Caesar was an ethical leader because he focused on reforming society in order for the world's well-being as a whole to be possible. "Leaders of this type question whether "business as usual" is what they want to keep doing, and likely advocate changes to the accepted system" (Grace 9). He wanted change to happen and he wanted it to happen during his leadership, as he observed how many of his predecessors and rivals were firstly interested in their personal well-being. His leadership generated much controversy as many people were unable to understand why it was beneficial for them to have an ethical leader. Society was accustomed to leaders who were ruthless and Caesar thus confused the masses with regard to the attitude that they needed to employ concerning their leader.
Trustworthiness was an essential trait in Caesar and this was reflected by the fact that he paid special attention to…… [Read More]
Julius Caesar was a historical figure who has never failed to fascinate the people. He was a Roman army general and a politician as well. He put an end to the republican government in Rome and it was due to him that the reign of emperors began in Rome. Julius Caesar used the hardships and sufferings of the people of that time as a tool to develop his military as well as political power in Rome. Julius Caesar is considered as one of the most influential and powerful leaders in the world. His live as well as his death has been celebrated through rich literature and art. (Julius Caesar biography, 1-2)
Julius Caesar confronted his first major political success in the year 63 B.C.E, when he was elected as the 'pontifex maximus', this was the chief religious office. It was an important political position and hence presented Julius with many…… [Read More]
After Cato saw that his forces were defeated by Caesar, in traditional Roman fashion, he fell on his sword and committed suicide.
Despite this great loss for the Senatorial faction, Pompey's sons Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextus Pompeius, together with Titus Labienus, Caesar's former propraetorian legate (legatus propraetore) and second in command in the Gallic War, escaped to Spain, where they continued to resist Caesar's dominance of the Roman world. Caesar arrived in Spain in late November or early December of 46 BC, with 8 legions and 8,000 cavalry of his own. Caesar's arrival was completely unexpected by the enemy, and the surprise gave him an early advantage.
In March of 45 BC, the two armies faced off in the battle of Munda with Pompey holding the high ground. Caesar was forced to march uphill against the strong enemy position, but he was never one to shirk from a chance at…… [Read More]
Even Brutus, who feared absolute power, became corrupt. The play explores different types of power, both the type that Caesar had bestowed upon him but also military power and power gained from making political connections demonstrated by Antony and Octavius. All types of power can be potentially abused.
2. Compare and contrast-Portia and Calpurnia
The main difference between Calpurnia's role and Portia's is that the latter helps plot against Caesar while the former was his loving wife. However, both women ultimately care about the best type of government for Rome and are dismayed by the way power has corrupted the men around them.
3. Conspirators right to kill Caesar?
The conspirators had good intentions in their scheme, as they hoped for a Rome built on Republican ideals and not on monarchic power. However, they were absolutely wrong to use murder as a method.
4. Role of superstition in the play…… [Read More]
Julius Caesar has remained one of the most poignant stories about a power struggle in the English language. It is precisely because personality cults have consistently eroded institutions of public office that this play will always remain relevant. The play illustrates not only that a popular yet unorthodox leader may sweep away democratic and free institutions, but that killing such a leader might result in even more turmoil. This was the quandary of Augusto Pinochet in Chile, who recognized the power usurpations of a man who trusted him, Salvador Allende, and had him killed with the eventual intention of returning the country from the brink of communism only to become its dictator. That such a play could capture the imagination of a country that had never known republican rule begs for a careful analysis of the context into which Shakespeare introduced his play.
Most of Shakespeare's historical information was drawn…… [Read More]
Julius Caesar is an honorable man because he is a brave man, a good warrior, and a great leader. People are against him because he has become stronger and more powerful, but he repeatedly turns down the crown, which could make him a dictator. He does not worry about himself or his well being, he thinks about the people. He is also wise, and knows there are people he trusts that he should not. Three quotes that show he is honorable include:
Cowards die many times before their deaths; / The valiant never taste of death but once" (Act II, scene ii). This shows his bravery.
Yond Cassius has a lean and hungry look; / He thinks too much: such men are dangerous" (Act I, scene ii). This shows he is wise and distrusts some who say they are friends.
Fear him not, Caesar; he's not dangerous; / He is…… [Read More]
He is impulsive and unscrupulous which serves his purpose perfectly as he manages to persuade both the conspirators of his dedication to the cause, and the plebeians of the injustice of the conspiracy. His duplicity teamed with skilled rhetoric earns him political support from the masses whereas Brutus builds his political discourse and strategy of action on the ideal of virtue and the absence of personal interest in politics.
Similarly to ntony, Cassius is not afraid to construct his course of action based on his personal interest, i.e. he orchestrates the conspiracy against Caesar because of personal envy and the fear of losing his privileges once Caesar is king. Moreover, Cassius uses his powerful rhetoric and accurate judgment of character to convince Brutus to take part in the conspiracy by invoking the fate of Rome. In this sense he resembles ntony when he tells Brutus exactly what the latter needed…… [Read More]
After the death of Julius Caesar, Rome and its Republic were in chaos, but out of this chaos emerged an unlikely candidate for succession, a young nephew of Caesar named Octavian. Julius Caesar had already set the groundwork for a single man to head the Roman government, but it would be his nephew, Octavian who would erect the framework for a single ruler. Through careful manipulation of the existing legal system, Octavian was able to accumulate unprecedented powers and ushered in the Imperial Age of Rome, but his clever refusal to exactly define the limits of his power enabled him to appear to be an office-holder with limited powers, but in reality exercise seemingly unlimited authority over the state.
Octavian came from a family of the lower nobility, however, his father had taken for his second wife Atia, who's mother was a niece of Julius Caesar. After Julius Caesar…… [Read More]
'This was the noblest Roman of them all," (V.v. 2nd to last para.). Antony's eulogy of his former friend and compatriot shows that in spite of Brutus' tragic flaws and failings, the man was well-respected and loved. In fact, Brutus emerges as the protagonist and hero of Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar, not the title character. Other characters only refer to Brutus with positive words and not a single statement disparages him in any way. Moreover, Brutus' thoughts, evident in his own speech in the play, show that he was true to his political ideals even if he was deluded and blinded by Cassius. Brutus' main tragic flaw was his prideful belief that killing Julius Caesar was the right thing to do. However, Brutus was blinded by pride mainly because he was a deeply conflicted man with conflicting loyalties. In spite of his flaws, Brutus remained clearly concerned for…… [Read More]
Here Shakespeare reinforces the notion that murder is not the way to go about solving one's problems. Myron Taylor notes that the play is filled with a "strong element of irony" (Taylor 307) because what they get after killing Caesar is worse than they imagined. The conspirators are convinced that Caesar will become a dictator because of his attitude regarding his power. hen Brutus speaks to the people, he convinces them that his love for them and their country caused him to kill Caesar. hen he asks them if they would rather die as slaves with Caesar living or die as free men with Caesar dead, we see his fears surface. Schanzer notes that the answer lies in Brutus' question. His accusation of Caesar was too ambitious is "vague" (Schanzer 48) but very clear. The characters' dispositions at the end of the play also illustrate the answer to the question…… [Read More]
Brutus in Julius Caesar
BRUTUS -- HERO OR VILLAIN?
In Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar, a conquering hero is assassinated because he is about to be crowned Emperor in Rome, and members of the Senate do not want to see their power reduced. As Caesar dies, he is dismayed to see that his good friend Brutus is one of the assassins. The play leaves the reader wondering whether Brutus and the other conspirators did the right thing. Was Caesar such a threat to Rome that he had to be killed? If the act truly saved the country, the Brutus is a hero. If the action was self-serving, then Brutus is a villain. It can be argued that since Brutus betrayed a friend, manipulated him into being in the place where the assassination would take place, and then rationalized the act afterwards, Brutus is more villain than hero.
Brutus knows he is…… [Read More]
These quotes also enhance the plays parallelism by balancing not only the sentence structure, but also showing several sides of the issue. Of course, each side is shown in the specific light that Antony sees it in, but in a roundabout way that makes his conclusions the only reasonable ones.
And let me show you him that made the will. Shall I descend? And will you give me leave?"(pg 138) "Here was a caesar! When comes such another?"(pg 146) "Tis good you know not that you are his heirs, for if you should, o, what would come of it"(pg 136)
These quotes also use three different tactics to achieve their end of persuading the commoners over to Antony's side. In the first, Antony asks permission, seemingly showing his humility and putting the focus on Caesar and on the people themselves while really drawing attention and belief to his side. In…… [Read More]
illiam Shakespeare's tragic play Julius Caesar, he portrays many human characteristics accurately. Just a few of these characteristics include greed, ambition, deception, power, honor and naivete. Though Shakespeare may not have completely stuck to the historical facts in order to create dramatic interest, his portrayal of human nature happens to be eerily correct. Even today, hundreds of years after Caesar's reign and numerous decades after Shakespeare's play, deception and naivety still infiltrate our nation, it's political system, its business structure and national security.
hen the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks happen, the entire nation feels numb, even dumbfounded with the thought of "how did this happen here?" e as Americans are comfortable with our world up until the first commercial plane flew into the North tower that morning shortly before 9 a.m. In a similar fashion, Caesar lives his life as any ruler would -- he has no reason to…… [Read More]
Caius Caesar, after succeeding in so many wars, would have been condemned and destroyed, had I dismissed my army, after the battle of Pharsalus.
From Julius Caesar's perspective, the command to disband his army by Marcus Claudius Marcellus and the prohibition against his ability to stand in absentia as a political candidate was ungrateful in the extreme. Caesar had devoted his entire political life to winning glory for Rome. Thanks to Caesar, the territory of the Roman Empire had expanded to include Gaul, Great Britain, and much of what is now Germany. Caesar also offered many acts of public charity to ordinary Romans: "Caesar thus became the one reliable source of help to all who were in legal difficulties, or in debt, or living beyond their means" (Plutarch 25). Of course, such acts were somewhat self-interested and designed to win common men to his side. Still, there can be no…… [Read More]
That lean and hungry look by Suzanne Britt Jordan: Analysis
The author, Suzanne Britt, refers to Julius Caesar in the tile “Lean and Hungry Look.” Julius Caesar thought that thin people are dangerous. Thin people were unsettling to Caesar who apparently though the company of fat people was way better than thin people. In his mind the fat men were more appreciative and trustworthy. According to Caesar heavier people are often nice because they do not have any reason to be mean to anyone while thin people are often rude and aggressive to the fat people because they are unable to perceive fat people for whom they really are. Jordan is trying to fight the stereotypical and hasty view in the generalization of the character of fat people vis-à-vis that of thin people. The truth is that all or most heavier people will not be necessarily ebullient not will thin…… [Read More]
Julius Caesar: Disruption and Justice
The central dilemma of William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar is the question of the value of republican virtues versus the value of stability. At the beginning of the play, Brutus and Cassius debate the risks of assassinating Caesar, versus Caesar being allowed to become a tyrant. Although Shakespeare’s literary version of Caesar clearly is not a bad man, the crowds who would allow Caesar to become king are all too willing to sacrifice democratic ideals for despotism, and Caesar seems unwilling to stop them. But after Caesar is killed, the government which emerges in his wake is even more tyrannical. The play is ambiguous. Caesar’s not-so-hidden desire to become a king results in the destruction of the republic, but the unlawful means used to stop it do not achieve their desired results. In fact, the unlawful attempt to stop Caesar’s illegitimate attempt at seizing power simply…… [Read More]
Julius and Octavian Caesar
The history of ancient Rome is divided into eras based on the leader at the time. Two such leaders were Julius Caesar and Octavian, later Augusts, Caesar. The two men were alike in genealogy, close in time and temperament, and yet one was a pronounced success, heralded centuries and even millennia later, while the other is considered a failure when it came to creating a role for himself as sole ruler. hat determines a man is successful or unsuccessful? Historically, little is considered of individual successes or failures or who gained or lost the most domains for their empire. It is the will of the people that ultimately decides which is the better man. A tyrant may be an angel if he wins over the people, so too a benefactor may become a monster. History is written by the memory of the survivors. In the case…… [Read More]
Classical and Historical Book Review:
Caesar, Julius. The Conquest of Gaul. New York: Penguin Books, 1983.
The author, Julius Caesar, of The Conquest of Gaul has been variously described as a "Roman patrician, politician, writer, reformer, general, dictator and," according to the decree of the Roman senate, later "a god." (Seindal, 2003) The military leader Julius Caesar's book upon his Gallic conquests famously begins, "Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres..." Or that Gaul is divided in three parts. The authorship of the book was motivated in part to define his legacy, as he fought these wars, as a great general and a great leader to the adoring Roman populace and the disapproving Roman senate. Thus, even during his lifetime, before he became an official God of the Roman world, Caesar was attempting to formulate his own following and legacy in print. Rather than allowing even his followers to…… [Read More]
Julius Caesar and George ush
William Shakespeare's play, Julius Caesar explores the social and political underpinnings of perhaps one of the most famous assassinations of all time, the assassination of Julius Caesar by his friends. Currently we live in a time of major upheaval in the world, the combination of war and economic hardships have made this first decade of the new millennium a turbulent one. These two timeframes can be connected through their respective leaders. Shakespeare's Caesar bears a great deal of resemblance to our current leader, George W. ush. The following paper will attempt to make a comparison between these two figures, the Shakespearean Caesar and the real life President of the United States.
At the top of Shakespeare's play, Julius Caesar is returning to Rome in a parade, triumphant in his victory over the Roman general, Pompey. This particular man is painted as Caesar's archrival, his nemesis…… [Read More]
One aspect at which Cesar's work excels in the interrelation between the descriptive geography and the characterization of the Germans is the political geography approach. In fact, much of Cesar's work is relevant exactly because it is a very scientific description of the way the tribes lived together in tribal formations during that time and how they came in contact with one another. Cesar is always very descriptive in his approach and clearly marks the areas in which these tribes lived, including the Germans, but also many of the neighboring tribes (his focus is certainly on the Gauls).
The Rhine is obviously central to the existence of the Germans and Cesar mentions it several times in his work, although most of the time only so as to limit the theatre if his own operations in Gaul. As such, his approach is that the Rhine marks the delimitation and border between…… [Read More]
Bush and His Presidential Administration:
Alternatively, inflated self importance can also be caused by messages communicated throughout the formative years and subsequent reinforcement, such as are typical for many individuals born into lives of wealth, power, and social privilege
(Branden, 1999). In that regard, former U.S. president George W. Bush may share some of the consequences of having been born into a privileged family. His characteristic
"swagger" and defiance to objective criticisms, all the while displaying a degree of intellectual ignorance rarely witnessed among heads of states (at least in the free world)
may be the product of a privileged upbringing in conjunction with the unconscious realization that he did not earn admission to prestigious universities and graduate schools on the merits of his academic achievements, that he was never qualified to lead a Texas
National Guard squadron, and that his election to both a state governorship and a national…… [Read More]
But Shakespeare does not try to render Republican Rome in faithful and accurate historical detail. "Peace! count the clock," says Brutus (2.1) although the play is ostensibly set during ancient times, and the practice of bear-baiting is referred to when Octavius says "e are at the stake / And bayed about by many enemies" (4.1)The entertainment of bear-baiting, a reminder of the brutality of the Elizabethan age, was even enjoyed by the queen and often took place near the Globe theater where Julius Caesar was first performed: "The bear was tethered to a stake in the middle of the ring, able to move only a short distance before being drawn up sharply when it got to the end of its tether. That's where the phrase 'at the end of my tether' comes from - the frustration and agony of not being able to go any further. Dogs would be released…… [Read More]
The fear of "disorder" "had significant political ramifications. The proscription against trying to rise beyond one's place was of course useful to political rulers, for it helped to reinforce their authority. The implication was that civil rebellion caused the chain to be broken, and according to the doctrine of correspondences, this would have dire consequences in other realms," whether the king was good or bad ("The Great Chain of Being," CUNY Brooklyn, 2009). Because rebellion was a sin against God, the whole order of the universe would be thrown in disarray if people rebelled against a sovereign, and this disturbance would be reflected in disturbances in the animal world and the heavens. "The need for strong political rule was in fact very significant, for the Renaissance had brought an end for the most part to feudalism, the medieval form of political organization," and the era oversaw the establishment of effective…… [Read More]
Antony offered Caesar a diadem, but Caesar refused it, saying Jupiter alone is king of the Romans, "possibly because he saw the people did not want him to accept the diadem, or possibly because he wanted to end once and for all the speculation that he was trying to become a king" (Julius1 pp). In Shakespeare's account, Antony says at the funeral, "I thrice presented him a kingly crown, hich he did thrice refuse. as this ambition? Yet Brutus says he was ambitious, And sure he is an honourable man" (Julius III.ii)
Julius Caesar. orld of Education. Retrieved August 30, 2005 at http://library.educationworld.net/s26/index.html
illiam Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. Retrieved August 30, 2005 at http://www.entrenet.com/~groedmed/jc.html
Julius1 Caesar: Historical Background. Retrieved August 30, 2005 at http://www.vroma.org/~bmcmanus/caesar.html… [Read More]
Thisclearly implies that this sort of perception was more of a weakness than an advantage.
Samuel Johnson's "The Vanity of Human ishes"
In this poem, the author demonstrates to the audience the reality of struggle in life. The author, just like, he mentions in the poem's title demonstrates how human wishes are, in many cases egoistic and useless. According to Meyers (p 1), Johnson had his reflection long years of human struggle, unavoidable fates, and theerroneous hopes. The author demonstrates some of the common situations that ordinary human being experience under the authority of certain political powers, which seem to have a hand in the sealing of their destinies. The author, in exploring this demonstrates how cruel, humiliating, and unwarranted such treatments are. The actions that the persona witnesses in the society make life to him more of a tragedy than anything else does. He in fact states that the…… [Read More]
Conventional literature would
come to see Cleopatra as an exploitive whore, responsible for the downfall
of virtuous men like the Ptolemies, Julius Caesar and, inevitably, Marc
Antony as well. So is this reported by historical accounts such as that by
Cassius Dio who reflected that "Indeed she so enchanted and enthralled not
only Antony but all others who counted for anything with him that she came
to entertain the hope that she would rule the Romans as well, and whenever
she took an oath, the most potent phrase she used were the words, 'So
surely as I shall one day give judgement [sic] on the Capitol.'" (Cassius
Dio, 39) The argument given here in defining her persona would be the
clear understanding of her imperialist intent, so to say that it had been
always an ambition for this ruler to extend the Egyptian influence to new
heights. The Roman perspective…… [Read More]
Antony and Cleopatra. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from:
Brown, Lenora Inez. "Enter the Body: omen and Representation on Shakespeare's Stage." American Theatre. May 01, 2001. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Desmet, Christy. "omen's Matters: Politics, Gender, and Nation in Shakespeare's Early History Plays." Comparative Drama. September 22, 2000. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Hunt, Maurice. "Shakespeare's Venetian paradigm: stereotyping and Sadism in The Merchant of Venice and Othello." Papers on Language & Literature. March 22, 2003. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Julius Caesar, The Life and Death of. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from:
Othello, The Moore of Venice. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from:
Starks, Lisa S. "Like the lover's pinch, which hurts and is desired: The Narrative
of Male Masochism and Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra." Literature and Psychology. December 22,…… [Read More]
Final Opportunity for Reflection and riting
"Stand and unfold yourself"
This quote comes from Shakespeare's Hamlet. Francisco and Bernardo are two guards standing watch in the middle of the night at the castle Elsinore. This is the second line of the play, spoken by Francisco in response to Bernardo's question of who goes there. It is an important part because it sets the tone for the rest of the play. Much of the story involves secret presences and the knowledge that people are being watched. This happens with Polonius as he is stabbed by Hamlet and with Hamlet when he is being watched by his uncle/stepfather. Uncertainty about being alone and who or what may be around lends to the overall confusion and mania of the characters which invariably leads to the tragedies which each of the characters then experience.
"tis the sport to have the enginer /…… [Read More]
The Merchant of Venice, though ostensibly a comedy, is one of the more serious plays in the comedic genre. The Taming of the Shrew is far more humorous and light hearted, but it is not without its lessons. The specific lessons vary greatly depending on one's interpretation of the play, especially in performance, but one key lesson that most of the female characters fail to learn is the advantage of working in tandem with their husband. Petruchio manages to win a substantial amount of money through his new wife Kate's quick obedience; she has learned through the course of the play to at least give the appearance of docility and subservience, which the other women lack -- they have failed to learn anything from her transformation, seeing no problems in themselves form the outset. This failure costs them some cold, hard, cash.
It is in Julius Caesar, however, that Shakespeare…… [Read More]
He exemplifies the expansion of the middle class and commercialism during the era. The book is a kind of inventive biography -- little is known for certain of hakespeare's life but Greenblatt uses the skeleton of hakespeare's plays to fill in details of common concerns of many figures of the period.
Long, William J. "The Elizabethan Age: 1550 -- 1620." From Outlines of English and American
Literature. April 4, 2009. http://www.djmcadam.com/elizabethan-age.html
This is an excerpt from a survey book on literature that is well-reputed in the field, although somewhat out of date. It examines the philosophy and history of the Elizabethan age and how it affected the literature of the period. It suggests the patriotic zeal and cultural vigor that resulted from the defeat of the Armada, scientific discoveries, and foreign travel and exploration were the reasons for the substantial literary output of this period's authors. It covers pencer, hakespeare,…… [Read More]
Hamlet clearly melancholic view of the future of humanity, although he is capable of acknowledging goodness, as he does when he praises Horatio's character before the play-within-a-play, and he even praises Fortinbras' action in the name of the Norwegian's own father, although it goes against the interest of the Danish state. Finally, Hamlet admits that Laertes has a right to be angry on Polonius' account, as Hamlet's rash actions killed Laertes' father, even while Hamlet strove to avenge his own father. Thus, rather than a desperate view of human morality, Hamlet's inaction seems to arise from a combination of paralyzing depression about the nature of acting in a meaningless world and internal self-doubt. He also has an over-active intellect that enables him to rationalize both the murderous instincts of people going against his own interests like Laertes, and as well as his own revulsion at murder, as when he foolishly…… [Read More]
The metaphor of the jigsaw puzzle-- "what good would it do to finish early? Three, the jigsaw puzzle isn't the important thing. The important thing is the fun of four people (one thin person included) sitting around a card table, working a jigsaw puzzle"-- illustrates that fat people enjoy the process of life and live in the moment, versus thin people who are purpose-driven and obsessed with completing tasks, even leisure-time activities that are supposed to be fun.
Q5. Identify the author's purpose and discuss whether or not she achieved that purpose.
The purpose of the author is to deflate society's obsession with perfection and to turn a bit of conventional wisdom -- the superiority of thinness and perfectionism -- on its head. The essay, through humor, achieves this purpose. Asserting the position in a serious way would likely have given rise to a debate about the health problems fostered…… [Read More]
Even in Catholic France, the Protestant sentiment that God's grace alone can save His fallen, human creation was evident in the humanist king, Francis I's sister, Margaret, Queen of Navarre's novel when she wrote: "We must humble ourselves, for God does not bestow his graces on men because they are noble or rich; but, according as it pleases his goodness, which regards not the appearance of persons, he chooses whom he will."
Shakespeare's Hamlet is haunted by the ghost of his father from Purgatory. Purgatory was a Catholic concept. But rather than trusting the vision of the divine on earth, Hamlet is suspicious about the ability of fallen human beings to enact justice. Rather than finding good in the face of women, Hamlet sees only evil. "In considering the cultural conditions that allow tragedy to revive, we may also want to consider that the plays occurred in Christian Northern Europe;…… [Read More]
This is clear enough from the play in which the man said, "Let them hate provided that they fear." He found to his cost that such a policy was his ruin.
When Antony and Octavian later reconciled, forming the Triumvirate with Lepidus, the young Caesar made no real effort to save Cicero when Antony immediately proscribed him. He had been informed, privately, of Cicero's quip to friends that the young man "must get praises, honors and push." In December, 43, almost two years to the day from his dinner with Caesar, Cicero was caught by Antony's soldiers in a halfhearted escape attempt. His brother Quintus and nephew had already been murdered. Cicero died bravely. His head and hands, cut off, were brought back and nailed to the ostra from which he had so often moved the crowd. Fulvia, Antony's remarkable wife, drove pins through the golden tongue which had so…… [Read More]
Sumptuary Laws in the Roman Empire
The Roman Republic and the Roman Empire were both grandiose and both are a major part of the history of the world. However, they were quite different in many significant ways but they were also similar in some ways as it relates to social structure, the way people dressed and how society proceeded and developed. The major difference between the two was that the Senate and people had a lot of power in the Republic while the Emperor reigned supreme in the Roman Empire. However, the differences are a lot deeper than that in some ways. hile some people conflate the Roman Empire and Roman Republic, there is a lot more than meets the eye when it comes to Roman History.
The main differences between the Roman Empire and the Roman Republic are fairly easy to list. hen it came to the Roman…… [Read More]
Machiavelli and Shakespeare:
The Influence of Machiavelli on Shakespeare's Plays
The Italian enaissance-era philosopher and political adviser Nicolo Machiavelli is one of the most famous and infamous writers on the subject of politics. Despite the common use of the synonym Machiavellian for evil, Machiavelli's seminal tract The Prince was considered so ground-breaking because of his emphasis on the practical nature of holding principalities versus a philosophy of the divine right of kings. Cunning rather than religion was the reason leaders triumphed, according to Machiavelli. Machiavelli was not necessarily opposed to democracy but rather advocated strong-armed techniques because simply from the prince's perspective that these methods were superior in holding territories. Machiavelli offered hard-headed words of wisdom versus ethical theories. Machiavelli's unsentimental and irreligious attitude towards kingship was very controversial at the time and influenced many of the depictions of villains in the Elizabethan playwright William Shakespeare's plays, including Julius Caesar,…… [Read More]
prim geography teacher. She is a disciplinarian who adopts strict rules for her classroom. Her teaching style is a common-sense method with her former students and citizens of Liberty Hill regarding her as the embodiment of wisdom and gentility. Like Miss Dove, Leiningen believes in hard work, refusing to leave his estate despite a swarm of soldier ants nearing his property. Early in the story it is shown he is wise as well. "First he had vanquished primal forces by cunning and organization, then he had enlisted the resources of modern science to increase miraculously the yield of his plantation." However, there are some differences. For example, Miss Dove is strict, reprimanding David Burnham for swearing. "Nothing is achieved by swearing," Miss Dove's sentence read. "Twenty Times."
Leiningen is not like that with the people he works with on his estate. He encourages them to stay with him to fight…… [Read More]
Historians of Judaism actually date the strong Jewish emphasis on monotheism somewhat later than expected within Jewish history. The archaeological discovery of idols and artifacts indicating cultic participation from the time of Israel's presence in Canaan has seemed to indicate a relative laxity in actual practice before the Babylonian captivity, while textual criticism seems agreed that most of the Torah's foregrounded statements of strong monotheism date from textual recensions during the Babylonian captivity, and thus substantially post-date both the J-writer and the E-writer of the Old Testament (Moberly 217). But the strong emphasis on monotheism which comprises the first commandment given by Yahweh to Moses is a defining feature of Judaism in prevailing polytheistic cultures where the Jews can define their religion in opposition, so to speak. I would like to examine three separate ways in which Jewish monotheism defined itself against a kind of prevailing cultural polytheism.…… [Read More]
Roman Empire and the Athenian Empire were alike in many ways. oth developed a culture based on the same mythology in order to unite their people in belief (the Romans Latinized the Greek gods and goddesses but the narratives remained largely the same). Individuals like Socrates in Athens or the early Christians in Rome were persecuted for teaching a faith that opposed the native mythology (Haaren, 2010). oth empires expanded their influence through war: the Romans conquered lands as far away as England, while the Athenians kept mainly to Greece but did repel invaders (like the Persians) and war against other city-states (as in the Peloponnesian Wars) in order to secure their own routes, borders and dominance in the region (Rome similarly destroyed Carthage multiple times so as to maintain its dominance). oth Rome and Athens were culturally and militarily suited to dominate, and this paper will describe how both…… [Read More]
In 46 B.C., once again Sallust was given an opportunity to shine or fail, as he was made a practor and sailed to Circina where he proved himself by stealing the enemies' stores. In return, Caesar rewarded Sallust with the title of proconsular governor of all of the province of Numidia and Africa. Others with a much stronger background were expecting this position, but it may have just been that Sallust showed a greater skill at organization. Sallust, however, takes advantage of this situation and when returning to ome was cited for extortion. [footnoteef:16] Caesar quickly acquitted Sallust, but that was the end of his political career. It appears that Caesar may have made a deal with Sallust that if he quietly disappears, he would not be tried. [16: Ibid.]
At this point in Sallust's life, he says he made the decision to give up his political career. Or,…… [Read More]
In Bellum Iugurthinum he claimed that the state will gain more advantage from his otium than from the negotium of contemporary politicians
SALLUST'S HISTOICAL WOKS
Sallust wrote several historical works, but the two monographs that remain intact are the Bellum Catilinae and the Bellum Jugurthinum. There are also four speeches and two letters as well as approximately 500 parts of his Historiae that was published in five books. It is believed by historians that "Sallust's merits as an artist have obscured, or made his readers willing to forget, his faults. As a historical authority he is at best second rank…Yet Sallust's value to us is considerable, mainly because his writings contain an interpretation of oman history during the late epublic often differing from that in our other sources and opposed to optimate tradition."
Even his speeches are valuable historically, adds Laistner,
for they are full of ethos and convey Sallust's…… [Read More]
Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).
The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…… [Read More]
Etruscans as a monolithic group, in fact, they covered a wide geographic area with a civilization that spans many centuries from a millennium BCE to their putative dissolution a couple of decades BCE (Time International, 2001). The sculpture Etruscan warrior supporting a wounded comrade, from the early fifth century BCE, was created in about the middle of the Etruscan era.
At the time this sculpture was created, the Etruscans had begun exploring the coast of what is now known as the Italian peninsula. The Etruscans enjoyed dominion on the seas at the time, giving them "tremendous potential for trade as well as piracy" (Time International, 2001). It is obvious from the embellishment on the clothing of the two warriors that the Etruscans enjoyed their sea-based wealth. It is also easy to believe, as Time (2001) contends, that the Etruscans were a more jovial people than were the omans who supplanted…… [Read More]
Architecture through the Ages
Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;
228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…… [Read More]
..and it is unlikely that the military will attempt to take over the executive branch by a coup." (2007) the media is not informing the citizens of what is occurring in many cases and a recent attempt to make a citizens arrest by over 8,000 individuals in Washington of President ush relating to war crimes resulted in many of those individuals being tasered and arrested.
SUMMARY and CONCLUSION
The future of the United States, according to what is known of the history of Rome, the predecessor upon which the U.S. originally based the form of its democratic government, appears to be bleak indeed. However, there is hope that the next presidential election will progress in a democratic manner and that the newly elected president will have the stamina and integrity required to see the United States return to the democracy upon which it was based and with the least pain…… [Read More]
Although the ancient Roman religion might seem a far cry from today';s contemporary context, in reality Roman religion continues to inform and shape Western culture to this day (the celebration of Christmas being one example). While there are a number of literary sources which provide contemporary scholars with information about Roman religions, both in terms of belief and practice, this religions information is encoded into the landscape and physical space of Rome itself, from the layout of its forums to the sculptures which adorn its altars. y examining three such sources in detail, the Ara Pacis, the Forum of Augustus, and the grove of the Arval rothers, one will be able to understand how Roman religion permeated Roman social and political identity and organizations, and furthermore, how these concurrent strains of identity-formation and power relations etched themselves into the very physical objects left behind to be discovered and…… [Read More]
The divisions ere as such:
1. The highest class amongst the slave as of the slave minister; he as responsible for most of the slave transactions or trades and as also alloed to have posts on the government offices locally and on the provincial level.
2. This as folloed by the class of temple slaves; this class of slaves as normally employed in the religious organizations usually as janitors and caretakers of priestesses in the organization.
3. The third class of slaves included a range of jobs for slaves i.e. slaves ho ere appointed as land/property etc. managers ere included in this class as ell as those slaves ho ere employed as merchants or hired to help around the pastures and agricultural grounds. A majority of this class included the ordinary household slaves.
4. The last class amongst the slaves also included a range of occupations of the slaves extending…… [Read More]
Primary Source Critique
Tacitus: "Life of Cnaeus Julius Agricola"
Unlike our own period of time, the ancient Romans experienced very little angst about the prospect of colonizing a geographically and ethnically distinct people for the enrichment of their own country. As is evident in Tacitus' "Life of Cnaeus Julius Agricola," the British resistance to Roman colonization is viewed as evidence of the British people's barbarity, not praiseworthy British fortitude against foreign domination. However, the Roman Tacitus also used the example of Britain not simply to praise his father-in-law Cnaeus Julius Agricola, but also to praise what he considered the true Roman values of freedom, austerity and military valor, in contrast to licentiousness and laziness, which he felt, was characteristic of contemporary Roman morality. This primary source text thus is less a fair portrayal of Britain of the era as it is an introduction to what Romans of Tacitus' class considered…… [Read More]
St. Martin of Tours
Sulpicius Severus, who wrote the work The Life of St. Martin of Tours, wrote the life story of St. Martin out of his great admiration for the man. In his preface he says to the one who urged him to write the story that he feared his skill with language would not be good enough for such an important task. He finally wrote the work because in his words, "because I thought it disgraceful that the excellences of so great a man should remain concealed." Sulpicius saw St. Martin's life as one others should try to emulate, and for that to happen, people would have to know something about how St. Martin had lived.
Martin was drawn to Christianity when he was 10 and immediately began studying his new religion. Following Christ's example, he gave all he could to those who needed it more, keeping back…… [Read More]
Abraham to Jesus with other Major Historical Events
2100 BC: Abraham moves to Canaan under a direct order from God. Canaan later becomes Israel.
2000 BC: Jacob, grandson of Abraham, is born in Canaan. Jacob is later renamed Israel. His 12 sons become the heads of the 12 Tribes of Israel.
Hammurabi builds up Babylon in the Fertile Crescent.
The Minoan Bronze Age in Crete.
1900 BC: One of Jacob's sons (Joseph) is sold into slavery. Joseph rises to power in Egypt.
1500 BC: The Indian Hindu Scriptures the Rig-Veda are completed.
1400 BC: The Israelites (after being enslaved for four centuries by Pharaoh) are led by Moses out of Egypt. Joshua takes the lead after Moses dies. It is to Moses that the first five books of the Old Testament are attributed.
1200 BC: The Trojan War.
1000 BC: Saul becomes king of the Israelites. David is anointed. David…… [Read More]
ome, whose beginning can be traced in 753 B.C., is the capital city of Italy. Initially, kings ruled the city; however, the last king, Tarquin the Proud, was overthrown. ome, then, became a republic for the next four hundred years. During this time, the republic was ruled by a Senate. The people to do different jobs in the senate were called Senators (Buckleitner, 58). However, not everyone was allowed to vote in these elections: women, slaves, and poor people were not allowed to vote. Those oman people who were not slaves were called 'citizens'.
In 55 B.C. The oman general Julius Caesar conquered France (At the time the country was called Gaul, and the omans called it Gallia). The Gauls fought hard against the omans and had been helped by Britain. Caesar was disappointed by their assistance and attempted to invade Britain, first in 55 B.C. And then…… [Read More]
The size of the army reached nearly 200,000 (Everitt 2007). Augustus also instituted programs to provide additional payments to both retired and active Roman soldiers for their duties.
idespread efforts were made by Augustus to reduce unnecessary excess by government while increasing spending on beneficial programs that presented utility rather than the perception of power (Everitt 2007). Consistent with these efforts, Augustus melted down dozens of silver and gold statues constructed in his likeness to emphasis the importance of modesty and the dangers of excess (Everitt 2007).
Augustus' institution of regulated taxation provided dramatically increased revenue for Rome and allowed for the increased expenses of social reform (Everitt 2007; Suetonius, Graves, and Grant 2002). Similarly, private taxation was abolished and increased the taxation purview of the Roman governance (Everitt 2007). Augustus prudently utilized the nascent taxation reform to provide funding for the maintenance of extensive road networks throughout Italy, among…… [Read More]
political, social and economical processes of the first century AD, it's important to distinguish main superpower, which dictated its values and spread its influence on other nations and ethnic groups. If to look on the problem from these perspective the problems that arose from such interaction will become obvious and clear. That's why we have to describe the processes that took place in the oman Empire, the only super state on the world's map of that epoch.
At the beginning of the first century the power of oman empire had expended over the territories of Mediterranean region: omans had conquered Britain, Spain in the West and reached eastern borders of their possessions on the territories of modern Armenia, Northern Mesopotamia in the East, omania in the North and Sarah in the South. oman emperors starting from Julius Caesar expanded and empowered oman Empire, its territories, increased army and turned into…… [Read More]
The Southern Dvina flowed from the heart of Russia into the Baltic near Riga, but through hostile Livonia. The headwaters of the Dvina and the Volga were not far apart and could have been connected by canals, thus providing a water route that might atone for the disproportion of Russia's enormous landmass to her coasts and ports. The Baltic would unite with the Caspian and the Black Sea, and East and est would meet.
In 1557, Ivan sent an army to Livonia, which ravaged the country brutally, burning houses and crops, enslaving men and raping women until they died. hen Livonia appealed for help, Stephen Bathory roused the Poles and led them to victory over the Russians at Polotsk, and Ivan yielded Livonia to Poland. However, long before this set back, his campaign had led to revolts on the home front. Merchants whom Ivan had thought to benefit decided that…… [Read More]
growing power of the Patricians during the fifth century B.C. influenced the Plebeians in wanting to have political equality to the upper classes. The common people realized that they held great power in the state and that by emphasizing the important role they played they would succeed in persuading Patricians to share their power. The fact that ome was at war with neighboring tribes concomitantly with this conflict enabled Patricians to understand that they had to cede power in order to achieve success.
Plebeians were unsatisfied with the unimportant role they held in politics and they struggled to make Patricians provide them with the opportunity to occupy public offices. In spite of the fact that they were provided with access to all offices, the Plebeians continued to be control by Patricians through other means and the condition of the average Plebeian did not change significantly.
Augustus Caesar is the first…… [Read More]
In author Jacques Ranciere's book On the Shores of Politics, he discusses what he believes are the important concepts in understanding democracy and how it is used by people. Most importantly in the chapter "The Uses of Democracy" is his belief that true democracy has yet to be envisioned. In the United States and other countries, as time progresses the nations which are built upon democratic systems of government move further away from the principles of that government's founding. After the fall of Communist regimes, the supremacy of the democratic viewpoint seems to have been strengthened but in reality the situation is only becoming more divisive, at least according to Ranciere's perspective. The differences between democracy as ideal and democracy in practice is growing with the advent of "liberal democracy" which itself demands a reorganization and reprioritizing of democratic ideals based on growing concern for individuals.
The word democracy…… [Read More]
French associate their country with a geometrical shape.
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type of weather:
Hot summers and cold sometimes snowy winters
North and Western Coastal Regions
Vosges, Jura, Alps, Pyrenees
Central and Eastern France
The South (also known as the Midi)
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type of weather:
Hot summers and mild winters often made colder by the cold Mistral wind
North and Western Coastal Regions
Vosges, Jura, Alps, Pyrenees
Central and eastern France
The south (the Midi)
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type…… [Read More]
military strategies employed by Alexander the Great and how he was able to skillfully use his political and military skills in conquering most of Europe and Asia in his time.
Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon reigned as the king of Macedonia from 356-323 B.C. He was born to King Philip and his third wife, Olympias in July 356 BC in Pella, Macedonia. He is remembered as one of the greatest military genius in history. During his lifetime, he conquered much of world, since his main ambition was to conquer the world and create world monarchy.
Alexander, was the strong, handsome commander leading his army using the best military strategies of his time. His army was armed with sarisses, the fearful five and half meter long spears. He was the first great conqueror to invade Greece, Egypt, and India. He was popular for creating ethnic syncretism between the Macedonians and the conquered…… [Read More]
And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many of Greek origin. He was the Messiah. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him previously did not cease to do so. For he appeared to them on the third day, living again, just as the divine prophets had spoken of these and countless other wondrous things about him. And up until this very day the tribe of Christians, named after him, has not died out (18.63-64)
This paragraph has also been very controversial, because many believe it would not be likely that Josephus would have written that Jesus "appeared to them on the third day, living again." Some scholars say that Josephus had given up all his Jewish leanings by this time, but others say that this was not the true…… [Read More]
The fight itself was beautifully orchestrated by Ali through the study of Foreman's technique, movement, strength, and weaknesses. hile preparing for the fight, Ali focused training on his weaknesses, and on Foreman's strengths as a fighter. Ali also took advantage of the public's support and encouragement and used it to build up his esteem, mentally and amongst the African peoples. Foreman, on the other hand, stayed out of the public eye and was reluctant to take part of the cheering for or against his opponent. Foreman was rather laconic during his stay, saying little and staying out of the spotlight. Ali took advantage of the publicity that the fight was receiving and was constantly in front of the camera, whether he was boasting his great skill, advocating his political views, or trying to psych Foreman out. Ali boasts include his great ability to be able to manipulate Foreman's actions stating,…… [Read More]