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John inthrop and Ralph . Emerson
Utopia refers to a visualized state or place of welfare, which is comprised of goodness and freedom from all threats of negative conditions and probable failures. Following this description of 'utopia', a Utopian orld thus, may refer to a universe that is free from all physical, economic and social constraints that bring disunity, poverty, hunger and all sources of unhappiness in the society. Though different people have toiled to make the world a peaceful and lovely place for living, not everybody enjoys the good life that is full of happiness and prosperity. There are several limitations to life's well-being, such as diseases, differing personalities, limited resources and lack of technical know-how to exploit the available resources. Utopian ideology is established on the desire to have an ideal society that is free from criminality and that which promotes peaceful coexistence, prosperity, and well-being of the…
Koch, Daniel R. Ralph Waldo Emerson in Europe: Class, Race, and Revolution in the Making of an American Thinker. London: I.B. Tauris, 2012. Print
Moylan, Tom, and Raffaella Baccolini. Utopia Method Vision: The Use Value of Social Dreaming. Bern: Peter Lang AG, 2007. Print.
These conditions were evident in a letter to his wife, where inthrop described wintertime as "weather being cold and the waters perilous," and the difficulty of finding logs to burn for warmth.
The Puritan colonies survived, due in large part to inthrop's efforts at both instilling this culture of discipline, and in addressing any growing factionalism within the ranks. Such actions have indeed been a double-edged sword, for they planted the seeds for suffering, they also ensured that the colony endured and later, flourished. In this way, inthrop played a largely forgotten role in the founding of this country.
Bremer, Francis J. 2003. John inthrop: America's Forgotten Founding Father. New York: Oxford University Press.
Morgan, Edmund S. 1958. The Puritan Dilemma: The Story of John inthrop. New York: Little, Brown and Company.
inthrop, John. 1630, "A Model for Christian Charity." Hanover Historical Text Project. Available online at http://history.hanover.edu/texts/winthmod.html…
Bremer, Francis J. 2003. John Winthrop: America's Forgotten Founding Father. New York: Oxford University Press.
Morgan, Edmund S. 1958. The Puritan Dilemma: The Story of John Winthrop. New York: Little, Brown and Company.
Winthrop, John. 1630, "A Model for Christian Charity." Hanover Historical Text Project. Available online at http://history.hanover.edu/texts/winthmod.html
Winthrop, Robert C. 1869. Life and letters of John Winthrop: governor of the Massachusetts-Bay Company at their emigration to New England, 1630. Boston. Available as an electronic resource via the American Law Biography Database
Employment -- the Morality of the Contract between Employee and Employer
Before entering into a contract for employment, an employees' first concern is usually to gain a living wage, then to gain experience in a particular profession, and perhaps finally to gain advancement within a particular corporate structure, industry, or trade. An employer's main concern in hiring an employee is usually if the employee can perform the job the employee is being hired to perform, if he or she will be deserving of the wage he or she is will be paid, and if he or she will stay for the necessary hours and period of time. However, once the employee has made a commitment to work and the employer has made a commitment to pay the employee for a period of time, the relationship and ratio of obligations invariably grows murkier. hat obligation does the employer have…
Franklin, Benjamin "From the Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin" Retrieved on April 5, 2005 at http://www.wwnorton.com/secure/tindall/ch3/resources/documents/franklin.htm .
Franklin, Benjamin. "Benjamin Franklin, How I became a printer in Philadelphia" http://www.ku.edu/carrie/docs/texts/franklin_how.html
Locke, John. "Two Treatises of Government" (1690) Retrieved on April 5, 2005 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1690locke-sel.html .
Winthrop, John "A Modell of Christian Charity" (1630) Retrieved on April 5, 2005 at http://history.hanover.edu/texts/winthmod.html .
WALSH V. WINTHOP
case of Walsh v. Winthrop
Walsh v. Winthrop: Alleged housing discrimination
In the case of Walsh v. Winthrop, John Walsh, the CEO of a chain of skin care salons, brought forth a suit when he was denied the ability to buy a ground-floor apartment unit that was part of an exclusive cooperative apartment complex. The board members stated he "would not reasonably coalesce as a member of the cooperative community" (Estes 2008). Walsh claimed that the actions of the co-op were a case of class discrimination. "Walsh claimed he was snubbed by wealthy Brahmin apartment owners who dominate the board at 68 Beacon St. because of his humble roots and Irish descent. The board is led by Jonathan Winthrop, a descendant of Massachusetts governor John Winthrop" (Estes 2008). Of course, the days of 'No Irish' allowed signs are long gone in Massachusetts but Walsh stated the prejudice…
Bailey, S. (2006). An American Dream denied. The Boston Globe. Retrieved from:
Estes, A. (2008). Luxury co-op pays $2.2m settlement: Cosmetics mogul alleges realty snub.
The Boston Globe. Retrieved from:
What is America's role in the world? Considering that America was in many ways founded experimentally, it is only natural to imagine that outside observers are constantly looking to America as an example or a source of guidance. In particular, America's early status as an experiment in religious tolerance has led to the popularity of the phrase and image of "the city on a hill." Derived from Jesus Christ's Sermon on the Mount -- where Christ tells his followers "You are the light of the world. A city that is set on a hill cannot be hidden" (Matt. 5:14) -- the notion of America as both a model and a source of immense scrutiny is popular even to this day. In this paper I would like to examine three ways in which the notion of America as a "city on a hill" was persuasive in the period of…
Whilst I talk, some poor farmer drudges & slaves for me" (Journals 9: 126). He feels that a real reformer is the one who would refuse to purchase or use slave-produced goods and in this regard he noted: "Alas! alas! my brothers, there is never an abolitionist in New England" (Journals 9:128).
Thus reform though it has been an important subject has often elicited different responses from thinkers and writers. While some connected it with religion, others completely kept religion away from it. Winthrop's brand of reform is not only different from Emerson's but the former will never find any endorsement of his views in the writings of Emerson's. The latter was more involved and interested in individualistic reform that focused on change within one's self instead of institutionalized change. The different in thinking can be attributed to the different time periods in which they composed their thoughts.
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. The Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks of Ralph Waldo Emerson. Ed. Merton M. Sealts, Jr. Vol. 5. Cambridge: Belknap P. Of Harvard UP, 1965.
The Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks of Ralph Waldo Emerson. Ed. Ralph H. Orth and Alfred R. Ferguson. Vol. 9. Cambridge: Belknap P. Of Harvard UP, 1971.
New England Reformers." 1844. Essays First and Second Series. New York: Vintage Books, 1990. 361-79.
Johnson, Linck C. "Reforming the Reformers: Emerson, Thoreau, and the Sunday Lectures at Amory Hall, Boston." ESQ 37.4 (1991): 235-89.
It is difficult to imagine the kinds of unfair discrimination that was wrought against women, witches, and anyone else who did go along with the status quo. However, in inthrop's situation, the matter of survival was so acutely important that a strong-fisted rule was thought to be necessary.
He expresses, more than once, in the trial transcript his fears that the entire colonial civilization could fall over this one woman's outspoken beliefs. Banishment was the only appropriate punishment, since it would remove her from the small, sealed world of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and ensure that she could not sway peoples' minds toward this outrageous idea of grace.
It is almost comical to consider that now, in 2008, we see crowds of Christians waving their hands in the air to feel the grace of God, an experience they believe is attainable simply through their faith. This is the exact kind…
Ayto, John Dictionary of Word Origins, Arcade Publishing, New York: 1990.
Hawthorne, John the Scarlet Letter, Bantam Classics, New York: 1981
Kerber, Linda K. And Sherron DeHart Women's America, Refocusing the Past. Oxford University Press. New York: 1995
Young, Ralph, Ph.D. Dissent in America, the Voices That Shaped a Nation. Pearson/Longman, Publishers. New York: 2006
There are many examples in the literature of the intention and purpose of the early colonists to eradicate the Indian population. The genocidal intentions against the indigenous population of America do not however begin with the English colonists, but starts with Columbus. The following quotation refers to his second voyage to the New World.
Columbus took the title "Admiral of the Ocean Sea" and proceeded to unleash a reign of terror unlike anything seen before or since. When he was finished, eight million Arawaks -- virtually the entire native population of Hispaniola -- had been exterminated by torture, murder, forced labor, starvation, disease and despair.
Genocide of the American Indian Peoples)
Historian David Stannard also states quite categorically that "the destruction of the Indians of the Americas was, far and away, the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world." (Genocide of the American Indian Peoples) The…
Dorris M.A. The Grass Still Grows, the Rivers Still Flow: Contemporary Native Americans. September 19, 2005. http://www.alaskool.org/projects/native_gov/documents/Contemp_Natives/Contemp_Nativ_Americans.htm
Franks, C.E.S. In search of the savage sauvage: an exploration into North America's s political cultures. American Review of Canadian Studies; 12/22/2002;
Freedman, Monroe H., and Eric M. Freedman. Group Defamation and Freedom of Speech: The Relationship between Language and Violence. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995.
Genocide of the American Indian Peoples. Freespeech.org Accessed September 3, 2005. http://free.freespeech.org/americanstateterrorism/usgenocide/IndianPeoples.html
Another manifestation of the paradox is the confrontation with Anne Hutchinson. She promoted the ideals of Arminianism and Antinomianism. Arminianism was the specific paradigm that Winthrop was to deal with in this reagard. Arminianism entailed the belief that God could be influenced in order to secure salvation by preparing oneself for its receipt. Antinomianism is nearly the opposite of the above, entailing the belief that God's predetermined salvation grants permission to be however sinful one wishes. Goodness or sinfulness have no meaning in the yes of God. Thus the one philosophy holds that one group of persons should feel superior to another, while the latter is a form of nihilism. Both extremes however is not good for any society.
Finally, Winthrop's dilemma relates to the position of his established city towards to foreign states, perceived as more corrupt than the Puritan "City on the Hill" founded by Winthrop. Winthrop showed…
He seems to think, from his closing remarks, that the colony had little purpose in those early days beyond mere survival, which would have been impossible without him.
William Bradford also wrote is account of the Plymouth landing and the colony founded thereabouts in the third person, but he is not nearly as self-aggrandizing as Smith. His account is not exactly humble though, but rather speaks with a certain religious authority that comes perhaps in part from the years between the actual events and Bradford's writing about them. The purpose for the colony, as he seems to see it, was to establish a place where God would receive due reverence. That had been their purpose in leaving Europe, after all, and he counts misfortunes as trials from God and good events as signs of God's blessing. He, too, lists the difficult times that were encountered by the colonists upon landing;…
In other words, all human beings, regardless of status, are equal, and a leader by virtue of his position is not 'more equal' than his fellow citizens, according to the principles of morality and the principles of democracy. What has made American leaders great is their sense of equality and fellowship with their fellow Americans, not their sense of exclusivity and superiority. Thomas Jefferson praised George Washington for refusing the offer to become America's first king. Washington instead became the first American president. Washington's integrity was pure and Washington's sense of justice was unwavering, and untainted by self-interest and bias: this was Jefferson's highest praise of our first president. Washington's integrity is so unique it even seems to contradict Glaucon's assertion in "The Ring of Gyges" that every man would be a dictator if he were given the chance. Washington rose above his baser instincts, and lived according to…
A democracy is a system of government wherein the governed have a voice. In the simplest terms, it is a government by and for the people. In the present, the United States government is based upon the idea of representational democracy. Every citizen has a voice which is expressed through election of representatives who then vote on items and legislation. This is not how things have always been. In the time of the colonization of the New orld, each colony would be responsible for creating their individual, workable governing systems. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was led by one John inthrop, a Puritan lawyer. More than anyone at the time, John inthrop set the tone for the style of government which would dominate the colony. Although some form of representation in legislation did exist in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, inthrop's community cannot be considered a true democracy. The man's…
Morgan, Edmund S. The Puritan Dilemma: the Story of John Winthrop. New York: Pearson
Longman, 2006. Print.
eligious tolerance and freedoms do come out from holly scriptures of any religion, they are stated in Koran and in Bible nearly in the same way: "avoid unfaithful" not persecute them but simply avoid. These words have a deep meaning, which refers not just to the religion but also to any other belief and views. oger Williams was the first minister who introduced the principles of modern religious liberties into the civil practice as he wrote in the Bloudy Tenet of Persecution (1640):
No man shall be required to worship or maintain a worship against his will." Until then, Europe and America had endured what Thomas Paine later called, "the adulterous connection between church and state."
In order to defend the representatives of different confessions and guarantee free participation of citizens in country's public life, there had to be taken measures that would preserve from the dominance of one religious…
Madison, James Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments 20 June 1785
James Madison, Report on the Virginia Resolutions
Roger Williams the Bloudy Tenet of Persecution 1640;
Ward, Nathaniel the Simple Cobbler of Aggawam, 1645
21st Century American 'Democracy': The Best Government that Money Can Buy
ithin polarized, interest group-dominated 21st century United States life, most Americans still cling to the idea, despite abundant evidence to the contrary, that we live in a democracy. In today's America, however, that idea is more quaint than accurate. Instead, as the article suggests, America is more a pseudo-democracy than a real one, in which special interest groups (and, as their representatives, high-priced lobbyists they can afford to hire) shape national political, social, economic, health, environmental, and most, if not all, other national agendas for us (although definitely not on our behalf). Meanwhile, a destructive combination of voter apathy (especially among, but not limited to, working-class individuals and minority group members, who feel especially detached) gives us, instead of democracy, the best government money can buy.
ebster's New American Dictionary defines "democracy" as: "1: government by the people; esp:…
"Democracy." Webster's New American Dictionary. New York: Merriam-
Webster, 1995, p. 138.
Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America. New York: Signet, September
Morgan, Edmund S. The Puritan Dilemma: The Story of John Winthrop. USA: Pearson
H]e which would have suer peace and joye in Christianitye, must not ayme at a condition retyred from the world and free from temptations, but to knowe that the life which is most exercised with tryalls and temptations is the sweetest, and will prove the safeste. For such tryalls as fall within compasse of our callinges, it is better to arme and withstande them than to avoide and shunne them.
What Mr. Morgan manages in this book is to show us that even 370 years ago, John Winthrop was already confronting many of what would be enduring themes and challenges of the American experiment. The struggle over how democratic America should be has been at the very core of our politics. Separationism would eventually lead to revolution and the split with…
Morgan, Edmund S. The Puritan Dilemma: The Story of John Winthrop. USA: Pearson
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press, 2003.
Boston in the 1600 and 1700's
Because of the eventual outcome of becoming a great American city, Colonial Boston has been written about from a thousand different angles with a thousand yet to come. This report is not intended to expose any newly discovered fact or thing, but it will provide an insight into the life and times of some of those early Americans but white and red.
The objective is to look at the city of Boston, Massachusetts and its immediate surrounding areas to tell what they were actually like in the late 1600 to early 1700's. The paper will focus mainly on the pre-Bostonians and their interactions with one another. We will also look at things from the perspective of the Native American Indians. Some overview of the geography and current weather will be discussed to put into perspective how the early settler dealt with the harsh New…
Burns, Constance K., & Formisano, Ronald P. (1984). Boston, 1700-1980: The Evolution of Urban Politics. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
Clements, William M. (1986). Native American Folklore in Nineteenth-Century Periodicals. Athens OH: University of North Carolina Press.
KAMENSKY, JANE (1997). Governing the Tongue: The Politics of Speech in Early New England. New York: Oxford University Press.
Spartacus School Network. (n.d.). Massachusetts Bay Colony. Retrieved December 11, 2003, at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USABmapM.htm of Mass. (n.d.). Praying Indians. Retrieved December 11, 2003, at http://www.bio.umass.edu/biology/conn.river/praying.html
In comparison the works all also demonstrate the extreme difficulty that must have been experienced by the colonists when they sought to move to places where there was no infrastructure. The Plymouth and Jamestown accounts even say something so similar it could have been written about the same place and peoples, "But when they departed, there remained neither tavern, beer house, nor place of relief" (Smith) and "Being thus passed the vast ocean, and a sea of troubles before in their preparation (as may be remembered by that which went before), they had now no friends to welcome them nor inns to entertain or refresh their weatherbeaten bodies; no houses or much less towns to repair to, to seek for succor." (Bradford)
In contrast the works offer a divergent general feel, as the Jamestown colony sets up a small government simply to oversee the development of the common goal,…
Many peoples' lives, destinies, and hopes for the future, and not only American ones, depend and will depend in the future on this taking place sooner rather than later, and now more than ever before in America's history.
Illegal Immigration." ikipedia. 4 May 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illegal_immigration.html>.
Espenshade, Thomas J. "Unauthorized Immigration to the United States" Annual
Review of Sociology. 21 (1995). 195-200.
Flores, illiam V. "New Citizens, New Rights: Undocumented Immigrants and Latino Cultural Citizenship" Latin American Perspectives. 2003. 30(2). 87-
http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id=b2579269c3c901ad0ae85bd42dd2920d" Love Unites Them, La Migra Separates Them." El observador, 30 Nov. 2006. http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id= b2579269c3c901ad0ae85bd42dd2920d.html>.
Morgan, Edmund S. The Puritan Dilemma: The Story of John inthrop. New York: Longman 2nd Edition, November 20, 1998.
Snyder, Tanya. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/opinion/oped/bal-op.elsalvador11jan11,0,460257.story?coll=bal-oped-headlinesTo Slow Immigration from El Salvador, Understand its Causes."
Baltimore Sun, 11 Jan. 2007. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/opinion oped/bal-op.elsalvador11jan11,0,460257.story?coll=bal-oped-headlines.
Young Migrants Risk All to Reach U.S." ashington Post. 28 Aug 2006.
Illegal Immigration." Wikipedia. 4 May 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illegal_immigration.html >.
Espenshade, Thomas J. "Unauthorized Immigration to the United States" Annual
Review of Sociology. 21 (1995). 195-200.
Flores, William V. "New Citizens, New Rights: Undocumented Immigrants and Latino Cultural Citizenship" Latin American Perspectives. 2003. 30(2). 87-
ather than continue the process that began in the first two books, in which the osicrucian Order first announced themselves, gave their history, and then responded to certain criticisms while making their position within Christian theology clearer, the Chymical Wedding can almost be seen as the first instance of literature written within the osicrucian tradition, rather than as part of its manifesto-like founding documents, because it does not seek to explain the history of osicrucianism, but rather explicate how the teachings and underlying beliefs of osicrucianism contribute to and alter one's interpretation of Christian scripture (Williamson 17; Dickson 760). Specifically, one can see a distinct connection between the Chymical Wedding and seventeenth-century attempts to expand Protestantism throughout Europe. The Chymical Wedding can be seen as a the most explicit attempt on the part of osicrucians and osicrucian supporters to wed the new (or newly revealed) society to the larger religious…
Andreae, Johann. The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz. N/a: Benjamin Rowe, 2000.
Case, Paul F. The True and Invisible Rosicrucian Order: An Interpretation of the Rosicrucian
Allegory and an Explanation of the Ten Rosicrucian Grades. York Beach, Me: S. Weiser,
Further, I believe the best American (and other) literature, has always done that, and does that now, within any age.
However, I also do not feel that American literature should do anything different from other national literatures (except to spring, which it would and does naturally) from the distinct environment in which it was or is written). It should definitely not be confined, either, to focusing only on American topics (another category difficult to actually limit or define). If American literature anthologies or collections are any guide to what the term "American literature" may actually mean, John Winthrop's "A Model of Christian Charity," composed as sermon to be read at sea to the author's fundamentalist flock of Puritan Dissenters sailing toward an unknown New World; and the 20th century ussian emigre Vladimir Nabokov's novel Pnin (about a ussian emigre professor and writer in America), qualify equally well (and is included,…
Literature. (1995). Webster's New American dictionary.
New York: Merriam-
Tocqueville, a. de. (1998). Democracy in America [online text]. Retrieved March
This bias permeates throughout social circles and businesses seeking qualified job applicants. Yet, oston's strong economy accommodates growth for anyone who is motivated to succeed.
Culturally, oston is no New York. but, for a city of 600,000, great cultural activities are available without the burden of dealing with an overwhelmingly large city.
The city's numerous theaters include the Cutler Majestic Theatre, oston Opera House, the Wang Center for the Performing Arts, Schubert Theater, and the Orpheum Theater. Performing arts groups are some of the best to be found in the country and include the oston allet, oston Symphony Orchestra, oston Pops, oston Lyric Opera Company, and the Handel and Haydn Society. Free summer concerts on the Charles River Esplanade are a joy with excellent acoustics and a festive atmosphere. oston also has several fine museums such as the Museum of Fine Arts, the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, and the Museum…
Banner, David. "The History of Boston, Massachusetts." Retrieved from Web site: http://www.searchboston.com/history.html
Boston: History." Retrieved from Web site: http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/the-Northeast/Boston-History.html
Massachusetts Tourist Information. "Boston Area Information." Retrieved from Web site: http://www.masstourist.com/boston.htm
Wikipedia, "Boston Massachusetts." Retrieved from Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston,_Massachusetts
morality of the George Bush administration. The writer looks at classic texts to garner a sense of what political morality should be about and then holds the administration of Bush against the measurement to illustrate the lack of morality and the fact that it failed to promote the happiness of the United States people. In addition, the author explores the negative impact that was felt by other nations under the watchful lack of morality by the Bush administration.
According to the Two Treatises by Locke political power has no other purpose than for the greater good. He wrote that it was the right to make decisions and laws but that it was always and should only be for the greater good of the people that it served.
"Political power, then, I take to be a right of making laws, with penalties of death, and consequently all less penalties for the…
The Bush doctrine.(From The Editor)(Editorial)
Sojourners; 3/1/2005; Wallis, Jim
AGAINST WAR, OR JUST BUSH?(OPINION)(Letter to the Editor)
Wisconsin State Journal (Madison, WI); 3/20/2003
Massachusetts and Virginia
The Colonial period saw the English established a number of colonies in America. These colonies were not only divided by geography, but also by such things as religion, economics, and other factors. Far to the north, in an area called "New England," lay the colony of Massachusetts, a religious-based society founded by members of a strict religious sect as a refuge from persecution. In the south lay Virginia, settled by a company, for economic purposes, and where religion did not dominate every aspect of society. These two English colonies were both English and Protestant., but could not be more different.
During the early 17th century there was "bitter persecution in England of those whose religious views differed from the Church of England." ("Massachusetts Colony") Among these were the Puritans, who wanted to purify the Church of England from harmful doctrines that were too similar to Roman Catholicism.…
"Massachusetts Colony." Colonial Ancestors- Colonial Genealogy Records and History. Web. 16 June 2011. http://colonialancestors.com/ma/colony.htm
"Puritan Life." Ushistory.org. Web 16 June 2011. http://www.ushistory.org/us/3d.asp http://www.usahistory.info/southern/Virginia.html
"Virginia" History of the U.S.A.: Converted from Henry William Elson's History of the United States. 1904. Web 15 June 2011.
European Voyages of Exploration of the 15th and 16th Centuries
For several centuries following Columbus's historic discovery the North American Continent, pain enjoyed riches from overseas that allowed it to be the most influential country in Europe. Originally inspired by a combination of a quest to prove that he could reach the Far East by sailing west and the desire to reap the rewards of precious metals and spices, Columbus left Portugal for pain, after failing to achieve the support he needed from the king to finance his first voyage (Hayes & Clark, 1966). With the eventual support of Queen Isabella in pain, he managed to stumble onto North and outh America while looking for the Indies. Initially, the silver, gold, and spices imported from the first panish conquests in the Americas enabled pain to become the most powerful nation in Europe.
That happenstance was fortunate for pain, at least…
Stannard, David, E. (1993). American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World. New York: Oxford University Press.
Zinn, Howard. (2003). A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper-
However, one must consider the context of the petition. Given today's knowledge of Native American-colonial relations, I question whether or not the issues in the petition are hyperbolized. Were the colonists similarly torturing the Native Americans? Did they want to create a militia just to rid the area of people they saw as pests? or, were these people really harming and murdering the colonial population in this area?
Week 4: Nathaniel Bacon on Bacon's Rebellion
In today's culture, we often wonder how such blatant racism could have existed in history that Native Americans were removed and killed with such impunity during the revolutionary years. Bacon, on Bacon's Rebellion, does an excellent job of explaining how these attitudes could have existed. Bacon begins by tying his rebellion to God and what is just, although today we may call him the unjust. Toward the end of his essay, he argues that the…
, 10). Certainly, it is no mystery that given this reliance upon the mother country that the British government would be surprised and ill equipped to deal with a full scale and united rebellion in the American colonies on the eastern American seaboard.
The policy of the British prior to the period of the evolution had largely been hands off. However, the Tea Party went too far and the British had to respond (one wonders what else they would have done). They had just won the equivalent of world war in 1763. British had fought in almost every of the globe from India to Canada, India, the Philippines and the 13 American colonies. Unfortunately, to borrow an apt analogy, the British had only the military in the tool kit once their tax collection efforts failed. If a hammer is all one has in the toolbox, most solutions will look like…
Beer, George Louis. British Colonial Policy, 1754-1765. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University
Press, 2010. (accessed February 9, 2012).
McDougall, Walter. "The Colonial Origins of American Identity." Orbis (2004): 7-19.
White, Richard. The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region.
, 2006). The ongoing investigation is being conducted by a "National Interagency Serious Accident Investigation Team," with the purpose of "determining fact surrounding the incident, identify lessons learned," and with the end result a set of "...recommendations for accident prevention purposes."
The investigation will no doubt look into the fire shelter issue, although since the firefighters are gone, the question of why shelters were not used cannot be answered. If all five men had fire shelters on board the engine, it will seem sadly ironic that those protective units were not deployed. For wildland firefighters, it is not only important for escape routes and other safety procedures to be established, but it is imperative that firefighters are in possession of the very newest, safest fire shelters; and with this in mind, the USDA / USFS "Fire & Aviation Management" eb site offers some conflicting and confusing information.
On one page…
Golway, Terry. (2005). Firefighters. American Heritage Magazine. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 at http://www.americanheritage.com .
Fire Chief. (2006). Near-Miss Report Total Reaches 1,000. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 at http://www.firechief.com/news/1000_near_miss10242006/index.html .
Firehouse.com. (2005) VFIS's Operation Safe Arrival: Don't
Become a Statistic. Retrieved 29 Oct. 2006 at http://cms.firehouse.com/content/article/printer/jsp?id=50236.
Blackness was not an unremittingly negative quality, as it would be seen later on, but the associations of blackness and other stereotypes that would be attached to 'Negroes' began fairly early.
The development of colonies based upon cash crops, including those in the Southern United States, necessitated a large enslaved labor force, larger than whites could provide. As the economic need for slave labor increased, so did negatively expressed views of Africans and blackness in general. Indentured servitude of whites grew more controversial, thus replacing then with Africans who were justified as being 'natural' slaves became an accepted solution. Even Thomas Jefferson would eventually see 'Negros' as existing at the end of a chain of being, the beginning phase of a kind of evolutionary 'erasure' of color, and erasure of the 'mark of Cain' of blackness, as Christian missionaries used to think the Africans possessed.
Jordan believes if there had…
It is impossible in six short pages to fully comprehend the attitudes that hite Americans had to Native Indians and black Americans in the early centuries of our nation's founding. That was m not my intent. My goal rather, was to illustrate first that although we are often presented a dominant narrative as the narrative, the truth is that in surveying American attitudes towards American Indians and Blacks a single cohesive narrative does not exist. If such a narrative did exist the Native American Seminole tribe of Florida would not exist. The Seminoles were a tri-racial tribe composed of Creek Indians, remainders of smaller tribes, runaway slaves and whites who preferred to live in Indian society (Loewen). The First and Second Seminole wars (1816-18, 1835-42) in which the Seminoles fought against invading hites who demanded that they surrender their African-American members, were fought not for economic value but to eliminate…
Jordan, Winthrop D. White Over Black:American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812. University of North Carolina Press., 1995.
Loewen, James. Lies My Teacher Told Me. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Miller, Eric. George Washington and the Indians. 1994. 25 March 2010 .
Root, Maria. Love's Revolution: Interracial Marriage. Temple University Press, 2001.
eligion and Politics
Some groups hold the view that faith groups and other institutions have a very significant role to play within the political arena and that they have a duty to enter the political fight and they expect the government to remain supportive of this obligation. However, the argument of this article suggest that religious / faith groups and institutions should never have the chance of forming political parties and they should never try to posses influence in the workings of government for their views as well as values by finding their way to the realm of political discourse and any attempts to elect their own politicians.
Different countries have their varying degrees of separation between government or politics and religious institutions. A number of countries have moved a head and set up explicit barriers between church and state since the 1780s. The constitution of the United States has…
Daniel L. Dreisbach (2006) "The Mythical "Wall of Separation": How a Misused Metaphor Changed Church -- State Law, Policy, and Discourse." Retrieved May 28, 2014. http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2006/06/the-mythical-wall-of-separation-how-a-misused-metaphor-changed-church-state-law-policy-and-discourse
James Leon Holmes and Jeremy Holmes (2003) From Aristotle to Jefferson: Christianity and the Separation of Church and State. Retrieved May 28, 2014. http://cssronline.org/CSSR/Archival/2003/Holmes%2520article.pdf
Jefferson, Thomas (1802). Jefferson's Letter to the Danbury Baptists. U.S. Library of Congress.
Locke, John (2002). Political Writings. Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought.Ed. Mark Goldie. CUP: Cambridge, Retrieved May 28, 2014. http://www.iep.utm.edu/locke-po/
In contrast, Plymouth Colony was established as a place that provided an opportunity for Pilgrims from Holland to overcome great difficulties and challenges in their native land. The nature of this colony was to provide a home for the pilgrims to escape great hardships while contributing to the development of this colony. Therefore, the nature of the colony could be considered as a home of foreigners i.e. For the pilgrims of Holland. Unlike the other colonies, Maryland was increasingly involved in trade of various commodities or items that were sold to the Inhabitant (Aslop, n.d.).
Despite of these differences in establishment, these colonies consists of some similarities and differences that characterized their early history. Some of the major similarities between the colonies include the fact that their populations were mainly settlers from other regions and dependence on trade for the growth of the communities. The populations in each of these…
Aslop, George . "A Character of the Province of Maryland." Pearson Education, n.d.
http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/pls_21270577390/143/36763/9411393.cw/content/index.html (accessed January 25, 2013).
Bradford, William. "History of Plymouth Plantation (1630-1650)." Pearson Education, n.d.
http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/pls_21270577390/143/36765/9411844.cw/content/index.html (accessed January 25, 2013).
, lands useful to man, but according to technical and conspicuous for purposes that each civilization.
When business needs and adds prestige to urban heritage, religions, however, that mark their territories of pagodas, churches, monasteries, mosques and other places of worship, this singularity is affirmed more, while the forms of urban and rural habitat are specified, they are luxuries or miserable. And civilization, always customary in everyday life acquires additional visibility monumental materializing the skills of craftsmen-artists who enrich the work of the builders.
Added to this are, of course, the wealth and prestige that comes from adding additional, oral traditions of all time, written tradition gradually spread to shops and palaces, and the ideological apparatuses of all kinds, from which they eventually win the depths of peoples. o, the graphics become, like languages, distinctive marks of the various civilizations.
Maturation profoundly affects trade flows of civilization. On the one…
Stocking, George, Victorian Anthropology, Free Press, 1991, ISBN 0-02-931551-4
Trigger, Bruce, Sociocultural Evolution: Calculation and Contingency (New Perspectives on the Past), Blackwell Publishers, 1998, ISBN 1-55786-977-4
Reade, Julian 2001 Assyrian King-Lists, the Royal Tombs of Ur, and Indus Origins. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 60(1):1-29
For instance the establishment of Massachusetts was for the preservation of Puritan values, Jamestown for economic gains, Maryland for expansion of trade, and Plymouth for providing an alternative settlement to disgruntled Dutch people. However, the author of discussion failed to state that the differences in establishment and events that took place in the colony were linked to the specific population in the settlement.
In this case, Massachusetts sought to become a city on the hill because it was occupied by Puritans with strong religious beliefs (Winthrop, n.d.). Plymouth faced many hardships and aimed at producing profit for investors because its population was disgruntled people from Holland (radford, n.d.). While the origin of Maryland's settlers is not indicated in the article, trade became the center stage of the population's activities because of their focus on the existence of numerous commodities in the colony. Jamestown experienced significant difficulties because of the poor…
Aslop, George. "A Character of the Province of Maryland." Pearson Education, n.d.
http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/pls_21270577390/143/36763/9411393.cw/content/index.html (accessed January 27, 2013).
Bradford, William. "History of Plymouth Plantation (1630-1650)." Pearson Education, n.d.
http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/pls_21270577390/143/36765/9411844.cw/content/index.html (accessed January 27, 2013).
"Some also do grudge at the great increase of people in these days, thinking a necessary brood of cattle far better than a superfluous augmentation of mankind" (Harrison 1586). One way to ease the situation was to induce or force some to settle in the new territories. They would become the workforce in the colonies and reduce the problem back home at the same time. "These petty thieves might be condemned for certain years in the western parties" as indentured servants to provide hard labor and menial tasks (Hakluyt 1584). This was not only an attractive concept for the privileged classes but also for many of the poor or disadvantaged. In the society they left behind they had little hope of ever improving their circumstances. The hardships and threats they would face in the new world were worth the risk for the chance to improve their condition. Many, however, regretted…
Frethorne, John. "Letter to His Parents." Indentured Servitude. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1623.
Fumas, J. The Americas: A Social History of the United States. New York: Putnam, 1969.
Hakluyt, R. "Reading 2." Motivations for English Colonization. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1584.
Harrison, W. "Reading 1." Motivations for English Colonization. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1586.
Point ONE: Billy Budd: Critic Eugene Goodheart is the Edythe Macy Professor of Humanities Emeritus at Brandeis University. He writes that while critics are generally divided between those who see Captain Vere as "an unwitting collaborator" with Claggart and those who feel Vere was correct to have Billy sent to the gallows. In his piece Goodheart explains that Billy is "…variously seen as Adam before the fall, as a noble barbarian, as Isaac the sacrificial victim…and as a Christ figure" (Goodheart, 2006, p. 81).
Point TO: Goodheart makes the most of his assertion that no matter what allegorical link to Billy, the protagonist is symbolic of innocence. hen Billy lashes out at Claggart, it is due to his innocence. He is first of all innocent of the charge that he was leading a mutiny, Goodheart explains. Secondly, Billy is innocent when it comes to the existence of evil (Goodheart, p.…
Claviez, Thomas. "Rainbows, Fogs, and Other Smokescreens: Billy Budd and the Question of Ethics." Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory. 62.4
Donoghue, Denis. "Moby-Dick' after September 11th." Law and Literature 15.2 (2003): 161-
Goodheart, Eugene. "Billy Budd and the World's Imperfection." Sewanee Review 114.1 (2006):