of the plot of Jean-Luc Godard's 1963 film Contempt, and the Alberto Moravia novel on which Godard's film is based. In Contempt, Prokosch, a rich American dilettante film producer played by Jack Palance, hires Fritz Lang to film a version of Homer's Odyssey, then hires a screenwriter to write it and promptly ruins his marriage to rigitte ardot. Fritz Lang gamely plays himself -- joining the ranks of fellow "arty" German-born directors who had earlier deigned to act before the camera (like Erich von Stroheim in Wilder's Sunset oulevard, playing a former director not unlike himself, or…
Peter Biskind, Easy Riders, Raging Bulls How the Sex-Drugs-and-Rock'N'Roll Generation Saved Hollywood. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999. Print.
Cavell, Stanley. Pursuits of Happiness: the Hollywood Comedy of Remarriage. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984. Print.
Connors, Catherine. Petronius the Poet: Verse and Literary Tradition in the Satyricon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Print.
Doom, Ryan P. The Brothers Coen: Unique Characters of Violence. Santa Barbara, Denver and Oxford: Praeger / ABC-CLIO, 2009. Print.
lessons module/Week explained important reasons Christians study secular literature. Choose lessons ag
I believe that there are a number of critical points of veracity elucidated within lesson three regarding the value of literature to Christians and to those who embrace Christianity. Actually, I have a number of strong convictions regarding literature in general; one of my mantras is that anything of true value in this world -- that which extends beyond the temporal -- is written down. One of the most eminent points of agreement that I found with this particular lesson revolves around the merit of the Bible. The Bible is certainly a work of literature and, when considered in its earliest form as part of the Dead Sea Scrolls, is one of the most enduring works of literature to be found.
There are a number of different arguments regarding the utilitarian aspect of this particular piece of literature.…
Life lessons, relationship lessons, even artistic, music, and performance sharing could take place (imagine, a NeoPet "Grease" production using a global cast)?
Conclusions and Implications -- NeoPets obviously provides a niche about which some consumers are excited. Like many technological entertainment devises, though, there is certainly potential for abuse. One would not necessarily want their children to sit in front of a NASCA racing program, replete with ads, for hours at a time and never have any physical activity. It is not the place of technology to mandate other behavior, but the wisdom of parents and society to create a balance. Ensuring that this will not be a fad is quite simple -- continue to evolve, to grow, to become more sophisticated in content and interaction. In a similar way, funding could come from private foundations that might sponsor a segment (e.g. Boeing on history of flight; Microsoft on computing…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
"Adults Play Neopets." (2009). Neopets. Cited in: www.neopets.com/~grownups
Ireton, D. (2003), Internet-Based Market Research, Advanced Systems Development.
Ha, K. (September 14, 2004). "Neopets site for children stirs Controversy." the
San Jose Mercury News. Cited in:
The need for respect, however, does not mean a need for trepidation. The fear of offending someone's dearest beliefs should not be so great that there is a timid educational environment, with little real discussion. The ability to foster true interfaith dialogue, rather than interfaith silence, is one of the challenges of all religious practitioners today. That is why I know I will benefit from the atmosphere at Harvard. Harvard's level of intellectualism and its demand that its divinity students question how feminism, sexual difference, and race must be addressed in the context of religious life today will teach me how to engage in true dialogue with others. Even if I do not always agree with everyone in the classroom, at least I will learn how such disagreement can inform my own views. To enter into a multi-faith classroom demands a willingness to change, even if one emerges with one's…
The emphasis on social stability, as seen in many institutions' suspicion regarding social change, can lead to the perpetuation of social inequality. In some instances, there is even a stronger link between religion and power structures.
The caste system in India privileges the rights of the priestly class. However, political leaders in India have also formed strong ties with the Brahmin class. These ties serve to "legitimize" the power in the political government.
Evaluating conflict theory
Conflict theory provides several important insights regarding the conservative role that religion has played in society. McGuire and Collins' study provide specific cases that uphold Marx's original premise. These studies show how conflict thinking still remains relevant, even until today.
However, the emphasis on the conservative and status quo orientation of religion also glosses over religion's liberating potential. Theologians like Gustavo Gutierrez, a priest who served in a Peruvian slum in the 1960s, argued…
Collins, Randall (1981). Sociology since mid century: Essays in theory cumulation. New York: Academic Press.
Durkheim, Emile. (1912). The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. New York: Oxford University Press
Hunter, James Davison. (1983). American evangelicalism: Conservative religion and the quandary of modernity. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
Lawson, R. (1998). From American church to immigrant church: the changing face of seventh-day Adventism in metropolitan new York. Sociology of Religion, Winter 1998. Retrieved Oct 23, 2004, at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0SOR/is_4_59/ai_53590308 .
Kinship structures, then, are not normative, but is actually consisted of the mother and child alone, illustrating how the role of males have been gradually decreasing to being 'suppliers' of sperm cells for the women's use in assisted reproduction.
Studies from Carsten and Stone demonstrate the aspects demonstrated in Kahn's research. Carsten's research centers primarily on the kinship system extant in Malaysia, while Stone looks at how females have managed to gradually increase and assert their role in human society, eventually having their own choice to actively participate in the process of reproduction or not.
Carsten's analysis of the Malaysian kinship system shows that the concept of family goes beyond the traditional distinction of blood relations -- that is, people consider an individual as part of the family even though they are not related in blood. Being considered as part of family, then, happens through a process of constant interaction…
Causation vs Correlation and the Effects of Bias on Research
1. What are the independent and dependent variables in this study?
Dependent variable: entrepreneurship activities
Independent variable: activities (promotion, facilitation, long-term commitment to secondary education, developing the capacity of a society to accommodate the higher levels of income disparity, and creating a culture that validates and promotes entrepreneurship throughout society)
2. What are some of the intervening, extraneous, and moderating variables that the study attempted to control with its 10-nation design?
· Economy (GDP)
· Geography and politics (geopolitics)
· Proximity to needed supply chains
· Available resources
· Government subsidies
3. Can you do a causal study without controlling intervening, extraneous, and moderating variables?
Extraneous variables should be controlled when possible but it is not always possible to control for them all as they are extraneous. Intervening variables are only hypothetical and are unable…
Bauman, A. E., Sallis, J. F., Dzewaltowski, D. A., & Owen, N. (2002). Toward a better understanding of the influences on physical activity: the role of determinants, correlates, causal variables, mediators, moderators, and confounders. American journal of preventive medicine, 23(2), 5-14.
Commons, M. L., Miller, P. M., & Gutheil, T. G. (2004). Expert witness perceptions of bias in experts. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online, 32(1), 70-75.
Curtis, E. A., Comiskey, C., & Dempsey, O. (2016). Importance and use of correlational research. Nurse researcher, 23(6).
MacKinnon, D. P. (2011). Integrating mediators and moderators in research design. Research on social work practice, 21(6), 675-681.
Pal, A., Harper, F. M., & Konstan, J. A. (2012). Exploring question selection bias to identify experts and potential experts in community question answering. ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS), 30(2), 1-28.
The theme of the accuracy of memory in the wake of traumatic events is one shared between virtually all of the articles in this packet of reading. It certainly was evinced within the reading for week 6-3, in which an author explores a dispute between survivors of a massacre within Palestine and the claims of Jewish soldiers present who stated that there was no such massacre. In this case -- which actually involved a legal trial -- memory was once again subjected to more pervasive aspects of history, possibly most prominently that of the Israeli law that dismissed the claims of the massacre.
The reading for week 6-2 demonstrates the amount of vibrancy and effervescence that historians have by being able to access archives. The author explores this potential of the historiographer by contrasting the relationship and reliability of memory and history, particularly as the latter is related to archiving.…
Conflict, Debate or Struggle in the Contemporary U.S. Labor Movement
The work of utkowski and Dirkin (2010) reports that a kosher food company in Williamsburg is "locked in a battle with former workers who charge they were stiffed out of overtime pay - and then fired when they complained." The investigators for the National Labor elations Board is stated to have found that Flaum Appetizing Corporation "illegally booted the workers, and ordered the company to cough up around $260,000 in back pay." (utkowski and Dirkin, 2010) However, owner of the company, Moshe Grunhut is stated to have "refused to comply -- saying he won't' pay the workers because they're undocumented immigrants." (utkowski and Dirkin, 2010)
The methodology employed in this study is one of a qualitative nature that has involved a review of the literature in regards to case of failure to pay overtime on the part of Flaum…
Efrem, Maia (2010) Fired Workers Protest, Prepare for NLRB Hearing in Two-Year Union Fight. The Jewish Daily Forward. 4 Aug 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.forward.com/articles/129832/
Brandworkers Focus on the Food Chain Files Class Action Lawsuit Against Beverage Distributor. 1 February 2010. Brandworkers International. Retrieved from: http://www.brandworkers.org/en/news?page=1
Kosher Business Refuses to pay $250,000 in back wages to fired workers (2010) Workers of the World 27 Nov 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.iww.org/en/node/5278
Rutkowski, I and Durkin, E (2010) Kosher business refuses to pay $260,000 in back wages to fired workers. Daily News. 26 Nov, 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.nydailynews.com/ny_local/brooklyn/2010/11/26/2010-11-26_his_blood_sweat__tears_kosher_biz_refuses_to_pay_260g_in_back_wages
Palestine under Occupation: Reaching the ‘Other’ through Bearing Witness and Citizen Journalism
The conflict in Palestine is largely portrayed in the mainstream media as a complex issue (Chomsky & Pappe, 2015). A theoretical reason for this portrayal of the conflict is rooted in what Robinson (2002) has described as the ‘CNN effect’—the special relationship that exists between the state and the media, which facilitates the construction of a narrative that supports the aims of the state, particularly when it comes to foreign intervention. Al-Ghazzi (2017) has described, for example, how CNN uses embedded reporting to foster a narrative supportive of the U.S.’s aims in the Middle East. With a particular focus on the Palestinian conflict, Western mainstream media and states partake in the CNN effect by framing the conflict as ‘complicated’. This complication, however, is not represented in the largesse unevenly distributed between the two sides of the conflict.…
Bible in the Life of the Church Today
Today, the Holy Bible remains the mainstay of Christian churches around the world, but there remains a debate over its precise role in the life of the church. To help determine the facts in this debate, this paper reviews a series of selected essays surrounding the nature of the Bible and its use in the modern Christian church. This review includes a synopsis and description of the structure of each article, the main points of interest and an analysis concerning the extent to which the authors succeeded in conveying these main points. Finally, a description of the author's methodology and an assessment concerning the validity of each author's arguments is followed by an evaluation of their effectiveness in communicating their main themes and a summary of the research and important findings regarding the main themes addressed in these articles are provided in…
Anderson, B.W. 'Tradition and Scripture in the Community of Faith' in The Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 100, No.1 (March 1981), pp 5-21
Martens, E. A. "What Have They Done to the Bible? A History of Modern Biblical Interpretation." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 382-385.
Neuman, W. L. (2009). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Paul, M. "Biblical Exegesis and the Formation of Christian Culture, by Frances Young" in Shofar, Vol. 18, No. 3, p. 147.
OGANIZATIONAL SYSTEMS & QUALITY LEADESHIP
Organizational Systems and Quality Leadership
Efforts to measure and improve the quality of nursing care provided to patients began with Florence Nightingale, who measured patient outcomes and worked towards the improvement of hospital conditions. ecently, studies linking nurses to patient outcomes have been given significant focus within healthcare. Efforts to measure the indicators of the quality of care dispensed by nurses have led to the phrase "nursing sensitive indicators," which has become a buzzword in healthcare. These are "outcomes from patient care that reflect the nursing care provided" (Kelly, Vottero, & Christie-McAuliffe, 2014). These indicators reflect the structure, nursing care process, and nursing care outcomes (American Nurses Association, 2014). Structural indicators include nursing staff supply, skill level of nurses and certification. The process indicators include patient assessment measures of nursing interventions while outcome indicators include all patient experiences such as falls, pressure ulcers, and readmissions…
American Nurses Association. (2013). Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. Retrieved 2014, from Nursing World: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/CodeofEthicsforNurses/Code-of-Ethics.pdf
American Nurses Association. (2014). Nursing-Sensitive Indicators. Retrieved 2014, from Nursing World: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/PatientSafetyQuality/Research-Measurement/The-National-Database/Nursing-Sensitive-Indicators_1
ANA. (2014). ANA Indicator History. Retrieved 2014, from Nursing World:
And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many of Greek origin. He was the Messiah. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him previously did not cease to do so. For he appeared to them on the third day, living again, just as the divine prophets had spoken of these and countless other wondrous things about him. And up until this very day the tribe of Christians, named after him, has not died out (18.63-64)
This paragraph has also been very controversial, because many believe it would not be likely that Josephus would have written that Jesus "appeared to them on the third day, living again." Some scholars say that Josephus had given up all his Jewish leanings by this time, but others say that this was not the true…
Albright, William and C.S. Mann. The Anchor Bible. Matthew. New York: Doubleday, 1971
Benjamin, Jules R. A Student's Guide to History. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press, 2004
Broshi, Magen. The Credibility of Josephus. Journal of Jewish Studies: Essays in Honor of Yigael Yadin 1982 from Oxford Centre for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies. http://www.centuryone.com/josephus.html Accessed 10 April, 2010
Carr, Edward Hallett. What Is History? Random House. New York. 1961.
Yiddish as a first language in Ultra-Orthodox Jewish communities, compared to the use of local vernacular (for example, Hebrew in Israeli-ased Jews, or English in London and New York-ased Jews): in Hasidic Jews, the use of Yiddish is widespread, whereas in other Jewish groups, the local vernacular is more common.
This paper discusses the reasons behind these differences, and looks at the functions that Yiddish serves in these Hasidic Jew communities. The paper also looks at the effects of outside pressures has on the use of Yiddish, and on issues of identity in general.
The paper also looks at the religious issues related to the use of Yiddish, and at heritage issues in general. The paper also looks in detail at the use of Yiddish as a cultural isolating mechanism, as a way to create barriers between Hasidic Jews and non-Hasidic Jews, and also Hasidic Jews and non-Jews (gentiles).
Abraham, J.E. (1985). Perceptions of English Learning in a Hasidic Jewish Sect.
Abrams, D. And Hogg, M.A. (2000). Social Identity: Constructive and Critical.
Belcove-Shalin, J. (1995). New World Hasidim: Ethnographic Studies of Hasidic Jews in America.
Ben-Rafael, E. Language and Social Division -The Case of Israel.
The guide to practice is sometimes ambiguous, for example, Rashi, the great medieval teacher, implies in one case that the fetus has no rights, but then elsewhere seems to imply the opposite (Berke pp). However, no Jewish source accept abortion for the purpose of birth control or sterility, which is a practice that "cheapens human life" and public morality (Berke pp).
Abortion continues to be a highly contentious issue in the United States, with few signs of abatement, and actually increased signs that it is being placed at the forefront of many agendas (Johnson pp).
Berke, Matthew. "Jews Choosing Life." Journal of Religion and Public Life.
February 02, 1999. Retrieved August 01, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Feder, Don. "Abortion, Judaism, and Jews."
National Review. July 8, 1991. Retrieved August 01, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Feder1, Don. "The kosher majority. (Orthodox Jews as…
Berke, Matthew. "Jews Choosing Life." Journal of Religion and Public Life.
February 02, 1999. Retrieved August 01, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Feder, Don. "Abortion, Judaism, and Jews."
National Review. July 8, 1991. Retrieved August 01, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Overall, however, the Jews in Europe did not lead as normal or equal lives as the Jews in the Muslim world did. Cohen's idea was to prove this point, and he does it repeatedly.
Throughout the book, Cohen uses comparisons such as these to prove his thesis and indicate just why the Jews were better off in Islamic lands. Each chapter touches on a particular area of life, from legalities to economics and the social aspects of life during the Middle Ages. Each time, Cohen creates balanced arguments to back up his thesis and to convince the reader his position is correct.
The author uses a variety of historical research and review to come to his conclusions, and offers a detailed section of notes at the end of the work indicating his sources for his book. His arguments are not emotional or judgmental; they simply present the facts and then…
Cohen, Mark R. Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.
Cohen, Mark R. "Biography." Princeton.edu. 2004. 13 April 2007. http://www.princeton.edu/~nes/faculty_cohen.html
Shatzmiller, Joseph. "Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages" Canadian Journal of History, Aug 1996. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3686/is_199608/ai_n8736598
Melvin Konnor's Unsettled
In his text, entitled Unsettled: An Anthropology of the Jews, the professor of Jewish studies, biology, and human anthropology of Emory University Melvin Konnor ties the unsettlement or displacement and persecution of the Jewish people to their essential identity and integrity as a people. He asks the questions -- how did the Jews as a people survive such unsettlement and displacement so well, and keep the Jewish religion and even their ethnicity relatively intact, or at least in recognizable enough form that the Jewish religion still survives today? How did the Jewish people retain their uniqueness as a people in so many distinctive foreign territories? "Other people have suffered greatly; others have survived. But the Jews seem to garner a kind of attention focused on no other people ... hy? That is the mystery at the heart of this book, and it took me, and will take…
Konnor, Melvin. Unsettled: An Anthropology of the Jews. New York:
Viking Books, 2003.
Hasidic Judaism Culture
Hasidic Judaism-primarily Boro Park
Literature suggests that people often refer the Jewish people as the chosen people, which is common knowledge. In fact, the bible supports this because it refers to them as the Holy people or the Holy Community. In this respect, during the provision of the Ten Commandments on Mt. Sinai, it was a requirement by God that the Jews live a holy life. In the context of holy, God required the people to conduct their personal and social life through obeying the six hundred and thirteen proscriptive and prescriptive dicta found in the Torah (Mintz, 1992). Over successive generations, the six hundred and thirteen laws evolved to become the Ol Torah or the yoke of the torah.
In the current setting, it is just to suggest that over the two thousand plus years, the Jews have tried their best to conduct their lives in…
Humes, I. (1998). A brief introduction to Hasidism. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/alifeapart/intro.html
Kranzler, G. (1995). Hasidic Williamsburg: A Contemporary American Hasidic Community.
Lanham: Jason Aronson, Inc.
Librach, C.E. (2012). The Relationship of Orthodox Jews with Jews of Other Religious
CONESED PUBLIC SPACE: MEMORIES & HISORY
Contested Public Space: Memories and History
Das Denkmal fur Die Ermordeten Juden Europas
he Memory Landscape.
Mary's is a large old-style brick church belonging to the council of the Hanseatic city of Lubeck. On the floor at the rear of the church, broken pieces of two large bells remain where they fell during an air raid in World War II. he third largest church in Germany, it took 100 years to construct St. Mary's but just one Palm Sunday night in March of 1942 to nearly destroy it. As with so many churches ruined by bombing during the war, parishioners debated about restoration. Citizens living on war-torn homeland are caught: here is a lingering desire to preserve physical destruction as a message or signal to subsequent generations, or as an effort to share the horror of war time experience. If the physical evidence of…
The Construction of the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin.
A competition for the design of the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin was held in April of 1994. Twelve artists were invited to submit a design and a stipend of 50, 000 German Marks was provided to each candidate. The proposals would be reviewed by a jury with representatives from architecture, urban design, art, history, administration, and politics. Interest in the project grew and at the end of the competitive period, 528 proposals had been submitted. Rounds of reviews commenced and 13 proposals were selected. But during the interim period between meetings, the jurors -- who ostensibly were then able to review the critiques of their fellow jurors -- asked that 11 proposals be put back in the running. Two proposals were finally recommended to the foundation for feasibility study. One proposal was designed by Simon Ungers architectural group from Hamburg, and one proposal was designed by Christine Jackob-Marks. Jackob-Marks' work included names of murdered Jews engraved in a large concrete plate, with empty spaces signifying Jews who could not be identified by name. Her proposal also included debris from Massada where the Jewish inhabitants avoided capture by invading Romans by killing themselves. Chancellor Helmut Kohl vetoed this proposal. It was considered too "German" and too similar to the Nazi death rosters. The controversy continued under many different guises.
In June of 1998, Peter Eisenman's design was chosen, but it was scaled down to 2,711 blocks, or stelae, after considerable controversy.[footnoteRef:22] Daniel Liebeskind, who was pupil of Eisenman's, claimed that Eisenman stole his design from the Berlin Jewish Museum's Garden of Exile. In July of 2001, billboards reflecting Holocaust denial sentiments appeared in Berlin triggering a funding controversy. [footnoteRef:23] In October of 2003, there was a major disruption to the project. Degesch, a subsidiary of the German company Degussa, was revealed by a Swiss newspaper to be the same firm that made Zyklon-B, the gas used in the gas chambers to murder Jews in the extermination camps. Degussa had been hired to coat the concrete slabs with an anti-graffiti substance. In fact, many stelae had already been coated and the anti-graffiti substance had been discounted as in-kind sponsorship of the memorial. Degussa had National-Socialist leanings during the war and this fact was ostensibly known to the construction management company and to Lea Rosh. Rosh declared that she had no prior knowledge of the connection, and she is reported to have said that, "Zylon-B is obviously the limit."[footnoteRef:24] Another subsidiary of Degussa had, but this time, already poured the concrete foundation for the stelae. Members of the Jewish community were outraged at Degussa's involvement and wanted them out of the project. Politicians on the Board of the foundation did not want to impose further expense on the project by stopping construction, or worse, destroying any construction that Degasse had already accomplished. The cost of this action was estimated at €2.34 million. One Board member, Wolfgang Thierse, was reported to say, "[T]he past intrudes into our society."[footnoteRef:25] The Zentrairat der Juden in Germany was outspoken about not continuing the work with Degrasse. Hezryk Broder emphasized that, "The Jews don't need this memorial, and they are not prepared to declare a pig sty kosher." [footnoteRef:26] Peter Eisenberg, perhaps in a bid to see his work finished, supported continuing the project with Degrasse. In November 2003, work restarted with Degrasse. In May of 2005, the Das Denkmal fur Die Ermordeten Juden Europas was completed. At the opening ceremony, Peter Eisenberg spoke about the significance of the Mahnmal, saying that, "It is clear that we won't have solved all the problems -- architecture is not a panacea for evil -- nor will we have satisfied all those present today, but this cannot have been our intention."[footnoteRef:27] [22: Historic Sites -- Berlin, Op. Cit. ] [23: Ibid. ] [24: Translated from "Die Grenze ist ganz klar Zyklon B." Leggewie / Meyer, 2005, p. 294. ] [25: Translated from "Die Vergangenheit ragt in unsere Gesellschaft hinein." Claus Leggewie and Erik Meyer (2005) "Ein Ort, an den man gerne geht." Das Holocaust-Mahnmal und die deutsche Geschichtspolitik nach 1989. Munich, DE: Carl Hanser Verlag Publisher. Munich. p. 294.] [26: Translated from "Di Juden brauchen dieses Mahnmal nicht, und sind nicht beriet, eine Schweinerei als koscher zu erklaren." Leggewie / Meyer, 2005, p. 294] [27: Berstein, Richard. (2005, May 11) Holocaust Museum opens in Berlin, The New York Times. Retrieved http://www.nytimes.com/2005/0511/international/europe/11germany . ]
As fa as composition, the Pating of Lot and Abaham is a mosaic with dominant foegound figues which enhances the message of the atist as the coe of the Biblical stoy is displayed in a vey diect and poweful way though the two chaactes, Lot and Abaham, who ae placed in the foegound. One of the most distinctive featues as fa as its symbolic connotation is the fact that the two chaactes ae placed in the cente of the mosaic with a consideable gap between them which emphasizes the ievesible decision to pat. Being a mual, the mosaic expands high up on the wall of the basilica with a width of about 5ft, unning down the nave aisle at a vey high level. Abaham is depicted on ou left moving towads Canaan. On ou ight we can see Lot moving the opposite way, i.e. towads Sodom with his two daughtes.…
references to good and evil, right and wrong, and thus manages to convey more than a factual representation of an event, but also the latter's deeply metaphorical level.
Augustine, Saint. The City of God. Trans. Marcus D.D. Dods. New York: Modern Library, 1950: 543.
Fortner, Dan. "The Strife between Abraham and Lot John 4:26. http://grace-for-today.com/1772.htm
The Esoteric Explanation of Lot's Parting from Abraham." Sacred texts. http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/zdm/zdm098.htm
Touitou, Elazar. "Basic Jewish Studies Unit." 2004. Bar-Ilan University. The Faculty of Jewish Studies. http://www.biu.ac.il/JH/Parasha/eng/lekh/lech1.html
Writing a Letter from Birmingham Jail analysis essay offers the student the gift of going back in time to the courage and ferocity of the Civil Rights Movement to examine one of the most eloquent documents of that era. The Civil Rights Era was one of the uglier periods in American history—and one of the most triumphant and inspiring. No document embodies this dichotomy as fully as King’s Letter from Birmingham Jail. In it, King details many of the horrors that black Americans have suffered at the hands of white hatred and complacency. Yet, the letter is without a doubt, a document of hope and conviction, inspiration and profundity. This paper details the background circumstances that provoked King in writing the letter and examines closely the brilliance contained in the words, ultimately discussing why it remains such a lauded document even today.
Letter from Birmingham Jail is often…
Jewish, Muslim, and Christian Conflict in the Middle East small piece of land, at points only 2-3 miles wide in a barely habitable part of the world has been theater on which the pivotal events of all world history have been played. The nation of Israel clutches it's historical rights to desert real estate in opposition to the overwhelming arabs and Muslims which surround them. While there is periodic talk of peace, the culturally is that Israel has no intention of giving up what it sees as its divine inheritance, and the Muslim and Palestinian peoples have no intention of allowing Israel to become a prosperous nation. Each countries' perspective is shaped by what it sees as it's divine heritage. Each country has descended from a single ancestor, and therefore perceives it's inherited rights to the land as legal, social, familial, and a matter of divine right.
Entering into this…
Marty, Martin E. Spreading Conflict: Fissures between Christians over Israel and Palestine are Growing. 2002. The New Republic Online. Accessed May 31, 2003. http://www.tnr.com
American Jewish, Christian and Muslim Leaders Unite.
American Arab Institute. Accessed May 31, 2003. http://www.aaiusa.org/news/must_read12_18_02.htm.
The author of this report is asked to profile and otherwise answer questions regarding Canadian company JGH. A description of the services and structure will be offered and then the author will speak of the management theories and practices that the company engages in. How obvious and transparent these practices are will be discussed and whether or not it would be prudent and wise of JGH to continue that strategy. The climate of the organization will be summarized and critiqued as well as the diversity orientation of the firm. While JGH certainly has room for improvement, they are indeed doing many things quite well and they are certainly moving in the right direction.
JGH stands for Jewish General Hospital, a research hospital based on Montreal, Quebec, Canada. They are a McGill University teaching hospital and their website is tailored to the mixed language disposition of…
Brimmer, K. (2012, August 30). Hospitals recognized for promoting overall diversity.
Healthcare Finance News. Retrieved March 30, 2014, from http://www.healthcarefinancenews.com/news/hospitals-recognized-promoting -overall-diversity
Hopkins. (2014, March 30). Diversity and Inclusion at Johns Hopkins. Diversity and Inclusion at Johns Hopkins. Retrieved March 30, 2014, from http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/diversity/
JGH. (2014, March 30). Jewish General Hospital - Hopital general juif. Jewish General Hospital - Hopital general juif. Retrieved March 30, 2014, from http://www.jgh.ca/en/home
Wearin' of the Green
An Irish-American's Journey
Margaret-Mary clutched her daughter's tiny hand. Watched with pride as the five-year-old waved the little Irish Flag in her other hand. It was a cold, blustery day, but then it always was on St. Patrick's Day. Yet as Margaret-Mary braved the wind and the crowds, she didn't feel the least bit cold. Never did, but especially not today. It wasn't just that today she was sharing a special moment -- a communion if you will -- with all her Irish brothers and sisters the world over. No, it was more than that. This was a day long looked forward to, a day that had demanded special preparations like getting up at five in the morning, wrapping Colleen in the embracing warmth of a sweater of real Irish wool -- green of course --and rushing off into the frigid pre-dawn to wait for the…
William F. Albright
A Study of W.F. Albright and How iblical Archeology Helped Shape His
William Foxwell Albright was first and foremost a believer in the religion of Christianity, a fact that greatly influenced his role as a iblical archeologist, or "historian of religion," according to critical scholars like J. Edward Wright and David Noel Freedman.
Yet Albright himself never claimed to be anything more than dedicated to interpreting "the unfolding scroll of history," in which he saw the Revelation of Christianity -- the fulfillment of the prophets of the Old Testament.
Or, more appropriately, as Albright himself wrote in 1940, the purpose of his work was "to show how man's idea of God developed from prehistoric antiquity to the time of Christ, and to place this development in its historical context."
In other words, Albright sought to illustrate in a real, contextual way the truth of the Christian…
Albright, William F. From the Stone Age to Christianity: Monotheism and the Historical Process. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1940.
Albright, William F. From the Stone Age to Christianity, 3rd edn. NY: Doubleday,
Albright, William F. "How Well Can We Know the Ancient Near East?" Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 56, no. 2 (June, 1936), 121-144.
(Jabal Omar Development Corporation 2010)
Since 2008, the real estate market in Kuwait has been continually declining. The reason why is because the economy was largely depending upon oil revenues. However, in 2010 the sector began witnessing an increase in prices. This is because of the Kuwaiti government was aggressively promoting the tourism industry. As developers are expecting a strong increase in foreign direct investment, due to the governments push to expand the sector. As a result, holiday and residential areas in Kuwait are continuing to boom. (Finkelstein)
In the housing industry, there are large numbers of shortages that are affecting prices. What has been happening is the residential sector has been facing restrictions over the last several years, surrounding building permits. As the government was slow to endorse them, which created a rush on new areas that were approved for development. At the same time, the government has…
Alexandria Real Estate, 2010.
Egypt Property, 2010, Select Property. Available from: [19 Mar. 2011].
Egypt Real Estate Attracts Interest From Foreign Investors, 2010, New Investors. Available from: [19 Mar. 2011]
Jabal Omar Development Corporation, 2010
Johnson and Johnson issued a public relations response immediately naming their number one priority: to aggressively protect any consumer from the potential hazards that may be present in any of their family of products.
Symptoms of the Problem -- Quickly, the crisis reached epic nationwide coverage. The panic that ensued, somewhat as the result of the twenty-four hour media coverage, fueled this panic into a frenzy. One hospital in Chicago, for instance, received 700 calls in one day; while Johnson and Johnson received averaged almost 150 calls per day. Across the country people were admitted into hospitals on suspicion of cyanide poisoning (Tifft, 18). Johnson and Johnson worked rapidly and decisively with the media to disseminate information. When the news spread, copycat criminals began to tamper with the products on the shelves of stores, which only deepened the crisis. ndeed, the FDA confirmed more tampering had taken place, but this…
Identification of Goals - in 1982, Tylenol controlled 37% of the pain killer market, approximately $1.2M and was the leading painkiller in the American market, outselling Anacin, Bayer, Bufferin, and Excedrin. Seventeen to eighteen percent net earnings of Johnson and Johnson were from Tylenol sales. Profits placed Johnson and Johnson in the top half of the Fortune 500 (Berg, 1998). The company had been doing well for years. Stock analysts had actually predicted that Tylenol's market share was poised for up to a 15% growth. In fact, Tylenol was to the product that would lead this company to further success- hat is until the Tylenol laced cyanide crisis came to be. This calamity changed the strategic plan, management goals, and parent to subsidiary goals across the organization -- within a 24-hour period. Instantly, an immediate crisis mode was assumed and a reassessment and reprioritization of their goals and immediate actions required jolted every executive, manager and employee in the organization (Mikkelson, 2004).
Immediate Goals once Crisis was Revealed-
Reacting to the news, when Johnson and Johnson was faced with the initial situation; it had to make some tough decisions that would severely impact the future of the company. Rather than think in financial terms only, CEO James Burke immediately turned to the
e must canonize our own saints, create our own martyrs, and elevate to positions of fame and honor black women and men who have made their distinct contributions to our history." (Garvey1, 1)
Taken in itself and absent the implications to African repatriation that we will address hereafter, this is a statement which seems to project itself upon both Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, mutually driven as they would be by a belief that African men had been deprived of a humanity which it was their duty to see restored. But it is here that we can also begin to observe the elements of Garvey's rather poetic and frequently biblical rhetoric as producing multifarious responses in its future champions. Certainly, the greatest and most daunting common ground between King and Malcolm X in this instance is in their mutual 'creation' of 'martyrs.' They would both sacrifice themselves to the…
Associated Press (AP). (1963). MALCOLM X SCORES U.S. And KENNEDY; Likens Slaying to 'Chickens Coming Home to Roost' Newspapers Chided. New York Times.
Edward, W. (1996). "A Lunatic or a Traitor" by W.E.B. DuBois. African-American Political Thought, 1890-1930: M.E. Sharpe.
Edward1, W. (1996). "The Negro's Greatest Enemy" by Marcus Garvey. African-American Political Thought, 1890-1930: M.E. Sharpe.
Garvey, a.J. (1967). The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey. Routledge.
The patient is an 18-year-old of the Filipino-American origin. He has no known family history of ulcerative colitis or chronic illnesses similar to colitis. He is a high school senior student.
The patient complains of diarrhoea 3-4 times a month although it has been on and off for one year. There is no known allergy that the patient experiences.
He experienced rectal bleeding, rectal pain and often had an urgent need to empty his bowels. His diarrhoea had bloodstains with mucus at least once a month. This led to few red blood cells due to the low level of iron, which resulted from the bloody stool. He had belly pains, which he described as cramping and his belly felt sore if touched. He experienced constipation, but it was less frequent than diarrhoea. He had no signs of vomiting or nausea, but he…
Baumgart, D. (2012). Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: From epidemiology and immunobiology to a rational diagnostic and therapeutic approach. New York: Springer.
Bayless, T.M., & Hanauer, S.B. (2010). Advanced therapy of inflammatory bowel disease: Volume 1. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.
Hanauer, S.B., & Marteau, P. (2001). Ulcerative colitis: Focus on topical treatment. Paris: J.
Their Impacts on Immigrants in 19th Century
Settlement Houses were an attempt of socially reforming the society in the late nineteenth century and the movement related to it was a process of helping the poor in urban areas adopting their modes of life by living among them and serving them while staying with them. What today's youth would know as a Community Center, 'Settlement Houses' initially sprang up in the 1880's? At these facilities, higher educated singles would move to Settlement Houses and get to personally know the neighborhood and immigrant people that they were converting, studying, and/or teaching. Working together, they passed labor laws and changed the way the U.S. does business. Where these educated professionals stayed with the community and served them, the main intent of these reforms was to transfer this responsibility of social welfare to the government in the long-run.
An interesting fact…
Axinn, June, and Herman Levin. Social Welfare: A History of the American Response to Need. 4th ed. White Plains, N.Y.: Longman, 1997.
Crocker, Ruth Hutchinson. "THE SETTLEMENTS: SOCIAL WORK, CULTURE, AND IDEOLOGY IN THE PROGRESSIVE ERA.." History Of Education Quarterly 31, no. 2 (Spring1991): 253-260.
Davis, Allen F. Spearheads for Reform: The Social Settlements and the Progressive Movement, 1890 -- 1914. New York: Oxford University Press, 1967.
Harvard University Library Open Collections Program, "Immigration to the United / states, 1789-1930, Settlement House Movement." Accessed June 3, 2012. http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/settlement.html
Brophy Case Study
The unfortunate case of Paul Brophy should immediately remind people of the very similar case of Terry Schiavo and how that case ended up. Indeed, Mr. Brophy is in a persistent vegetative state due to an artery bursting in his brain. His life can technically be maintained through a feeding tube and other medical equipment but he is not "terminal" in the usually used sense of the word in that he is not near death so long as he is fed. However, his chances of every regaining normal brain function, which he has lost, are zero according to medical professionals. As such, the family wanted to let him go but the medical professionals resisted. While this decision may seem like an easy one to make, it is not remotely easy and for a number of reasons.
One important piece of information regarding this case is that…
Baker, D. (2013, April 25). Right to die or wrong to kill?. Christian Today. Retrieved October 9, 2014, from http://www.christiantoday.com/article/right.to.die.or.wrong
Beauchamp, T.L., & Childress, J.F. (2013). Principles of biomedical ethics (7th ed.).
New York: Oxford University Press.
ccording to the National Geographic Society, formal regions are those that are generally recognized as such as a result of being shared by people with common cultural characteristics or goals. Chinatown can therefore be characterized as formal, as it is generally occupied by Chinese immigrants, as the case has also been in historical terms.
functional region is referred to as a central area serving the neighborhoods around it. It is generally connected to the areas it serves by means of transportation routes. Chinatown is connected with its surrounding regions, but does not serve them for purposes other than tourism or entertainment. In broad terms, it is unlikely that the region can then be characterized as formal.
Finally, a vernacular, or what the National Geographic Society refers to as "perceptual" regions, are those without particular physical boundaries, but that are based upon human attitudes or feelings. Examples are Dixie, southern California,…
Asian-American Federation of New York (AAFNY). Neighborhood Profile: Manhattan's Chinatown. 2004. http://www.aafny.org/cic/briefs/Chinatownbrief.pdf
National Geographic Society. Geography Standards. 2008. http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/standards/05/index.html
Tung, Larry. Chinatown Looks for a Way to Survive and Thrive. Gotham Gazette, April 2009. http://www.gothamgazette.com/article/immigrants/20090420/11/2888
Neck sits on the north shore of Long Island in Nassau County, and the name refers to both the village of Great Neck and the peninsula on which it sits. The Great Neck Park District, Great Neck Station on the Long Island Railroad, and the Great Neck School District make the village a premier residential community with a median home value of $466,800 dollars. This is largely due to the compactness of the community; at just .4 square miles, most of the city is within walking distance of the train station.
Great Neck station's express service on the Port Washington branch gets commuters to Pennsylvania Station in less than half an hour, allowing high-powered Manhattan executives to get to the city from suburbia and back without having to miss breakfast or dinner with their families. Although the average home value has increased significantly since 990, this can mostly be accounted…
1,334,544 people live in the county of Nassau, only slightly less than the population of Manhattan which totals approximately 1.5 million. The population of the county consists of 447,387 households comprised of 347,172 families. The population density is 4,655 per square mile. That of Great Neck is higher but the park system offsets the effects of this.
The racial makeup of Nassau county is 79.30% White, 10.09% African-American, 0.16% Native American, 4.73% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 3.57% from other races, and 2.12% from two or more races. Great Neck has 1/4th or less black people than the county it is in. 9.99% of the population is Hispanic; this is approximately the same as Great Neck. Of the 447,387 households in Long Island, 35.30% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.10% are married couples living together, 10.90% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, and 22.40% are non-families. The average household size is in the county is 2.93 and the average family size is 3.34. The median age is 38 years. For every 100 females there are 92.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 89.00 males. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Neck%2C_New_York www.census.gov http://www.city-data.com/city/Great-Neck-New-York.html
Paul's Thorn In The Flesh
Studying the Bible, it becomes apparent that Jesus handpicked a number of his disciples to continue to spread his message after Jesus ascended to heaven. In addition to the men who followed Jesus before his death and resurrection, the leaders of the movement known as "The Way" included the Apostle Paul. Saul of Tarsus had been one of Jesus' most vocal detractors during Jesus lifetime and was skeptical of Jesus' claims that he was the Messiah. However, when Saul encountered a resurrected Jesus on the Damascus oad, Saul's disbelief disappeared. He converted to what is now known as Christianity and began to travel and share Christ's teachings.
Paul was unique from the other apostles in another significant way; he was the only one who received a thorn in the flesh. What this thorn was is never explicitly stated in the Bible, though it seems to…
Barnett, Paul. The Second Epistle to the Corinthians:The New International Commentary
on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1997.
Dawson, Audrey. Healing, Weakness and Power: Perspectives on Healing in Writings of Mark, Luke and Paul. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2008.
Deane-Drummond, Celia. Brave New World?: Theology, Ethics, and the Human Genome.
Holocaust affected Israeli society and culture and how Jews memorialize/emember it today
There exists no doubt regarding the massacre of the Jews during the phase of World War II and its impact on the lives of the Jewish people and the people who were near and dear to them. A dissention is required against those who assert that the tragedy never occurred, irrespective of whether they hold an opposite perspective to the Holocaust theory or just outright vehemence against Jews. The Holocaust stands for the lowest extreme of Jewish impotence. The affected Jews of the Holocaust were distraught due to it, both by direct means and indirectly, and as a continuance their kith and kin, near and dear ones, were separated by space. The holocaust has been termed rightly as a "Tragic legacy." It has also been looked upon as an unauthentic episode.
Just due to the fact they…
Anderson, Frank. "Holocaust Atrocity and Suffering." Vol.47. Middle East Studies, Vol.30, 1991, 164-177
Ben-Amos, Avner; Bet-El; Ilana. "Holocaust Day and Memorial Day in Israeli Schools: Ceremonies, Education and History" Israel Studies, Vol. 4, 1999, 258-284
Davison, Todd. "The Holocaust experience." International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol, 24, 1994, 153-165
Najarian, James. "Experiences of Holocaust Survivors." Mid East Quarterly, Vol.56, 1993, 114-128
Creation Myth Analysis
Case Study of the History of iblical Creation Narratives
What Is Myth?
What Is History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 Myth?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 oth Myth and History?
An Analysis of the iblical Creation Narrative of Genesis 1:1-25 and Egypt's Possible Influence on the Historical Record
God created the world in just six days, and rested on the seventh, but scholars have not rested at all over the millennia in their investigation of its account in the historical record, particularly Genesis 1:1-25. Given its importance to humankind, it is little wonder that so much attention has been devoted to how the universe was created and what place humanity has in this immense cosmos. Indeed, the creation of the universe and the origin of mankind are the subject of numerous myths around the world, with many sharing some distinct commonalities. According to S.G.F.…
Aldred, Cyril. The Egyptians. London: Thames & Hudson, 1961.
Andrews, E.A.. What Is History? Five Lectures on the Modern Science of History. New York:
Macmillan Co., 1905.
Austin, Michael. "Saul and the Social Contract: Constructions of 1 Samuel 8-11 in Cowley's 'Davideis' and Defoe's 'Jure Divino,' Papers on Language & Literature 32, 4 (1996),
Gifts of the Jews
Thomas Cahill's book The Gifts of the Jews: How a Tribe of Desert Nomads Changed the ay Everyone Thinks and Feels demonstrates what happens when a great idea is ultimately brought down by a lack of critical and rhetorical rigor. This is not to suggest that The Gift of the Jews is not worth reading, or that its insights are not valuable, but rather that every surprising fact or remarkable contribution is lessened somewhat by a longing for what the book could have been, had Cahill simply been more precise in his language and extensive in his sourcing. As it is, The Gifts of the Jews is an entertaining, surprising examination of Jewish history and culture, albeit one whose evidence ultimately falls short its boldest claims. By examining the book's central thesis regarding the Jewish contribution to the conception of time and historicity alongside the more…
Cahill, Thomas. The Gifts of the Jews. New York: Anchor Books, 1999.
There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack of trust. On the other hand, if the conflict is seen in terms of a neoliberal point-of-view, Israel's military efficiency and powerfulness is a great threat for Israelis. To cut a long story short, the main goal on which all the main five parties agree is the achievement of peace between Israelis and Palestinians but it is only possible if they give up their most preferred results; Israel giving up its favorite result of unrestricted occupation of Palestinian land and Palestine holding back its preferred outcome of unconditional withdrawal. The conflict could be resolved if both parties could also find some common solutions for complex and convoluted detachable issues including "the degree of sovereignty of a Palestinian state, the distribution of…
Adler, E, ed. Israel in the World: Legitimacy and Exceptionalism. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon.: Routledge, 2013.
Aronoff, M.J. Cross-Currents in Israeli Culture and Politics. New Jersey: Transaction, Inc., 1984.
Asa-El, a. "Israel's Electoral Complex." Azure - Ideas for the Jewish Nation. http://www.azure.org.il/article.php?id=419 (accessed June 9, 2013).
Bard, M.G. & Schwartz, M. One Thousand and One Facts Everyone Should Know About Israel. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.