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Calvin, John. Calvin's "Institutes": A New Compend. Introduction by Hugh Kerr. John Knox
According to author and theologian Hugh Kerr, regarding the founder of Calvinism, "much of Calvin's system, as well as his polemics against Roman Catholicism have become outdated and irrelevant for modern thought. Systems as such are under general suspicion in almost every area of life" while pluralism is favored as the dominant way of conceptualizing the relationships between modern religions (Kerr 16). However, although some of Calvin's writings have been consigned to the dust heap of history, Calvin also has much to teach us, and many of his writings are still potentially inspiring and useful for modern readers. Calvin's most famous (some might say infamous) notion was the doctrine of predestination, or the notion that God has already 'elected' certain persons to be saved (Kerr 10). The Compend is intended to distill Calvin's writings and…… [Read More]
Calvin finds that His "royal unction" is not set out, then, by the standard representations of a man-king, but instead of one more holy. It is in his office as King, Calvin says, that man finds the ultimate pardon. "Thus, while we wander far as pilgrims from God, Christ interposes, that he may gradually bring us to full communion with God."
The completion of his analysis was not only connecting the man Christ with his works, but endowing them with the holy beliefs of the Christian faithful. He related the life of Christ to the life of the Christian, with baptism and resurrection serving as the joint fountainheads of the active faith. To Calvin, in life, a person is damned by the total depravity of man; death is the ultimate freedom from it, since the body can then no longer be physically tempted. Death through salvation is the final…… [Read More]
However, although Machiavelli held firm in his belief that the Church should not have the same governing functions as the State, he provided the example of Pope Julius in demonstrating how, if a religious leader holds firm to his beliefs and manner of disciplining his clergy, he can establish a strong clergy and can yield influence and power over the State and civil society. In describing Pope Julius's leadership style, Machiavelli attested, "...he held two things firm: the one, the greatness of the Church, which he terrified them; and the other, not allowing them to have their own cardinals, who caused the disorders among them." Despite the strength in Pope Julius's leadership, Machiavelli still argued for the sole function of the State to govern civil society, mainly because Church is ridden with members that are in constant motivation to usurp each other's powers and position in the hierarchy, not to…… [Read More]
Although sometimes attributed to Calvin, the Synod of Dort actually wrote the Five Points of Calvinism in 1619. In the article, "New outlook, Volume 104," Alfred Emanuel Smith wrote that the Synod of Dort created the five points of Calvinism "to controvert the Five points of Arminius, which formed the basis of the discussions through the six months of the sessions of that Synod" (p. 394).
The Five Points of Calvinism include:
1. Divine Predestination
2. The Redemption of Men through the Death of Christ
3. Total Depravity.
4. Redemption through Grace.
5. Perseverance of Saints. (Smith, p. 394)
The Five points of Arminiusm are as follows:
1. Personal, Gratuitous Election to Everlasting Life.
2. Particular Redemption
3. Depravity, Native and Total.
4. Effectual Calling, or Regeneration, by the Holy Spirit.
5. Certain Perseverance of Saints unto Eternal Life. (Smith, p. 394)
Some individuals consider Calvinism to reflect another name…… [Read More]
It is my opinion that Calvin was not a Protestant, but only a Reformer. The Catholic doctrine of justification by faith is really a works-based recognition that somehow the individual is going to do enough to get himself to heaven. Calvin did little more than tweak this position: Instead of justification by a combination of works and faith, we now have both justification and sanctification by not only works and faith, but also knowledge. We do, however, get a continual reminder that this is all by God's grace (provided, of course, that you're one of the lucky ones), but a close reading will show his words are not much different than the Jehovah Witness or Mormon position which puts Jesus death as only that which makes possible your salvation.
Agree or disagree with Calvin, these are a necessary read for anyone who desires an understanding of the development of…… [Read More]
Protestant eformation Calvin vs. Luther
John Calvin and Martin Luther while both proponents of reform in the Catholic church, held distinctly different views of religious doctrine that profoundly influenced the religious landscape during the 16th century and encouraged citizens to take charge of their spirituality and salvation. Both religious leaders helped shape and influence the eformation and formed the foundation for Episcopalian and Presbyterian beliefs today.
The Protestant eformation is often considered one of the most revolutionary events to occur within the 16th century. During this time citizens were forced with the decision between Catholicism and Protestantism. John Calvin and Martin Luther are two figureheads who helped spearhead the Protestant eformation. Despite there similar desire to reform the church and change the dominant doctrine of the time, Martin Luther and John Calvin were very different in their interpretations of religious doctrine. Martin Luther supported a less aggressive reformation based on…… [Read More]
John Knox, the Scottish Reformer, is hailed as one of the fathers of Protestant church reform. His undying passion for his beliefs as well as a strong bond of friendship with several religious women, sustained him in his work until he died. His work comprises a number of sermons and religious writings that carry on his legacy to this day. There is some disagreement regarding the year of his birth, but critics believe this event to be somewhere in the first two decades of the twentieth century. The Dictionary of National iography for example places Knox's birth at round about 15141, while Miles Hodges places it at 15052.
According to the Dictionary, Knox was born at Cliffordgate in Haddington. An interesting fact is that he occasionally adopted his mother's maiden name, Sinclair, as an alias when he found himself obliged to hide from persecutors. His father, William Knox came from…… [Read More]
Calvinism and the Reformation
John Calvin (originally Jean Cauvin) was born July 10th, 1509, in the merchant city of Noyon, France, in a family of modest ancestry of watermen and artisans.
His father, Girard Cauvin, ran the course of a respectable bourgeoisie member who studied law and went all the way from a town clerk to the position of a procurator of the cathedral chapter. As a prediction to his son's further relationship with the Catholic Church, by the time he died he was excommunicated.
His older brother, a priest encountered similar troubles this department and was also excommunicated. Standing Firm on his position, he refused the sacraments on his death bed and was buried outside the churchyard.
John Calvin was the second son of Girard Cauvin and Jeanne LeFranc. For some, John Calvin's birthday was an unfortunate event, for others, a blessing. Throughout his career, he only appears to…… [Read More]
That being said, there are certain pitfalls that must be avoided, in order to reduce the controversy created by teaching these concepts but more importantly to avoid any indoctrination, however, subtle into certain beliefs or belief systems. That is, educators should make absolutely no value judgments concerning religion in their teaching of religious history, and in courses specifically geared towards developing a scholarly understanding of religion efforts must be made to include theological beliefs and practices of non-Christian and non-Western religions. This can become somewhat touchy when religious history is part of a general course on Western history; however politically incorrect it may sound, the historical development of Buddhism, Hinduism, and even Judaism simply did not have the same impact on the development of Western culture that Christianity did. This does not make Christianity in any of its forms the "right" religion, and this must be made clear in public…… [Read More]
Luther and Calvin as theologians. Specifically, it will compare and contrast Martin Luther and John Calvin as theologians, while making a strong and convincing opinion on both men. John Calvin and Martin Luther were both great thinkers, and the foundation of the Reformation that shook Europe in the 1500s. hile they both had different theologies, there were some remarkable similarities, and both men certainly changed the face of religion by speaking out openly regarding their beliefs.
Luther and Calvin
Martin Luther is probably the most significant and renowned Protestant religious leader in the world. Luther was born in Eisleben, Saxony in 1483, and spent his undergraduate years studying for a law career, and then he switched focus to the priesthood. However, Luther found himself disagreeing with many of the Catholic Church's philosophies, and in 1517, Luther posted his famous "95 theses" on the door of a castle church in Saxony,…… [Read More]
All human beings are, however, impure and imperfect, which does not make it very difficult to rise above the rest in terms of self-perceived perfection. In comparison to God, however, this changes. The human being who is never dissatisfied with him- or herself, however, never becomes aware that there is a contrast to be made with God.
This is what Calvin appears to mean by piety. People with true knowledge of themselves as imperfect and unholy in comparison with God are those who are most pious. They are aware that there are imperfections to be addressed and aspire to do so by contemplating the nature of Gold. Instead, impious and hypocritical human beings are never aware that there is much wrong with them. They create a type of cycle by only contemplating other human beings to compare with themselves. By doing this, they become aware only of their excellence and…… [Read More]
What is America's role in the world? Considering that America was in many ways founded experimentally, it is only natural to imagine that outside observers are constantly looking to America as an example or a source of guidance. In particular, America's early status as an experiment in religious tolerance has led to the popularity of the phrase and image of "the city on a hill." Derived from Jesus Christ's Sermon on the Mount -- where Christ tells his followers "You are the light of the world. A city that is set on a hill cannot be hidden" (Matt. 5:14) -- the notion of America as both a model and a source of immense scrutiny is popular even to this day. In this paper I would like to examine three ways in which the notion of America as a "city on a hill" was persuasive in the period of…… [Read More]
All human beings are considered corrupt and sick and, because of the original sin, are in close relations with the powers of evil, rending them unable to make a significant contribution to their liberation. Ironically in some way, it can be said that Lutherans believe in faith. Faith is understood as trust in God's love and is viewed as the only appropriate way for man to answer to God's initiative. "Salvation by faith alone" is the distinctive and criticized (by catholic adepts) slogan of Lutheranism. Opponents of this doctrine argued that this position does not do justice to the Christian responsibility to do good works; the answer was that faith has to be active in love and that there is an indivisible connection between good works and faith: the former follow from the latter as a good tree produces good fruit.
Worship. The Lutheran church is, by its own definition,…… [Read More]
Christianity started as a literary faith, one firmly rooted in Scripture. Scriptural adherence grew out of the Jewish appreciation for sacred text. Therefore, it is no wonder that Christianity evolved as a literary and literate faith. The evolution of Christianity from the fall of the Temple in 70 CE to the 21st century is one punctuated and formed by writing and historical documents. Christian historiography reveals both the development of Christian religious thought including cosmology, theology, and metaphysics. Ethics and philosophy are also covered in the Christian canon. However, Christian historiography also goes beyond sacred wisdom. Christian texts have laid out methods by which Christianity -- and the Catholic Church in particular -- can and should function in the world as a political institution. Both spiritual and the political debates have led to conflicts in Christian identity development. Conflicting views of theological matters such as the nature of Christ's…… [Read More]
Calvin also taught that another way God begins to deal with a person to make him/her restless is knowledge.
Under the influence of the Spirit of God, a person is borne upward; traveling upward toward the knowledge of God. Conscience, as far as human understanding reaches, is a source which constitutes the unconditional starting point for the beginning of knowledge of God; for the revelation of Jesus Christ.
For Calvin, "revelation is not immediately revelation of Jesus Christ. But revelation of the harsh judgment of God, although this is certainly finally oriented to Christ."
Basically, Calvin did not have any revelation problem as the center of his theology. He began with the reality that a person is alienated from God, but that God seeks the individual out and entices him/her to a way in which community with God may be discovered again. Calvin argued sin has damaged human reason; that…… [Read More]
This meant that individuals were 'elected' for salvation by God, and this view of human salvation is called either the 'doctrine of the elect' or the doctrine of living saints' (www.wsu.edu/~dee/REFORM/CALVIN.HTM)."
John the Baptist was a prophet who "preached a message of repentance to the people of Jerusalem. He converted many, and prepared the way for the coming of Jesus. He baptized Christ, after which he stepped away and told his disciples to follow Jesus (www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintj02.htm)."
Three terms in Islam that should be explored are Quraysh, Hijra, and Saum. Quraysh is "the ancient Bedouin tribe near Mecca to which Muhammad belonged. At one time camel drivers and caravan guides, they became, after acquiring custody of the Kaaba, one of the most powerful tribes in central Arabia and the chief family of Mecca. They were at first bitter opponents of Muhammad but became his devoted followers when Muhammad retained the…… [Read More]
25. How does New Age spirituality differ from that of Eastern mysticism?
Although the New Age readily embraces Eastern mysticism, it diverges from the old Eastern traditions because the New Age is more of a "hybrid spirituality," (131). The New Age combines Eastern and estern mystical beliefs. Eastern religions are not tailored for the modern world so the New Age mutates Eastern traditions to best suit the needs of the modern lifestyle.
26. How is paganism related to the New Age movement?
Paganism is integrally related to the New Age movement. Evidence of this can be found on any New Age bookstore shelf. The New Age movement is not necessarily demonic, as many modern witches do not believe in Satan, but neo-pagans assert a belief in a Goddess. Many New Agers support pre-Christian pagan beliefs and shamanism as well.
27. How does the eastern element of New Age spirituality contrast…… [Read More]
Martin Luther: Biographical Sketch
In this essay, I have presented a biographical sketch of one of the major "players" in the eformation i.e. Martin Luther. I have discussed his life starting from his birth till his death. In the conclusion, I have mentioned how important he was for the revolution in Europe and how Christians today can follow his footsteps and exemplary character.
At the same time as the Catholic Church made efforts for setting its base and went ahead as the most important and chief institute of religious conviction in the history of world, a lot of compromise were made so that the institution can build and advance further. Sorry to say, one of the sufferers of this Catholic flow was the true-connection-oriented Christianity. With the development and progress of the Catholic Church, the world witnessed the removal of the common man and the domination and unquestioned superiority of…… [Read More]
Gospel: Gospel is a message that has contents on Jesus, God, salvation, the Kingdom of God, and everything that is done to reach out this message to the believers. Gospel is also one of the books in the New Testament talking about the life, death, resurrection, and the works of Jesus Christ.
• Original sin: Original sin refers to the tendency and deprivation to the evil that is seen as innate in all humankind and it is passed from Adam to all human beings, resulting from the sin engaged by Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. The sin is naturally adapted to every born human being, born of Adam being the initial sinner.
• Fundamentalism: Fundamentalism is a 20th-century religious movement emphasizing on a strict belief in the literal understanding and interpretation of the religious texts.
• Heresy: Heresy is a theory that is developed to be at…… [Read More]
Catholics played a main role in some of the first overseas explorations performed by estern European states. ith the purpose of inducing religious thinking into the people they conquered, Europeans brought priests with them. Most conquerors were not satisfied with imposing their religion on others, as they harshly condemned other religions they came across and subjected people worshiping other gods to great suffering.
Unlike the French, most English and Spanish conquerors believed that it was abnormal for one to worship in any other way that was not Christian. The French managed to live along side of the Huron tribes, making it possible for Huron tradition to exist in the present. In contrast, the Spanish and the English imposed their cultural values on the people they conquered, to the point where they were assimilated and were left with no cultural identity other than the one that was forced on them.
orks…… [Read More]
religion on world events cannot, and should not be underestimated in its importance in dictating the events of history. The Protestant eformation is one such historic event or epoch that seemingly altered the way religion and society intermixed. The 16th century was a time of revolution and revolt and this modification of the church helped exposed many of the problems that the church had in maintaining a control over its subjects.
A the time shortly before Martin Luther's edict of worms, many were having problems with the Catholic church and an opportunity for a new sect to break off was ripe. The main problem with the church at this time was its ineffectiveness in dealing with personal salvation. The pomp and bloviated rituals apparently had lost their folk values and growing numbers were despondent and unsatisfied with the Catholic church's stance on many issues.
The main issue with the Catholic…… [Read More]
Author Marilynne Robinson's novel Gilead tells the story of a fictitious Congregationalist pastor named Reverend John Ames and his family. He is dying from a heart condition and has a small son who will never really know him because the boy is only seven years old and his father will likely not live much longer. This is a sad state and the story is told from the perspective of a man who knows that his time on the earth is limited and tries to tell a lifetime's worth of fatherly advice in a matter of pages. The book is a story of John Ames's life with his father and grandfather because he wants his son to have these memories but will be unable to give them to him orally. This story is about the male family dynamic and the rich heritage which fathers pass onto their sons, which is…… [Read More]
" It caused missionaries to deal with peoples of other cultures and even Christian traditions -- including the Orthodox -- as inferior. God's mission was understood to have depended upon human efforts, and this is why we came to hold unrealistic universalistic assumptions. Christians became so optimistic that they believed to be able to correct all the ills of the world." (Vassiliadis, 2010)
Missiology has been undergoing changes in recent years and after much serious consideration Christians in the ecumenical era "are not only questioning all the above assumptions of the Enlightenment; they have also started developing a more profound theology of mission. One can count the following significant transitions:
(a) From the missio christianorum to the missio ecclesiae;
(b) the recognition later that subject of mission is not even the Church, either as an institution or through its members, but God, thus moving further from the missio ecclesiae to…… [Read More]
Yellow allpaper and Paul's Case: Emancipation of Mental Captivity
The two texts, Charlotte Perkins Gilman's The Yellow allpaper and illa Cather's Paul's Case, portray the main characters with hysteria. Both cases are reactions to the pressures put on them by their families as well as the society. They seem to build mental barriers that cannot be brought down, so called safe heavens, escape from harsh realities and this puts them on a self-destruction course. The narrator in The Yellow allpaper is the main character, an upper middle class woman confined to domesticity and "women's role. The text reveals her inner struggles and from her eye, the reader is able to see her plight. Similarly in Paul's Case, the main character has personal issues that are products of the society he lives in. He is motherless, thin pale and dreamy adolescent who rebels from his conventional surroundings in Pittsburgh. The major…… [Read More]
Universally accepted as one of the world's foremost epics, John Milton's Paradise Lost traces the history of the world from a Christian perspective. (Milton, 1667) The narrative of the poem largely deals with falling and how desires -- God, Satan, Jesus, Adam and Eve's -- lead to it. The book is about mankind's fall -- Original Sin -- Adam and Eve's disobedience of God. There are other instances of falling in the plot too. First, Satan's fall from God's graces, as related to Adam and Eve by the angel Raphael, represents the past in the Universe's creation. The second instance -- the present (in the narrative) -- is the Adam and Eve's eating of the Forbidden Fruit. The third instance represents the future. Michael, as he readies to escort Adam and Eve out of Paradise, presents to them the various falls of man until Jesus comes to rescue by dying…… [Read More]
constructing responses titles I listing. In response make show reference entry. (01) Discuss
One of the most powerful movements that transformed European society during the early modern era was the dissemination of information and the propagation of reading material due to Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the printing press around 1450 A.D. The movement that would prove to have the most impact upon society as a whole, however, was the imperialist movement that many credit to have originated with Columbus' journeys to the Americas, the first of which was in 1492. The imperialist movement would allow the appetite for power and conquering to expand beyond Europe and eventually encapsulate the entire globe. This movement is directly responsible for today's globalization, and the previous (and perhaps current) colonization and tyranny of many non-European nations. Another major movement during this time period was the beginning of the Protestant eformation, which began around 1517…… [Read More]
Michelangelo’s Creation of Adam
The Creation of Adam (1512) as conceived and depicted by Michelangelo represents a significant moment in art history because it brings a humanistic style of expression and sense of realism to the art world that had not existed prior. The work is focused almost exclusively on the Body as a subject. The two figures—God the Father and Adam—represent the majesty of the human anatomy in its ideal form: muscular, flexible, unique, authentic, poised, admirable, beautiful and proportional. In the painting, God is mostly draped with a thin cloth; Adam is completely nude and his position (reclined with one knee propped up while he stretches backwards and reaches forward languidly) suggests one of royalty being wakened after a long slumber. Indeed, the idea that Adam is like royalty is one that Michelangelo infuses into the scene giving the painting its high-minded rapturous quality, which is much in…… [Read More]
Theology: The aptism Debate
Peter's encouragement sermon on the Day of Pentecost -- "repent and let each of you be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you shall receive the Holy Spirit" (Acts 2:38) has been the source of raging debate, marred by conflicting views on i) whether Peter was referring to spirit or water baptism; and ii) whether through the phrase 'be baptized…the forgiveness of sins', Peter was identifying baptism as a requirement for salvation[footnoteRef:1]. In other words, should Peter's exhortation be interpreted at face value, or should it be understood some other way? This text purposes to interact with the opposing views on these issues, examine their theological and syntactic viability, and then conclude with an interpretation that aligns with both the immediate and the larger contexts of the verse in question. [1: 1 ruce Compton, "Water aptism and the…… [Read More]
King David as Described in 2 Samuel 11
Samuel 11 describes the events surrounding the sin of King David with regard to Uriah, whom he essentially had executed so that David's adultery with Uriah's wife would not be made known to him. This shameful action on the part of David displeased the Lord immensely, which is described in the following chapters. This chapter, however, reveals a side of David's character that prior to this incident had not been explored before. Much of what is known about David's character is celebratory -- from his time as the boy who slays the giant Goliath, to his handling of the Ark of the Covenant. David is described as a man after God's own heart (1 Sam 13:14) and most of his actions support this idea. His "humility and innocence" in his approach to Saul, playing for him on his lyre and soothing the…… [Read More]
Charles Van Doren has concluded that the Copernican Revolution is actually the Galilean Revolution because of the scale of change introduced by Galileo's work.
The technological innovation of the Renaissance era started with the invention of the printing press (the Renaissance). Even though the printing press, a mechanical device for printing multiple copies of a text on sheets of paper, was first invented in China, it was reinvented in the West by a German goldsmith and eventual printer, Johann Gutenberg, in the 1450s. Before Gutenberg's invention, each part of metal type for printing presses had to be individually engraved by hand. Gutenberg developed molds that permitted for the mass production of individual pieces of metal type. This permitted a widespread use of movable type, where each character is a separate block, in mirror image, and these blocks are assembled into a frame to form text. Because of his molds, a…… [Read More]
Luther's thought incited anti-Roman sentiment and thought initially in his native Germany. He strongly influenced sympathetic local princes to confiscate church lands and property and to redistribute these. He urged for the end of the practice of granting indulgences. Through his work, 95 Theses, he questioned the worth and truthfulness of indulgences. The Roman Catholic Church "granted" indulgences to absolve one's sin from a "treasury of merits" of the Church. Luther could not accept the clergy's ability to absolve sin and that it was something, which could be bought. He held that there was no biblical basis for indulgences and that the ible should be the sole basis and center of Christian theology. Outside of the ible, the clergy had no sure and valid foundation for their interpretations (Hermansen).
The foremost Reformation figure after Luther and Huldreich Zwingli, a Swiss pastor, was John Calvin, a French Protestant theologian (Microsoft Encarta…… [Read More]
Doctrine of the Holy Trinity
The Doctrine of the Trinity and Anti-Trinitarian Theologies:
Servetus, Milton, Newton
The Doctrine of the Trinity
The Arian Heresy
Anti-Trinitarianism Part I: Michael Servetus
Anti-Trinitarianism Part II: John Milton
Sir Isaac Newton
The Arian heresy -- or rejection of the Christian doctrine of the Holy Trinity -- is actually relatively uncommon among contemporary Christian denominations; to pick one particular national example, Post-Reformation England would tolerate a broad array of theological stances -- from the dour Calvinism of the early Puritans to the sunnier Arminianism of the esleyan Methodists -- but more or less drew the line at anti-Trinitarianism. Yet it is remarkable that some of England's greatest intellectuals -- including the epic poet John Milton and the father of modern physics Sir Isaac Newton -- would secretly author theological works reviving the old heresy of Arius in order to disprove the Christian doctrine of the…… [Read More]
However, Henry VIII was still insistent at that time on Catholicism in everything except loyalty to the Pope. The Pope had named Henry VIII a Defender of the Faith for the opposition that Henry had to Martin Luther, and Henry's theology did not change any because of his rejection of the authority of the Pope.
Thomas Cranmer and some or the other leaders of the Church, however, decided that there was a need to reform what they considered to be the heresies that had developed. Especially important to them were a liturgy and a ible that was printed in English. In addition to this, they also wanted to do away with some of the beliefs and practices that the Catholic Church had and that they believed did not fit in with Scripture, such as veneration of saints, celibacy for the clergy, and Purgatory. Their desire by accomplishing these things was…… [Read More]
According to Elwell this group of fourteen works, all of which have been translated into many languages including English form "the most monumental evangelical theological project of this century." (151) Elwell goes on to describe the works as, "written in an almost conversational style, these volumes deal with topics of theological concern, such as divine election, faith and sanctification, Holy Scripture, and the church, rather than presenting a tightly argued system of thought." (151) Finally according to Elwell and despite Berkouwer's shift in theology regarding human dealings, i.e. regret for spreading lack of tolerance for human differences of opinion Berkouwer, "never wavered from his commitment to the principles of Scripture, faith and grace alone." (151)
Berkouwer also wrote works of criticism against other theologian, most notably Karl Barth and Catholicism which are well read and famous in their theological arguments and as representative of his mid life shift in thought.…… [Read More]
Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).
The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…… [Read More]
ut the ible is clear that Esau, Judas, and anyone else who does not believe in Jesus Christ is condemned to an eternity in hell, separated from God forever, never to be redeemed. (Himes R.)
The Particular Movement was founded by Henry Jacob (1563-1624). Although he never in fact became a aptist his views strongly influenced the development of the Separatist Movement. Jacob also attempted to reform the Church of England rather than condemning the Church outrightly. At this time there was a distinct and sharp difference between the particular and general aptists.
eing stern Calvinists, the Particular aptists reject any relationship with John Smyth, or the early General aptists who advocated Arminian or "free will" theology with its popish overtones. The early Particular aptists rejected any historical relationship with John Smyth and his movement. Some early aptist authors even postulated a historical tradition in ritain dating as far back…… [Read More]
In explaining his theories and conceptions regarding the divine nature, the writer helps us understand what the Thomistic school of thought is. It must be underlined that the Thomistic conceptions reach a very profound philosophical level. Regardless of this the author of the book under review manages to introduce them to the general audience through a language and a manner which make them accessible to everyone. Religious issues such as the revelation, the creation of the world in general and of things in particular are briefly explained in a manner which allows the reader to grasp their fundamental meaning. In addition, the writer makes some notes about the Thomistic virtues, explaining Aquinas' contribution to the development of the religious thought.
It is interesting to notice that McDermott's selection includes figures who come from various backgrounds and environments. From Aquinas we pass to Martin Luther, who, in his opinion is the…… [Read More]
The asylum automatically granted under the Swiss constitution was denied for those seeking it for religious reasons. y 1942, only 9,150 foreign Jews were legally resident in Switzerland, an increase of just 980 since 1931. It was the Swiss government that requested the German government to help it identify Jews by stamping all Jewish passports with a prominent letter "J," following the Nuremberg acts in 1935. "y 1942, acting at the behest of Switzerland's establishment and the majority of its people, its authoritarian police apparatus was dedicated to keeping the country 'pure' and to saving it from being 'overrun with Jews'." Until 1942, the working Jewish community in Switzerland was forced by the government to support Jewish refugees.
The other side of the German interest in Switzerland's banks was related to the business of Germany and the looting of conquered countries. y 1941, Germany had exhausted all of its foreign…… [Read More]
And perhaps worst of all are books like Chicken Soup for the Soul, which are usually given as graduation gifts or gifts given to a person undergoing a difficult emotional crisis, again more like one would give a greeting card than a book full of information.
But Twitchell's other point, that the publishing industry must maintain a clear sense of high culture and guide rather than respond to America's tastes, is more controversial than his suggestion that the book world should re-focus its attention on reading rather than simply selling printed matter. Although some of the best sellers Twitchell despises, like works by Danielle Steel or Steven King, may be without merit one might ask -- has he ever read the cultural critiques found within the pages of a Calvin and Hobbes comic? Why speak of the quality of Salmon Rushdie in the same breath as Steel and King --…… [Read More]
Renaissance of Europe
The European Renaissance is characterized, in part, by the sweeping changes that took place with regards to religion, in particular, in the Catholic Church. The papacy was becoming increasingly corrupt during this time and was full of hypocrisy. This ultimately led to Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation. This paper will examine just how corrupt the church was at this time and how this led to its own downfall, thereby paving the way for people like Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Erasmus to put forth new ways of thinking and advances in religion, science, and so on.
In 1500, corruption and hypocrisy in the Catholic Church were rampant. For example, indulgences were used as means of coercion and manipulation rather than for the original purposes they were intended. An indulgence is the full or partial remission before God of temporal punishment for sins that have been forgiven.…… [Read More]
Miracles: When Faith Contradicts Reason
Theologians, and philosophers alike, have traditionally sought to bring out the relationship between reason and faith. This they have done in an attempt to clarify the link between the two terms or points-of-view -- an undertaking that involves the determination of how agents are supposed to respond to assertions drawn from either perspective, within the context of rationality. A number of scholars are of the belief that reason and faith cannot yield conflicting outcomes, if each one is understood, and used in the right circumstances. Others hold the contrary opinion; conflicts between the two will always arise. The issue, in this regard, has always been 'which one, between the two, should prevail when a conflict arises?' Some advocate for the prioritizing of reason, and others, faith. Others, however, in appreciation of the different contexts within which the two are applicable, hold the view that, reason…… [Read More]
interview of Alex that is a strong advocate for education. He believes that education is not a top priority in the nation and that there are a lot of concerns that need to be addressed in order for it to get there such as the, four emerging themes that came out of his interview which were: Funding for schools, thinking logically and scientifically, socialization, and espect for different cultures. These themes were used in order to conduct a sound analysis of this interview
Alex have been retired for the past 12 years, and he considers himself to be more of a student than an educator now. In the last five years of my career, he was a public school administrator. Alex is now a student of politics and a student of technology. Alex does, however, teach others how to build computers and how to use technology as an educational tool.…… [Read More]
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…… [Read More]
The man we know as St. Paul was Paul of Tarsus. He is not a saint that everyone has felt comfortable. Many find him harsh, difficult and uncompromising. This is true not only, now but was so in the case of his early associates and later with the other saints of the Catholic Church including St. Peter, St. Mark, and St. Barnabas. The gentle St. James once even advised him to be more diplomatic and tactful. Still at the end of it all the other saints came to look upon him with reverence and affection and so is the case with anyone who gets to know him by the study of his epistles and the Acts of the Apostles. He is a person with an indomitable spirit, filled with so much of loyalty and affection for his friends that finally he removes all criticism and his tough exterior…… [Read More]
Greek bishops could also marry, although such alliances prevent them from rising in position in the church, where Roman priests took celibacy vows. Regarding doctrine, some could Latin approach as more practical and judicial, while the Greek was more speculative about the nature of the Godhead.
Martin Luther founded the Lutheran branch of Protestant Christianity. Luther rejected the authority of the Catholic Pope. The Bible alone was the ultimate authority for Luther. Salvation was by grace and by faith alone in Jesus Christ. Luther retained the sacraments of baptism, penance and Holy Communion and he held that in the Holy Communion the consecrated bread and wine are the Body and Blood of Christ
However, he rejected the ideas of purgatory, indulgences, invocation of the Saints, and prayers for the dead.
In contrast, while John Calvin also rejected the Pope, he believed that God alone could dispense salvation, holding to…… [Read More]
The story begins innocently enough with a young girl in a Scandinavian town who is poor, but she is also "pretty and dainty" (Andersen, 1845). The young girl attracts the attention of the village cobbler's wife who realizes that the girl does not have any pretty shoes to wear. The wife makes the girl some red shoes which she wears for the first time at her mother's funeral. A rich widow sees her and, upon finding that she has no other family, adopts her on the spot. The girl though the shoes were the cause of her good fortune, but the old woman hated them and had them burned. The story then turns to a new pair of shoes she must have for going out, and among many selections she selects a new pair of shiny, red leather shoes. The girl goes to church and has her first…… [Read More]
working through R. Paul Stevens' book, a reader is struck by how different this approach is to the ministry and the laity. In fact some of the ideas and passages are radically different from what one might expect in a book like this. The fact that Stevens places such enormous emphasis on laity is in fact refreshing to the reader; maybe it is special to me because my father was a minister and put tremendous faith in the lay "pastors" in our church. Those laypersons carried out many functions in the church that otherwise fall into the responsible hands of my father. But, in the bigger picture, all believers can be ministering to the world about the good news of Christianity. This is the overriding point in Stevens' work. It shouldn't be left up to the clergy alone to minister to the congregation and the community; in fact laypeople are…… [Read More]
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen. This invocation, accompanying the sign of the cross, marks the beginning and end of every Roman Catholic prayer. It has become synonymous with Catholicism -- a celebration of the crucifix as representative of the lessed Trinity. While, every good Catholic takes this Triumvirate for granted, it is left to theological scholars like Jurgen Moltmann to dissect and analyze the salient features of the Trinity. Is the Trinity a Pneumatological or Christological entity? Is it a combination of the two? Where is God in the scheme of Moltmann's thesis? The theoditic question challenged the omnipotence, omnipresence and omniscience of God in his relationship with man. Is this question revisited in relation to Jesus Christ as the carrier of the Holy Spirit during his life on earth? Moltmann presents a clear interpretation of the relationship between Christ and the Holy Spirit…… [Read More]
The modern Anglican Church is more specifically referred to as the Anglican Communion. It is an international association of national and regional Anglican Church, so instead of there being a single "Anglican" Church with universal authority and dominion over all Churches, each national or regional Church has full and complete autonomy. Historically, these Churches fall under full communion with the Church of England, or the Mother Church, and the specific titular head, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The status of "full communion" means, ideally that there is mutual agreement on several specific and basic doctrinal issues, and that full participation in each single Church's sacramental rubric is available and upheld by all Anglicans (The Anglican Communion Official Website, 2011).
Overall, the essential nature of the Anglican Communion is epitomized in the iblical passafe from John 1: This life is revealed, and we have seen it and testify to it,…… [Read More]
geniuses, history will never even be aware that most people even lived at all, much less that their lives had any real purpose, meaning or worth. All ideas of human equality and natural rights are just pious little myths and fables, since only a handful will ever have the talent and intelligence to be recognized as standing out from the anonymous masses. This world is a very cruel and Darwinian place in which only a handful achieve success and recognition, at least by the material and monetary standards that the capitalist system values so highly. In short, the majority of people who ever lived have simple been drones and worker bees, and if they have any talents or worth, few will ever notice them outside of their narrow little spheres of existence. Many people may have certain natural talents but make little effort to develop them, and through bad luck…… [Read More]
In his book, "Western Ways of eing Religious," (Kessler, 1999) the author Gary E. Kessler identifies the theological, philosophical and societal ramifications of the evolution of religion in the West. Christianity, Judaism and Islam can be traced to a single origin but their divergence has been very marked. Kessler sets his thesis very early in the book. He avers that there are two approaches to religion. One is to be immersed in it -- as a practitioner; the other is to study it as an objective observer, looking in from the outside. This work is unique. The author challenges the traditional notions with his own opinions then follows it with the views of an expert on that notion (in the form of a speech or an essay). He avers that a student of religion has to approach the topic with honesty and openness. This often involves imagining the…… [Read More]
In the London Baptist Confession of Faith of 1644, we see a confession of faith statement that is much closer to that of what modern day Baptists would find familiar. ith the coming and continuance of the English Civil ar, Baptists saw the need and took the opportunity to write down their own statement of faith. The document was written and signed by seven separate congregations that collaborated to write the document. The document's purpose was to differentiate the beliefs of the Particular Baptists from the General Baptists. This was to formally define the beliefs of the Particular Baptists as opposed to the General Baptists. hile not detailed, it was very clearly Calvinistic in tone. It rejected the notion that the law convicted of sin, claiming that the terrors of the law were not needed. They were not needed because the gospel alone has the power to do this. Secondly,…… [Read More]
This time period also marked a great deal of expansion for different European nations. This expansion occurred through the conquering of certain territories.
Machiavelli believed that great leaders had to possess certain attributes. He asserted that a "leader needs an analytical attitude without a sense of shame or guilt. Political calculation is required to control, rather than be victimized by events (Deluga, 2001)." In other words, a Machiavellian leader believes that the end justifies the means. These individual tend to have extremely charismatic personalities and that power to persuade large populations of people that there actions are justified.
The Machiavellian Leaders chosen for the purpose of this discussion will be Elizabeth I, Peter the Great and . Queen Elizabeth I was loved by the people of England to the extent that she had completely loyal subjects. She used her leadership qualities to defeat Spain. In addition she was…… [Read More]
Having been prosecuted in Europe, they were inclined to severe all ties with the continent and considered Africa their homeland. Since most other immigrants in Cape were also Calvinists -- members of the Dutch Reformed Church, the French Haguenots were readily accepted as part of a common community and were soon integrated into settler society by intermarriage. Their emphasis on a 'pure' form of Calvinism and self-sufficiency, however, influenced the development of the Afrikaner culture and way of life.
The Afrikaans Language
Afrikaans is the language of the white South Africans that was largely derived from the 17th century Dutch language. It is estimated that about seven million people in South Africa and Namibia speak some form of Afrikaans, although 'standard' Afrikaans is spoken mainly by the whites. Until the end of the "apartheid" in 1994, Afrikaans was the official language of government and education. It is now one of…… [Read More]
Jekyll does not eappea until Hyde is hunted down and fatally wounded. Besides helping to set the tone in geneal fo the book, binging the stoy of Jekyll and Hyde into his own tale of the hoos that dugs can cause, is pefect. Afte all, the wost we see about dugs is not necessaily Ronnie's use of them, but using them as a way to get people to debase themselves fo the amusement of othes. This single fact cannot be stessed had enough o often enough. Finlay Andews, and Malcolm Lanyon wee so much wose than poo, hooked Ronnie. They did it fo money: money and powe. They put togethe the club behind the club fo money and powe. They aleady had so much of both they didn't know what to with them and they still wanted moe. Add geed to the list of sins and hoos.
As the eades…… [Read More]
French omantic painter, Eugene Delacroix, is well-known from this period. Delacroix often took his subjects from literature but added much more by using color to create an effect of pure energy and emotion that he compared to music. He also showed that paintings can be done about present-day historical events, not just those in the past (Wood, 217). He was at home with styles such as pen, watercolor, pastel, and oil. He was also skillful in lithography, a new graphic process popular with the omantics. His illustrations of a French edition of Goethe's "Faust" and Shakespeare's "Hamlet" still stand as the finest examples in that medium.
Delacroix' painting "Massacre at Chios" is precisely detailed, but the action is so violent and the composition so dynamic that the effect is very disturbing (Janson, 678). With great vividness of color and strong emotion he pictured an incident in which 20,000 Greeks were…… [Read More]
In society today, we are bombarded with messages that suggest that our morality is driven by anything but the Bible. Indeed, turn on the television and images which are antithetical to Christ's word are everywhere, open the pages of a textbook and you will see pages upon pages of secular explanations of the existence of mankind; however, Matt Slick author of "What is a Christian Worldview? And Why Do We Need One?" warns us not to despair and that things are actually looking up for Christians. In fact, more people today derive his/her morals from God than did three hundred years ago. For example, in the 1700's, less than 20% of the American population went to church where now it is above 50% of the population (Slick). At this rate, in another 500 years, we will have attained a 100% participation rate!
The Christian conception of life and death and…… [Read More]
Thus, the fact that illa Cather employs flowers in her story does not necessarily suggest that Paul is different, and for symbolic value to emphasize the contrast between difference and similarity in the story. Paul's desire for flowers certainly emphasize his difference as he wears them when it seems less than appropriate, and their presence as a symbol is emphasized by the fact hat they accompany his major steps in the story (going to the suspension hearing, his meetings with Charley, his trip to New York, and his death), as well as the way they are used to contrast similarity or "everyday things" (Cather 19).
In addition to flowers, Paul's interest in dress and his dress itself can easily be seen as a sign of his homosexuality. Like the flowers, however, it can also quite easily be explained as a characteristic and symbol of his difference. In contrast to the…… [Read More]
The painting is shocking because of its dramatic perspective. First and foremost the table is not situated in the centre of the painting, nor is Jesus. In a symbolical manner this transmits the idea that God is no longer in the centre of man's world and this accounts for the chaos that seems to be omnipresent. The lower side of the painting is dominated by human figures and an atmosphere of panic and confusion seems to be dominating. The upper side of the painting is filled with angels. There is a clear separation lien between the scared world of the divine and the one of the people. The dark colours, as well as the composition succeeded into transmitting the desired message, managing to appeal to the viewer's emotions.
As opposed to the simplicity that the Protestants supported, a new style emerges, that is the aroque. This new artistic…… [Read More]
Gustavo Gutierrez did just that in Latin America, employing Marxist analysis to interpret the Jesus' teachings in the Gospel. Gutierrez founded Liberation Theology, which is, essentially, the twentieth century take on Violence and the Cross. Christ is viewed less as Redeemer and more as Liberator.
Evans discusses this same interpretation in black theology, which is, essentially, a continuation of Liberation Theology: "In spite of the ravages of their kidnapping and the disorientation that they endured, African slaves retained an outlook on their experience that continually reaffirmed their worth as individuals and as a people…The Jesus whom they encountered as they were exposed to the Bible was a caring and liberating friend who shared their sorrows and burdens" (12). Yet, in black theology, Jesus does not bring grace through suffering that can perfect one's nature and lead one's soul to Heaven (as classical theology insists); in black theology, Jesus is the…… [Read More]