Jung Essays (Examples)

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Myths Along With Fairytales and

Words: 729 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90225384

In modern society, myth is identified with something of the past, something historical taught in schools and read in books. However, one needs to acknowledge that communication has enabled people to receive information in various ways: television, cinema, video games, comic books, books. These are the elements that demonstrate the presence of archetypes within modern mythology. One ancient Greek hero is one Spiderman, or Batman, one moral leader is Frodo, the hobbit. Thus, ancient archetypes resemble modern ones, making Jung's theory viable.

In Greek mythology, a hero was not just the personage who fought monsters, but a hero that was able to fight his own ego and come to terms with his nature, his goal in life. In this respect, Oedipus was thought of as a noble hero who was subjected to making mistakes because of a faulty judgement. By disregarding the divine will and giving in to an inner…… [Read More]

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Beyond the Contributions of Sigmund

Words: 1406 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93836076

Traveling worldwide, ogers participated in negotiating sessions involving disputes between Protestants and Catholics, religious, racial, and ethnic differences in South Africa, racial disputes in the United States, and consumers and health care professionals in several jurisdictions. He was widely recognized as being successful at resolving serious differences in most of these difference scenarios.

Carl ogers was born and raised in the United States but Carl Jung was born and raised in Switzerland. While ogers was an extroverted, personable individual, Carl Jung was a highly introverted individual who preferred a solitary life. By his own admission, Jung was happiest when he was left alone with his thoughts (Wehr, 2001).

Jung academic background was founded in the field of medicine. While attending medical school, Jung developed an interest in spirituality and it was this interest that eventually led to his becoming interested in psychiatry as a specialty. As part of his graduation…… [Read More]

References

Jung, C.G. (1968). Man and His Symbols. New York: Dell.

Kirschenbaum, H. (2008). Life and Work of Carl Rogers. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

Rogers, C. (1979). The Foundations of the Person-Centered Approach. La Jolla, CA: Centrre for Studies of the Person.

Wehr, G. (2001). Jung: A Biography. Boston: Shambhala.
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Exploring the Self Cultures History or Religion Through Myth

Words: 1308 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32028544

Myth

Exploring Self, Culture, History, eligion

Exploring the Self, Cultures, History, or eligion through Myth

Mythology (general)

PO Box, 60453,

LIVINGSTONE

Dear Lee,

How are you my little friend and how is everyone at your home? I hope all doing good. Pass my greetings to them.

I received your letter and was happy to know that you have been promoted to 4 rth and the final year of your college. Wow! You'll graduate after a year. Lee! You mentioned in your letter that you have chosen Mythology (general) as your elective subject and that you are facing some difficulties in it. I went through the attached course outline; there I found out that you will be exploring self, cultures, history, or religion through myth. Also there was a list of theories that you will be presenting throughout this course.

I have collected some data regarding the first theory "Carl Jung's…… [Read More]

References

Boeree, C.G. (2006). Personality Theories. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from  http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/jung.html .

Carl-jung.net. Concept of Collective Unconscious at Jung. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from  http://www.carl-jung.net/collective_unconscious.html .

Integration Training. Inner Voices: Embracing all the Parts of Our Personality. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from  http://integrationtraining.co.uk/blog/2011/01/inner-voices-embracing-all-parts-of-personality.html .

Jung, C.G. (1970). The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
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Axia College Material TV Character

Words: 787 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15734838

The Jungian model uses rationality and spirituality in place of Freudian sexuality as the main determiners of personality. Jung also believed that personality continued to evolve until at least middle-age; far later then the pubescent cementing of personality that Freud described. In today's world, Jungian types (with the additional differentiation between perceiving and judging) are used much more often than Freudian models.

Another great personality theorist was Carl Rogers. Rogers took a vast departure from both Feud and Jung in his basic approach to psychology and especially when it came to personality. Rather than ever seeing personality as a finished product, Rogers believed that the innate purpose of a human individual was fulfillment of our genetic capabilities through the completion of positive works, a drive that he called the actualizing tendency. Personality is born through the relationship of an individual's self-concept with their inborn potential -- the closer the two…… [Read More]

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Psychoanalytic Approach to Personality the Three Major

Words: 1037 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95257236

Psychoanalytic Approach to Personality

The three major psychoanalytic theories and approaches to personality could not be more different. Freud, who focuses on early childhood and sexual urges, differs from Jung who focuses on the unconscious, who differs from Adler who focuses on human motivation and superiority (Weiten, 2005). Of course, what they all have in common is trying to tease out an understanding of human personality. This paper will compare and contrast each of Freud's, Jung's, and Adler's psychoanalytic approaches, as well as two characteristics in which this author agrees or disagrees with the theories presented. Then the focus will mainly be on Freud and his structure to personality, and finally using real world examples for his defense mechanisms. Overall, this paper strives to present a well-rounded view of Freud's theory, and the theories of his time.

The structural model for Freud's psychoanalytic theory is based on three different levels…… [Read More]

References

Burger, J.M. (2008). Personality. (7th ed., pp. 40-107). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Weiten, W. (2005). Psychology themes and variations. (6th ed., pp. 329-336). Belmont, CA:

Thomson Wadsworth.
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The Electra Complex Freud

Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74569399

Sigmund Freud believed humans early on in development had a sexual need. This was seen through his perspective of desire and emotion within the unconscious part of the human mind. To Freud, sexuality is a key component to human personality and thus plays an important role in a child's development. This is evidenced in Mary Williamson's article, "The importance of fathers in relation to their daughters' psychosexual development". Essentially, daughters develop their sexuality based on their interactions with their father. By having formed a sexual attraction in a metaphorical sense to the father, without the mother's intervention, a daughter can properly develop a satisfactory gender or psychosexual identity.

The beginning of the article is a rather lengthy introduction explaining how the information provided came to be. Williamson attempts to explain her intentions within the lens of various psychoanalytic approaches covering the father-daughter relationship. She also states that the formation of…… [Read More]

References

Shoaib, M. (2014). Electra Complex in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. Lapis Lazuli -An International Literary Journal, 4(1), 169-173.

Smart, J. (2012). Disability across the developmental life span: For the rehabilitation counselor. New York, NY: Springer.

Williamson, M. (2004). The importance of fathers in relation to their daughters' psychosexual development. Psychodynamic Practice, 10(2), 207-219. doi:10.1080/14753630410001699885
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China Mao and the Cultural Revolution

Words: 2382 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70635806

Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China

Wild Swans is the story of three generations of women in China in the 20th century. The author is Jung Chang: her autobiography comprises the last third section of the book; the first two sections are devoted to telling the story of her grandmother Yu-Fang and her mother Bao Qin. Instead of writing a straight autobiography, Chang chose to begin her story two generations back—the purpose being to provide not only personal historical context but also a sense of the cultural historical context in which her family came into being. By beginning the book with the statement that her grandmother “became the concubine of a warlord general” at the age of fifteen, Chang immediately gives her story a sweeping, grand epic backdrop: she is no mere commoner of humble origins but rather a figure whose family was right in the heart or thick of…… [Read More]

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Self the Concept of Self

Words: 3256 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26574282

The key to flexibility of motivation is intrinsically conflicting motivational structures. The self as defined by Jung is the core or central component that keeps these opposing forces operating as an integrated whole. To what closing stages does this process manage? It was formed by evolution and so survival is the architect but it is survival not just of the next generation but into an unclear future. The self as described by Jung is the psychic image of this limitless potential for prospect development. For itself it focuses on the various dimensions of human functioning that put in to survival including ingenuity in all its forms.

Sensing the self as something irrational, as an impalpable existent, to which the ego is neither opposed nor subject, but simply attached, and about which it spins very much as the earth does round the sun, accordingly the goal of individuation is reached. The…… [Read More]

References

Cavell, M. (1993). The Psychoanalytic Mind: From Freud to Philosophy. Cambridge, MA:

Deigh, J. (1996). The Sources of Moral Agency: Essays in Moral Psychology and Freudian

Theory. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press,

Geller, L. (1984). Another look at self-actualization. Journal of humanistic psychology, 24:100
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Thereby Hangs a Tale How

Words: 2637 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92046431

The first reading allows the individual to react to it on a personal level, to relate the story of the tragic lovers in terms of his or her own experiences with love (Walker, 1995, p. 13). But secondary and tertiary (and so on) readings allow the individual to connect to the story on deeper and increasingly abstract levels so that an analysis of this story might come to understand it as a story of the temporary death of the individual and its potential and even expected rebirth as part of a universal mother, a submission of the identity of daughter and son into the more primary identity of creation and life. An individual who follows an analysis along such a path can explore his or her own feelings about love and loss, about autonomy and dependence, about fear and acceptance.

However, within the clinical setting, the client must choose his…… [Read More]

References

Armenian poetry. Retrieved from  http://www.hyeetch.nareg.com.au/armenians/poetry_p15x4.html 

Aziz, R. (1990). C.G. Jung's Psychology of Religion and Synchronicity (10th ed.). New York: The State University of New York Press.

Jung, C.G. (1985). Synchronicity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Odajnyk, V.W. (2004). The Archetypal Interpretation of Fairy Tales: Bluebeard. Psychological perspectives 47(1): 10-29.
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Carl Yung Personality Iceberg Theory

Words: 910 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10456624

Carl Jung Personality/Iceberg Theory

Introduction to Carl Jung

Carl Jung grew up during the late nineteenth century in Switzerland in a Protestant Victorian culture. It was this culture that had such an impact on the values held by American individuals during that timeframe. Jung's father was a pastor and Jung, following medical school completion in the early part of the 1900s became a psychiatrist as well as a disciple of Sigmund Freud. (, paraphrased)

Summary of Jung's Personality/Iceberg Theory

The work of Sally Palmer Thomason (1992) states that the human psyche "could be compared to a giant iceberg -- the conscious mind is like the small exposed tip that is seen above the waterline; the far greater part, the unconscious mind, lies unseen, hidden beneath the surface." (Thomason, 1992) The work of Briggs Myer and Myers entitled "Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type" states that Jung wrote the theory of type…… [Read More]

References

Boeree, C. George (2006) Personality Theories. Retrieved from:  http://www.social-psychology.de/do/pt_jung.pdf 

Briggs Myers, I. And Myers, PB (1995) (Gifts Differing Understanding Personality Type). Nicholas Brealey Publishing 1995. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=yb_Vwmf1G6QC&dq=carl+jung+personality+test&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Thomason, Sally (1992) The living spirit of the crone: turning aging inside out. Theology and the Sciences. Fortress Press 2006. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=b3lOtWoob9EC&dq=Carl+Jung+Personality+Iceberg+Theory&source=gbs_navlinks_s
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Psychodynamic Counselors Facilitate Change In Order to

Words: 2851 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3925431

psychodynamic counselors facilitate change?

In order to understand how psychodynamic counselors facilitate change through a therapeutic relationship with their client, it is worth discussing what psychodynamic therapy is, how it is used, how it originated, and who some of its most notable founders were. Towards the end of this document, in the description of how psychodynamic therapy is used, descriptions of recent psychodynamic therapy sessions that the author undertook in a triad setting will be described.

The mind, personality, and psyche are terms that refer to the interrelationships of a person's mental, emotional, or what could be termed psychological characteristics. Another way to think of this is that the psyche, mind, and personality are the forces that drive a person to think what they do, to act out how they choose, the way a person relates to themselves and how they relate to the world around them particularly the role…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bowlby, John 1999, Attachment and Loss: Vol I, 2nd Ed. Basic Books, New York.

"Depth Psychology" Stepping Stones: bringing depth psychology to everyday life [online] viewed March 23, 2011, www.depthpsychologytoday.com.

Gay, P 1989, The Freud Reader, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York.

Hall, CS 1954, A Primer in Freudian Psychology. Meridian Books, New York.
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Worlds of Phaedo and the

Words: 4337 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48423269

It is only through occult understanding that the forms and the archetypal images and symbols can be interpreted.

Here we see that the term unconsciousness is very similar to the Platonic ideals and forms. Another aspect that will form part of the theoretical perspective of this study is the concept of transformation. In order to understand the occult and its relationship to the forms, a process of transformation has to take place. In Platonic terms this transformation is a radical change in life, morality and ethics; while for Jung it is transformation in terms of the deeper understanding of the relation of the unconscious to the conscious mind.

Transformation also has related occult meaning and symbols such as fire. Fire is an age-old indication of change of perception and consciousness. This also refers to Jungian concepts such as the shadow. There are many other points of reference and similarity between…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Archetypes as Defined by Carl Jung) October 9, 2004. http://www.acs.appstate.edu/~davisct/nt/jung.html#shadow

Arnzen. M. "The Return of the Uncanny." 1977. University of Oregon. March 17, 2004. http://paradoxa.com/excerpts/3-3intro.htm

Boeree, G. Carl Jung. October 11, 2004. http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/jung.html

Christian Churches of God) Mysticism Chapter 1 Spreading the Babylonian Mysteries (No. B7_1). October 9, 2004. http://www.holocaustrevealed.org/english/s/B7_1.html
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Red -Violet Book the Imaginal

Words: 3420 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66196320

The boy just stood there staring at the pile of clothes and cat food and bows. I went over and asked him if I could do anything but he told me that he was used to it. I wasn't actually all that surprised by his answer.

And so I ask myself: Which story of the family are these two telling themselves? Does the boy know that he is Horus and Apollo? Or does he know that he is Bluebeard in the making? And does the woman yearn to be Demeter? Or is she still aching to be Persephone? Persephone is for Jung a symbol of completeness, for she encompasses opposites -- life and death, mother and daughter, even male and female. The whole eternal cycle of birth through to rebirth.

(http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.heavenandearthessentials.com/images/Persephone.jpg&imgrefurl)

Then there were two women, well dressed, nice jewelry, standing in the candle aisle. I was there because --…… [Read More]

References

Jung, C.G. (1966). The practical use of dream analysis in the practice of psychotherapy. Princeton: Princeton University Press: pp 139-161.

Jung, C.G. (2009). The Red book: Liber novus. S. Shamdassani, ED and trans., M. Kyburz and J. Peck, Trans. New York: Norton.
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Ann Casement's 1998 The Qualitative

Words: 975 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19507279



In the prologue to Jung's (1965) book, Memories, dreams, reflections, he states that life, to him, is like a plant that lives on its rhizome. The real life of the plant is not seen but hidden, rather, in the rhizome.

The part that appears above ground lasts only a single summer. Then it withers away -- an ephemeral apparition. When we think of the unending growth and decay of life and civilizations, we cannot escape the impression of absolute nullity. Yet I have never lost a sense of something that lives and endures underneath the eternal flux. What we see is the blossom, which passes. The rhizome remains.

Jung (1965) goes on to explain that his book about his life has been based on the rhizome of his life -- the interior happenings as opposed to the exciting events of his life -- like traveling -- because it is the…… [Read More]

References:

Casement, Ann. (1998). Post-Jungian today: key papers in contemporary analytical psychology. Routledge.

Dunne, Claire. (2002). Carl Jung: wounded healer of the soul. Continuum International Publishing Group.

Edinger, Edward. (1992). Ego and archetype. Shambhala.

Jung, Carl. (1965). Memories, dreams, reflections. Vintage Book Edition.
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Myth for Freud Myth Was

Words: 566 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58103654

Levi-Strauss also suggested that myth offered the "illusion" of being able to "understand the universe," which suggests a psychological purpose to myth creation (cited by Bierlein, p. 262).

Freud believed that myths shared a language with dreams, and were ultimately the "products of repressed individual childhood memories played out in conscious language," (Bierlein, p. 282). Unlike Jung, Freud did not believe that myths were "the products of any myth-producing area of the unconscious universal to all human beings," (Bierlein 282). Instead Freud explained the phenomenon of parallel myths in terms of a shared human psychological experience; human beings share the same neuroses. Parallel myths occur because all human beings share similar biological, psychological, and social experiences.

Jung, on the other hand, conceived of a collective unconscious that was shared by all human beings. Dreams and myths are "definitely related," according to Jung, but are not "the products of individual memories,"…… [Read More]

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Therapeutic Methods Models

Words: 1255 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24517630

Timeline

Sigmund Freud (1856-1949)

Sigmund Freud is the undisputed father of psychoanalysis. Should this statement seem to contradict assertions regarding the age-old status of psychology, it must be clarified that Freud was the first theorist to formalize the process of analysis, a practice that is not used in all modalities of psychology today. Analysis, specifically the psychoanalysis so often parodied in the cartoon of the tormented patient lying on the couch before the bearded quasi-Freudian father figure of the therapist, presupposes in its theoretical structure the existence of an subconscious element to the human mind, in other words, that how humans think they immediately perceive the world is not all that there is to human consciousness.

Freud used techniques such as free association to elicit reasons for his patient's behaviors. Freud began his treatment upon hysterics. He grew to believe that unresolved childhood traumas rather than physiological causes were at…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Pavlov, Ivan. (2003) Lectures and translations.  http://www.ivanpavlov.com  last modified: April 14, 2003. Retrieved on September 19, 2004 at
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Film Psych Analyzing the Sopranos Through the

Words: 1133 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8894263

Film Psych

Analyzing the Sopranos through the eyes of Carl Jung

Unconscious Eyes

The award-winning HBO television series, The Sopranos, is one that can be analyzed by people everywhere. Each time a new episode airs, it has more symbolism than the last. The various storylines, plots, and characters are divulged in a way that creates a certain tension among the audience; and week after week, people feel compelled to come back for more.

So why is it that people feel bound to their television sets each fall when a new season of The Sopranos commences? Most people in America will answer this way: "It's great drama." But there must be a driving force behind the drama, a technique that the writers, directors, and producers use to hold America's interest. Carl G. Jung, author of Man and His Symbols, might have a few ideas regarding this.

In Man and His Symbols,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Estes, Clarissa Pinkola. Women Who Run With the Wolves: Myths and Stories of the Wild Woman Archetype. New York: Ballantine Books, 1992.

Jung, Carl G. Man and His Symbols. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company Inc., 1964.
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Criticism and Theory

Words: 2495 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93769315

Freudian and Jungian Dream Analysis:

Infidelity in "All the Little Loved Ones" by Dilys Rose

"All the Little Loved Ones" by Dilys Rose clearly functions as an introverted type of art form based upon its structure and presentation: it is a stream-of-consciousness narration whereby the mother of several small children talks about her life directly to the reader. Little happens in the short story on a physical level and the details she narrates are mundane. The primary plot point of the story is the narrator's contemplation of an affair with a man she has met in a park where she takes her children. The children enjoy the swings; she enjoys the outdoor freedom and the idea of something that liberates her from the chains of motherhood. Yet it is unclear whether this liberation is real or imagined: Rose suggests that it does not matter, and that this type of suburban…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"C.G. Jung's theory of types." Transpersonal Science. [17 Nov 2013]

 http://www.transpersonalscience.org/types.aspx 

Cherry, Kendra. "Archetypes." [17 Nov 2013]

http://psychology.about.com/od/personalitydevelopment/tp/archetypes.htm
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Psychology of Religion

Words: 540 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76800587

problem of evil and suffering has been an issue since the beginning of time. Carl Jung has written passionately and eloquently about the possibility and impossibility of transcending this problem.

According to Jung's reasons for this problem was that God was a schmuck towards Job (and by extension to all innocents who suffer from 'acts of God') due to His not being fully conscious. A strange theory since, it would seem that by definition God is Omniscient.

However, God, in Jung's model, contains all opposites and paradoxes, which includes choosing not to consult his own self.

If he had done so, he could have seen that Job would have been faithful to the end and not needed to take Satan's "bet."

The devil is still able to waltz into heaven in the book of Job and complain about how rotten mankind is. So, it is clear according to Jung, that…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Processes

Words: 1376 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69227851

Cognitive Processes

God has created every person with different nature and interests that builds ones personality. The idea of studying different personalities was proposed in 1920s by some of the famous scholars and scientists. Carl Jung was the first scholar who described the Psychological Types. He categorized people as extroverted and introverted. People with extroverted personality are more oriented towards external world and goes through new experiences whereas the introvert personalities are more oriented towards internal worlds and memories. Later on, Jung identified other differences in the personalities and named them functions which are now called as Cognitive Processes.

Types of Cognitive Processes

The extroverts and introverts deal with the world in their own style. According to Jung there are four main styles that are sensing, intuition, thinking and feeling. Jung categorized these four types under two main headings perception and judgment.

Perception -- (Sensation and Intuition)

Judgment -- (Thinking…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barrett, L., Sorensen, R. & Hartung, T. (1985). Personality Type Factors of Faculty and Students Implications for Agricultural College Teaching. NACTA, 1-5.

Berens, L.V. & Nardi, D. (2004). Understanding Yourself and Others: An Introduction to the Personality Type Code. Telos Publications.

Boeree, G. (2006). Personality Theories. C. George Boeree, 1-17

Henden, G. (2004). Intuition and its Role in Strategic Thinking. Sandvika: Nordberg Hurtigtrykk.
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Personality Theorist Isabel Briggs Myers

Words: 2424 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75063505

Her wellness did not allow participation in the second that took place in 1977; however Isabel Myers took pleasure in the other 2 extensively, though sometimes she would be dismayed at the different ways that the analysts treated her information. She understood that the intuitive 'kind' or personality indexes will need to alter the MBTI [instrument] as that is in their nature but she hoped that prior to the time when they altered it, they will initially attempt to comprehend exactly what had been done as the foundation of the theory because her reasons for choosing a certain structure were logical and justified. In 1975, publication of the Indicator was presumed by CPP, Inc. For the first time, the MBTI [instrument] was readily available as an instrument prepared for use in assisting individuals (Kirby and Myers, 2000).

In the last months of her life, when she invested much time sleeping…… [Read More]

References

Bowdon, T.B. (2010). 50 Psychology Classics. Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

Drucker, C.T. (2007). Once Upon a Type: Mythological Dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. ProQuest Publications.

Kirby, L.K. And Myers, K.D. (2000). Introduction to Type. Cpp Publications.

Myers, I.B. (1962). The Myers-Briggs type indicator. Consulting Psychologists Press.
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Practice the Field of Management

Words: 912 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12852067

The innovation and determination that saw Nooyi's promotion and make her such an excellent role model is demonstrated n her direct decisions. She was instrumental in PepsiCo's acquisition of Quaker Oats and its move (somewhat) to healthier products, while at the same time diverting resources to the company's fast-food chains, making them one of the profit centers of the company (Graham 2006). These actions dictated the general shift in policy within the company, and the reallocation of resources necessarily changed the organizational structure of PepsiCo to some degree. Nooyi continues to lead by example, which is one of the reasons PepsiCo has remained so strong.

Brenda Barnes leadership style while on the job has been somewhat eclipsed by the fact that she left PepsiCo right when she was heir apparent to the CEO position in order to spend more time with her children (Quick et al. 2008). Her career has…… [Read More]

References

Graham, S. (2006). Diversity: Leaders not labels. New York: Free Press.

Lussier, R. & Achua, C. (2007). Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development. Mason, OH: Cengage.

Quick, J., Cooper, C., Gavin, J. & Quick, J. (2008). Managing Executive Health. New York: Cambridge University Press.
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Wild Swans Three Daughters of

Words: 1789 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99747886

S. demand.

Before leaving China, Chang began to seriously question Mao and his methods, and after she left, she realized just how repressive the government was, and that she would not return to China to live. Today, long after Mao's death, China has made it into the 21st century, but it is still a repressive and controlling dictatorship, essentially, and this book helps put the country and its leadership in perspective. The Chinese are proud people, and they seem to accept power and control as a way of life. It would not be hard to imagine another revolution in the country, as western ideas and attitudes make their way into this emerging giant. It would be interesting to see what this author has to say about that, in the future.

In conclusion, Chang's book is a close look into 20th century history and development in China. It shows how the…… [Read More]

References

Chang, Jung. 2003. Wild Swans: Three Daughter of China. New York: Doubleday.

Jung Chang. 2003. Wild Swans: Three Daughter of China. New York: Doubleday, 16.

Ibid, 19.

Ibid, 34.
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Personality Development Most Personality Theories

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77661972

shame and doubt; initiative vs. guilt; industry vs. inferiority; identity vs. role confusion; intimacy vs. isolation; generativity vs. stagnation; and ego integrity vs. despair. Like Piaget, Erikson's theory also explains the factors that influence personality development albeit through a framework of psychosocial factors. Thus, this theory too is immensely valuable as it enables parents and teachers to help a child successfully negotiate each psychosocial crisis and thereby develop a healthy sense of self.

Piaget and Erikson's work is valuable but is limited since the focus is on explaining the process through which personality develops. Thus, both theories stop short of explaining final personality outcomes and their functioning. For this reason, I agree with Carl Jung's personality theory more than any other since it offers an explanation of how the individual psyche works, by itself, and in terms of its relation to the universe. In fact, I find that Jung's personality…… [Read More]

References

AllPsych. (2004, March 21). Personality Development. Psychology 101. Retrieved Nov. 10, 2004: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/development.html
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Hearing Voices Patients Therapists in an

Words: 4695 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37526528



Jung and auditory hallucinations

Meyer (2003), in a discussion of Jungian symbolism in the movie, Spider-Man, notes that both masks and voices are essential to the movement of heroic characters through the plotline. Meyer is not, however, a psychologist, nor even an anthropologist; rather, she is a write about communications. Still, her work on Spider-Man tied several of the movie's themes to Jungian thought.

Halifax's work goes farther in bringing Jungian thought into the mainstream of psychological study. His work with shamans and shamanic ritual, important subjects to Jungians, posited aspects of schizophrenia in the initiatory journey of the shaman. Halifax cited Julian Silverman's conclusions in which schizophrenia was characterized as a disorder in which the "individual withdraws form society and the outer world and becomes preoccupied by internal processes with a resulting disintegration of the personality. The symptoms, broadly described, include autism and unreal ideation, disturbed perception and thinking,…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Ardery, Philip. "Ramifications of Julian Jaynes's Theory of Consciousness for Traditional General Semantics." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 61, no. 1 (2004): 83+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/. Internet. Accessed 21 July 2005.

Bemak, Fred, and Lawrence R. Epp. "Transcending the Mind-Body Dichotomy: Schizophrenia Reexamined." Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development 41, no. 1 (2002): 14+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/. Internet. Accessed 21 July 2005.

Bentley, Kia J. "Women, Mental Health, and the Psychiatric Enterprise: A Review." Health and Social Work 30, no. 1 (2005): 56+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/. Internet. Accessed 21 July 2005.

Davidson, Larry. "Intentionality, Identity, and Delusions of Control in Schizophrenia: A Husserlian Perspective." Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 33, no. 1 (2002): 39+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/. Internet. Accessed 21 July 2005.
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Intra-Psychic Viewpoint

Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89005565

Freud, Jung and tar Wars

The tar Wars movies, especially the first three, are clearly a type of myth written to demonstrate archetypal personalities. The characters are driven by their behavior, so what they do and why they take the actions they take can be used to analyze their characters in terms of Jungian and Freudian theories.

In the Empire trikes Back, many of the characters are acting out of great personal need or personal striving, and many of them fit fairly well into Jung's theory or archetype personalities.

The "elf" is the highest form a personality can take, well integrated and centered. To become a self-actualized elf is Luke kywalker's goal and the final achievement of his mentor, Obi-Wan Kenobe. In an interesting twist, Darth Vader also sees himself that way. He believes self-actualization can be either good or evil, and finds evil more powerful and rewarding.

Most viewers…… [Read More]

Sources

Boeree, C. George. " Carl Jung." BioWeb. Accessed via the Internet November 3, 2002.  http://www.studiocleo.com/librarie/jung/boeree1main.html 

British Psychological Society (BPS).

2001. "Freudian Therapy." Freud: the Id, Ego, and Superego. Published on the Internet by PsycheNet-UK. Accessed via the Internet November 3, 2002. http://www.psychnet-uk.com/psychotherapy/psychotherapy_freudian.htm.

Lukas, George. The Empire Strikes Back. Produced by LucasFilm. ISBN 0-7939-6098-3
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Peaceful Evacuation Building a Multi Project Battalion by Leading Upward

Words: 980 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16920725

Business - Case Studies

There are various leadership styles with the most prominent ones being the directive, the consultative, the participative, and the delegative. This study analyzes the form of leadership styles employed by Lieutenant Colonel Yaron and Lieutenant Colonel Daniel. Their story is presented in the case study titled "A Peaceful Evacuation: Building a Multi-Project Battalion by Leading Upward," it is important to first define the four prominent leadership styles. With the directive leadership style, an individual is characterized by having firm knowledge and views on the way things are supposed to be done. In fact, such leaders provide minimum space for their subordinates to demonstrate independence where they strictly adhere to the procedures and methods that the leader has already laid down. Such leaders lead by their own opinions as opposed to inviting the contribution of other parties, especially the subordinate partners (Laufer, 2012).

The delegative leader mainly…… [Read More]

References

Laufer, A. (2012). Mastering the Leadership Role in Project Management: Practices that

Deliver Remarkable Results. Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press
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History of Change in Distance

Words: 1927 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7782608



Another recent change is that more studies are being completed about learning and how students learn in distance education, in an attempt to mold courses and course development into something that is even more appropriate for distance learners. These studies are giving a greater understanding of how distance learners actually learn, and how they perceive their learning experience, all of which can lead to more relevant classes.

Distance learning has become more acceptable, more institutions offer it, and more students are taking advantage of it than ever before. More schools are partnering together into consortiums to offer blocks of distance learning courses, and there are other developments, including online counseling and other guidance that can allow students to complete their entire degree programs without setting foot on campus. These and many other elements of distance education have changed in the past few years, and it is clear that trend will…… [Read More]

References

Jung. I. (2001). Building a theoretical framework of web-based instruction in the context of distance education. British Journal of Educational Technology. Vol. 32, No. 5. 525-534.

Moore, M. (1973) Toward a theory of independent learning and teaching. Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 44, No. 9. 661-680.

Moore, M. (1991). Distance education theory. American Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 5, No. 3. 1-6.

Moore, M. And Kearsley, G. (2005). The theory and scholarship of distance education. Distance education: A system view. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
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Wild Swans Three Daughter of

Words: 1377 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62070313

Born in 1952, she lived through some terrible times when her family was renounced by the Communists, while Chang joined the ed Guard like any good young Party member. Chang was very bright, and received an excellent education under the regime. Her family, in the beginning anyway, led a middle-class rather privileged life, at least until they came under suspicion by the Communists of being traitors to the Party. Eventually, Mao felt education was unnecessary, and because of suspicions, Chang's father was arrested, her mother was placed in detention, and Chang was sent to work as a peasant in the country. Chang stayed in the country for several years, reunited with her family, and finally some of the sanctions were lifted. She could only work though, the universities were shut, and she could not continue her education.

Education was no longer relished in China, and Chang's experience shows how far…… [Read More]

References

Chang, Jung. Wild Swans: Three Daughter of China. New York: Doubleday, 1991.
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Personality Development

Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99876368

human personality is a complex process that has been tackled by a number of great psychologists, each with important contributions. Each theory outlined below offers something new to the study of personality, and as such, I feel that any "ultimate" theory of personality must try to incorporate the best parts of each theory.

Gordon Allport, along with Maslow and Rogers was one of the early humanists. He argued that the proprium, or sense of self was made up of seven different components that include sense of body, self-image, self-esteem, and rational coping. Carl Rogers was a humanistic theorist who felt that people have a basic "actualizing tendency" that drives all of their behaviors and thoughts. The personality, or "self" in Roger's terms is created by the sum of a person's conscious and unconscious experiences. Abraham Maslow's famed hierarchy of needs, in which he argues that all humans move toward self-actualization,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boeree, George. Personality Theories. 10 December 2003. http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/perscontents.html

Hall, Calvin S., Lindzey, Gardner, Loehlin, John C. And Manosevitz, Martin. 1985. Introduction to Theories of Personality. Wiley.

Wikipedia. Edward O. Wilson. 10 December 2003. http://en2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_O._Wilson
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china and confucianism'society

Words: 1257 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32845188

Equal Society, Kim and Kim talk about the basis of Confucian values, ethics, and society and suggest that the world would benefit from adopting more Confucian worldview. The book is divided into five main chapters plus a "bonus chapter," which is more like an appendix in that it provides some of the key points about Confucianism in general for readers who are unfamiliar with the basics. For example the "bonus chapter" talks about the three main elements of Confucianism, which are Confucianism as a religion, Confucianism as a philosophy, and Confucianism as legalism.

The first chapter of the book focuses on the philosophy of Confucianism and how it might be applied outside of Asia to the Western world and especially to the United States. For example, the authors talk about President Johnson's concept of a "Great Society," as well as the Civil Rights Act to show that these are essentially…… [Read More]

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Apples and Oranges Sometimes the

Words: 3090 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18789913

This image has lasted for nearly three thousand years but may now be in need of renewal. "God" may be longing for release from His immolation in the structure of our beliefs. To use a gardening metaphor, God has become pot-bound, fixed and constricted by the anthropomorphic, gender-biased, paternalistic image that we have projected onto Him. As Teilhard de Chardin suggested, we need to formulate a new image of God that is related to the phenomenal discoveries science has made about the new dimensions of the universe.

What have we done to God? The old image we have inherited from the Iron Age portrays God creating the Earth from a distance; God as something transcendent to, different from, creation and ourselves; God as male; God as fearful Judge, God as both punishing and loving Father. We have divided life into two - spirit and nature - and have lost the…… [Read More]

References

Edinger, E. (1985). Anatomy of the psyche: Alchemical symbolism in psychotherapy. La Salle, IL: Open Court

Edinger, E. (1996). The new god-image: A study of Jung's key letters concerning the evolution of the western god-image. Wilmette, IL; Chiron publications.

Goodchild, V. (2001). Eros and chaos: the sacred mysteries and dark shadows of love. York Beach, ME Nicolas-Hays, Inc.

Goodchild. V. (2006). Psychoid, psychophysical, P-subtle! Alchemy and a New Worldview. In Spring: A journal of archetype and culture, 74, "Alchemy." New Orleans, LA: Spring Journal Inc.
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Behavior Business Management and Organizational

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60929396

For example, the fact that I am calm and in control helps me make good decisions based on analyzing the facts of a situation, rather than relying on emotions or factors that cannot be controlled. In my opinion, such characteristics are very important for managers. Also, I am interested in theoretical aspects, in identifying patterns and innovation oriented, which is extremely useful for entrepreneurs. I am logical and critical in work situations, which allows me to correctly assess various situations.

I am systematic, I enjoy making plans, developing schedules and procedures, I have a structured and strategic thinking. These are characteristics that managers must have, given the importance of the planning process within companies. I am interested in identifying the advantages and disadvantages of a situation before making a decision.

However, this type of personality reveals that I must improve my communication skills. This is because I have the tendency…… [Read More]

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Ethnic Cultures' Experience of Art

Words: 2675 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56733059



For example, the ethnic client who paints a huge red heart with an arrow piercing its center is communicating a universally understood message: I have been affected by love/passion/emotion.

Natalie Rogers, founder of the Person Centered Expressive Therapy Institute is a strong proponent of expressive art. In this form of art therapy, the ethnic client is encouraged to "express inner thoughts by creating outer forms."

When treating a client with art therapy, Ms. Rogers uses many techniques of expressive art: drawing, coloring, dancing, musical demonstrations, and the like.

Once these exercises are completed, the participants are encouraged to explore the nuances involved in the interaction: did communication occur? Was it a pleasant experience? Were boundaries an issue? Who led? Who followed?

Despite the fact that this work is not done solely with ethnically displaced clients, the premise remains the same; through expressive creativity, one's self may be realized, recognized, and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Art Therapy, a Guide for Mental Health Professionals. New York: Brunner/Mazel,

Inc.

Burt, H. (1993). Issues in art therapy with the culturally displaced American Indian youth. Arts in Psychotherapy. 20: 143-151.

Cohen, B., Barnes, M., & Rankin, a. (1995). Managing Traumatic Stress Through Art. Maryland: Sidran Press.
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Learning Team Analysis

Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99621490

team dynamics a. Describe the process your team has used to form, storm, norm, and perform. At this point, where do you believe your team is in the team formation process?

During the formulation part of the team-creation process, our group was fairly formal in the way we related to one another. e were respectful, but cool. Then icebreaking conversation and structured discussion of the expectations awaiting us all over the course of the project established some initial and warmer forms cohesion, although we were still keeping along with the often unspoken "rules of behavior" that are observed within a new group. (CSL, 2005) During the 'storming' stage, some members of the group began to emerge as more dominant, as more specific and controversial issues had to be addressed beyond the getting-to-know-you process.

At present, the group is still in the 'norm' phase. One of the group members was forced…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allerman, et. Al. (2004) "Form Storm Norm, Perform. Retrieved 23 Feb 2005 at http://www.niwotridge.com/PDFs/FormStormNormPerform.pdf#search='Forming%20Storming%20Norming'

Butt, Joe. (2004) ENJF. Retrieved 23 Feb 2005 at www.typelogic.com

Center for Service and Leadership: CSL. (2005) George Mason University. Retrieved 23 Feb 2005 at http://www.gmu.edu/student/csl/5stages.html

WPI. (2005) "Group Information." Retrieved 23 Feb 2005 at http://www.cs.wpi.edu/~dcb/courses/CS3041/Group-info2.html
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Religion In Frederick Streng's Discussion

Words: 845 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49387875

Learning that we all believe in one force, yet a force that is represented with different entities and faith demonstrated through various traditions and practices, I have learned to reconcile these differences by just believing in a force, without any subsistence to religious names and labels and traditions.

As what I have discussed earlier, what used to be my religion was the belief I was exposed to since birth. However, as I grew up and became exposed to different forms of religions and beliefs in my society, I have learned to adapt to the diversity of religious philosophies extant by creating my personal philosophy. This personal philosophy is one that believes in a 'general force,' which is formless and not bound with the traditional practices. This force enables me to confide with an entity without any fear or limitations on what I can say or ask of it. It has…… [Read More]

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Underworld Journeys and Depression the

Words: 2926 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52470896

Melancholia sat in, as the loss I felt became less and less related to my body. I began to court death first symbolically and then literally. Freud would have noted the presence of the death wish in addition to describing the symptoms of "melancholia," or depression. Symptoms include "a profoundly painful dejection, cessation of interest in the outside world, loss of the capacity to love, inhibition of all activity," as well as self-loathing (Freud 1947, p. 39). The symptoms of depression are skin to the symptoms of mourning the loss of a loved one, with the key difference being that in mourning the reason for the despair is clearer and within the conscious realm.

The only means to discover the reason for melancholia is to explore the unconscious realm. My descent into a dark state of mind parallels the stories of Eurydice and Persephone who both longed to remain submerged…… [Read More]

References

Downing, C. (2006). Looking back at Orpheus. Chapter 10. Gleanings. New York: Universe, 238-267

Downing, C. (2006. Journeys to the underworld. Chapter 13 Gleanings. New York: Universe, 129-44

Freud, S. (1947). Mourning and melancholia.

Jung, C. (1963). Confrontation with the unconscious. Chapter 6. Memories Dreams, Reflections.
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Clinical Psychology

Words: 60005 Length: 200 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12402637

Deam Content as a Theapeutic Appoach: Ego Gatification vs. Repessed Feelings

An Abstact of a Dissetation

This study sets out to detemine how deams can be used in a theapeutic envionment to discuss feelings fom a deam, and how the theapist should engage the patient to discuss them to eveal the elevance of those feelings, in thei pesent, waking life. It also discusses the meaning of epetitious deams, how medication affects the content of a deame's deams, and if theapists actually "guide" thei clients in what to say. This "guidance" might be the theapist "suggesting" to thei clients that they had suffeed some type of ealy childhood tauma, when in fact, thee wee no taumas in thei ealy childhoods. The oigin of psychiaty is not, as it would have people believe, medicine, theapy o any othe even faintly scientific endeavo. Its oiginal pupose was not even to cue mental affliction.…… [Read More]

references. This may be related to the large decrease in familiar settings in the post-medication dreams. Although Domhoff (1996) does not list a high percentage of elements from the past as an indicator of psychopathology, he does mention that people suffering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a type of anxiety disorder, tend to have dreams in which distressing events are relived again and again. It may be that other anxiety disorders invoke a similar response in which the dreamer has a tendency to dwell on past events, which merits further research.

A final observation is that the results of this study provide support for Hartmann's (1984) biological model of the effects of drugs on dreams. An early study which focused mainly on long-term sleep patterns found little change in dream content associated with psychotropic drug administration (Hartmann & Cravens, 1974), but a later study conducted in Hartmann's laboratory indicated that increased levels of dopamine resulted in more vivid, nightmarish dreams (Hartmann, Russ, Oldfield, Falke, & Skoff, 1980). Based on his own research and the literature on drugs and nightmares, Hartmann (1984) proposed that drugs that increase the neurotransmitters dopamine or acetylcholine, or decrease norepinephrine or serotonin, produce nightmares and more vivid and bizarre dreams.

Drugs that have the opposite effects would decrease the incidence of disturbing dreams. The dreamer in this study was taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, which served to increase the effects of serotonin. According to the biological model, with the onset of medication the dreamer should have experienced a decrease in nightmares, or, in Hall and Van de Castle's terms, lower aggression, negative emotions, and other unpleasant factors. This was, in fact, the case.

The emphasis on statistically significant differences without regard to effect sizes slowed progress in the study of dream content by creating unnecessary polarities and focusing energy on methodological arguments. The introduction of effect sizes into the study of dream content makes it possible to suggest that the controversy over home and laboratory collected dream reports never should have happened. The emphasis in dream content studies henceforth should be on effect sizes and large samples. Then future dream researchers could focus on testing new ideas using dream reports collected either at home or in the sleep laboratory.

Summary
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Inanna the Myth of Innana

Words: 2975 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37594152

This mythical structure has a long history in terms of mythical and visionary experience in all cultures of the world. One could also refer to the earliest Shamanic forms of religion and the myth of the dismembered Shaman who is also the transformed healer of others. In these myths the journey to the underworld, and the process of the destruction of the old self or ego does not result in final death but in transformation and greater insight into reality.

Therefore, taking the above brief sketch of the significance of this mythical structure into account we can apply it to a Jungian analysis of the ego.

When Inanna descends to the Underworld she divests herself of her previous life and this is symbolized by the way that she throws off the accouterments and symbols of her previous existence. When she enters the realm of the dead she can only do…… [Read More]

References

Ewen Robert B. ( 1998) An Introduction to Theories of Personality. 5th ed. Mahwah, NJ:

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Henderson, J.L., & Oakes, M. (1963). The Wisdom of the Serpent: The Myths of Death, Rebirth and Resurrection. New York: George Braziller. Retrieved April 5, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24109155

Inanna. Retrieved from http://www.linsdomain.com/gods&goddesses/inanna.htm
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How Have Psychologists Revisited Freud's Theory of Repression

Words: 2910 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90202356

Freud's Theory Of Repression

Freud is popularly known as the father of psychoanalysis and the idea of psychological repression of memories and urges, even though he was neither the first psychoanalyst or even the first to posit the existence of repression. His justifiable fame comes both from the way he popularized psychoanalysis, and from his further development of its theories. He is commonly attributed with creating the theory of the conscious and subconscious, of the many sexual complexes and drives which run our lives and our subconscious, and with the idea that things which are not socially acceptable will be hidden away within the subconscious. Freud called this process of burying the unacceptable aspects of life away into the subconscious regression, which he was to eventually succinctly defined thus: "the essence of repression lies simply in the function of rejecting and keeping something out of consciousness." (Rieff, 147) It is…… [Read More]

Bibliography." August 8, 2004. http://www.usd.edu/~tgannon/jungbio.html

Matson, Floyd. "Humanistic theory: the third revolution in psychology" The Humanist, March/April 1971. August 8,. 2004 http://web.isp.cz/jcrane/IB/Humcrit.html

Slater, Lauren. "Why Is Repression Possibly Better Than Your Therapist?" New York Times, 23 Feb 2003. August 8, 2004. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/23/magazine/23REPRESSION.htm

Rieff, P. (Ed.) Freud: General Psychological Theory. New York: Collier, 1963

Webster, Richard. Excerpts from Why Freud was Wrong: Sin, Science and Psychoanalysis (1995). August 8, 2004. http://www.richardwebster.com
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Human Development

Words: 1594 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63871949

Life Period

I have chosen midlife as my study since it is the period which is the most fascinating and on which too many conflicting and ambiguous statements are brought to bear. This may be due to the fact that the middle years contains too little regularity and too much diversity therefore many of the models that I have seen differ too in the age range given to the mid life years. To elaborate: Whilst most models define midlife as beginning at 40 and ending at 60, a ten-year range exists at either end with some theorists actually considering midlife as beginning at 30 and ending at 75 (Lachman, 2004). Given too the differences in people, magnified by socio-historical and geographical elements, people are bound to indicate differences in their mid -- life period. It is for this reason possibly that Erickson's findings sound so quaint to many western ears,…… [Read More]

Sources

Caspi A. (1987). Personality in the life course. J.Personal. Soc. Psychol. 5, 31203 -- 13

Erikson E. (1963). Childhood and Society. New York: Norton.

Jung C.G. (1971). The Portable Jung. New York: Viking.

Lachman, M.E. (2004). Development in Midlife. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 305-331.