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42). The competing opposites, material in consciousness and in the unconscious, must be reconciled because if there is an imbalance of power one way or the other, the psyche is off-kilter and not unified. For example, the shadow side of a person must be integrated into the conscious ego rather than denied or sliced away. A healthy personality will not allow one side of the self to dominate the other. They will synthesize competing trends in their personality.
How does reconciliation take place? Hall and Nordby describe it in terms of psychodynamics and the progress of psychic energy. "Progression is defined as a person's daily experiences which advance his psychological adaptation (Hall and Nordby, 1973, p. 73). It is continuous because one's surroundings and experiences are constantly fluctuating. They go on to write:
In order for progression of libido to be reinstated, it is necessary that the pair of opposite…
Corbett, L. (1992). "Therapist Mediation of the Transcendent Function." In M.A. Matoon (Ed.), the Transcendent Function: Individual and Collective Aspects (pp. 395-401). Einsiedeln, Switzerland: Daimon Verlag.
Dehing, J. (1993). "The transcendent function: A critical re-evaluation." Journal of Analytical Psychology, 38, pp. 221-235.
Hall, C.S., and V.J. Nordby. (1973). A Primer of Jungian Psychology. New York: Penguin.
Humbert, E.G. (1988) C.G. Jung: The Fundamentals of Theory and Practice. (R. G. Jalbert, Trans.). Wilmette: Chiron.
Our senses during the conscious are rarely honed, but our subconscious states, from millenia of evolutionary change, are able to detect subtleties that have freed up our conscious minds for more analytical growth. Many people view this as subtrefuge -- our subconscious secrets living in a world that lacks expression. Instead, Jung believes that all things may be viewed as paired opposites (yin and yang). So love/hate, good/evil, male/female, etc. results in an ego system in which there is a counterego, or the shadow of oneself. This shadow reprents the parts of ourself that, for whatever reason, we tend to ignore. There are numerous reasons for this; it may be cultural, it may be practical, or we may not even realize we are ignoring a portion of ourselves. But for the self-actualized human, though, dreams are the guide for the waking self to meet with the subconscious to offer solutions…
Berens, L.V. 2000, Dynamics of Personality Type: Understanding and Applying Jung's
Cognitive Processes. New York: Telos Publications.
Capraro, RAM 2002, 'Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability', Educational and Pyschological Measurement, vol 62, no. 3, pp. 560-302.
Chapman, A 2010, Personality Theories, Types, and Tests, viewed July 2010,
It requires a strong personality and decisive action. Because I possess these qualities as an ENTJ I have been able to instill confidence in my students and ensure that they receive a high-quality education.
I think if I were in a career that was not a good match for my personality, I would be extremely frustrated. To me, the worst type of job would be one spent behind a desk where I could have no contact with the public. I would also dislike a job where I had no ability to exercise my authority and make positive changes. What I like best about my work is helping my students reach their goals and become useful, skillful craftsmen. I take home the satisfaction every day of knowing that I am running a business efficiently as possible, based upon my decision-making capabilities. If I make a mistake, it is my mistake, no…
I have always thought of myself as fairly outgoing, and being labeled as an introvert seemed strange to me. When I though about it, though, I realized that the test was (of course) fairly accurate in this assessment; I even recalled a few individual items on the test that proved this point -- my need to "reenergize" with some alone-time after hanging out with friends for awhile, or my preference for quite time at home as opposed to parties on many occasions (HumanMetrics 2011). I was not at all surprised to learn that I was a thinker, on the other hand, and remain somewhat uncertain as to the descriptions of being intuitive and judging.
When I read the entries that describe the INTJ type, my assessment of the test, its accuracy, and its usefulness and relevance to my life changed dramatically. Often, personality descriptions (especially those based on pseudo-spiritual things…
Boeree, G. (2006). Carl Jung. Accessed 1 October 2011. http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/jung.html
Hergenhahn, B. & Olson, M. (2011). An introduction to theories of personality (8th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall.
HumanMetrics. (2011). Jung Type Test. Accessed 1 October 2011. http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes3.asp
jung, heroes quest shaped encounters a female force, paper emphasis importance women Perseus encounters journey slay medusa. You explain topic stages journey encounters women (His Mother, Danae, Athena, Gray sister, Nymphs).
Perseus and female factor in his life
Women play a particularly important role in Perseus' development as a man as he embarks on a journey to slay Medusa. The hero's experiences with women enabled him to look at the world from a different perspective and influenced him to take on attitudes that he knew would have a strong effect on his upbringing. Most women that he interacts with make it possible for him to experience progress and to invest even more resources in trying to achieve his goal. While Athena is a god and her role as a woman in the story is not necessarily important when regarding things from a feminist perspective, it is likely that Perseus' experience…
egarding the concept of repression, "Jung took into consideration neither the theory of primary and secondary processes and the conclusions derived therefrom, nor ego psychology and the related mechanisms of defense" (ohn, 1990, 54). What caused the schism between the two scientists, turning them from collaborators to representatives of separate methods? "…Tensions concerned the role of sexuality in personality development and neurotic etiology -- a topic about which Jung had been cautious from the first and about which Freud was to become increasingly dogmatic in the context of Jung's defection" (Eisendrath, 2008, 39). It may be said that perhaps the point upon which their beliefs differed can be traced back to Jung's childhood preference of his father for his mother's instability. From this, one can understand that unlike Freud, Jung's concept is more masculine than feminine.
Other criticisms speak to additional areas of Jung's psychological theories. "While many of Jung's…
Bair, D. (2004). Jung: a biography. New York: Bay Back Books.
Bennet, E.A. (1966). What Jung really said . New York: Schocken Books.
Carducci, B.J. (2009). The psychology of personality: viewpoints, research, and applications (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Eisendrath, P., & Dawson, T. (2008). The Cambridge companion to Jung (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
To look at another's life as a symbol or as an inspiration for how one ought or wishes to live can be a very motivating factor in finding one's own personal myth.
A fascinating element about Edinger's (1992) work is how he compares the teachings of Jesus from a subjective perspective of interpretation to depth psychology and how similar they are. For example, one that is particularly insightful is: 'Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth' (1992). Edinger (1992) states that 'subjectively understood, meekness will refer to an attitude of the ego towards the unconscious.' To come to inherit the earth seems to suggest 'an awareness of being individually related to or having a personal stake in the whole (the wholeness of life, the total human experience)' (1992). Nearly all of Jesus' teachings can be interpreted in a psychological way, which makes one believe (even if they…
Casement, Ann. (1998). Post-Jungians today: key papers in contemporary analytical psychology.
Routledge; pp. 83-146.
Edinger, Edward. (1992). Ego and archetype. Shambhala; pp. 131-294.
Scwartz-Salant, Nathan. (1986). Narcissism and character transformation: the psychology of narcissistic character disorders. Inner City Books; pp. 29-132.
Freud and Jung
How did Freud and Jung differ in their approach to personality?
Initially, Freud and Jung agreed on their approach to personality, but later, Jung broke with Freud and developed his own independent ideas. Where they differed was in how much of a role sexuality played in analysis, and that is what finally split up the two psychiatrists. Jung went on to form his own brand of analysis -- "rational theology" which was based on spirituality rather than sexuality. He had supported Freud in the beginning, but in the end the two approaches were so different that the men split and did not support each other again, and it was the very sexual nature of Freud's theories that bothered Jung and drove him to create his own theories and ideas.
How did Freud and Jung agree in their approach to psychology?
Freud and Jung agreed in the beginning,…
Boeree, Dr. C. George. "Carl Jung." Shippensburg University. 1997. 29 July 2005.
Boeree, Dr. C. George. "Sigmund Freud." Shippensburg University. 1997. 29 July 2005.
< http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/freud.html >
A bonus is the product's name, which might make you blush without any rouge: Hook Up," stated Jung. (Setoodeh, 2005)
Avon has incorporated college women into its sales staff, broadening its base and image without altering its quality. Its chief executive is noted for her 'hands on style' of reaching out to new customers, sources, and markets. She once personally flew to Mexico to unveil a new line of products. She spoke Spanish to the sales staff there, to connect with the regional base. And yet, in her international marketing, she has focused on keeping costs low, assuming that all customers want the same thing -- quality at low prices. All members of different sales staffs contribute to informing Jung about what the markets need, yet Jung still ensures that the sales staff are instilled with the core organizational values of Avon -- an ideal combination of trust and leadership…
Setoodeh, Ramin. (2005) "Andrea Jung." Newsweek Online. Retrieved 19 Feb 2005 at http://msnbc.msn.com/id/6733211/site/newsweek
CG Jung, Man and His Symbols
Carl Jung's long and influential career in twentieth century psychology would culminate in his last major work, Man and His Symbols, which was written in 1961, the last year of his life, in which the duties of expounding Jung's philosophy devolved upon some of the first Jungians, including the author of the second chapter in Man and His Symbols, Joseph L. Henderson. But an examination of Henderson's contribution to the volume -- "Ancient Myths and Modern Man" -- is still a revealing way to explore Jungian thought.
A little historical context is necessary before approaching Man and His Symbols -- we need to realize that Jung first came to prominence as a follower of the Austrian medical doctor, and founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud. Freud placed a heavy emphasis on the unconscious motivations that came to play in daily life, but which could be…
Matrix and Jung
The film The Matrix is rich with symbolism. Therefore, it is fruitful to examine the movie and its characters in light of Jungian psychology. Jung's theory of the unconscious and the collective unconscious closely parallel the central meaning and function of the Matrix itself. The Matrix is essentially Jung's collective unconscious with a different name. The characters in the film also closely mirror many of the archetypes and symbols the Jung addresses in his book Man and His Symbols. Both the book and the film acknowledge the importance of the unconscious, of dreams, and of symbols; they are not insignificant parts of life but rather they form the underlying structure of reality. Furthermore, both Jung and the movie emphasize the spiritual nature of the Matrix and the spiritual quest that understanding the Matrix involves. In the Matrix, consciousness is dislocated from the body, a phenomenon that Jung…
Jung, Carl Gustav. Man and His Symbols.
Wachowski, Andy, and Wachowski, Larry. The Matrix.
She immediately went after management, which was not a surprising move; given that her vision of Avon was a company built on the success of its army of small business owners. In fact, "she eliminated eight levels of management and cut costs by $300 million" (George, 2007).
While cutting costs and eliminating management positions was hardly a revolutionary position for an executive faced with falling sales and stagnant growth, Jung's next move was significant. ather than concentrate on increasing profits in her established markets, Jung took Avon into the Chinese market. In retrospect, every current market leader would suggest entering the Chinese market, but it was actually a visionary position in 2005, when not all industries were willing to try their hands in China. That move proved very successful; the Chinese market has become a large part of Avon's business. By 2007, Avon was once again experiencing double-digit sales growth…
Andrea Jung. (2008). Retrieved February 4, 2009 from Business Reference. Web site: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/biography/F-L/Jung-Andrea-1959.html
George, B. (2007). Andrea Jung: corporate executive. Retrieved February 3, 2009 from U.S.
News and World Report. Web site: http://www.usnews.com/articles/news/best-leaders/2007/11/12/andrea-jung.html
Personality Theories of Erick Erikson, Alfred Adler, And Carl Jung
Personality Theories of Erik Erikson, Alfred Adler, and Carl Jung
How do we develop our personalities? There has been a lot of controversy in how we become who we are. For generations, competing theories have aimed to better understand this secret process. The theories of Erik Erikson are base don personality development through exposure to social environments, while
Erik Erikson's theory of personality is based on the psychosocial model of development, where psychosocial development characterizes the nature of the individual's personality based on predefined stages. Thus, Erikson believed that one's social environment heavily impacted psychological development. Throughout the stages, the growing child defines his or her personality through what is known as ego strength or quality (Cherry 2011). Essentially, when the child masters a stage, he or she can move on to the next. When a child does not master…
Cherry, Kendra. (2011). Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. Psychology Basics. Web. http://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/psychosocial.htm
Heffner Media Group. (2011). Alfred Adler's individual psychology. Personality Synopsis. AlPsych. Web. http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/adler.html
Luttrell, Amy. (2009). The personality theory of Carl Jung. Psychology Suite 101. Web. http://suite101.com/article/the-personality-theory-of-carl-jung-a170440
uring the Kuomingtang era, women's role in society expanded substantially. Jung explains that her mother worked within the communist underground and married a young communist who eventually became an official in Chengdu. The role of women in this era was expanded to the greater liberties permitted under Kuomingtang governance. They shared in the burdens of their husbands and had greater control over their lives, and their relationships. However, they were still severely limited especially in relation to the workplace.
Finally, during the era of communism, women were elevated to an much more equalitarian position within society. They were able to be employed within government and enjoyed many of the same rights as men. espite embedded social prejudice against women, the government recognized them as equals and it allowed Jung to able to have the freedom to explore relationships, employment opportunities and ultimately the liberty to control her…
During the Qing Dynasty, women had little influence in society. Jung Chang's grandmother was a concubine to General Xue in 1924. During this era, women were treated as little more than objects, and they were not given any significant rights during this era. Her grandmother was a beautiful young girl who had her feet tied and lived to serve General Xue. Women within this era clearly did not have significant control over their own lives. Their marriages were arranged by their parents and women were oftentimes bartered in exchanges and other forms of trade.
During the Kuomingtang era, women's role in society expanded substantially. Jung explains that her mother worked within the communist underground and married a young communist who eventually became an official in Chengdu. The role of women in this era was expanded to the greater liberties permitted under Kuomingtang governance. They shared in the burdens of their husbands and had greater control over their lives, and their relationships. However, they were still severely limited especially in relation to the workplace.
Finally, during the era of communism, women were elevated to an much more equalitarian position within society. They were able to be employed within government and enjoyed many of the same rights as men. Despite embedded social prejudice against women, the government recognized them as equals and it allowed Jung to able to have the freedom to explore relationships, employment opportunities and ultimately the liberty to control her life.
As in other areas of psychology, Carl Jung agreed with Feud on many of the basics of dream interpretation. He began to see Freud's views as overly simplistic, however, and believed that there were deeper collective archetypes that made themselves known through dreams, and which represented basic elements of the human character as ways of dealing with unconscious issues. Also of great importance to Jung, according to Hall, was the context of the dream, especially when it came to dangerous elements: "It is important to look beyond the mere presence of physical danger to the dream-ego and make some assessment of its meaning within the dream" (Hall, 49). This is similar to Freudian interpretation in its seeking of a mechanism of meaning, rather than interpreting dreams as being purely symbolic in content, but Jung developed this much further.
Sigmund Freud. The Interpretation of Dreams. New York: Avon, 1980.…
Sigmund Freud. The Interpretation of Dreams. New York: Avon, 1980.
James Albert Hall. Jungian Dream Interpretation. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1983.
This also shows how women became more active in the national political process, no matter their stance or beliefs. While the more traditional facts about communist China under Mao Zedong are explicated, there are some less horrific details about communist life of which the average American may not be aware. Sexual equality did grow. Food was distributed fairly. These are not the typical details of communist China we learn about in America.
Chang herself has several occupations as the story focuses upon her life and her struggles. She is a member of ed Guard at the age of 14. She works as a steelworker and an electrician. These kinds of positions are still considered unusual for women in American culture as well as in many other cultures around the world. During the Cultural evolution, there arose opportunities for women to progress socially and politically. This rings true for the Civil…
Chang, Jung. Wild Swans. Anchor Books, 1992.
Personality Type Explained
According to the Jung Typology Test I am an INFP—but really just barely. I am only 3% introvert, 9% intuitive, 3% feeling and 9% perceiving. I am right in the middle on most questions. However, the career choices that fall under the INFP category are actually all choices that I have considered in the past, so the test does seem to work. The recommended career choices for the INFP are: “Social workers, psychologists, life coaches, addiction rehab counselors, mental and community care staff, children education, teaching, and also creative script writing” (INFP Career Choices, 2018).
The INFP Learning Style also describes me to a “t”—a enjoy learning but usually only when it relates in some way to human behavior. I can study manuals and information that is purely mechanical—such as how to change oil in a car—but I do find it to be tedious and more like…
In modern society, myth is identified with something of the past, something historical taught in schools and read in books. However, one needs to acknowledge that communication has enabled people to receive information in various ways: television, cinema, video games, comic books, books. These are the elements that demonstrate the presence of archetypes within modern mythology. One ancient Greek hero is one Spiderman, or Batman, one moral leader is Frodo, the hobbit. Thus, ancient archetypes resemble modern ones, making Jung's theory viable.
In Greek mythology, a hero was not just the personage who fought monsters, but a hero that was able to fight his own ego and come to terms with his nature, his goal in life. In this respect, Oedipus was thought of as a noble hero who was subjected to making mistakes because of a faulty judgement. By disregarding the divine will and giving in to an inner…
Traveling worldwide, ogers participated in negotiating sessions involving disputes between Protestants and Catholics, religious, racial, and ethnic differences in South Africa, racial disputes in the United States, and consumers and health care professionals in several jurisdictions. He was widely recognized as being successful at resolving serious differences in most of these difference scenarios.
Carl ogers was born and raised in the United States but Carl Jung was born and raised in Switzerland. While ogers was an extroverted, personable individual, Carl Jung was a highly introverted individual who preferred a solitary life. By his own admission, Jung was happiest when he was left alone with his thoughts (Wehr, 2001).
Jung academic background was founded in the field of medicine. While attending medical school, Jung developed an interest in spirituality and it was this interest that eventually led to his becoming interested in psychiatry as a specialty. As part of his graduation…
Jung, C.G. (1968). Man and His Symbols. New York: Dell.
Kirschenbaum, H. (2008). Life and Work of Carl Rogers. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Rogers, C. (1979). The Foundations of the Person-Centered Approach. La Jolla, CA: Centrre for Studies of the Person.
Wehr, G. (2001). Jung: A Biography. Boston: Shambhala.
Exploring Self, Culture, History, eligion
Exploring the Self, Cultures, History, or eligion through Myth
PO Box, 60453,
How are you my little friend and how is everyone at your home? I hope all doing good. Pass my greetings to them.
I received your letter and was happy to know that you have been promoted to 4 rth and the final year of your college. Wow! You'll graduate after a year. Lee! You mentioned in your letter that you have chosen Mythology (general) as your elective subject and that you are facing some difficulties in it. I went through the attached course outline; there I found out that you will be exploring self, cultures, history, or religion through myth. Also there was a list of theories that you will be presenting throughout this course.
I have collected some data regarding the first theory "Carl Jung's…
Boeree, C.G. (2006). Personality Theories. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/jung.html .
Carl-jung.net. Concept of Collective Unconscious at Jung. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from http://www.carl-jung.net/collective_unconscious.html .
Integration Training. Inner Voices: Embracing all the Parts of Our Personality. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from http://integrationtraining.co.uk/blog/2011/01/inner-voices-embracing-all-parts-of-personality.html .
Jung, C.G. (1970). The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
The Jungian model uses rationality and spirituality in place of Freudian sexuality as the main determiners of personality. Jung also believed that personality continued to evolve until at least middle-age; far later then the pubescent cementing of personality that Freud described. In today's world, Jungian types (with the additional differentiation between perceiving and judging) are used much more often than Freudian models.
Another great personality theorist was Carl Rogers. Rogers took a vast departure from both Feud and Jung in his basic approach to psychology and especially when it came to personality. Rather than ever seeing personality as a finished product, Rogers believed that the innate purpose of a human individual was fulfillment of our genetic capabilities through the completion of positive works, a drive that he called the actualizing tendency. Personality is born through the relationship of an individual's self-concept with their inborn potential -- the closer the two…
Psychoanalytic Approach to Personality
The three major psychoanalytic theories and approaches to personality could not be more different. Freud, who focuses on early childhood and sexual urges, differs from Jung who focuses on the unconscious, who differs from Adler who focuses on human motivation and superiority (Weiten, 2005). Of course, what they all have in common is trying to tease out an understanding of human personality. This paper will compare and contrast each of Freud's, Jung's, and Adler's psychoanalytic approaches, as well as two characteristics in which this author agrees or disagrees with the theories presented. Then the focus will mainly be on Freud and his structure to personality, and finally using real world examples for his defense mechanisms. Overall, this paper strives to present a well-rounded view of Freud's theory, and the theories of his time.
The structural model for Freud's psychoanalytic theory is based on three different levels…
Burger, J.M. (2008). Personality. (7th ed., pp. 40-107). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Weiten, W. (2005). Psychology themes and variations. (6th ed., pp. 329-336). Belmont, CA:
Sigmund Freud believed humans early on in development had a sexual need. This was seen through his perspective of desire and emotion within the unconscious part of the human mind. To Freud, sexuality is a key component to human personality and thus plays an important role in a child's development. This is evidenced in Mary Williamson's article, "The importance of fathers in relation to their daughters' psychosexual development". Essentially, daughters develop their sexuality based on their interactions with their father. By having formed a sexual attraction in a metaphorical sense to the father, without the mother's intervention, a daughter can properly develop a satisfactory gender or psychosexual identity.
The beginning of the article is a rather lengthy introduction explaining how the information provided came to be. Williamson attempts to explain her intentions within the lens of various psychoanalytic approaches covering the father-daughter relationship. She also states that the formation of…
Shoaib, M. (2014). Electra Complex in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. Lapis Lazuli -An International Literary Journal, 4(1), 169-173.
Smart, J. (2012). Disability across the developmental life span: For the rehabilitation counselor. New York, NY: Springer.
Williamson, M. (2004). The importance of fathers in relation to their daughters' psychosexual development. Psychodynamic Practice, 10(2), 207-219. doi:10.1080/14753630410001699885
Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China
Wild Swans is the story of three generations of women in China in the 20th century. The author is Jung Chang: her autobiography comprises the last third section of the book; the first two sections are devoted to telling the story of her grandmother Yu-Fang and her mother Bao Qin. Instead of writing a straight autobiography, Chang chose to begin her story two generations back—the purpose being to provide not only personal historical context but also a sense of the cultural historical context in which her family came into being. By beginning the book with the statement that her grandmother “became the concubine of a warlord general” at the age of fifteen, Chang immediately gives her story a sweeping, grand epic backdrop: she is no mere commoner of humble origins but rather a figure whose family was right in the heart or thick of…
The key to flexibility of motivation is intrinsically conflicting motivational structures. The self as defined by Jung is the core or central component that keeps these opposing forces operating as an integrated whole. To what closing stages does this process manage? It was formed by evolution and so survival is the architect but it is survival not just of the next generation but into an unclear future. The self as described by Jung is the psychic image of this limitless potential for prospect development. For itself it focuses on the various dimensions of human functioning that put in to survival including ingenuity in all its forms.
Sensing the self as something irrational, as an impalpable existent, to which the ego is neither opposed nor subject, but simply attached, and about which it spins very much as the earth does round the sun, accordingly the goal of individuation is reached. The…
Cavell, M. (1993). The Psychoanalytic Mind: From Freud to Philosophy. Cambridge, MA:
Deigh, J. (1996). The Sources of Moral Agency: Essays in Moral Psychology and Freudian
Theory. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press,
Geller, L. (1984). Another look at self-actualization. Journal of humanistic psychology, 24:100
The first reading allows the individual to react to it on a personal level, to relate the story of the tragic lovers in terms of his or her own experiences with love (Walker, 1995, p. 13). But secondary and tertiary (and so on) readings allow the individual to connect to the story on deeper and increasingly abstract levels so that an analysis of this story might come to understand it as a story of the temporary death of the individual and its potential and even expected rebirth as part of a universal mother, a submission of the identity of daughter and son into the more primary identity of creation and life. An individual who follows an analysis along such a path can explore his or her own feelings about love and loss, about autonomy and dependence, about fear and acceptance.
However, within the clinical setting, the client must choose his…
Armenian poetry. Retrieved from http://www.hyeetch.nareg.com.au/armenians/poetry_p15x4.html
Aziz, R. (1990). C.G. Jung's Psychology of Religion and Synchronicity (10th ed.). New York: The State University of New York Press.
Jung, C.G. (1985). Synchronicity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Odajnyk, V.W. (2004). The Archetypal Interpretation of Fairy Tales: Bluebeard. Psychological perspectives 47(1): 10-29.
Carl Jung Personality/Iceberg Theory
Introduction to Carl Jung
Carl Jung grew up during the late nineteenth century in Switzerland in a Protestant Victorian culture. It was this culture that had such an impact on the values held by American individuals during that timeframe. Jung's father was a pastor and Jung, following medical school completion in the early part of the 1900s became a psychiatrist as well as a disciple of Sigmund Freud. (, paraphrased)
Summary of Jung's Personality/Iceberg Theory
The work of Sally Palmer Thomason (1992) states that the human psyche "could be compared to a giant iceberg -- the conscious mind is like the small exposed tip that is seen above the waterline; the far greater part, the unconscious mind, lies unseen, hidden beneath the surface." (Thomason, 1992) The work of Briggs Myer and Myers entitled "Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type" states that Jung wrote the theory of type…
Boeree, C. George (2006) Personality Theories. Retrieved from: http://www.social-psychology.de/do/pt_jung.pdf
Briggs Myers, I. And Myers, PB (1995) (Gifts Differing Understanding Personality Type). Nicholas Brealey Publishing 1995. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=yb_Vwmf1G6QC&dq=carl+jung+personality+test&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Thomason, Sally (1992) The living spirit of the crone: turning aging inside out. Theology and the Sciences. Fortress Press 2006. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=b3lOtWoob9EC&dq=Carl+Jung+Personality+Iceberg+Theory&source=gbs_navlinks_s
psychodynamic counselors facilitate change?
In order to understand how psychodynamic counselors facilitate change through a therapeutic relationship with their client, it is worth discussing what psychodynamic therapy is, how it is used, how it originated, and who some of its most notable founders were. Towards the end of this document, in the description of how psychodynamic therapy is used, descriptions of recent psychodynamic therapy sessions that the author undertook in a triad setting will be described.
The mind, personality, and psyche are terms that refer to the interrelationships of a person's mental, emotional, or what could be termed psychological characteristics. Another way to think of this is that the psyche, mind, and personality are the forces that drive a person to think what they do, to act out how they choose, the way a person relates to themselves and how they relate to the world around them particularly the role…
Bowlby, John 1999, Attachment and Loss: Vol I, 2nd Ed. Basic Books, New York.
"Depth Psychology" Stepping Stones: bringing depth psychology to everyday life [online] viewed March 23, 2011, www.depthpsychologytoday.com.
Gay, P 1989, The Freud Reader, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York.
Hall, CS 1954, A Primer in Freudian Psychology. Meridian Books, New York.
The events of the film show that despite having Joel consciously removed from her mind, the unconscious need for him remains. This explains why Clementine ends up with Joel even after they both erase each other. The story of Joel shows the same process. In Joel's case, his collective unconscious also draws him to Clementine. His problem occurs when he finds that Clementine has erased him. He then makes a conscious decision to erase her, with this decision mainly driven by anger and a desire for revenge. However, even as he erases Clementine his unconscious seems to alert him to the fact that this isn't a relationship he should let go of. This explains why Joel begins to fight the process, as his unconscious mind struggles to save his relationship with Clementine and prevent it from being erased. ith the way the technique is presented, it seems that there is…
Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind. Dir. Michel Gondry. Focus Features, 2004.
Jung, C.G. The Portable Jung. New York: Penguin, 1976.
Litt, S. "Carl Jung on Human Relations." Retrieved 18 May, 2005. PositiveHealth.com. URL: http://www.positivehealth.com/permit/Articles/Regular/litt60.htm
Seamon, J.G., & Kenrick, D.T. Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1994.
It is only through occult understanding that the forms and the archetypal images and symbols can be interpreted.
Here we see that the term unconsciousness is very similar to the Platonic ideals and forms. Another aspect that will form part of the theoretical perspective of this study is the concept of transformation. In order to understand the occult and its relationship to the forms, a process of transformation has to take place. In Platonic terms this transformation is a radical change in life, morality and ethics; while for Jung it is transformation in terms of the deeper understanding of the relation of the unconscious to the conscious mind.
Transformation also has related occult meaning and symbols such as fire. Fire is an age-old indication of change of perception and consciousness. This also refers to Jungian concepts such as the shadow. There are many other points of reference and similarity between…
Archetypes as Defined by Carl Jung) October 9, 2004. http://www.acs.appstate.edu/~davisct/nt/jung.html#shadow
Arnzen. M. "The Return of the Uncanny." 1977. University of Oregon. March 17, 2004. http://paradoxa.com/excerpts/3-3intro.htm
Boeree, G. Carl Jung. October 11, 2004. http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/jung.html
Christian Churches of God) Mysticism Chapter 1 Spreading the Babylonian Mysteries (No. B7_1). October 9, 2004. http://www.holocaustrevealed.org/english/s/B7_1.html
The boy just stood there staring at the pile of clothes and cat food and bows. I went over and asked him if I could do anything but he told me that he was used to it. I wasn't actually all that surprised by his answer.
And so I ask myself: Which story of the family are these two telling themselves? Does the boy know that he is Horus and Apollo? Or does he know that he is Bluebeard in the making? And does the woman yearn to be Demeter? Or is she still aching to be Persephone? Persephone is for Jung a symbol of completeness, for she encompasses opposites -- life and death, mother and daughter, even male and female. The whole eternal cycle of birth through to rebirth.
Then there were two women, well dressed, nice jewelry, standing in the candle aisle. I was there because --…
Jung, C.G. (1966). The practical use of dream analysis in the practice of psychotherapy. Princeton: Princeton University Press: pp 139-161.
Jung, C.G. (2009). The Red book: Liber novus. S. Shamdassani, ED and trans., M. Kyburz and J. Peck, Trans. New York: Norton.
In the prologue to Jung's (1965) book, Memories, dreams, reflections, he states that life, to him, is like a plant that lives on its rhizome. The real life of the plant is not seen but hidden, rather, in the rhizome.
The part that appears above ground lasts only a single summer. Then it withers away -- an ephemeral apparition. When we think of the unending growth and decay of life and civilizations, we cannot escape the impression of absolute nullity. Yet I have never lost a sense of something that lives and endures underneath the eternal flux. What we see is the blossom, which passes. The rhizome remains.
Jung (1965) goes on to explain that his book about his life has been based on the rhizome of his life -- the interior happenings as opposed to the exciting events of his life -- like traveling -- because it is the…
Casement, Ann. (1998). Post-Jungian today: key papers in contemporary analytical psychology. Routledge.
Dunne, Claire. (2002). Carl Jung: wounded healer of the soul. Continuum International Publishing Group.
Edinger, Edward. (1992). Ego and archetype. Shambhala.
Jung, Carl. (1965). Memories, dreams, reflections. Vintage Book Edition.
Levi-Strauss also suggested that myth offered the "illusion" of being able to "understand the universe," which suggests a psychological purpose to myth creation (cited by Bierlein, p. 262).
Freud believed that myths shared a language with dreams, and were ultimately the "products of repressed individual childhood memories played out in conscious language," (Bierlein, p. 282). Unlike Jung, Freud did not believe that myths were "the products of any myth-producing area of the unconscious universal to all human beings," (Bierlein 282). Instead Freud explained the phenomenon of parallel myths in terms of a shared human psychological experience; human beings share the same neuroses. Parallel myths occur because all human beings share similar biological, psychological, and social experiences.
Jung, on the other hand, conceived of a collective unconscious that was shared by all human beings. Dreams and myths are "definitely related," according to Jung, but are not "the products of individual memories,"…
Sigmund Freud (1856-1949)
Sigmund Freud is the undisputed father of psychoanalysis. Should this statement seem to contradict assertions regarding the age-old status of psychology, it must be clarified that Freud was the first theorist to formalize the process of analysis, a practice that is not used in all modalities of psychology today. Analysis, specifically the psychoanalysis so often parodied in the cartoon of the tormented patient lying on the couch before the bearded quasi-Freudian father figure of the therapist, presupposes in its theoretical structure the existence of an subconscious element to the human mind, in other words, that how humans think they immediately perceive the world is not all that there is to human consciousness.
Freud used techniques such as free association to elicit reasons for his patient's behaviors. Freud began his treatment upon hysterics. He grew to believe that unresolved childhood traumas rather than physiological causes were at…
Pavlov, Ivan. (2003) Lectures and translations. http://www.ivanpavlov.com last modified: April 14, 2003. Retrieved on September 19, 2004 at http://www.ivanpavlov.com/
Ross, Kelly R. (2002) Karl Jung. Retrieved on September 19, 2004 at http://www.friesian.com/jung.htm
Thorton, Steven P. (2001) "Sigmund Freud." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved on September 19, 2004 at http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/f/freud.htm#Backdropto his Thought
Jung's instrumental role in affirming psychology as a science is downplayed by modern researchers. Yet as the author notes, much of what Jung unearthed in his research and clinical work has bled through to modern clinical psychology. The most obvious implication that Jungian psychology has become part of the mainstream social sciences is the Myers-Briggs test.
However, the concept of the archetype is Jung's. So, too, are issues like extraversion and introversion. Jung is renowned for detailed personality typing, a process that is integral to healing. Typing indicates the quest for self-awareness. Like going backwards, the process of being more aware of the self is often akin to diving into a dark pool.
We Jungian therapists might sometimes be called upon to delve into primitive landscapes ourselves, searching for cultural emblems and icons that match a client's budding self-awareness. The Cambridge Companion to Jung, which contains a plethora of useful…
Gambini, R. (1998). The challenge of backwardness. Chapter 9 in Casement, a. (1998). Post-Jungians Today. p. 149-234. Routledge.
Robertson, R. (2005). Jung and the making of modern psychology. Psychological Perspectives, 48, 1.
Schwartz-Salant, N. (1982). Narcissism and character transformation. pages 133-169
Young-Eisendrath, P. & Dawson, T. (2008). The Cambridge companion to Jung. pages 141-313
Analyzing the Sopranos through the eyes of Carl Jung
The award-winning HBO television series, The Sopranos, is one that can be analyzed by people everywhere. Each time a new episode airs, it has more symbolism than the last. The various storylines, plots, and characters are divulged in a way that creates a certain tension among the audience; and week after week, people feel compelled to come back for more.
So why is it that people feel bound to their television sets each fall when a new season of The Sopranos commences? Most people in America will answer this way: "It's great drama." But there must be a driving force behind the drama, a technique that the writers, directors, and producers use to hold America's interest. Carl G. Jung, author of Man and His Symbols, might have a few ideas regarding this.
In Man and His Symbols,…
Estes, Clarissa Pinkola. Women Who Run With the Wolves: Myths and Stories of the Wild Woman Archetype. New York: Ballantine Books, 1992.
Jung, Carl G. Man and His Symbols. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company Inc., 1964.
" The subject describes how his mother also adamantly refused to consent to the use of Novocain or any other anesthetic when he visited the dentist (despite his pleas and pleas from the dentist) because of her distrust of "chemicals."
There is likely a direct connection between the subject's development of a highly abrasive and uncontrollable on-air persona and the degree to which the subject's control over basic aspects of his life was denied to him throughout his formative years (Casement, 1998; Mitchell & Black, 1995). More specifically, the subject was denied the right to express himself and he was often forced to abide by very conservative rules of proper conduct both in the home and also outside the home, such as by his mother's repeated warning that he was her "representative" outside the home. The self that developed seems to reflect both the explicit absorption of certain ideas from…
Andrews, J.D.W. "Integrating visions of reality: Interpersonal diagnosis and the existential vision." American Psychologist, Vol. 44; (1989): 803-17.
Bagarozzi, D.A. And Anderson, S.A. (1989). Personal, Marital, and Family Myths:
Theoretical Formulations and Clinical Strategies. New York: Norton.
Casement, a. (1998). Post-Jungians Today. Papers in Contemporary Analytical
Freudian and Jungian Dream Analysis:
Infidelity in "All the Little Loved Ones" by Dilys Rose
"All the Little Loved Ones" by Dilys Rose clearly functions as an introverted type of art form based upon its structure and presentation: it is a stream-of-consciousness narration whereby the mother of several small children talks about her life directly to the reader. Little happens in the short story on a physical level and the details she narrates are mundane. The primary plot point of the story is the narrator's contemplation of an affair with a man she has met in a park where she takes her children. The children enjoy the swings; she enjoys the outdoor freedom and the idea of something that liberates her from the chains of motherhood. Yet it is unclear whether this liberation is real or imagined: Rose suggests that it does not matter, and that this type of suburban…
"C.G. Jung's theory of types." Transpersonal Science. [17 Nov 2013]
Cherry, Kendra. "Archetypes." [17 Nov 2013]
problem of evil and suffering has been an issue since the beginning of time. Carl Jung has written passionately and eloquently about the possibility and impossibility of transcending this problem.
According to Jung's reasons for this problem was that God was a schmuck towards Job (and by extension to all innocents who suffer from 'acts of God') due to His not being fully conscious. A strange theory since, it would seem that by definition God is Omniscient.
However, God, in Jung's model, contains all opposites and paradoxes, which includes choosing not to consult his own self.
If he had done so, he could have seen that Job would have been faithful to the end and not needed to take Satan's "bet."
The devil is still able to waltz into heaven in the book of Job and complain about how rotten mankind is. So, it is clear according to Jung, that…
God has created every person with different nature and interests that builds ones personality. The idea of studying different personalities was proposed in 1920s by some of the famous scholars and scientists. Carl Jung was the first scholar who described the Psychological Types. He categorized people as extroverted and introverted. People with extroverted personality are more oriented towards external world and goes through new experiences whereas the introvert personalities are more oriented towards internal worlds and memories. Later on, Jung identified other differences in the personalities and named them functions which are now called as Cognitive Processes.
Types of Cognitive Processes
The extroverts and introverts deal with the world in their own style. According to Jung there are four main styles that are sensing, intuition, thinking and feeling. Jung categorized these four types under two main headings perception and judgment.
Perception -- (Sensation and Intuition)
Judgment -- (Thinking…
Barrett, L., Sorensen, R. & Hartung, T. (1985). Personality Type Factors of Faculty and Students Implications for Agricultural College Teaching. NACTA, 1-5.
Berens, L.V. & Nardi, D. (2004). Understanding Yourself and Others: An Introduction to the Personality Type Code. Telos Publications.
Boeree, G. (2006). Personality Theories. C. George Boeree, 1-17
Henden, G. (2004). Intuition and its Role in Strategic Thinking. Sandvika: Nordberg Hurtigtrykk.
Her wellness did not allow participation in the second that took place in 1977; however Isabel Myers took pleasure in the other 2 extensively, though sometimes she would be dismayed at the different ways that the analysts treated her information. She understood that the intuitive 'kind' or personality indexes will need to alter the MBTI [instrument] as that is in their nature but she hoped that prior to the time when they altered it, they will initially attempt to comprehend exactly what had been done as the foundation of the theory because her reasons for choosing a certain structure were logical and justified. In 1975, publication of the Indicator was presumed by CPP, Inc. For the first time, the MBTI [instrument] was readily available as an instrument prepared for use in assisting individuals (Kirby and Myers, 2000).
In the last months of her life, when she invested much time sleeping…
Bowdon, T.B. (2010). 50 Psychology Classics. Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
Drucker, C.T. (2007). Once Upon a Type: Mythological Dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. ProQuest Publications.
Kirby, L.K. And Myers, K.D. (2000). Introduction to Type. Cpp Publications.
Myers, I.B. (1962). The Myers-Briggs type indicator. Consulting Psychologists Press.
The innovation and determination that saw Nooyi's promotion and make her such an excellent role model is demonstrated n her direct decisions. She was instrumental in PepsiCo's acquisition of Quaker Oats and its move (somewhat) to healthier products, while at the same time diverting resources to the company's fast-food chains, making them one of the profit centers of the company (Graham 2006). These actions dictated the general shift in policy within the company, and the reallocation of resources necessarily changed the organizational structure of PepsiCo to some degree. Nooyi continues to lead by example, which is one of the reasons PepsiCo has remained so strong.
Brenda Barnes leadership style while on the job has been somewhat eclipsed by the fact that she left PepsiCo right when she was heir apparent to the CEO position in order to spend more time with her children (Quick et al. 2008). Her career has…
Graham, S. (2006). Diversity: Leaders not labels. New York: Free Press.
Lussier, R. & Achua, C. (2007). Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development. Mason, OH: Cengage.
Quick, J., Cooper, C., Gavin, J. & Quick, J. (2008). Managing Executive Health. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Before leaving China, Chang began to seriously question Mao and his methods, and after she left, she realized just how repressive the government was, and that she would not return to China to live. Today, long after Mao's death, China has made it into the 21st century, but it is still a repressive and controlling dictatorship, essentially, and this book helps put the country and its leadership in perspective. The Chinese are proud people, and they seem to accept power and control as a way of life. It would not be hard to imagine another revolution in the country, as western ideas and attitudes make their way into this emerging giant. It would be interesting to see what this author has to say about that, in the future.
In conclusion, Chang's book is a close look into 20th century history and development in China. It shows how the…
Chang, Jung. 2003. Wild Swans: Three Daughter of China. New York: Doubleday.
Jung Chang. 2003. Wild Swans: Three Daughter of China. New York: Doubleday, 16.
Jung and auditory hallucinations
Meyer (2003), in a discussion of Jungian symbolism in the movie, Spider-Man, notes that both masks and voices are essential to the movement of heroic characters through the plotline. Meyer is not, however, a psychologist, nor even an anthropologist; rather, she is a write about communications. Still, her work on Spider-Man tied several of the movie's themes to Jungian thought.
Halifax's work goes farther in bringing Jungian thought into the mainstream of psychological study. His work with shamans and shamanic ritual, important subjects to Jungians, posited aspects of schizophrenia in the initiatory journey of the shaman. Halifax cited Julian Silverman's conclusions in which schizophrenia was characterized as a disorder in which the "individual withdraws form society and the outer world and becomes preoccupied by internal processes with a resulting disintegration of the personality. The symptoms, broadly described, include autism and unreal ideation, disturbed perception and thinking,…
Ardery, Philip. "Ramifications of Julian Jaynes's Theory of Consciousness for Traditional General Semantics." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 61, no. 1 (2004): 83+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/ . Internet. Accessed 21 July 2005.
Bemak, Fred, and Lawrence R. Epp. "Transcending the Mind-Body Dichotomy: Schizophrenia Reexamined." Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development 41, no. 1 (2002): 14+. Database online. Available from Questia,
Freud, Jung and tar Wars
The tar Wars movies, especially the first three, are clearly a type of myth written to demonstrate archetypal personalities. The characters are driven by their behavior, so what they do and why they take the actions they take can be used to analyze their characters in terms of Jungian and Freudian theories.
In the Empire trikes Back, many of the characters are acting out of great personal need or personal striving, and many of them fit fairly well into Jung's theory or archetype personalities.
The "elf" is the highest form a personality can take, well integrated and centered. To become a self-actualized elf is Luke kywalker's goal and the final achievement of his mentor, Obi-Wan Kenobe. In an interesting twist, Darth Vader also sees himself that way. He believes self-actualization can be either good or evil, and finds evil more powerful and rewarding.
Boeree, C. George. " Carl Jung." BioWeb. Accessed via the Internet November 3, 2002. http://www.studiocleo.com/librarie/jung/boeree1main.html
British Psychological Society (BPS).
2001. "Freudian Therapy." Freud: the Id, Ego, and Superego. Published on the Internet by PsycheNet-UK. Accessed via the Internet November 3, 2002. http://www.psychnet-uk.com/psychotherapy/psychotherapy_freudian.htm.
Lukas, George. The Empire Strikes Back. Produced by LucasFilm. ISBN 0-7939-6098-3
Business - Case Studies
There are various leadership styles with the most prominent ones being the directive, the consultative, the participative, and the delegative. This study analyzes the form of leadership styles employed by Lieutenant Colonel Yaron and Lieutenant Colonel Daniel. Their story is presented in the case study titled "A Peaceful Evacuation: Building a Multi-Project Battalion by Leading Upward," it is important to first define the four prominent leadership styles. With the directive leadership style, an individual is characterized by having firm knowledge and views on the way things are supposed to be done. In fact, such leaders provide minimum space for their subordinates to demonstrate independence where they strictly adhere to the procedures and methods that the leader has already laid down. Such leaders lead by their own opinions as opposed to inviting the contribution of other parties, especially the subordinate partners (Laufer, 2012).
The delegative leader mainly…
Laufer, A. (2012). Mastering the Leadership Role in Project Management: Practices that
Deliver Remarkable Results. Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press
Another recent change is that more studies are being completed about learning and how students learn in distance education, in an attempt to mold courses and course development into something that is even more appropriate for distance learners. These studies are giving a greater understanding of how distance learners actually learn, and how they perceive their learning experience, all of which can lead to more relevant classes.
Distance learning has become more acceptable, more institutions offer it, and more students are taking advantage of it than ever before. More schools are partnering together into consortiums to offer blocks of distance learning courses, and there are other developments, including online counseling and other guidance that can allow students to complete their entire degree programs without setting foot on campus. These and many other elements of distance education have changed in the past few years, and it is clear that trend will…
Jung. I. (2001). Building a theoretical framework of web-based instruction in the context of distance education. British Journal of Educational Technology. Vol. 32, No. 5. 525-534.
Moore, M. (1973) Toward a theory of independent learning and teaching. Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 44, No. 9. 661-680.
Moore, M. (1991). Distance education theory. American Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 5, No. 3. 1-6.
Moore, M. And Kearsley, G. (2005). The theory and scholarship of distance education. Distance education: A system view. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Born in 1952, she lived through some terrible times when her family was renounced by the Communists, while Chang joined the ed Guard like any good young Party member. Chang was very bright, and received an excellent education under the regime. Her family, in the beginning anyway, led a middle-class rather privileged life, at least until they came under suspicion by the Communists of being traitors to the Party. Eventually, Mao felt education was unnecessary, and because of suspicions, Chang's father was arrested, her mother was placed in detention, and Chang was sent to work as a peasant in the country. Chang stayed in the country for several years, reunited with her family, and finally some of the sanctions were lifted. She could only work though, the universities were shut, and she could not continue her education.
Education was no longer relished in China, and Chang's experience shows how far…
Chang, Jung. Wild Swans: Three Daughter of China. New York: Doubleday, 1991.
Equal Society, Kim and Kim talk about the basis of Confucian values, ethics, and society and suggest that the world would benefit from adopting more Confucian worldview. The book is divided into five main chapters plus a "bonus chapter," which is more like an appendix in that it provides some of the key points about Confucianism in general for readers who are unfamiliar with the basics. For example the "bonus chapter" talks about the three main elements of Confucianism, which are Confucianism as a religion, Confucianism as a philosophy, and Confucianism as legalism.
The first chapter of the book focuses on the philosophy of Confucianism and how it might be applied outside of Asia to the Western world and especially to the United States. For example, the authors talk about President Johnson's concept of a "Great Society," as well as the Civil Rights Act to show that these are essentially…
This image has lasted for nearly three thousand years but may now be in need of renewal. "God" may be longing for release from His immolation in the structure of our beliefs. To use a gardening metaphor, God has become pot-bound, fixed and constricted by the anthropomorphic, gender-biased, paternalistic image that we have projected onto Him. As Teilhard de Chardin suggested, we need to formulate a new image of God that is related to the phenomenal discoveries science has made about the new dimensions of the universe.
What have we done to God? The old image we have inherited from the Iron Age portrays God creating the Earth from a distance; God as something transcendent to, different from, creation and ourselves; God as male; God as fearful Judge, God as both punishing and loving Father. We have divided life into two - spirit and nature - and have lost the…
Edinger, E. (1985). Anatomy of the psyche: Alchemical symbolism in psychotherapy. La Salle, IL: Open Court
Edinger, E. (1996). The new god-image: A study of Jung's key letters concerning the evolution of the western god-image. Wilmette, IL; Chiron publications.
Goodchild, V. (2001). Eros and chaos: the sacred mysteries and dark shadows of love. York Beach, ME Nicolas-Hays, Inc.
Goodchild. V. (2006). Psychoid, psychophysical, P-subtle! Alchemy and a New Worldview. In Spring: A journal of archetype and culture, 74, "Alchemy." New Orleans, LA: Spring Journal Inc.
For example, the fact that I am calm and in control helps me make good decisions based on analyzing the facts of a situation, rather than relying on emotions or factors that cannot be controlled. In my opinion, such characteristics are very important for managers. Also, I am interested in theoretical aspects, in identifying patterns and innovation oriented, which is extremely useful for entrepreneurs. I am logical and critical in work situations, which allows me to correctly assess various situations.
I am systematic, I enjoy making plans, developing schedules and procedures, I have a structured and strategic thinking. These are characteristics that managers must have, given the importance of the planning process within companies. I am interested in identifying the advantages and disadvantages of a situation before making a decision.
However, this type of personality reveals that I must improve my communication skills. This is because I have the tendency…
For example, the ethnic client who paints a huge red heart with an arrow piercing its center is communicating a universally understood message: I have been affected by love/passion/emotion.
Natalie Rogers, founder of the Person Centered Expressive Therapy Institute is a strong proponent of expressive art. In this form of art therapy, the ethnic client is encouraged to "express inner thoughts by creating outer forms."
When treating a client with art therapy, Ms. Rogers uses many techniques of expressive art: drawing, coloring, dancing, musical demonstrations, and the like.
Once these exercises are completed, the participants are encouraged to explore the nuances involved in the interaction: did communication occur? Was it a pleasant experience? Were boundaries an issue? Who led? Who followed?
Despite the fact that this work is not done solely with ethnically displaced clients, the premise remains the same; through expressive creativity, one's self may be realized, recognized, and…
Art Therapy, a Guide for Mental Health Professionals. New York: Brunner/Mazel,
Burt, H. (1993). Issues in art therapy with the culturally displaced American Indian youth. Arts in Psychotherapy. 20: 143-151.
Cohen, B., Barnes, M., & Rankin, a. (1995). Managing Traumatic Stress Through Art. Maryland: Sidran Press.
team dynamics a. Describe the process your team has used to form, storm, norm, and perform. At this point, where do you believe your team is in the team formation process?
During the formulation part of the team-creation process, our group was fairly formal in the way we related to one another. e were respectful, but cool. Then icebreaking conversation and structured discussion of the expectations awaiting us all over the course of the project established some initial and warmer forms cohesion, although we were still keeping along with the often unspoken "rules of behavior" that are observed within a new group. (CSL, 2005) During the 'storming' stage, some members of the group began to emerge as more dominant, as more specific and controversial issues had to be addressed beyond the getting-to-know-you process.
At present, the group is still in the 'norm' phase. One of the group members was forced…
Allerman, et. Al. (2004) "Form Storm Norm, Perform. Retrieved 23 Feb 2005 at http://www.niwotridge.com/PDFs/FormStormNormPerform.pdf#search='Forming%20Storming%20Norming'
Butt, Joe. (2004) ENJF. Retrieved 23 Feb 2005 at www.typelogic.com
Center for Service and Leadership: CSL. (2005) George Mason University. Retrieved 23 Feb 2005 at http://www.gmu.edu/student/csl/5stages.html
WPI. (2005) "Group Information." Retrieved 23 Feb 2005 at http://www.cs.wpi.edu/~dcb/courses/CS3041/Group-info2.html
Learning that we all believe in one force, yet a force that is represented with different entities and faith demonstrated through various traditions and practices, I have learned to reconcile these differences by just believing in a force, without any subsistence to religious names and labels and traditions.
As what I have discussed earlier, what used to be my religion was the belief I was exposed to since birth. However, as I grew up and became exposed to different forms of religions and beliefs in my society, I have learned to adapt to the diversity of religious philosophies extant by creating my personal philosophy. This personal philosophy is one that believes in a 'general force,' which is formless and not bound with the traditional practices. This force enables me to confide with an entity without any fear or limitations on what I can say or ask of it. It has…
Melancholia sat in, as the loss I felt became less and less related to my body. I began to court death first symbolically and then literally. Freud would have noted the presence of the death wish in addition to describing the symptoms of "melancholia," or depression. Symptoms include "a profoundly painful dejection, cessation of interest in the outside world, loss of the capacity to love, inhibition of all activity," as well as self-loathing (Freud 1947, p. 39). The symptoms of depression are skin to the symptoms of mourning the loss of a loved one, with the key difference being that in mourning the reason for the despair is clearer and within the conscious realm.
The only means to discover the reason for melancholia is to explore the unconscious realm. My descent into a dark state of mind parallels the stories of Eurydice and Persephone who both longed to remain submerged…
Downing, C. (2006). Looking back at Orpheus. Chapter 10. Gleanings. New York: Universe, 238-267
Downing, C. (2006. Journeys to the underworld. Chapter 13 Gleanings. New York: Universe, 129-44
Freud, S. (1947). Mourning and melancholia.
Jung, C. (1963). Confrontation with the unconscious. Chapter 6. Memories Dreams, Reflections.
This mythical structure has a long history in terms of mythical and visionary experience in all cultures of the world. One could also refer to the earliest Shamanic forms of religion and the myth of the dismembered Shaman who is also the transformed healer of others. In these myths the journey to the underworld, and the process of the destruction of the old self or ego does not result in final death but in transformation and greater insight into reality.
Therefore, taking the above brief sketch of the significance of this mythical structure into account we can apply it to a Jungian analysis of the ego.
When Inanna descends to the Underworld she divests herself of her previous life and this is symbolized by the way that she throws off the accouterments and symbols of her previous existence. When she enters the realm of the dead she can only do…
Ewen Robert B. ( 1998) An Introduction to Theories of Personality. 5th ed. Mahwah, NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Henderson, J.L., & Oakes, M. (1963). The Wisdom of the Serpent: The Myths of Death, Rebirth and Resurrection. New York: George Braziller. Retrieved April 5, 2010, from Questia database:
Freud's Theory Of Repression
Freud is popularly known as the father of psychoanalysis and the idea of psychological repression of memories and urges, even though he was neither the first psychoanalyst or even the first to posit the existence of repression. His justifiable fame comes both from the way he popularized psychoanalysis, and from his further development of its theories. He is commonly attributed with creating the theory of the conscious and subconscious, of the many sexual complexes and drives which run our lives and our subconscious, and with the idea that things which are not socially acceptable will be hidden away within the subconscious. Freud called this process of burying the unacceptable aspects of life away into the subconscious regression, which he was to eventually succinctly defined thus: "the essence of repression lies simply in the function of rejecting and keeping something out of consciousness." (Rieff, 147) It is…
Bibliography." August 8, 2004. http://www.usd.edu/~tgannon/jungbio.html
Matson, Floyd. "Humanistic theory: the third revolution in psychology" The Humanist, March/April 1971. August 8,. 2004 http://web.isp.cz/jcrane/IB/Humcrit.html
Slater, Lauren. "Why Is Repression Possibly Better Than Your Therapist?" New York Times, 23 Feb 2003. August 8, 2004. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/23/magazine/23REPRESSION.htm
Rieff, P. (Ed.) Freud: General Psychological Theory. New York: Collier, 1963
Webster, Richard. Excerpts from Why Freud was Wrong: Sin, Science and Psychoanalysis (1995). August 8, 2004. http://www.richardwebster.com
I have chosen midlife as my study since it is the period which is the most fascinating and on which too many conflicting and ambiguous statements are brought to bear. This may be due to the fact that the middle years contains too little regularity and too much diversity therefore many of the models that I have seen differ too in the age range given to the mid life years. To elaborate: Whilst most models define midlife as beginning at 40 and ending at 60, a ten-year range exists at either end with some theorists actually considering midlife as beginning at 30 and ending at 75 (Lachman, 2004). Given too the differences in people, magnified by socio-historical and geographical elements, people are bound to indicate differences in their mid -- life period. It is for this reason possibly that Erickson's findings sound so quaint to many western ears,…
Caspi A. (1987). Personality in the life course. J.Personal. Soc. Psychol. 5, 31203 -- 13
Erikson E. (1963). Childhood and Society. New York: Norton.
Jung C.G. (1971). The Portable Jung. New York: Viking.
Lachman, M.E. (2004). Development in Midlife. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 305-331.
What does Jungians mean by the Symbolic Quest?
According to Jung, a symbol enables the development of themes from the unconscious in an effort to rewire us as human beings, in a manner of experience, from which we have come to be disengaged. In a better form of analysis, human beings experience external matters, aspects that can be detected and identified using our senses, and which have implication on us in a particular perspective that we have understood and gained knowledge of. In the same manner, human beings also experience inner matters that they cannot essentially distinguish or identify. Both of these aspects are depicted by imageries, which show themselves as representations of the outside world, and are consequently employed by the consciousness to outline the inner world. Symbolic Quest can be perceived as the action of seeking an inspiring source and a moral imperative in an individual;…
Benedetto, P. (2009). Dreams. Jungian Analysis. Retrieved 1 October 2015 from:http://www.jungiananalysts.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/dream-interp-pb-2009.pdf
Bright, B. (2012). Psyche and the Symbolic Life: How do Symbols Transform You? Depth Insights. Retrieved 1 October 2015 from: http://www.depthinsights.com/blog/psyche-and-the-symbolic-life-how-do-symbols-transform-you/
Hall, J. A. (1983). Jungian Dream Interpretation: A Handbook of Theory and Practice. Canada: Inner City Books.
Harley Therapy. (2014). Freud vs. Jung -- Similarities and Differences. Harley Therapy Counseling Blog. Retrieved 1 October 2015 from: http://www.harleytherapy.co.uk/counselling/freud-vs.-jung-similarities-differences.htm
The Oedipus complex suggests that every son wants to marry his mother and kill his father -- and that is precisely what Claudius does. "Sex and the life instincts in general are, of course, represented somewhere in Jung's system. They are a part of an archetype called the shadow. It derives from our prehuman, animal past, when our concerns were limited to survival and reproduction, and when we weren't self-conscious" (Boeree 1997). Hamlet's intellect and rationality are suppressed by his philosophical knowledge, as exemplified in his desire to return to ittenberg at the beginning of the play. Claudius, in contrast to Hamlet, takes what he wants. Before he learns of Claudius' crime by the ghost, Hamlet does not seek bloody revenge, or construct a plot like Claudius may have done -- he merely mourns that his mother has remarried and been 'stained.' Thus, Claudius' skillful wielding of power, his open…
Boeree, George C. 1997. "Carl Jung." Updated 2006. 12 Apr 2008. http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/jung.html
Pettifor, Eric. "Major Archetypes and the Process of Individuation." Personality and Consciousness. 1995. 12 Apr 2008. http://pandc.ca/?cat=car_jung&page=major_archetypes_and_individuation
Shakespeare, William. "Hamlet." The Shakespeare Homepage. 12 Apr 2008. http://shakespeare.mit.edu/hamlet