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Jim Crow Laws: The Segregation of the African-American in the United States of the 19th Century
Perhaps one of the most discussed events of the history of the United States is undoubtedly the situation of African-American individuals during the 19th and the first half of the 20th century. From the moment the first black slaves arrived to Virginia in the first part of the 17th century, racism and unjustified violence and hate towards African-American were observed; the southern states of the United States dominated over the slaves market and the African-American were left to be considered less than human and animals.
It wasn't until the late years of the 19th century that the United States were legislated by the Jim Crow laws. The Jim Crow Laws were a revolution in themselves all the while being a curse; it allowed the White Americans to exert their power over the black population…
Berkhalter, Denise L. "Behind the Boycott.," The Crisis (March-April 2006).
Brown, Nikki L.M. And Stentiford Barry. The Jim Crow Encyclopedia: Greenwood Milestones in African-American History. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2008.
Dailey, Jane, Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth and Simon Bryant. Jumpin' Jim Crow: southern politics from Civil War to civil rights. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.
Hasday, Judy L. The Civil Rights Act of 1964: An End to Racial Segregation. New York: Chelsea House, 2007.
The optical business and the element of glass here appear once again to depict the domain of whites as superior to what a black person is expected to know and learn.
In Part 3 of the essay, glass appears again in the form of a weapon in the hands of white people. The narrator is hit with an empty whisky bottle by drunk white men who at first appear helpful. Here the element of glass once again depicts injustice and cruelty, as well as the helplessness experienced by the victims. Wright once again submits to the humiliating cruelty of white people.
In Part 9 the narrator is once again employed by an optical company. This time however it is a much larger and more urbanized place of work. Having now learned all the "Jim Crow" lessons he needed to survive in an environment ruled by white people, Wright fits in…
Lauter, Paul. The Heath Anthology of American Literature, fourth edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Wolff, Karen. "From Plessy v. Ferguson to Brown v. Board of Education: The Supreme Court Rules on School Desegregation. http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/pubs/A5/wolff.html
Wright, Richard. "The Ethics of Living Jim Crow: An Autobiographical Sketch" in the Best American Essays of the Century edited by Joyce Carol Oates. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000.
E.. Duois arose as a prominent voice calling for more direct civil confrontation. It is impossible to judge who was right given the context in which the two sides were working, but an analysis of how history played out reveals both the wisdom and the shortcomings of Washington's approach to equality.
Given that it took half a century following Washington's death for the passage of the Civil Rights Act, especially when it is considered that the type of improvements Washington advocated and brought into existence were immediate in their impact, it is tempting to see his view as the entirely correct one. y receiving a better education, and through this better employment and business opportunities, the African-American community -- or those individuals who participated -- were able to begin carving out a better life for themselves, rather than waiting for equality to do so. This allowed them to build a…
Booker T. Washington's philosophy of slow improvement through education and economic opportunities met with a great deal of resistance in the antebellum period, especially around the turn of the century when W.E.B. DuBois arose as a prominent voice calling for more direct civil confrontation. It is impossible to judge who was right given the context in which the two sides were working, but an analysis of how history played out reveals both the wisdom and the shortcomings of Washington's approach to equality.
Given that it took half a century following Washington's death for the passage of the Civil Rights Act, especially when it is considered that the type of improvements Washington advocated and brought into existence were immediate in their impact, it is tempting to see his view as the entirely correct one. By receiving a better education, and through this better employment and business opportunities, the African-American community -- or those individuals who participated -- were able to begin carving out a better life for themselves, rather than waiting for equality to do so. This allowed them to build a power base of middle-class support that was eventually successful in achieving political equality.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964, however, was passed as the result of the type of protest and confrontation advocated by DuBois and other of Washington' opponents. It is quite possible that equality would have been achieved sooner with a more consistently vocal demand for it. Still, in the context of the nineteenth century, Washington's approach had more immediate and measurable benefits.
One of the major components of these Jim Crow laws was disenfranchisement which was "largely the work of rural and urban white elites who sought to reassure" whites in the south that white supremacy was the law of the land. As a result, lynching and other forms of violence against blacks were endorsed, encouraged and rationalized in the minds of most southern whites (Rabinowitz, 168). A prominent spokesman against African-American rights and equality was enjamin Tillman, governor of South Carolina from 1890 to 1894. Tillman greatly aided in the disenfranchisement of blacks in the south by requiring Jim Crow laws and in 1990, he proudly announced "We have done out best to prevent blacks from voting and how we could eliminate every one of them... We stuffed ballot boxes and shot them. We are not ashamed of it" (Rabinowitz, 172).
y 1912, a number of black activists, writers and poets…
Blue, Jennifer. "An Analysis of Jim Crow Laws and Their Effect on Race Relations." Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. Internet. Retrieved at http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum / units/1996/1/96.01.01.x.html.
Rabinowitz, Howard N. The First New South, 1865-1920. Arlington Heights, IL: Harlan Davidson, 1992.
Jim Crow laws were a set of "black codes" designed to perpetuate a system of racism and near-slavery for African-Americans, predominantly in the South. The Jim Crow laws existed from the end of the Civil War until the Civil ights movement -- nearly a century. Jim Crow laws represent a clear case of how racism becomes institutionalized. In the case of the Jim Crow laws, racism was embedded into legal and social codes. Jim Crow made it so that slavery never really ended; African-Americans were excluded from participating in economic, social, and political life in America. The Jim Crow laws included those related to segregation of schools and segregation of public spaces. Black people had to drink from different water fountains, eat in different restaurants, and sit in a different part of the bus. Moreover, Jim Crow laws led to the labeling and stigmatizing of African-Americans…
Brown vs. The Board of Education. Retrieved online: http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0347_0483_ZS.html
"Civil Rights Movement." Retrieved online: http://www.history.com/topics/civil-rights-movement
"What Was Jim Crow?" Retrieved online: http://www.ferris.edu/jimcrow/what.htm
Wen e became president troug te assassination of President Kennedy, e not only accepted te civil rigts agenda of President Kennedy but e was successful in passing pivotal legislation. Troug srewd deal making and lobbying of senators e was able to get a bill passed wic proibited segregation in places involved in interstate commerce.
Te following year wen attempts were made to restore voting rigts to blacks in te sout President Jonson again played a critical role. Te televising of te beating of black demonstrators in Selma Alabama created te correct climate for te president to advance te Voting Rigts Act of 1965. Te Voting Rigts Act of 1965 suspended literacy tests in most of te Sout and allowed "federal registrars and marsals to enroll African-American voters." 20 Te combined effect of tese two acts was to render muc of te Jim Crow state laws illegal. Wile some touted tis…
(accessed October 31, 2010)
21. Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908-1973).
Jim Crow referred to a set of racist laws and policies, including grandfather clauses, poll taxes, and voting literacy tests. Jim Crow laws were passed at the state level. For example, the grandfather clauses allowed illiterate whites to avoid the voting literacy tests as well as the poll taxes (“Grandfather Clause”). In addition to Jim Crow, racist whites in the south used extra-legal tactics to terrorize African-Americans into social, economic, and political submission. The KKK and other racist organizations were the most prominent of all extra-legal methods of enforcing racism. Without legal protections, African Americans helped themselves through various self-help methods including migration.
Although accommodation was often regarded as a sensible tactic to protect against injustice and racism, radical protest and nationalism were also meaningful and effective responses to empower the black community from within. Often, radical protest and nationalism proved to be the only means to ensure self-empowerment. Formal…
Most Americans would be horrified to think that anyone would laugh and joke about another person's agony and suffering as Jed did in the story. A politician who would make the kind of remarks that Jed made could never get elected to office today: "Sorry, but ain't no Christians around tonight. Ain't no Jew-boys neither. We're just one hundred percent Americans" (p. 383). He would be roundly condemned by the entire television-watching nation. The brutality of the story -- the idea of burning a human being alive (and calling it a "party") would be totally obnoxious and impossible to pardon, let alone encourage. The white people in the story have no conscience and are socialized into a system that denies black people their basic humanity. It just couldn't happen today. In general, white people today recognize African-Americans as human beings, not all alike, but each different from the other with…
Jim Crow Laws
Social pathology has been described in many aspects according to the discipline that defines it and one of the definitions that fit a wide range application of this term is definition of social pathology as a social aspect like old age, poverty, crime that tends to heighten the social disorganization and prevents an individual from making personal adjustments to life or actions that they take (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2014). This further makes the next definition that the study of such social behaviors or social problems that views the individual as a diseased condition to be referred to as social pathology. This paper will hence concentrate on the look at Jim Crow and the laws that this system introduced to the prison system after the Civil War and how these laws portrayed social pathology in their implementation, the conditions that were enforced and the consequences of these prison laws.…
Ferris State University, (2012). What was Jim Crow. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from http://www.ferris.edu/jimcrow/what.htm
Merriam-Webster Dictionary, (2014). Social Pathology: Full Definition of Social Pathology. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/social%20pathology
Plessy challenged his arrest, maintaining that the railroads use of racially segregated cars violated the Fourteenth Amendment. he Supreme Court disagreed with Plessy's assertion. he Court determined that racial segregation did not imply that Blacks were inferior. Furthermore, the Court found that the facilities provided to Blacks and whites were of equal quality. Because of this, the Court determined that separate but equal facilities did not violate the letter or the spirit of the Fourteenth Amendment. he decision in Plessy helped legalize segregation in the United States. In fact, even in the face of overwhelming evidence to the contrary, the Court repeatedly found that the facilities provided for whites and Blacks were equal.
he decision in Plessy was the definitive law on segregation until Brown v. Board of Education. In Brown, the plaintiff alleged that being forced to attend a Black-only school was a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. Because…
The decision in Plessy was the definitive law on segregation until Brown v. Board of Education. In Brown, the plaintiff alleged that being forced to attend a Black-only school was a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. Because the Supreme Court had consistently approved racially segregated facilities, the legal team in Brown provided substantial evidence, not only that the facilities provided to Blacks were inferior, but also that these inferior facilities had detrimental effects on Black students. The resulting decision, now referred to as Brown I, was that separate educational facilities were inherently unequal. Unfortunately, the decision in Brown I lost much of its bite the following year, when the Court, in a decision now referred to as Brown II, directed states to comply with the decision in Brown I with all deliberate speed. The reality was that compliance with Brown took many years.
While actual compliance with Brown was not immediate, Brown was significant in that it marked the end of legal segregation. Although Brown was only aimed at overturning school segregation, Brown's effect was much broader. Having decided that school segregation violated the Fourteenth Amendment, the Court could no longer rubber-stamp other segregationist laws. Brown was followed by the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which gave teeth to the decision and opened up the door to federal enforcement of state civil rights violations.
Looking at the history of race legislation in the United States, one sees a history of laws that restrict the rights of Blacks, legislation aimed at defeating discrimination, and then retaliatory laws. Currently, the United States is in a period of expanded rights for minorities. However, there have been several incidents of people using laws aimed at correcting the evils of slavery and racial discrimination to promote whites above minorities by claiming reverse discrimination. Even though there is more racial equality in the United States than there has been at any other time in its history, it would be naive to assume that racial equality will continue to grow without another wave of serious opposition.
Judy Helfand -- Constructing Whiteness
1.) What's your gut reaction?
I was quite surprised with the revelation that Whiteness was not always so clearly defined. I take it for granted that European meant White, if for no other reason than that Europeans look clearly different from Africans or Asians. Helfan's study of Irish experience, in the context of labor relations, is valuable because it reveals deeper socioeconomic dimensions of racial identity.
2.) How were the Irish were first viewed when they arrived to the U.S. In terms of race and what types of jobs did they have?
The Irish were considered, as were most new European immigrants, not quite white because they were of the same socioeconomic situation as black freedmen and Chinese laborers, often taking the same jobs. The Irish arriving in the early 1800s entered the workforce as laborers, working on the canals and railroad and taking on…
Vann Woodward and Jim Crow
Evaluating the impact of econstruction social policy on blacks is more controversial due to the issue of segregation. Until the publication of C. Vann Woodward Strange Career of Jim Crow in 1955, the traditional view was that after the gains of econstruction, Conservative Democrats clamped down on the blacks by instituting an extensive system of segregation and disfranchisement (Woodward, 1974). Woodward, however, argued that there was a period of fluidity in race relations between the end of econstruction and the 1890s. Woodward concentrated on de jure segregation rather than de facto segregation, in part because he was influenced by the Brown v. Board of Education decision (1954) and the growing agitation over desegregation. In still another example of current affairs influencing a historian's viewpoint, Woodward wanted to show that segregation was not an irrevocable folkway of Southern life, but actually a rather recent innovation. Despite…
Ayers, Edward L.. The Promise of the New South: Life After Reconstruction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Bell, Derrick A., and Robert J. Haws. The Age of segregation: race relations in the South, 1890-1945: essays. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1978.
Boles, John B., Evelyn Thomas Nolen, and Sanford W. Higginbotham. Interpreting Southern History: Historiographical Essays in Honor of Sanford W. Higginbotham. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1987.
Boles, John B., and Bethany L. Johnson. Origins of the new South Fifty Years Later: The Continuing Influence of a Historical Classic. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2003.
New Jim Crow
Michelle Alexander, the author of The New Jim Crow, is a professor at Union Theological Seminary, a New York Times columnist, and civil rights lawyer and advocate. I believe that the motive she had in writing her book was to explain how Jim Crow still exists in America even though people sometimes choose not to see it. It exists today in hidden and not-so-hidden ways, as it is part of the power structure that still dominates America. The prison industrial complex is just one example of how Jim Crow still exists, as Alexander shows. Her aim is to draw attention to the mass incarceration system that is based on racial prejudice and unite people to oppose it: “If we want to do more than just end mass incarceration—if we want to put an end to the history of racial caste in America—we must lay down our racial…
New Jim Crow
Michelle Alexander's The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness offers a scathing and disturbing portrait of institutionalized racism in the United States. In an article written for the Huffington Post that supplements her book, Alexander states plainly: "There are more African-Americans under correctional control today -- in prison or jail, on probation or parole -- than were enslaved in 1850, a decade before the Civil ar began." Beginning with this central fact, Alexander discusses the use of incarceration as a new form of slavery and segregation. African-Americans have been systematically excluded from access to social and cultural capital, excluded from access to economic and political empowerment. The election of Barak Obama has not changed much for the majority of African-Americans who contend with institutionalized racism and systematic poverty and disenfranchisement. "As of 2004, more African-American men were disenfranchised (due to felon disenfranchisement laws)…
Alexander, Michelle. "The New Jim Crow." Huffington Post. Feb 8, 2010. Retrieved online: http://thenewpress.com/index.php?option=com_title&task=view_title&metaproductid=1617
Alexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow. The New Press, 2010.
The Justice Policy Institute. "Race and Imprisonment in Texas." Retrieved online: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=texas%20incarceration%20rates%20black&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CCUQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.justicepolicy.org%2Fimages%2Fupload%2F05-02_REP_TXRaceImprisonment_AC-RD.pdf&ei=0gHZTvq0Aabh0QG7_tzlDg&usg=AFQjCNEC-QjktNxEsvOrDq4CSAc7V6F7xA&cad=rja
"The New Jim Crow." The New Press. Retrieved online:
New Jim Crow
When considering the introduction and chapter three of Michelle Alexander's book The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, arguably the most important conceptional foundation to remember is the notion of social oppression, and particularly the fact that social oppression can occur with or without the knowledge or intention of the dominant social group. As Hardiman, Jackson, and Griffin note in their contribution to eadings for Diversity and Social Justice, social oppression that occurs on the institutional level is oftentimes the product of oppressive beliefs and behaviors on the level of the individual and society, making it extremely difficult to pinpoint, and thus challenge, the roots of institutional oppression. Chapter three of Alexander's book highlights this difficulty in its discussion of the Supreme Court's inability or unwillingness to confront qualitatively obvious discrimination in favor of the near-impossible task of identifying specific, individual cases of…
Alexander, M. (2010). The new jim crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York, NY: The New Press.
Hardiman, R., Jackson, B., & Griffin, P. (2010 ). "conceptual foundations." In M. Adams (Ed.),
Readings for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Michelle Alexander does not assume full credit for the striking title of her book The New Jim Crow, recounting having seen the slogan on a “bright orange poster” in 1998.[footnoteRef:1] Former ACLU attorney turned law professor, Michelle Alexander had always been aware of the need for justice system reform. Alexander worked headed the ACLU Racial Justice Project but it took that bright orange poster to help her draw the connection between drug policy and race-related social justice issues in America. Her initial research revealed that up to three quarters of the prison terms being served for drug offences are Black or Latino, even though the “majority of the country’s illegal drug users and dealers are white.”[footnoteRef:2] Alexander herself is bi-racial, with a white mother and a black father. She experienced discrimination from an early age, forcing her parents out of their community. Her childhood experiences spurned racial awareness, and prompted…
Laws and Wages
Legislation and Wages: An Intricate Dance, but Who's Leading?
Government and employment have always had and will necessarily continue to have a complex and mutually influential relationship, not least in the area of wages. What people are able to earn has always been a pressing issue in any capitalist system, and can influence the formation and the actions of government in numerous direct and indirect ways. In the other direction, legislation enacted by the government can both directly impact employees' wages and have indirect impacts through the changing of burdens that employers must contend with in compensating employees and operating their businesses. This paper briefly examines the relationship between government and wages, and specifically between legislation and employers' abilities to pay wages and utilize wages as an effective workforce motivator and stabilizer. This examination shows that good intentions can sometimes have questionable results, even when the ethical…
Bernstein, D. (1993). The Davis-Bacon Act: Let's Bring Jim Crow to an End. Accessed 12 December 2012. http://www.cato.org/pubs/briefs/bp-017.html
Cornell. (2007). Lilly M. Ledbetter, Petitioner v The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company. Accessed 12 December 2012. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/05-1074.ZD.html
US DOL. (2012). The McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act (SCA). Accessed 12 December 2012. http://www.dol.gov/compliance/laws/comp-sca.htm#.UMrWu3Pjmjc
US DOL. (2012a). Compliance Assistance - Wages and the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). Accessed 12 December 2012. http://www.dol.gov/whd/flsa/#.UMrWpXPjmjc
Jim Crow Florida:
Views expressed by James Weldon Johnson and Zora Neale Hurston
This paper will examine the lives and beliefs of James Weldon Johnson and Zora Neale Hurston as well as exploring each of these individuals interpretation of class and gender in relation to race. This paper will answer the question as to whether their personal reflections of Jim Crow Florida were similar or different and how so.
Zora Neale Hurston, novelist, dramatist, folklorist, and anthropologist was born in, Eatonville Florida, on the day of the 7th, she "heard tell," of January in 1903. It is fairly certain that she was the fifth child born in a total of eight to her parents. That which Hurston, "heard tell" were her brothers different versions of her date of birth appearing to her that none of the brothers actually remembered exactly when she was actually born.
Her father, after her mother…
Glassman, S. & Seidel, K. eds. "Zora in Florida" Orlando: U. Of Central
Florida P, 1991 [Online] Website avaliable at http://www.literaryhistory.com/20thC/Hurston.htm
Learning Adventures in Citizenship " Zora Neale Hurston" [Online] available at http://www.pbs.org/wnet/newyork/laic/episode5/topic2/e5_t2_s4-zn.html
Learning Adventures in Citizenship "James Weldon Johnson" [Online] available at http://www.pbs.org/wnet/newyork/laic/episode5/topic2/e5_t2_s5-jw.html
Conservatives, on the other hand, have many passions and one of them is a color-blind government. Most of them believe that all policies of discrimination should be discarded. They view these policies as unwise, immoral and unconstitutional. Three conservative organizations submitted a collective brief to the Supreme Court on the Michigan cases. These organizations were the Center for Equal Opportunity, the Independent Women's Forum and the American Civil Rights Institute. Their brief succinctly stated that racial preferences were incompatible with the 14th Amendment. The 14th Amendment, according to them, clearly states that no person within its jurisdiction would be denied the equal protection of the laws. The silence of the justices to this statement was perceived to indicate insufficient interest in the original understanding than in their own case law. In 1865 and 1866, radical Republicans proposed a constitutional amendment that no State could set distinctions in civil rights and…
Katznelson, I. (2006). When is affirmative action fair? 19 pages. Social Research: New School for Social Research
National Review (1995). Courting trouble. 2 pages. National Review, Inc.: Gale Group
O'Sullivan, J. (2003). Affirmative action forever? 5 pages. National Review: National Review, Inc.
Paul, P. (2003). The legacy of affirmative action. 2 pages. Media Central, Inc.: PRIMEDIA Company
would attack the institutional laws that maintained black Americans as vastly unequal from their white counterparts. In his famous missive from legal captivity for protesting on behalf of equal rights, King articulated how it was that the Civil Rights movement could at once work to utilize laws to change institutional segregation and simultaneously resist Jim Crow laws still in effect.
Meditating on the subject, King remarked, "One may well ask: 'How can you advocate breaking some laws and obeying others?' The answer lies in the fact that there are two types of laws: just and unjust. I would be the first to advocate obeying just laws. One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. I would agree with St. Augustine that 'an unjust law is no law at all.'" (King, p. 1) Here, King…
Douglas, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas. New York, New York: Dover
Publications, Inc., 1845.
King, Jr., Martin Luther King. Letter From a Birmingham Jail. African Studies Center-University of Pennsylvania., 1963.
S. further supporting exclusion of targeted populations.
During this time frame many states passed laws that prohibited certain nationalities from owning land in that state or any other real property as well.
The 14th amendment which provides equal protection under the law was used to begin chipping away at the exclusionary policies, not only for Asians but for African-Americans.
The relationship between Chinese exclusion and the revolutionary improvements for African-Americans during econstruction often goes ignored, even though pre-Civil War state laws regulating the migration of slaves served as precursors to the Chinese exclusion laws. It was no coincidence that greater legal freedoms for African-Americans were tied to Chinese misfortunes. As one historian observed, "with Negro slavery a dead issue after 1865, greater attention was focused on immigration from China." Political forces quickly reacted to fill the racial void in the political arena (Johnson, 1998 pp 1112-1148)."
As racial exclusionary laws…
Chinese Exclusion Act (Accessed 5-20-07)
Davis, Ronald Ph.D. Creating Jim Crow: In-Depth Essay (Accessed 5-20-07)
Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, a Florida Folklife riter
It is important when pursuing the study of history, not to get caught in the habit of reciting historical dates and facts. If this is the true study of history, then it involves nothing more than memorization. For one to truly understand why the people of a certain time period behaved as they did, it is necessary to get into their personal daily lives. It is important to know the passions of their daily struggles. It is rare that we get such as glimpse into these other lives, so long ago. This is the type of valuable information that we get when reading the works of Marjorie Rawlings.
Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings is one of the most famous Florida writers of all time. She loved the folklife in Alachua County, Florida and has been compared to Henry David Thoreau in her style. She gives…
Kennedy, Stetson. A Florida Treasure Hunt. Florida Folklife Home Date unknown. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/flwpahtml/ffpres01.html Accessed March 2002.
Parker, Idella. Idella: Marjorie Rawlings' Perfect Maid, (UPF, 1992) ISBN 0-8130-1706-8
Pickard, Ben. Guide to Alachua County History, Places and Names. Alachua County Historic
Trust. Matheson Museum, Inc. 2001
The National League was formed in 1876 and enabled spectators to observe touring athletes play the game. The first World Series was played between the National League and its rival, the American League, in 1903. The popularity of baseball allowed for the financing of large baseball fields such as Fenway Park, Shibe Park, and Wrigley Field (Sports and Leisure, 2011). This era also saw the rise of collegiate football, boxing, and basketball.
The rise of entertainment was meteoric in the Gilded Age. With Americans working less and having a higher expendable income, they were able to enjoy entertainments such as expositions, amusement parks, vaudeville shows, sports, and music. To this day, the influence of these innovations and pastimes can still be seen in modern entertainment outlets and continue to amuse audiences everywhere.
Jim Crow Laws:
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that were enacted between 1876 and 1965…
About Vaudeville. (1999). Retrieved from American Masters:
An Introduction to American Cultural Expression during the Gilded Age and Progressive
Era (n.d.) Retrieved from: http://bss.sfsu.edu/cherny/cultlexp/expo.htm
Uncle Tom characters were common in both white and black productions of the time, yet no director before Micheaux had so much as dared to shine a light on the psychology that ravages such characters. By essentially bowing to the two white men, Micheaux implied that Old Ned was less than a man; an individual whittled down to nothing more than yes-man and wholly deprived of self-worth. At this point in the history of black films, with some of the most flagrant sufferings of blacks exposed to the American public, the only logical path forward that African-Americans could take was to begin making cogent demands to improve their collective social situation.
Slowly, black characters in film took on greater and more significant roles in film. Sidney Poitier was one of the most powerful film stars of the mid twentieth century. In roles like the 1950 film by…
Finlayson, R. (2003). We Shall Overcome: The History of the American Civil Rights
Movement. Lerner Publications Company, Minneapolis, MN.
King, Jr., M. And Jackson, J. (1963). Why We Can't Wait. Signet Classic, New York,
Corruption Within the Criminal Justice System
Although the American system of criminal justice and jurisprudence is widely regarded as a model for democratic nations across the globe to emulate, with its guarantee of due process and protection from illegal search and seizure standing as pillars of liberty, glaring defects still exist which warrant further improvement. From the disturbing trend of disproportionate arrest and sentencing among minorities, to the inability of courts to adequately enforce prohibitions levied against sexual predators, America's criminal justice system is imperfect at best, and inherently broken at worst. Widely publicized court cases such as the recent trial of George Zimmerman, a Florida vigilante charged with, and late acquitted of, murdering a young African-American man named Trayvon Martin, only serve to expose the fundamental flaws which are still far too prevalent within corrupt law enforcement agencies, an aging and outmoded judiciary, legions of overburdened prosecutors and defense…
Associated Press. (2013, August 29). Montana judge's remarks about raped teen prompt outrage. BBC News, Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-23882735
Feinstein, R. (2013). Juvenile Justice and the Incarcerated Male Minority: A Qualitative
Examination of Disproportionate Minority Contact.
Spitzer, E. (1999). The New York City Police Department's Stop & Frisk Practices: A Report to the People of the State of New York from the Office of the Attorney General. DIANE Publishing.
McLaurin states in the beginning of his book, "The life of Celia demonstrates how slavery placed individuals, black and white, in specific situations that forced them to make and to act upon personal decisions of a fundamentally moral nature" (McLaurin 1991, xi). The American policy at the time supported slavery, and even allowed slave and non-slave states to join the Union in equal numbers. Most Northerners did not support slavery, but most Southerners did, and the American government managed to stay neutral by allowing states to join the Union in equal numbers, until the Civil War broke out. Of course, the Civil War freed the slaves, but they were certainly not free and equal in the South. The American policy, even after the war, did not allow the same freedoms, and even if it did, the Southerners created their own policies with the Jim Crow laws that affected blacks.
McLauren, M.A. Celia, a Slave: A True Story of Violence and Retribution in Antebellum Missouri. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press, 1991.
What I liked about this was the author's attempt to get at the spirit of Jim Crow by examining the work of T. D. Rice, known as Daddy Rice, the most famous "blackface" actor of the 19th century. It prompted questions in my mind, like, "Why did Rice think it would be a good idea to perform this way?" and, "What did his famous performances say about the audiences who watched them and their obvious demand for such entertainment?" Indeed, what I found most interesting was that Rice conceived Jim Crow in a way that was based on "cross-racialization" which was essentially the opposite of the direction in which the Jim Crow idea was eventually taken by sections of American society. In Rice's early conception, Jim Crow was based on an integrative concept of whites and blacks. It was not based so much on hatred for black people…
History of Multi-Cultural America
Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America - Ronald Takaki
What was the result of the 1903 Supreme Court Lone Wolf Decision and the 190 Burke Act? The Lone Wolf Decision came about partly in response to a law passed by Congress in 1902. That law "accelerated the transfer of lands from Indians to whites," according to Takaki (237). The provisions of the 1902 law required that those who inherited the land must sell all allotted lands at public auctions - once the original owners had passed away. Basically, this meant that unless an Indian had the money to purchase their own family lands, they would lose what had been their property. The President (Theodore Roosevelt) was informed that this new law would ensure that all Indian lands will pass into the hands of settlers within a short few years.
But, notwithstanding this injustice, when Chief…
6) Why do you think the author named this chapter, "Through a Glass Darkly"? One can see that the tumultuous times following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor were "dark" times in more ways than one. First, the fear and loathing generated against Japan by the sneak attack on Hawaii was nearly universal and immediate among the American population. And secondly, it is a dark time indeed in American history when pure paranoia is the motivation for "interring" (e.g., placing in concentration camps) tens of thousands of Japanese-Americans. Even so-called responsible media members such as the LA Times (380) behaved with racist spite; "A viper is nonetheless a viper wherever the egg is hatched," the Times editorialized. "So a Japanese-American, born of Japanese parents - grows up to be a Japanese, not an American."
7) To what was the NAACP responding when they said, "A Jim Crow army cannot fight for a free world"? Discuss the effect of the 1941 Executive Order 8802 on the U.S. labor force. The NAACP statement was responding to the fact that a) many blacks felt that they didn't really enjoy all the fruits of democracy in American anyway, so why would they shed their blood to "save democracy" from the Nazis; and b) while fighting for the U.S. In WWII blacks were in general assigned to segregated units because, according to the War Department, "social relationships" between blacks and whites had "been established...through custom and habit." Racial segregation is very much akin to Jim Crow laws from the South's history. When FDR instituted Executive Order #8802, it in effect allowed over a million blacks to take jobs in the defense industry during the war. But more than that, it set in motion the movement of many blacks from the South to better paying jobs in the industrial north.
8) List three (3) things you learned from your cross-cultural presentation and one (1) you learned from someone else's cross-cultural presentation.
Du Bois is an education in itself; the man is a giant of letters and his editorial positions were actually prophetic because by the Civil Rights Movement of the late 1950s and 1960s many Blacks were demanding the things that Du Bois demanded years before. Another purpose was to show that there were several approaches taken by Black leaders in terms of the advancement of African-Americans in a segregated, Jim Crow-toned society.
After reading the assignment I did not change my perspective on the differences in approaches by ashington and Du Bois because I already was aware that the two were quite far apart in philosophies. But by once again studying the juxtaposition between the two, my understanding of the problems of Black folks came into greater focus for me.
THREE: I did not encounter any difficulties in the writing or editing of the assignment, but I was not sure…
Biography. 2012. "Booker T. Washington Biography." Retrieved August 20, 2012, from http://www.biography.com .
Nordquist, Richard. 2012. "Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others, by W.E.B. Du Bois."
About.com. Retrieved August 20, 2012, from http://grammar.about.com .
Washington, Booker T. 1901. Up From Slavery.
How the Criminal Justice System is Dysfunctional according to Paul Butler's Let's Get Free
The American criminal justice system has had a long history of prejudice. From the Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision that institutionalized the false concept of "separate but equal" to the Jim Crow laws that followed to the methods of "control" enacted by police in urban communities, criminal justice in the U.S. has seen lots of crime but little justice. Part of the reason for the inherent dysfunction in the way minorities have always been treated in America is that the country was founded on prejudiced WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) principles: the principle of "manifest destiny" was based on the supposedly "divine right" that WASPs had to "control" the New World and eradicate the "lesser" races (such as the Native Americans and the African-Americans). These prejudiced principles were absorbed into the criminal justice system through lawmakers…
Butler, P. (2010). Let's Get Free: A Hip-Hop Theory of Justice. UK:
Mass Incarceration in Arizona: Trends and History
Mass incarceration is an example of one of the more profound injustices of our time. Arizona is one of the states in America that currently struggles with mass incarceration, as its penal system has spiraled out of control, becoming a factor of injustice, rather than a necessary and notable part of the justice system. This paper will look at how the penal system has changed—in Arizona and in America as a whole, and discuss how Arizona has also gotten on the corrupt bandwagon of for-profit prisons, something that does a tremendous disservice to all the citizens of the nation. Finally, this paper will examine the race relations in Arizona from a more historical perspective, ultimately demonstrating that mass incarceration impacts black and brown men more than white men, and is ultimately a form of segregation revived. This paper seeks to prove the undeniable…
Relationships between Race and Justice in Immigration
Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE) has seen a 43% rise in immigrations arrests since the Trump Administration took office in 2017 (Wamsley, 2017). This should not be surprising as it comes on the heels of a presidential campaign in which Trump promoted an anti-immigration agenda and identified illegal Latino immigrants as virtually enemy #1 of the American people. Using concepts of race, violence, and justice, Trump fostered an “America First” platform that sought to place the problems of the American community, economy, ethics and justice on the backs of Latinos in a way that made them seem remarkably like a scapegoat for the presidential hopeful. With Trump’s election, the campaign pledges became promises that would be kept. As the Associated Press reported in February 2018, “people arrested by deportation officers increasingly have no criminal backgrounds, according to figures released Friday, reflecting the Trump…
Criminal Justice System Has Had on Minorities
History and the Effects of the Criminal Justice System on Minorities -- 1940 to 1960
The 20-year period from 1940 to 1960 represented a crossroads for the United States in terms of engagement in an enormously costly world war as well as the social upheavals that resulted from the manner in which minorities in general, and Asian and African-Americans in particular, had been historically treated. While blacks had historically been the target of much of the racist views and violence in the U.S. through the mid-20th century, Asian-Americans were never far behind in the social mix and the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 just made matters worse for all concerned. Indeed, tens of thousands of Japanese-Americans were interred during the war "for their own protection," but many observers suggested this fundamental abrogation of these citizen's constitutional rights was tantamount to illegal imprisonment…
Bailey, F.Y., & Green, A.P. (1999). Law never here: A social history of African-American responses to issues of crime and justice. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Bouza, A.V. (1990). The police mystique: An insider's look at cops, crime, and the criminal justice system. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Collins, D.E. (1985). Native American aliens: Disloyalty and the renunciation of citizenship by Japanese-Americans during World War II. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
The historical context of this document (a verbatim transcript of governor Ross Barnett) perfectly reflects the resistance that southern states put up in order to avoid integrating schools -- in this case, the University of Mississippi -- because Jim Crow laws were still in effect in southern states like Mississippi and Alabama. The earlier context to this document is the iconic Supreme Court case, Brown vs. Board of Education, which officially meant that all schools should be integrated and that segregation in education ("separate but equal") was unconstitutional. However, southern states ignored this Supreme Court decision and kept schools segregated because racism against African-Americans was part of the culture and the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement did not change the minds of bigoted politicians. Black folks were considered to be less worthy than white folks in many places and in many instances.
Content -- Document
Constraints of Blacks
Discussion the geographic spaces and constraints of Blacks in the United States between 1865 and 2010.
Throughout the reconstruction period several acts were passed that were intended to integrate African-Americans or freedmen as they were referred to in the period in society. Despite the initial goals of the legislative acts, African-Americans faced a significant antagonism from many whites in the south who did not agree to the new freedoms for the former slaves. The first and arguably most significant step move towards a more equal and free society was the 13th amendment to the Constitution.
This amendment was passed in 1865 and was shortly after was followed by the passage of the civil rights act in 1866 and the 14th amendment. The underlying purpose of 13th and 14th amendments as well as the civil rights act of 1866 was to officially designate African-Americans citizens by…
Late Twentieth Century through the Present
Martin Luther King was a Baptist minister who became an icon for civil rights across America. He raised public awareness of the civil rights cause but this had a negative effect on his personal life as during the boycott King's house was bombed and during the campaign he was arrested. The importance of Martin Luther King's role in achieving civil rights could not be understated. However, it is less well-known that E.D Nixon, a African-American civil rights leader and union organizer who played a crucial role in organizing the famous Montgomery Bus Boycott and furthering the movement. However, it is MLK's eloquence and conviction of speech that served as a rallying point for millions of sympathetic individuals to protest racial injustices.
While the present circumstances for an African-American in the United States is still fraught with hardships, there is still much progress that is continually being made. In 2008 the United States elected their first African-American president; a feat that many predicted would not be possible until well into the future. However, at the same time there are a plethora of challenges that still face the African-American communities. In many of the urban centers, such as Chicago for example, there is still a significant amount of segregation. Furthermore, African-Americans generally have less employment opportunities, lower pay rates, higher incarnation rates, and fewer opportunities for education than their racial counterparts. Therefore, even though an enormous amount of progress has been made, there is still much more work to be done.
Under these circumstances, an ethical dilemma is born. Should society control its development or leave it to chance? And in the case that it should control it, which categories should it help?
If the person in the above mentioned example is helped, we could assume that in a certain way, the person who was not helped because he or she already disposed of the necessary means, the latter one might be considered as having been subject to reverse discrimination. Yet we ought to look at the picture from an utilitarian point-of-view. Under these circumstances we might state that society as an overall system has more benefits from helping the categories which are in bigger need of help (for example the ones mentioned in the principles of affirmative action).
ut what are the exact principles of affirmative action: let us take a look at them and analyze them. Title VI, section…
"Access, equity and diversity, American association for affirmative action," Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://www.affirmativeaction.org/resources.html
Anderson, TH. The pursuit of fairness: a history of affirmative action, Oxford University Press, 2005
"Affirmative action" in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/affirmative-action/
"Affirmative action- pros and cons, the origins of, legal treatment of, political and social debates, the future" in Encyclopedia. Jrank. Org., Retrieved October 25, 2010 from http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/5916/Affirmative-Action.html
I had no idea that black people were brutally assaulted for just sitting on the wrong bench or that the police were part of the problem at that time.
The new appreciation for the factual understanding of what the American civil rights era was about scared me in some ways because it reminded me that human beings have a certain natural capacity for illogical group loyalties and prejudices. It is something that I also recognize in my country of origin and also between different Asian races of people as well. The course also changed my view of the way that white and black Americans may view one another. Even in today's era of civil rights, racial equality, and appreciation for cultural diversity, there must be some resentment remaining in many black Americans, especially those who remember life in the U.S. before the 1960s.
To be perfectly honest, I think…
Discriminatory practices were encouraged, such as the Jim Crow laws that supported segregation. However, the push for segregation led to increased inequities borne by the Negroes. Many southern states encouraged segregation, as well. The original Civil ights Act of 1957 had a limited scope, which impinged upon the rights of others.
Pros & Cons
During this time, many discriminatory cases were in the spotlight, and this was no exception. The case heightened awareness, as well as the flaws of the law. Civil ights bills were evolving, as this case ruling was a milestone in history. Conversely, many Negroes lost their lives to the cause, thus paving the way for a more equitable justice system.
Although not as prevalent today, prejudice and discrimination is still experienced by many. Civil rights are no longer reserved for race, but it has extended to other protected classes, such as gender, religion,…
A&E Television Networks (2011). History of Alabama. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/alabama
Dysart Schools. (n.d.). Theories of Prejudice and Discrimination. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/#q=prejudice+theories&hl=en&prmd=imvns&ei=8SrQTp2tIZP_sQLpxt3IDg&start=0&sa=N&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.,cf.osb&fp=5f6e1c9d40277296&biw=1078&bih=570
Findlaw. (2011). Supreme Court: United States v. Alabama, 362 U.S. 602 (1960)
362 U.S. 602. Retrieved from http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=362&invol=602
Justice: The History of 'rown v. oard of Education' and lack America's Struggle for Equality," by Richard Kluger. Specifically, it will discuss what three issues/events/or people contained in the book were the most significant. Many events led up to the monumental Supreme Court decision that led to desegregation of America's schools. ringing the issue to the courts involved brave men and women, a hope and need to alter history, and the people's need for racial equality.
Simple Justice" recounts the story of the landmark rown v. The oard of Education case in heard in Topeka Kansas, which, simply stated, created non-segregated education in America. The author wrote the book so the nation could take a look at how to "exploit its inner resources," and work through the continuing and continual problem of racial segregation. "Material values in themselves, in short, can neither explain nor sustain the American achievement:…
Kluger, Richard. Simple Justice: The History of 'Brown v. Board of Education' and Black America's Struggle for Equality. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1976.
hen Johnson defeated Jeffries, however, it unleashed white violence against blacks nationwide. "In ashington, D.C., the ashington Bee reported, 'hite ruffians showed their teeth and attacked almost every colored person they saw upon the public streets'."
Similar events occurred in New York City and tiny towns in the deep South. By the time Jackie Robinson left the Negro Leagues, the backlash was not nearly so pronounced. Arguably, the Negro Leagues kept violence at bay, while producing athletes of exceptional quality without risking Jim Crow law violence.
That, of course, is shining a favorable light on a tradition that is not worthy of accolade, and that arguably prevented numerous black ballplayers from receiving a fraction of their worth.
Today, few people understand the sociological factors that prevented black and white baseball players from competition with each other, as opponents or as members of racially mixed teams. They therefore know even…
Ayers, Edward L. 1993. The Promise of the New South: Life after Reconstruction. New York: Oxford University Press. Place of Publication: New York.
Bennett, Lerone, Jr. 1994. "Jack Johnson and the great white hope: historic boxer. Ebony, April. Available from www.findarticles.com. Accessed 7 February 2005.
Big Labor Day Celebration," (original document) Norfolk Journal and Guide, 8 September, 1917; available at http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5054/ . Accessed 7 February 2005.
Bill 'Bojangles' Robinson." 2004. International Tap Association, 13 December. Available from. http://www.tapdance.org/tap/people/bojangle.htm . Accessed 9 February 2005.
e. The lack of a collective intellectual voice. In response to this and in part as a result of new affluence gained by some as well as a growing exposure to education, albeit mostly segregated, many began to develop what is known as the Harlem enaissance.
The 1920s in American history were marked by a sociocultural awakening among Afro-Americans. More blacks participated in the arts than ever before, and their number increased steadily throughout the decade. This florescence of creative activity extended to many areas -- music, poetry, drama, fiction. In literature, the few Negro novels published between 1905 and 1923 were presented mainly by small firms unable to give their authors a national hearing. However, in the succeeding decade, over two dozen novels by blacks appeared, and most of them were issued by major American publishers. (Singh, 1976, p. 1)
The Harlem enaissance came about for many reasons not…
Golay, M. (1999). A Ruined Land: The End of the Civil War. New York: Wiley
Jonas, G. (2005). Freedom's Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle against Racism in America, 1909-1969. New York: Routledge.
Jim Crow Laws. (2004). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia
Kivel, Paul. (1995) Uprooting Racism: How White People Can Work for Racial Justice.
In this To Kill a Mockingbird essay example, the exploration of race and family will play a role in how the characters are experienced by the reader. A look at setting, an emphasis on characters like Aunt Alexandra, will help provide the kind of context needed to explore the topic further. The topic of family is an interesting area to cover because it is a personal and private attempt of the writer to showcase feelings that he or she may not otherwise show in their own lives. Novels like To Kill a Mockingbird offer a glimpse into ideals or struggles of family for the author.
Race Relations in To Kill a Mockingbird
A Look at Jim Crow Laws in To Kill a Mockingbird
Calpurnia and Tim Robinson from To Kill a Mockingbird and Their Portrayal of the Black Community
Selected Title: The Role of Family in To…
Instead of pretending that racism and its effects no longer exist, we need to strengthen affirmative action and devise a new set of policies that directly tackle the racial gap in wealth." (Derrity, 1).
That, in a nutshell, is the position of this paper. America has not given affirmative action enough time to act. Moving forward, we should continue our affirmative action policies, but with an end in mind. Economists and sociologists, along with help from America's captains of industry and human resources experts, should devise an ideal time frame whereby affirmative action will end, and set outside and inside goals for this time frame as well.
But for now, affirmative action must continue, and continue with gusto, to reverse the horrors that America's history has caused.
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW of RELATED LITERATURE
History of Affirmative Action review of the history associated with affirmative action is the first step to…
Gratz v Bollinger, No. 02-516, U.S. Supreme Court. (2003)
Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306. (2003)
Fordyce v Seattle, 55 F. 3d 436.
Change must be imminent yet it is hard to know where it will come from as racial and economic inequity that leads to and sustains segregated housing remains multifaceted, with no universal answer that will touch on all issues. The program must be comprehensive and yet it cannot exclude grass roots efforts to improve the situation, either in racially segregated areas or within the whole community of the United States. Probably the most important message of any research at this juncture would be to responsibly inform the majority in a way that will hit home the reality of the continuation of racial segregation in housing and discrimination in general, as the end of the civil rights era is not even in sight even though many think it passed before they were born.
Bickford, Adam, and Douglas S. Massey. "Segregation in the Second Ghetto: Racial and Ethnic Segregation…
Birmingham Campaign of 1963 and the Civil Rights Movement
Since the end of the Civil War and the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which abolished slavery in America, equal rights for African Americans was one of the anticipated outcomes. Yet, the law did not swing entirely in favor of equality; rather, it offered freedom and segregation. Jim Crow laws were essentially institutionalized with the Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision, which affirmed that blacks were “separate but equal” to whites—i.e., they were “equal” in the eyes of the law (after all, the 14th Amendment had affirmed their equality, and the 15th had affirmed their right to vote—even women were not granted that right until the 19th Amendment), but as far as the law was concerned blacks were not permitted to mingle with whites in public. Thus, blacks had to sit in their own sections in a theatre (the balcony—referred to…
Harlem enaissance was a true flourishing of African-American arts, music, and literature, thereby contributing tremendously to the cultural landscape of the nation. Much Harlem enaissance literature reflects the experience of the "great migration" of blacks from the rural south to the urban north. Those experiences included reflections on the intersections between race, class, gender, and power. Many of the Harlem enaissance writers penned memoirs that offer insight into the direct experience of racism, such as ichard Wright's "The Ethics of Living Jim Crow." Poets worked with classic literary devices like symbolism and imagery to convey the intense emotions linked to experiences of prejudice and violence. Emerging in conjunction with social and political justice movements such as women's rights and labor rights, the movement to empower black communities through the arts also spilled beyond the borders of the African-American community. For example, F. Scott Fitzgerald's novels and short stories addressed class…
Brown, S. Bitter fruit of the tree. Retrieved online: http://www.ronnowpoetry.com/contents/brown/BitterFruit.html
Wright, R. The ethics of living Jim Crow. Retrieved online: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~ma01/white/anthology/wright.html
At the same time, however, the ghettoes resulted from the people's desire to form a united community to which they could relate and that could offer comfort from a society that, despite its more opened views, still viewed blacks from the point-of-view of the segregation policy.
The ghettoes however represented an environment that would later offer one of the most important and relevant elements of the American culture: the music and religious atmosphere that was traditional for the black community. As a means of resisting the struggle against segregation and inequality, many communities saw music as the connection that united all black people in their suffering. The soul music thus became a means of expressing both sorrow and joy, hope and despair among the black communities. Even though such practices had been seen in the South as well, once the Great Migration started, the black people exported their core values…
African-American World. The Great Migration. Educational Broadcasting Corporation. 2002. 28 April 2007 http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/reference/articles/great_migration.html
Crew, Spencer R. "The Great Migration of Afro-Americans, 1915-40." Monthly Labor Review,
Encyclopedia Britannica, Jim Crow law, 2007. 28 April 2007 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9043641/Jim-Crow-law/
Grossman, James. "Great Migration." The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago. 2004. 28 April 2007 http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/545.html
racero Program and Social Inequality
The racero Program was a WW2 initiative decreed by Executive Order that allowed Mexican labor on U.S. farms. It was known as the Mexican Farm Labor Program and the purpose of this program was to ensure that labor shortages did not result in the agricultural sector in the wake of so many American men being drafted or volunteering for the war. The temporary usage of Mexican labor on American farms was meant to fill the gap. However, the racero program ended up lasting until 1964 because it afforded ig Agra the opportunity to use cheap labor -- and it ultimately ended up exposing a larger issue in the American social system: the inequality gap rooted in the racist doctrine of American culture. The Zoot Suit Riots in 1943 in Los Angeles, for instance, are one example of the chaos that ensued when Mexicans who had…
Anonymous. "Manuel Lopez Hurtado, " in Bracero History Archive, Item #3228,
http://braceroarchive.org/items/show/3228 (accessed April 30, 2016).
Bernal, Elizabeth. "Guillermo Bernal Paystub," in Bracero History Archive, Item
#3252, http://braceroarchive.org/items/show/3252 (accessed April 30, 2016).
American history [...] changes that have occurred in African-American history over time between 1865 to the present. African-Americans initially came to this country against their will. They were imported to work as slaves primarily in the Southern United States, and they have evolved to become a force of change and growth in this country. African-Americans have faced numerous challenges throughout their history in this country, and they still face challenges today.
After the Civil War ended in 1865, African-Americans were freed from slavery. However, that did not end their struggle for freedom. In fact, in many ways, it only made their situation worse. Many slaves who were in fairly decent situations were thrust out to fend for themselves, or they became sharecroppers for their former masters, barely making enough money to stay alive. This was the time of "reconstruction" in the South, and it was recovering both politically and economically…
Adeboyejo, B. (2005, May/June). Q & A: Curating African-American history for the nation. The Crisis, 112, 7.
Dagbovie, P.G. (2006). Strategies for teaching African-American history: Musings from the past, ruminations for the future. The Journal of Negro Education, 75(4), 635+.
Editors. (2010). African-American history timeline. Retrieved 15 Nov. 2010 from the Peterson Education Web site: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmtimeline.html .
Editors (2008). African-American odyssey. Retrieved 15 Nov. 2010 from the Library of Congress Web site: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart7.html .
There is no real difference between the racism that Du Bois witnessed 100 years ago and the racism seen today. The same WASPs who were the controlling elites in those days are still the controlling elites today -- only there has been a strain of political correctness introduced into the culture that covers the racism. Nonetheless, the Puritanical racist mentality fostered by the WASPs has also trickled down from the elites to the "middle class" which arose in the post-War period thanks to hefty incentives and kickbacks from the government. Du Bois witnessed Jim Crow laws that hurt blacks -- these were everywhere: in the Army, in the neighborhoods in the South, in schools, on buses, in diners. There was one set of laws for whites and another for blacks. Today, de-segregation has largely eliminated the "Jim Crow" standard, but different laws are on the books now -- laws…
Jones, E. M. (2000). Libido Dominandi: Sexual Liberation and Political Control. IN:
St. Augustine Press.
PBS. (2010). People & ideas: W.E.B. Du Bois. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/web-dubois.html
The Negro Soldier
The Frank Capra film The Negro Soldier (1944) was a wartime propaganda film produced by the U.S. Army in alliance with famed Hollywood director Frank Capra for the purpose of targeting African Americans and getting them to join Army and fight against the liberty-hating Germans. The film provided a positive example African American heroism as told through the preaching of the film’s narrator, Moss—an African American minister, who speaks eloquently in his church before his congregation of the need for the African American community to stand up for American values against those who oppose them. The film shows sequences of African American heroism to reinforce the preaching of Moss, who quotes Mein Kampf to stir up feelings of righteous indignation, and who describes how blacks throughout time and even now have stood up to oppose tyranny—from Crispus Attucks to boxer Joe Louis. The film concludes with…
Racial Exclusion in America
When one thinks of racial exclusion, they usually think of the reconstruction period of the late 1800s and the Jim Crow Laws. The Jim Crow laws prohibited blacks from drinking from the same water fountains, eating in the same restaurants, and ride in the back of the bus. Most ideas of racial exclusion are targeted at blacks, however, many other ethnic groups were the victims of racial exclusion as well. They may not have had laws condoning it, as was the case with blacks and Native Americans, but exclusion was there never the less. The books "Black Boy" by Richard Wright and "America is in the Heart" by Carlos Bulosan are two of the best examples illustrating the effects of racial exclusion from an insider's perspective. This paper will compare these two books both from historical perspective and from a contemporary standpoint.
Everyone knows about the…
Brown v Board of Education is one of the most famous landmark cases in American court history. Set against the backdrop of the early 1950s, just as the civil rights movement was beginning to heat up, Brown v Board of Education changed the face of American schools in a significant way and set the stage for further more sweeping reforms in other areas, such as worker discrimination and fair labor laws.
The stage for the conditions that led to Brown v Board of Education was a set of laws that rose out of the civil war restoration period called the Jim Crow laws. These laws varied from state to state and existed primarily in the South. These laws created separation of whites from blacks. Some of these laws include that blacks must sit at the back of the bus and relinquish their seat if a white passenger needed, blacks were…
Bolling v Sharpe U.S. District Court, Washington D.C. (1947)
Briggs v Elliott U.S. District Court. (1950)
Brown v. Board of Education, 349 U.S. 294 (1955) (USSC+) Syllabus
Cozzens, Lisa. "Brown v. Board of Education." African-American History. (Online) May 25, 1998. http://fledge.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html . Accessed November, 2002.
Interrelationship of Self-Perceptions, Culturally-Based Perceptions, Impressions, and their effects on Leadership Abilities
Humans have the most highly organized social structure of any creature on earth. In an attempt to ascertain our relative position in a complex social hierarchy, we constantly evaluate and re-evaluate ourselves. e do this by comparing ourselves to other human beings. e use this information to establish our opinions of ourselves, the various social groups to which we belong and our opinions of others. e belong to many social groups, our family, our group of friends at school, a community and a culture that includes our ethnic backgrounds. e must make decisions about our place in each of these groups. These opinions constitute what we think of ourselves, and gives us our self-esteem, or self-worth.
Our attitudes and beliefs regarding ourselves and others effect our ability to learn our acceptance of subordination to authority figures and our…
Baron, R. And Kenny, D. (1986). "The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic and Statistical Considerations." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6): 1173-1182.
Bugental, B., Blue, J. Cortez, V., Fleck, K., Kopeikin, H., Lewis, J.C., & Lyon, J. (1993). "Social cognitions as organizers of autonomic and affecitive response to social challenge." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (64)1: 94-103.
Christopher, A. (1998). "The Psychology of Names: An Empirical Reexamination." Journal of Applied Social Psychology, (19): 1173-1195.
Feldman, J., and Lynch, J. Jr. (1988). "Self-generated validity and other effects of measurement on belief, attitude, intention and behavior." Journal of Applied Psychology, (73): 431-435.
The Birth of a Nation is a bit more explicit in its message but it rings to the same tune -- southern whites are victims of the civil war, not perpetrators.
Neither is an accurate portrayal of historical events but rather a symbolic representation of feelings and emotions held by whites in the pre-world war two United States. Historical evidence proves that neither Griffith nor O'Selznick were accurate in their depiction of the civil war but they do capture the fear and xenophobia riddled throughout each decade. While Griffith took inspiration from the Clansmen, O'Selznick, a Jewish New Yorker, along with his mostly Jewish writing team, likely were not trying to rewrite history but instead speaking to their audience, understanding what they were looking for.
The Birth of a Nation and Gone with the Wind speak to an audience who's way of life had been taken away by force. Though…
Rogin, Michael. "The Sword Became a Flashing Vision" D.W. Griffith's the Birth of a Nation." Representations 9.Special Issue (Winter 1985): 150-95. JSTOR. University of California Press. Web. 11 Dec. 2010. .
Change, Robert S. "Dreaming in Black and White: Racial-Sexual Policing in the Birth of a Nation, the Cheat, and Who Killed Vincent Chin?" Asian Law Journal 5.41 (1998): 41-60. Print.
Harris, Warren G. Clark Gable: A Biography, Harmony, (2002), page 211
They will in turn pass on that legacy to their own children. Since that is the general rule and principle, why does it affect persons of color more fiercely?
Persons of color are disproportionately represented in the low strata of the SE ladder. Amongst the poor persons of color have higher percentages and are more likely to exist in extreme poverty. Since SES determines where you live to a large extent, and where you live will determine the schools to which your children can attend. Then SES becomes a limiting factor because person whose household income is low will live in government housing and may be on some government support program. These persons will also have their children attend schools within these communities' schools where there is high teacher absenteeism, poor results on standardized testing and generally poor conditions (Lee, 2002). Again, in this regard persons of color are over…
Achievement gap (2002) National conference for community and justice. Retrieved from http://www.kccjky.org/summaries/full_achieve.htm
Anderson M.L. & Taylor H.F. (2010) Sociology the essentials. NY, New York: Wadsworth
Brunner, B., & Haney, E. (2007). Civil Rights Timeline Milestones in the modern civil rights movement. Retrieved from http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html#axzz0wJNCuRjZ
As the vast majority of African-Americans do not know where their ancestors came from, it is difficult to trace one's roots back to the African continent. At the same time, the United States, while certainly the nation that nearly every African-American would consider to be home, has hardly been hospitable to African-Americans throughout history. Even today, nearly a quarter of all African-American families in the United States live below the poverty line.
Nation plays a more prominent role in Hispanic-American communities, as these communities tend to organize themselves around national heritage. For example, the Puerto ican community in the United States is distinct from the Mexican-American community.
It should be kept in mind, however, that both Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans tend to identify their national heritage with the United States of America - despite their troublesome relationship with their home country over the centuries.
Institutional networks continue to play…
Boddy-Evans, a. (N.D.) the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from African History web site: http://africanhistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa080601a.htm
Davis, R. (N.D.) Surviving Jim Crow. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from the History of Jim Crow web site: http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/surviving.htm
Educational Broadcasting Corporation (2002). The Great Migration. Retrieved December
1, 2007 from African-American World web site: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/reference/articles/great_migration.html
America at War 1865-Present
A Survey of America at War from 1865 to Present
Since the Civil War, America has seldom seen a generation of peace. In fact, a nonstop succession of wars has kept what Eisenhower termed "the military industrial complex" in lucrative business. From the Indian Wars to the World Wars to the Cold War to the war on Terror, Americana has expanded its foothold as an imperial power every step of the way -- even when isolationism appeared to be momentarily in vogue following World War I. This paper will look at the history of the progression of war in America from 1865 to present, showing how that history -- through social, economic, literary, political, and religious changes -- has both shaped and been shaped by American foreign and domestic policy.
Unit Once: 1865-1876
The Civil War had just ended on the home front, but that did…
Boyd, J.P. (2000). Indian Wars. Scituate, MA: Digital Scanning, Inc.
Jarecki, E. (2008). The American Way of War. NY: Free Press.
Jones, E.M. (2000). Libido Dominandi. South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press.
Morehouse, M. (2007). Fighting in the Jim Crow Army: Black Men and Women
This "education" convinces the white person to give up their sons for wars that oppress the dark peoples, votes money for the wars, makes him believe he should make up the lynch mobs and to oppress blacks with Jim Crow. The fact that his philosophy was realistic was because it was the activism of his NAACP exposing the reality of lynching in the South in the 1920s It was very realistic, because the in their face activism was what was reversing the trends in the South. Other African-Americans such as ashington saw him as a radical, but he know how to get what he wanted from the white through activism in the NAACP (DuBois, 2010).
Booker T. ashington had a very strange view of education for blacks. He had to apologize to the hites of the South in the Atlanta speech for blacks sought out political careers and teaching assignments…
DuBois, W.E.B. (2010). The negro mind reaches. Retrieved from http://www.yale.edu/glc/archive/1114.htm .
The meaning of freedom: the failure of reconstruction. In (2010). D. Hine, W. Hine & S. Harold (Eds.), The African-American Odyssey (pp. New York, NY). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
The meaning of freedom: the promise of reconstruction. In (2010). D. Hine, W. Hine & S. Harold (Eds.), The African-American Odyssey (pp. New York, NY). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
U.s. public health service syphilis study at tuskegee. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/tuskegee/timeline.htm
Civil ar began, some ardent defenders of slavery -- like George FitzHugh, author of the notorious 1857 polemic Cannibals All!, or Slaves ithout Masters -- argued that the abolition of slavery would result in something worse: the spread of the industrial-style market capitalism of the North. e do not have to agree with FitzHugh's belief that this industrialization would be worse than slavery in order to realize that, in many important ways, he made an accurate prediction. In this paper, I will argue that the industrialization of "Gilded Age" America in the latter nineteenth century should be understood as filling the economic gaps left by abolition -- which resulted not only in new prosperity, but also in new violations of human rights.
This paper will argue that American industrialization after the U.S. Civil ar filled the gap left by the abolition of slavery, essentially replacing it with "wage slavery."…
FitzHugh, George. Cannibals All! or Slaves Without Masters. Richmond: Morris, 1857. Web. Accessed 15 Jan 2016 at: http://books.google.com/books?id=ECdb7EjiBnEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=cannibals+all&cd=2#v=onepage&q=worse%20than%20slavery&f=false
Hofstadter, Richard. The American Political Tradition. New York: Vintage, 1989. Print.
Oshinsky, David. Worse Than Slavery: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice. New York: Free Press, 1997. Print.