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John Stuart Mill Essays (Examples)

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Middlemarch Text and John Stuart
Words: 1235 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20426322
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In this case, Mary would have acted precisely as she did, that is, pursuing her personal happiness and acting according to a pattern she had established before, that of being virtuous and always acting morally. In this case, the decision is plain and easy to take: Mary has to be virtuous so as to satisfy her own moral demands and ensure her emotional and spiritual comfort. Thus, she acts according to her pre-established set of rules.

Thus, Mary acts primarily, as she herself argues, so as not to 'soil' the beginning of her life. She feels that taking the money would save the old man because his own happiness and personal interest would be in giving the money away to anyone else besides his family: "I will not let the close of your life soil the beginning of mine. I will not touch your iron chest or your will."(Eliot, 411)…

Woman Question Float John Stuart
Words: 560 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19385440
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Thus, due to women's continued dependence on men in order to survive in society, women inadvertently helped create the thinking that they cannot survive and live within their own means, not without the help of society, most particularly, men. Mill's discussion of male-female relations may be blatantly honest in acknowledging women oppression, but his arguments were strong in that he was able to specifically determine the factor which made women suppressed by men (that is, socio-economical dependence).

Elizabeth Browning had been aware of the plight of the women sector in her society. While Mill's analysis showed that women were subjugated by men because they are dependent on males socio-economically, Browning's explication in the poem "Aurora Leigh" illustrated how oppression had been able to penetrate and affect the mindset of women, who feel that their oppression was inherent and part of being a woman. This was reflected in her assertion that…

Mill & Karl Marx Comparative
Words: 3184 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88110782
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Mill talked of ethical freedom in terms of all areas wherein individual and society interacts and become involved with each other; Marx utilized the same viewpoint, although specified it in terms of proletarian-bourgeoisie relations.

For Marx, ethical freedom is self-realization within the individual, and primary in this realization was the acknowledgment that one needs to be economically independent in order for modern individuals, and society in general, to function progressively. Ethical freedom is said to have been achieved if there will develop a new social order, identified as the "industrial proletariat," described to be the modern individuals, belonging to the previously identified proletariat class, who embodies "fresh moral and political idea, but one rooted in the world of material reality" (Morgan, 2005:392). In concrete Marxian terms, self-realization is an event that will occur only once the following elements have been abolished, as cited in "The Communist Manifesto": "representative government, bourgeois…

Bibliography

Barnett, V. (2005). "The Soviet economy -- an experiment that was bound to fail?" History Review.

Brennan, J. (2005). "Choice and excellence: a defense of Millian individualism." Social Theory and Practice, Vol. 31, No. 4.

Lovell, D. (2004). "Marx's utopian legacy." The European Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 5.

Marx, K. E-text of "The Communist Manifesto." Project Gutenberg E-texts.

John Mill and De Beaviour
Words: 2292 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40384682
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In other words De Beauvoir sees the opportunity of secretary, shop girl, teacher, or nurse as wholly unlikely to offer women a real sense of independence and will likely continue to be treated as temporary positions held until the woman is married, at which time she will likely give up this vocation (surrender her body) and tend to a family.

Mill like De Beauvoir speaks of the extreme vocation of the wife and mother as one that offers much work and little independence. He says that women already share a larger burden than men with regard to living and in addition, and by virtue of this, necessary and natural role of the woman as wife and mother she is but should not be further barred from interests that could make her a better person.

…in addition to the physical suffering of bearing children, and the whole responsibility of their care…

Works Cited

Mill, John Stewart, the Subjection of Women. New York, NY: D. Appleton and CO. 1869.

De Beauvoir, Simone, the Second Sex. New York, NY: Vintage Books 1989.

Mills Arguments
Words: 1386 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12448851
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Mills Arguements

Intrinsic Value of Liberty

There can be very few doubts as to the importance of liberty to the philosophical espousing of John Stuart Mill, who even authored a treatise entitled On Liberty to underscore the amount of emphasis he placed on this particular concept. What is most interesting about the many different notions the author has in relation to freedom is the circumscriptions that are routinely placed upon it in what is the age-old conflict between the individual and the group -- the latter of which routinely takes the form of government or some other determining mechanism of society. Not surprisingly, Mill presents a number of viewpoints that contradict the notion that the morality of the state should influence the personal opinions and actions of the individual, especially when the effects of those actions only resonate within the individual himself. The two most eminent of these arguments, of…

Mill and Kant- Morality Immanuel
Words: 1279 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73527550
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Courage, intelligence for example could be used for wrong purposes and hence it was important pre-requisite to have good will if an action was to be termed moral.

Intelligence, wit, judgment, and the other talents of the mind, however they be named, or courage, resoluteness, and perseverance as qualities of temperament, are doubtless in many respects good and desirable. But they can become extremely bad and harmful if the will, which is to make use of these gifts of nature and which in its special constitution is called character, is not good. (Kant 2: p 9)

John Stuart Mill on the other hand proposed a different theory of morality which stated that an action is right if it promotes happiness of the greatest number of people. In other words, if an action maximizes general happiness then it can be deemed moral. Mill felt that maximization of general happiness was the…

Works Cited

Kolak, Daniel. The Mayfield Anthology of Western Philosophy. Mountain View:

Mayfield Publishing Company, 1998.

McCloskey, H.J. John Stuart Mill: A Critical Study. London: Macmillan & Co.

Ltd., 1971.

Mill and the Individual in
Words: 1782 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 55152665
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To cultivate genius when it does appear, a society must be free for all, not just the recognized geniuses. or, as Mill more eloquently puts it, "it is necessary to preserve the soil in which they [geniuses] grow. Genius can only breathe freely in an atmosphere of freedom...If from timidity they consent to be forced into one of these moulds [of conformity]...society will be little the better for their genius" (on Liberty, 9). Mill uses the extreme example of genius to illustrate the general principle he has devoted this entire book to; namely, that individual liberty is essential for the progress of a society. In this particular facet of his argument, he uses the archetypal vision of the genius to add a concrete incarnation of what otherwise might be an abstract and abstruse concept. Instead, Mill's view of liberty is rendered strikingly clear by his use of logic and example.…

Mill & Charles Taylor's Concepts
Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3506313
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For him, it is also important to know that liberty, while dependent on the individual's decision alone, should also take into account the consequences that will come out upon the accomplishment of an action. That is, it is vital that the individual think of the 'bigger picture': will the action benefit the common good, or will it benefit my personal interests only? Positive liberty, hence, becomes more vital when it goes beyond thinking and speaking, and the individual engages in doing a particular activity, knowing that s/he has the freedom to do so. Mill posits on this issue, "The liberty of the individual must be thus far limited; he must not make himself a nuisance to other people...It is desirable, in short, that in things which do not primarily concern others, individuality should assert itself. Where, not the person's own character, but the traditions or customs of other people are…

Mill Kant Religion and Gay Marriage in
Words: 1605 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61367621
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Mill, Kant, Religion, And Gay Marriage

In theory, freedom and liberty for all appears to be an excellent concept, one which nearly everyone would embrace. However, the practice of this ideology is not always as halcyon as its theoretical mandate. Quite frequently, it is possible for there to be conflicts of interests presented due to the notion that everyone feels entitled to pursue that which he or she wishes. There are numerous examples of this intrinsic conflict of what essentially is a question of free will. One of the most salient of these examples can be illustrated in the issue of the rights of gays to pursue lawful marriage. On the one hand, various members of the gay and lesbian community believe that they should be legally permitted to engage in same sex marriages under their rights of freedom and the pursuance of their own respective happiness.

The conflict, of…

John Rawls Is Presented as a Justice Theorist
Words: 876 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 14407748
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John Rawls' theory…. In his book A Theory of Justice John Rawls offers readers a "Kantian Interpretation" of his "original position," according to an essay in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SAP). First, a review of Rawls' "original position" will set up the explanation of his Kantian link. Rawls posits (in his "original position") that in understanding his philosophy readers should imagine themselves as "…free and equal" and as willing to agree to "commit themselves to the principles of social and political justice" (SAP, p. 1). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy asserts that the "main distinguishing feature" of Rawls' "original position" is "the veil of ignorance" (SEP, p. 1). hat that means is that in order to be certain there is a total "impartiality of judgment, the parties are deprived of all knowledge of their personal characteristics and social and historical circumstances" (SEP. p. 1).

In the original position (the…

Works Cited

Brooks, Thom, and Freyenhagen, Fabian. (2005). The Legacy of John Rawls. New York:

Continuum International Publishing Group.

Piccard, Richard. (2003). A Theory of Justice, by John Rawls. Ohio University. Retrieved February 20, 2012, from  http://www.ohio.edu/people/piccard/entropy/rawls.html .

Rorty, Richard. (2007). Pragmatism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February

John Rawls and the Viability
Words: 1941 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60659878
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As Hampton (1997) points out, "By using this argument, awls hopes to persuade readers that he has good reasons for commending his theory as correct, without relying on undefended or ill-defined intuitions" (p. 140).

But is his theory really "correct?" Is it even conceivable to apply awls' principles of egalitarianism to a society in which competition is rampant and 'status' is the permanent engraving on the proverbial brass ring? Moreover, in this increasingly globally connected world, could awls' theory of justice be conceivably functional on an international level? Taking into consideration the idealistic nature of awls' suppositions, combined with the complex list of criteria that would need to be fulfilled in order for his vision to take shape, I would have deny the applicability of awls' philosophies to the 21st century. It is possible that his principles may have worked in the small villages of Colonial New England where communities…

References

Hampton, J. (1997) Political philosophy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press

Rawls, J. (1971) Theory of justice, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press

Rawls, J. (1994) Justice as fairness. Cited in Goodin, R.E. & Pettit, P. eds. (2006) Contemporary political philosophy: An anthology. Wiley-Blackwell, p. 194)

Shaw, W.H. (2007) Business ethics. Wadsworth Publishing.

Mill Place Any Limits on
Words: 1324 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69477803
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Every act happens at some time and in some place, and in like manner every act that we do either does or may affect both ourselves and others."

till others try to rebuff these objections, clarifying self-regarding acts and other-regarding acts.

J.C. Rees is at the helm of the counter-movement of interpretations, arguing that there is a distinguishable difference between actions that affect others and those that affect others' interests; he purports that it is the protection of other's interests to which Mill meant for liberty's limitation. Rees constructs a relativistic, conservative interpretation of liberty, in which the emphasis is placed on distinguishing interests from 'arbitrary wishes, fleeting fancies, and capricious demands." In his protection of the "permanent interests of man as a progressive being," Mill demands that the limitations of liberty extend to the interference of the protection of another citizen's own right to liberty.

The freedom of choice…

Stephens, Fitzjames. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. R.J. White, Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967. p. 28.

Rees, John C. "A Re-reading of Mill on Liberty." Political Studies. Vol. 8. (1960), also Ibid, "Was Mill for Liberty?" Political Studies. Vol. 14. (1966) and "The Thesis of the 'Two Mills.'" Political Studies. Vol. 25. (1977)

Rees in Radcliff, Peter. Limits of Liberty. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1966. p, 101.

Mill's Views on Higher and
Words: 546 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65288578
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Freedom and the root of utilitarianism are focused on providing society as a whole with happiness, not just a particular group of individuals in the social order. Mill risks generalizing at this point, as he is inclined to impose his point-of-view without expressing interest in what others want.

It would be normal for someone to want people to achieve happiness, but this is not necessarily the case in Mill's situation, as he believes that his happiness is general and that every person on earth needs to have access to concepts that make him happy. Even with the fact that he was aware of the importance of objective thinking, Mill failed to observe that his theory acted directly against it.

2. Humans have feelings and their lives are governed by various sentiments that they experience through their lives. Mill's theory can actually become simpler if one were to consider things from…

Mill on Liberty
Words: 1812 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77917009
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Freedom, Liberty, And Authority

homas Jefferson is attributed as saying "the price for freedom is constant vigilance." Only those who are willing to stake there reputation, their personal well being, their fortunes and their futures on the pursuit and defense of freedom are those who will have a guarantee of remaining free from the tyranny of those who would exchange the freedom for the freedom of minority at the expense of the majority. John Stuart Mills captured this idea 100 years after the original constitutional convention, Declaration of Independence and the Constitution recorded these and other words into the annals of history. Mills accurately captured the reason U.S. citizens are free, and the only means by which the can hope to remain such.

Mills begins in much the same way as Hamilton as he sets the stage for the path, and pursuit of freedom. He identifies that there exists in…

The Declaration of Independence, and constitution were built on the recognition that freedom and responsibility, to ourselves, to our fellow citizens, to our government and from our government to us is the cornerstone of life, and prosperity. Possibly this was part of the understanding of Patrick Henry when he gave his famous speech from St. John's Church in Richmond, Virginia in which he demanded "Give me liberty, or give my death." Our founding fathers lived an active faith that permeates every area of their activities. As such, there is no other framework to understand the interaction of faith, life, and political service but as a sacred duty to work for the well being of all men. Even if men did not embrace the same faith as the founding fathers, they committed their lives, property, and sacred honor in the pursuit of freedom, religious, political, cultural, and economic freedom for the entire nation's citizenry. This principle stood fast on our nation through successive attacks for over 150 years. It is not until recent decades that those who oppose freedom, in favor of giving power back to a few, have been able to breech the walls, and begin to tear down the freedoms, rights and responsibilities on which our country was founded.

One very simple principle"

Magazine article by Roger Kimball; New Criterion, Vol. 17, November 1998

Compare Mills to Wilson
Words: 1235 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1480256
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Mill and Wilson

Attempting to find any common ground between the moral and political philosophies of John Stuart Mill and Edward O. Wilson seems futile, given that their ideas are based on extremely different premises and assumptions. Wilson was a Darwinian evolutionist who argued that human culture, behavior and morality was mostly rooted in genetics -- in DNA that had evolved over millions of years -- while this idea would simply have been alien to Mill. Wilson was a determinist and reductionist who seemed to put a low premium on individualism, while for Mill the individual was absolutely free and sovereign, and could not be coerced of controlled unless he or she did harm to others. There simply is no room in such unlimited personal freedom in Wilson's philosophy which is more concerned with the survival and reproduction of the human species as a whole than with individuals. In any…

Ethics of Discarded Computers Discussed Is John
Words: 1071 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36445711
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ethics of discarded computers. Discussed is John Stuart Mill's philosophy.

Response scenario: I have just worn out my fourth computer. I love a high speed computer, but I feel guilty when I buy a new one. A new computer is my top priority for a purchase, and I begin saving for a new one almost as soon as I have purchased one. I know that many people are just like me. There must be junkyards full of computers. hy is there such a waste with hardware and software in the computer industry. Should I try to get by with less? Two sources are used. APA.

Computer Junkyards

Computer trash is certainly becoming a problem for societies everywhere. Some people try to make use of them by creating art, but that is a miniscule use of the millions of old computers one can see set out for the garbage men or…

Works Cited

Bergstrom, Bill. "Junked Computers Are Toxic Nightmare."

AP Online. May 7, 2000. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=AP_Online&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.ap.org&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=BILL+BERGSTROM%2C+AP+Business+Writer&title=Junked+Computers+Are+Toxic+Nightmare++&date=05%2D07%2D2000&query=discarded+computer+&maxdoc=60&idx=3.(accessed07-22-2002).

Fackler, Martin. "Chinese villages poisoned by American high-tech trash." AP Worldstream. March 01, 2002. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=AP_Worldstream&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.ap.org~S~&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=MARTIN+FACKLER%2C+Associated+Press+Writer&title=Chinese+villages+poisoned+by+American+high%2Dtech+trash++&date=03%2D01%2D2002&query=discarded+computer+&maxdoc=60&idx=5 accessed 07-22-2002).

Who Wins Plato or Mill
Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4157131
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Plato and Utilitarians

Plato and the Utilitarians do not conceive of the good life in the same manner. Plato, through the character of Socrates, teaches that the true good life can only be attained by dedicating oneself to the pursuit of the one, the good, and the true -- the universal transcendental values that, when possessed, made one pleasing to God. (Thus, one sees Socrates teaching his students that the way to happiness is to do the will of God, which he argues can be and must be objectively discernible). The Utilitarians under the direction of the philosopher John Stuart Mill, however, view the good life in a much more subjective way. They say that is good which makes one happy and that is bad which makes one unhappy. Pain is the dictator of what is good and bad, so if it causes one pain, it cannot be good, and…

Reference List

Mill, J.S. (1859). On Liberty. London: John W. Parker and Son, West Strand.

Ethical Behavior According to Mill
Words: 2008 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49235441
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Here, Aristotle recognizes the variances which appear
to define our establishment of the means to pursuing happiness, musing that
"the characteristics that are looked for in happiness seem also, all of
them, to belong to what we have defined happiness as being. For some
identify happiness with virtue, some with practical wisdom, others with a
kind of philosophic wisdom, others with these, or one of these, accompanied
by pleasure or not without pleasure; while others include also external
prosperity." (Aristotle, I: 8) Aristotle uses this as a divining rod for
dissecting the various relationships which are perpetuated amongst
individuals. His argument engages in the dialectical process to discern
that which is 'good' apart from that which is 'evil' or 'neutral.' Through
such an engagement, he achieves a satisfactorily defended notion of 'good':
"Aristotle identifies the distinctively human phenomenon of
action arising from reason as the function of the human being:…

Works Cited
Eliot, G. (1872). Middlemarch. Penguin Classics.
McNickle, D. (1936). Surrounded. University of New Mexico Press.
Rachels, James. (1993). The Utilitarian Approach. The Elements of Moral
Philosophy, pg. 91-101. New York: McGraw Hill.

Rachels, James. (1993). Kant and Respect for Persons. The Elements of
Moral Philosophy, pg. 127-138. New York: McGraw Hill.

Aristotle Mill & Kant on Emotion Ethics
Words: 555 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96408156
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Aristotle, Mill & Kant on emotion

Ethics and its role on Emotion of Pleasure: Views from Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, and J.S. Mill

Analyzing the ethics of emotion, especially feelings of pleasure, is contemplated upon by the great philosophers Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, and John Stuart Mill. Each philosophers have arguments about the ethics of human emotions; however, despite the differences in focus and discussion of this issue, all three philosophers that the path towards achieving happiness or emotion of pleasure is subsistence to individualism and rationalization of society. That is, Kant, Mill, and Aristotle emphasize the vital role that intellectual development plays in the achievement of happiness among individuals.

In Immanuel Kant's discussion of the ethics of emotion, he argues that feelings of pleasure should be generated morally and rationally -- that is, there is a conscious effort in the individual to achieve pleasure that is right not only for him/her…

Aristotle vs. Mill

The Greek philosopher Aristotle and John Stuart Mill agreed that the objective of morality was the pursuit of general happiness and the good life in society and in the individual. ut they deviated in the concept of, and the manner of arriving at, "the right thing to do," especially in reference to friendships. Mill held that actions are right in the proportion that they tend to promote that happiness and wrong, as they tend to promote unhappiness. He advocated the action/rule-based type of morality, which determined the goodness of an act according to the consequences of that act and independently of the doer's virtues or character traits (Fieser). This type directly opposes the virtue-based morality propounded by Aristotle, who believed that happiness as the ultimate end of existence that is sought for itself and not for any other end.

Aristotle contended that friendship is the greatest external…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Fieser, James. Moral Philosophy Through the Ages.  http://www.utm.edu/~/jfieser/vita/research/moralphil.htm 

2. Irwin, Terence, trans. Nicomachean Ethics. Second edition, UK: Hackett Publishing,1998

Plato's Platonism and J S Mill's
Words: 781 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68903488
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" This illustration is an exact explication of the kind of philosophy that Plato helped propagate in human society during his time, and still gained prominence and status as contending philosophies, to other philosophies of latter centuries. Rubinstein further stressed that Platonism thrives on the idea that human knowledge only becomes pure when it is more abstract; hence, knowledge explicated through concrete terms are considered as transmitted knowledge only, and is not considered the knowledge that humans will truly aspire for, and pursue as a purpose in life.

Criticisms against Platonism abound because of its inappropriateness and lack of responsiveness to the realities of human life and experience. Indeed, people cannot strongly subsist to the thought that knowledge in the most abstract form, because knowledge not utilized defeats the very purpose on why knowledge are generated, found, and developed -- to be used for human progress and self-development.

These criticisms…

Bibliography

Brennan, J. (2005). "Choice and excellence: a defense of Millian Individualism." Social Theory and Practice, Vol. 31, No. 4.

Rubinstein, E. (2006). "The philosophical spirit from Plato to Nussbaum." Commonwealth, Vol. 133, Issue 4.

On Liberty and the US Constitution
Words: 2791 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 1296870
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Mill and U.S. Constitution

None of the issues being raised today by the Occupy all Street (OS) movement are new, but rather they date back to the very beginning of the United States. At the time the Constitution was written in 1787, human rights and civil liberties were far more constrained than they are in the 21st Century. Only white men with property had voting rights for example, while most states still had slavery and women and children were still the property of fathers and husbands. Only very gradually was the Constitution amended to grant equal citizenship and voting rights to all, and even the original Bill of Rights was added only because the Antifederalists threatened to block ratification. In comparison, the libertarianism of John Stuart Mill in his famous book On Liberty was very radical indeed, even in 1859 much less 1789. He insisted that individuals should be left…

WORKS CITED

Dahl, Robert Alan. How Democratic is the American Constitution? Yale University Press, 2003.

Kaplan, Lawrence. S. Alexander Hamilton: Ambivalent Anglophile. Scholarly Resources, Inc., 2002.

Main, Jackson Turner. The Antifederalists: Critics of the Constitution, 1781-1788. University of North Carolina Press, 1989, 2004.

Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty. London, 1859.

Turn to Empire Imperial Liberalism and Its Critics
Words: 470 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48205893
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Mills on Liberty

John Stuart Mill's on Liberty

To whom does Mill's principle of liberty apply? To whom does it NOT apply? Mill justifies the liberty principle according to "the permanent interests of man as a progressive being" (On Liberty, p. 4). What are the strengths and weaknesses of this argument?

Liberty should apply to everyone with a few exceptions. First, liberty should only be granted to the extent in which this liberty does not harm another's liberty. This is known as the harm principle. People should be granted liberty however the right to liberty must stop when it hinders on someone else's well-being. The same principle can also be applied to help others prevent self-harm. For example, children and "backwards" people are unable to prevent self-harm to themselves when granted too much liberty. Therefore, Mill's believes that in such examples despotism is appropriate so long as the ruler is…

Mill's Fundamental Ideas That Pertain
Words: 752 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1408552
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Mill believes that it is impossible to be a great scientist, without having some feeling and sensitivity about the human condition given by the humanities, and someone learning the classics must understand the functioning of the modern world, to give what he or she is learning some significance.

How do the ideas on education of Locke, Jefferson and Mill relate to one another and to the importance of education for a democratic society such as our own?

Mill's stress upon holistic knowledge is essential for a citizen in a democracy -- today, a citizen must vote an elected official into office who can deal with the scientific complexities of global warming and healthcare, and can comprehend the intricacies of foreign cultures. To judge the knowledge base of our elected officials, citizens must also have a well-rounded basis of knowledge. That is why Thomas Jefferson believed so fervently in the need…

Social Psychology and the Perspectives
Words: 1940 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25591850
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Therefore, the person who chooses to suspend his interests to comply with those artificial externally-imposed social values for the benefit of others will ultimately always suffer disadvantage because others cannot be counted upon to do so consistently and in a meaningful way, at least not beyond the ability of the state to control and ensure.

To Freud, modern civilization provides various tangible benefits to the individual but only at a tremendous cost. While living in society and with the benefits of government protection against the uncontrolled expression of the selfish will of others is a benefit, the fact that our goals and values, and the component elements of our psychological personas are determined and shaped to such a great extent by external society generates much if not all of the psychological pain and trauma experienced by individuals.

Personal Response and Conclusion

There is substantial value as well as inherent weaknesses…

Happiness Principle ' Developed by Utilitarian
Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 78390479
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The morality of the act can be defended by the Utilitarian principle that the number of deaths (250,000+) caused by dropping the weapons of mass destruction over Hiroshima and Nagasaki was less than the deaths that would have been caused by a land invasion of Japan ("John Stuart Mill").

However, despite the considerable improvement and sophistication provided by Mill to the philosophy of Utilitarianism and the practical usefulness of the 'greatest happiness principle' the theory still suffers from serious flaws.

Dr. Ruut Veenhoven, a professor of Erasmus University, Rotterdam, for instance points out in an article that the 'greatest happiness principle' is particularly problematic when applied at the level of individual choice. This is because we cannot usually foresee the consequences of our actions or whether they would produce happiness or pain but paradoxically the Utilitarian theory deems well-intended behavior to be a-moral if it happens to pan out adversely.…

Works Cited

John Stuart Mill." Great Philosophers: Oregon State University Website. 2002. November 6, 2008.  http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl201/modules/Philosophers/Mill/mill.html 

Fox, James. "Utilitarianism." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. November 6, 2008.  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15241c.htm 

Garth Kemerling. "Utilitarianism." Philosophy Pages. February 21, 2002. November 6, 2008.  http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/5q.htm#lib 

Veenhoven, Ruut. "Happiness as an Aim in Public Policy: The Greatest Happiness Principle."

How important is the idea of equality to each theorist
Words: 1911 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63683326
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John Stuart Mill and the idea of equality

Society typically views the triad nexus of politicians, bureaucracies and the financial elite suspiciously, believing they breach the common man’s rights, and, consequently, strives to ensure they behave as it desires. Mills argues, “the government, whether completely responsible to the people or not, will often attempt to control the expression of opinion, except when in doing so it makes itself the organ of the general intolerance of the public (pg. 376).”

The above societal attitude is understandable as this triad nexus has violated people’s will and freedom. As a result, democracies were created in which the common man is allowed to take part in national decision-making. However, in a democratic system the community will govern governmental decisions, giving rise to a self-governing nation. However, Mills warns and asserts that in democratic systems, public opinion (i.e., the majority’s opinion) quells the minority’s views…

Breaking Social Conventions to Achieve
Words: 1233 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25507625
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All the moralities tell them that it is the duty of women, and all the current sentimentalities that it is their nature, to live for others; to make complete abnegation of themselves, and to have no life but in their affections.

This passage reflects McCann's (2004) analysis of the liberty of an individual as elucidated in Mill's discourses. Mill's comparison of voluntary slavery to women subjugation was also utilized in his analysis of human liberty, wherein he asserted that this practice was synonymous with the 'violation of...fundamental tenets of liberty...voluntary, free choice ceases to exist...the individual "abdicates his liberty" (56). What McCann's analysis revealed was that women subjugation had become deeply integrated in 19th century society, thereby creating the social order wherein submission to male domination and power became voluntary and was tolerated. In the process of voluntarily submitting to patriarchy and male domination, women, in turn, lose their right…

Bibliography

Hamburger, J. (1999). John Stuart Mill on liberty and control. NJ: Princeton UP.

McCann, C. (2004). Individualism and the social order: the social element in liberal thought. NY: Taylor & Francis.

Mill, J.S. (1869). E-text of "The Subjection of Women." Available at  http://www.constitution.org/jsm/women.htm .

Stafford, W. (2004). "Is Mill's 'liberal' feminism 'masculinist'?" Journal of Political Ideologies, 9 (2).

Aristotelian Sense There Are Nearly
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Mill believed that any act may itself be inherently moral, so long as the outcome of that action produces a benign effect. Mill believed that the most ethical act is that which produces the most good, even if the act itself is one which is traditionally considered evil. An example of utilitarian philosophy would include the killing of innocent animals to determine a cure for some infectious disease. And while there are components of this philosophy that would certainly align with Aristotle's definition of ethics, it seems difficult to picture the latter condoning any method to achieve moral behavior, particularly in regards to the following quotation from Nichomachean Ethics. "A man will not live like that by virtue of his humanness, but by virtue of some divine thing within him. His activity is as superior to the activity of the other virtues as this divine thing is to his composite…

Works Cited

Aristotle. Nicomachan Ethics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011. Print.

Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. Indianapolis: Hacket Publishing, 1994. Print.

Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty. New York: Penguin Classics, 1985. Print.

Minch, Michael and Weigel, Christine. Living Ethics. Washington: Thomson, 2008. Print

Personal Freedom and Also the
Words: 3796 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35976679
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Mill agrees that the mischief a person does to himself can affect others, and he finds that it is right to bring to bear moral disapprobation,

henever there is a definite damage, the case moves out of the province of liberty and into that of morality or law. ith reference to that which is merely contingent, however, society can afford to bear the inconvenience (Magid 799-800).

Mill in his work on Liberty proposed a simple principle for determining whether society has a right to limit individual freedom, a principle based on utilitarian concepts and applicable to the individual in his or her dealings with society. that principle can be stated as follows:

The only thing of ultimate value is the happiness of individuals, and individuals can best achieve their happiness in a civilized society when they are left free to pursue their own interest with their own talents as these…

Works Cited

Carlyle, Thomas. Past and Present. The Gutenberg Project (27 Sept 2004). July 16, 2007.  http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/13534 .

Himmelfarb, Gertrude. On Liberty and Liberalism. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1974.

Kelly, J.M.A Short History of Western Legal Theory. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1992.

Magid, Henry M. "John Stuart Mill." In History of Political Philosophy, Leo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey (eds.), 798-802. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Tolerance and Its Limits
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Tolerance

Global terrorism has changed the entire spectrum of tolerance in today's world. Highlighted by the events of 9/11 the facts that even the world's most powerful nation was not immune to the effects of terrorism brought home the fact that there was little defense to the acts of terrorists. The age of innocence in the United States had ended and the rest of the world waited to see how the United States would react (Schorow 2002).

Terrorism has been a part of the world framework for some time but in the United States it had been something that occurred somewhere else. It was not anything that those living within the borders of the United States had to be concerned with. Those types of problems existed elsewhere. In America everyone was safe: until 9/11. 9/11 forced Americans to look at terrorism in a different light and to examine the roots…

References

Blake, Michael. "Religion and Statecraft: Tolerance and Theocracy: How Liberal States Should Think of Religious States." Journal of International Affairs, Fall/Winter 2007: 1-17.

Stetson, Brad and Joseph G. Conti, The Truth about Tolerance: Pluralism, Diversity, and the Culture Wars. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2005.

Hinkson, John. "In the name of freedom: is the legacy of September 11 a global anti-liberal ascendancy?" Arena Magazine, February 1, 2002.

Hoodbhoy, Pervez. "The United States and Islam:toward perpetual war?(Views from Russia, Pakistan, Malaysia, and China." Social Research, December 22, 2005.

Positive Discrimination -- Do We Need It
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Positive Discrimination -- Do We Need it?

For centuries, the global community has strived to eliminate discrimination against minority groups. For centuries, women had been emotionally and/or physically abused; they were prohibited from voting and working. Today, they are allowed to work outside the household, but they are still paid less than their male counterparts. Additionally, the responsibility of raising the children and completing the household chores remains heavily preponderant among the female categories.

The women represent one of the most obvious categories of people discriminated against; but they only represent a mere fraction of the overall population subjected to discrimination. And the grounds for the discrimination are multiple, to include anything and everything from gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, political and religious appurtenance, age or disability.

The modern day society is making intense efforts to ensure that discrimination is eliminated -- or at least decreased to the minimum level…

References:

Barnes, C., Disabled people in Britain and discrimination: a case for anti-discrimination legislation, (1991)

Bentham, J., Jeremy Bentham to his fellow-citizens of France, on houses of Peers and Senates, (1830)

Carr, E.A., Attitudes toward and knowledge of affirmative action in higher education, (2007)

Edwards, J., Batley, R., The politics of positive discrimination: an evaluation of the Urban Programme, 1967-77, (1980)

History of Economic Thought Mercantilist
Words: 2556 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47524446
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It offers a good theory as it emphasizes on the production and export of those items for which a country possesses a comparative advantage. Furthermore, through its focus on the reduction of taxes and tariffs in international trade and the adherent practices, the theory of comparative costs has set the basis for the contemporaneous processes of market liberalization and globalization.

But the theory has not been spared from criticism. Oumar Bouare states that "the market price of a commodity does not converge toward its natural price. (Then) the outcome of complete specialization in icardo's framework locks third world and developing countries out of industrialization; and free trade could destroy the industrial base of a country, which in the long run could generate more wealth for the country than an imported product. This might also lock the country out of industrialization." b) in 1848, utilitarian economist John Stuart Mill wrote the…

References

Bancroft, S., Clough, C.W., Economic History of Europe, Heath, 1952

Berdell, J.F., Adam Smith and the ambiguity of nations, Review of Social Economy, Volume 56, 1998

Bouare, O., an Evaluation of David Ricardo's Theory of Comparative Costs: Direct and Indirect Critiques, Retrieved from Policy Innovations

http://www.policyinnovations.org/ideas/policy_library/data/01445on March 6, 2008

Abortion Philosophy the Utilitarian Debate
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Such prohibition, Bentham contended, would be a contradiction to the preservation of individual rights. He even goes so far as to signal the necessity for a change in approach to contending with any questions regarding the prescription of rights, here channeled through the words of John Stuart Mill. The remarks seem directed in their derisive tone at the unempirical thinkers espousing the Law of Nature as a singular lens for evaluating human rights.

"Instead of taking up their opinions by intuition, or by ratiocination from premises adopted on a mere rough view, and couched in language so vague that it is impossible to say exactly whether they are true or false, philosophers are now forced to understand one another, to break down the generality of their propositions, and join a precise issue in every dispute." (Mill, 1)

Guided by the central principle that morality may defined as the creation, extension…

Works Cited:

California Medical Association (CMA). (1973). Where We Stand -- CMA Position Papers: Abortion. Western Journal of Medicine, 116(6), 42-59.

Mill, J.S. (1838). Bentham. London and Westminster Review. Online at  http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/bentham/bentham 

Rachels, J. (1993). The Utilitarian Approach. The Elements of Moral Philosophy, pg.

91-101. New York: McGraw Hill.

Identification You Have Been Given
Words: 2981 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 58729326
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Please see "Stake Holder: The Taliban" for more information regarding virtue ethics.

The farmers who are growing poppy plants have a logical stake in this moral dilemma as well. If their crops are destroyed they will have no alternative but to join the Taliban to help settle their debts. They are in a precarious position where they are often forced to grow poppies because they are a very lucrative and traditional cash crop. Their history and culture will be severely affected if their livelihood is destroyed as well. If they functioned as utilitarians, the farmers would look for another alternative to growing poppies or perhaps request a government subsidy since their poppy production kills millions worldwide who abuse their drugs. The farmers likely do not have access to this information however, which makes their position even harder to justify.

Stakeholder:

The Afghan People

Utilitarianism- Principle. See "Stakeholder: The United States…

Home Midterm ECO54 Spring 2008
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Smith believed this would lead to inefficiency.

However, unlike Plato, Smith did not believe that the ideal republic should decide from birth what occupation an individual should follow, rather that the individual must freely choose by his or her own will, how to direct his or her energies and labor in the most efficient and self-interested fashion, which would ultimately result in the advancement of the nation as a whole. Plato's social structure, although not based upon birth, was still based upon a monopoly of philosophers dictating the lives of others according to their state-generated power, unlike Smith's more democratic ideals. Smith's analysis more perfectly echoes that of illiam Petty, who stressed how breaking down tasks, like Smith's pin-manufacturing plant, could generate higher levels of efficiency in economic production. Petty also placed a strong emphasis, as did Smith, upon the vital need of a nation to practice free trade.

Question…

Works Cited

Adam Smith (1723-90)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. 1999. 8 Mar 2008.  http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Smith.html 

David Ricardo." The New School. 8 Mar 2008. http://cepa.newschool.edu/het/profiles/ricardo.htm

Economics." Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia. 2007. 8 Mar 2008. http://encarta.msn.com.

Mill, John Stuart. Principles of Political Economy. Library of Economics and Liberty.

Political Science History
Words: 6252 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80408978
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conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement

Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.

Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…

Bibliography

George Nash, The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945  http://www.nationalreview.com/22dec97/mcginnis122297.html . National review online The Origins of Conservatism George Mc Ginnis

Volume Library #2, p. 2146

Schneider, Cadres for Conservatism

McGinnis, National Review Online

Mercantilist School To What Extent
Words: 2521 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91620383
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Therefore, a country which is able to produce one good with a lower opportunity cost than another country, should specialize in producing that good which will turn into a competitive advantage.

However, when assessing this theory at the level of international trade, it is harder to depict the competitive advantages. The model may seem to be unrealistic. The resources employed in real world are not restrained to labor and the markets in which the goods are supplied are not perfectly competitive. Moreover, there may be countries able to specialize in the production of one or several goods and other countries unable to find any competitive advantage. Other disadvantages are the ones assembled when trying to form a general framework of the labor costs. Due to the fact that these costs are similar within the boundaries of a certain country and vary from one country to another, it is problematical to…

Bibliography

LaHaye, Laura. "Mercantilism." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. The Library of Economics and Liberty. 11 Mar. 2007  http://www.econlib.org/library/enc/Mercantilism.html 

Mercantilism." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05. 11 Mar. 2001  http://www.bartleby.com/65/me/mercanti.html 

Biography of Adam Smith (1723-90)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. The Library of Economics and Liberty. 11 Mar. 2007 http://www.econlib.org/Library/Enc/bios/Smith.html

Korten C., David. "The Betrayal of Adam Smith." When Corporation Rule the World, 2nd Edition. 11 Mar. 2007  http://www.pcdf.org/corprule/betrayal.htm

Record Medical Administration Service for File Rationale
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ecord

Medical Administration Service for File

ationale in Support of Selection of Heart Transplant ecipient

Because time was of the essence in formulating this decision, this memorandum for the record sets forth the decision-making process and that was used to select the most appropriate candidate for a heart transplantation procedure. It was my responsibility as lead surgeon to select the most appropriate heart transplant recipient from a pool of three candidates, each of whom had suffered from several health-related issues that adversely affected their suitability for the transplant procedure. Therefore, in order to formulate as subjective an analysis as possible in a timely fashion, a utilitarian ethical analytical approach was used to identify the candidate that held the most promise of using the gift of additional life from the heart donor to its maximum advantage. The utilitarian ethical analysis showed that of the three potential heart transplant candidates, the 12-year-old…

References

Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (1989, Winter). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Issues in Ethics, 2(1), 37.

Hollingsworth, J.A., Hall, E.H. & Trinkaus, R.J. (1991). Utilitarianism: An ethical framework for compensation decision making. Review of Business, 13(3), 17-19.

Rosen, F. (2003). Classical utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. London: Routledge.

Foundational Skills Graduate Program If Trouble Translating
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foundational skills graduate program. If trouble translating ideas paper, evaluate analysis ideas. Clear, structured, concise writing free grammar spelling errors essential. For discussion, read writing sample provided propose improve writing.

Critiquing a piece of writing: Death penalty response

Perhaps the first, most obvious critique of this piece of writing is that the author's position on the issue of capital punishment is extremely unclear. The author begins by stating that America is one of the only nations in the world that still executes its citizens, suggesting he or she is opposed to the death penalty. The author compares the U.S. To ussia and China, two nations with terrible human rights records. True, if ussia and China continue to execute criminals, this hardly speaks well of the practice -- but the author at first seems to imply that the U.S. is worse than these two nations, stating that the U.S. executes more…

References

Dieter, Richard. (2009). Smart on Crime. Death penalty information center.

Retrieved November 13, 2010

 http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/documents/CostsRptFinal.pdf 

History of the death penalty. (2010). Death penalty information center.

Terry Schiavo the Case of
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The direct harm the other individual ultimately determines the rightness or wrongness of the individual's actions and decisions.

Applied in the Schiavo case, deontology then considers the decision to deprive Schiavo of the feeding tubes that sustains her life as not a permissible act. It is true that with Schiavo's death, both her husband and family will not be aggrieved or directly harmed with her death; instead, both parties will feel relief with the eventual decision to 'end' Schiavo's physical suffering. Her death will not cause any detriment to the lives of her husband and family, making Schiavo's death ethical, to the extent that it relieved Schiavo from the physical suffering she experiences, and her family from worrying about her condition and the continuous financial burden they experienced as a result of her prolonged hospitalization. However, despite these arguments, the decision to discontinue her life support was made by her…

Politics Culture and Human Nature
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Mill take issue with the Puritans? Explain.

Famed government theoretician John Stuart Mill took great exception with the Puritans who traveled to the New orld in order to start a community based upon similar fanatical religious beliefs. The reason that he took such issue with the Puritans is that they used religion as a basis of government but worse than this they used that religious intolerance in order to oppress and marginalize others. The Puritans made their laws based upon the assertion that their restriction encouraged moral behavior, but in doing so they took away each person's right to make individual choices. Mill wrote, "ith respect to what is said of the necessity of protecting society from the bad example set to others by the vicious or the self-indulgent; it is true that bad example may have a pernicious effect, especially the example of doing wrong to others with impunity…

Works Cited

Douglass, Frederick. "Oration in Memory of Abraham Lincoln." N.p. n.d. Web. 18 March. 2013.

El-Shabazz, El-Hajj Malik (Malcolm X). "The Ballot or the Bullet." N.p. n.d. Web. 18 March.

2013.

Goldman, Emma. "Anarchism: What it Really Stands For." Print.

Business as Defined by the
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Robert Nozick's Entitlement Theory asserts that free market exchanges are manifestations of society's respect for people as equal -- an economic phenomenon that is given a moral dimension/explanation. This theory is hinged on three principles: transfer principle, acquisition principle, and rectification principle. The first principle holds the argument that all holdings or properties freely acquired from others are considered justly acquired. In the same vein of argument, the second principle posits that people are entitled to have holdings/properties, so long as they are acquired in a just manner. Lastly, an "injustice" committed can be rectified by giving the property back to its rightful owner (i.e., a property unjustly acquired can be corrected by returning it back to the original owner/first owner).

John Rawls' theory of distributive justice contains within its argument the principles of liberty and difference. In his theory, Rawls argues that the principles of justice determine how the…

Social Psychology and the Beliefs
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According to Freud, human societies require people to give up many of their most natural instincts and to replace their natural desires with the need to satisfy the "false standards of measurement" such as the "power, success and wealth [that they seek] for themselves and admire & #8230; in others, and that [as a result,] they underestimate what is of true value in life." Fred suggested that the need to live up to the standards and expectations set by society causes "too many pains, disappointments and impossible tasks" and that "to bear it we cannot dispense with palliative measures." By that, Freud meant that all of the psychological mechanisms, substitutions, and escapes that cause psychological problems and that often prevent human happiness. These ideas introduced by Freud about the psychological price paid by people living in society would later be part of the views of several other 20th century sociological…

Ghandi the Recent Turmoil in
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The end result of Swaraj remains key to Satyagraha, however. Just as Kant and Mills championed the rights of individuals over the rights of governments, so too did Gandhi. Gandhi's philosophy was never intended to create a political state or states on the subcontinent. Instead Gandhi sought to actually and symbolically liberate the individual Indian from an oppressive state of being. The average Indian was beholden both to the Raj and also to a socially stratified, outmoded society that hindered religious and personal freedom.

Thus, liberation was to be experienced not only in the liberation of Indians from colonial rule but also in the liberation of Indians from the caste system. To Gandhi, colonialism poisoned the individual spirit and prohibited personal liberty. Overthrowing colonialism could never have depended on Duragraha, political protest borne of anger. Satyagraha is the only ethical means to accomplish the goals of liberation. Gandhi was also…

Fairness in Hiring and Promotion
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All organizations and business have some form of ethical culture to carry out their goals, which cannot be inconsistent with the aims of utilitarianism. All organizations aim at the pleasure of achieving or creating something. This line of thought can be strictly infused into the awareness of employees during meetings or seminars. The goals of the theory may also be infused into new employees as part of their orientation. Existing employees may be promoted on the basis of their best contribution to organizational goals and the welfare of fellow employees. These are measurable criteria and a source of motivation to other employees.

The utilitarian theory necessarily states that it is an employee's duty to perform and behave in the best possible way to benefit the business, fellow employees, society and himself or herself. Consequently, he or she has the right to expect the same benefits from the organization, fellow employees,…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Gilani, N. (2011). Utilitarianism in the workplace. eHow: Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved

on November 30, 2011 from http://www.ehow.com/info8785999_utilitarianism-workplace.html

Lamont, J. (2007). Distributive justice. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Stanford

University. Retrieved on November 30, 2011 from  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/justice-distributive