Juvenile Justice System Essays (Examples)

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Juvenile Court Juvenile Criminal Justice System Has

Words: 1312 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64626816

Juvenile Court

Juvenile criminal justice system has enforced laws, which govern the rules for determining whether a juvenile criminal is eligible for a sentence or a counseling period is mandatory to alter the behaviors of such individuals. This system has been effectively placed for children less than the age of 21 who have reportedly committed crimes in various forms such as sex offenders; murderers etc. (Whitehead & Lab, 2012). In this aspect, several crimes have taken place in USA marking the statistics in the country by 32% of the total juvenile crime statistics (Whitehead & Lab, 2012). In this essay, a case study of one of the most fierce juvenile crime acts have been presented which explains a situation where the juvenile criminal was at first ordered to be treated as an adult for the sentence purposes due to committing first degree of the crime. However, later due to his…… [Read More]

References

Bell, S.J. (2011). Young Offenders and Youth Justice: A Century After the Fact. Toronto: Cengage Learning .

Jones, B. (2012, April 13).  http://www.usatoday.com /news. Retrieved from
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Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69171380

Juvenile and Adult Justice

Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems

Similarities and differences: Juvenile and adult criminal justice systems

The goals of the juvenile justice and the adult criminal justice systems are fundamentally distinct. The goal of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate the offender and to provide aid and assistance to the juvenile, enabling him or her to become a more productive adult (La Mance 2010). In contrast, the purpose of the adult system is one of fact-finding, and is designed to see 'justice' done on a societal level: in the case of a guilty offender, this usually means him or her 'paying a debt' to society in the form of some kind of punishment. However, the adult system still does offer many rehabilitative programs for the majority of convicts, including educational and vocational training. And, depending on the state, if the severity of the crime is deemed significant…… [Read More]

References

Chapter 4: Juvenile justice system structures and processes. (1999). Juvenilia Offenders and Victims: National Report. Retrieved:  https://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/nationalreport99/chapter4.pdf 

Juvenile law: status offenses. (2013). Nolo. Retrieved:

 http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/juvenile-law-status-offenses-32227.html 

Komisaruk, Kami. 92007). Differences between juvenile and adult court. Just Law Collective.
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Juvenile Criminal Justice System

Words: 742 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82314966

juvenile crime," the United States continues to promote policies that channel adolescent offenders into the adult justice system ("Juvenile Justice," 2014). The PBS production When Kids Get Life examines the ramifications of trying minors as adults for serious crimes, leading to their entire lives being spent in prison with no opportunity for rehabilitation. While the crimes in these cases are severe and do warrant punishment, clearly there are other options that should be made available for juvenile offenders. The majority (87%) of adolescents in custody have been diagnosed with mental illness; a full 73% of youth in custody are diagnosed with more than one mental illness (Indig, et al., 2009, p. 21). Based on the evidence presented in When Kids Get Life and the vast body of literature on adolescent criminality, the juvenile justice system should be oriented more toward rehabilitation and mental health services than to incarceration.

The whole…… [Read More]

References

Bikel, O. (Director). (2007). When kids get life [Documentary]. United States: WGBH Educational Foundation: FRONTLINE.

Indig, D. et al. (2009). 2009 NSW young people in custody health survey: full report. Retrieved online: http://www.juvenile.justice.nsw.gov.au/Documents/JH_YPICHSRep2009_D10b_00_opening.pdf

"Juvenile Justice," (2014). PBS Frontline. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/juvenile/stats/

Kent v. United States (1966). Retrieved online: https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/383/541
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Statistics for Juvenile Justice

Words: 1320 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66361911

Juvenile Justice Compare

The author of this report has been asked to do a compare and contrast of the juvenile justice system of three different states. While all states have a juvenile justice framework, each state does things at least a little differently and thus these differences and outliers should be explored and explained. The three states that will be compared and contrasted are New York, California and Georgia. While these three states have stark similarities, they also have ways that are entirely different from each other for whatever reason.

New York has a decentralized framework when it comes to the handling and adjudication of criminal justice cases for juveniles. The detention and probation supervision of juveniles in New York is done by the Local/Executive branch of government. The Juvenile Corrections arm of law enforcement resides in the statehouse while after-care supervision is done by a combination of the state…… [Read More]

References

JJGPS. (2016). States - JJGPS - Juvenile Justice, Geography, Policy, Practice & Statistics. Jjgps.org. Retrieved 25 February 2016, from http://www.jjgps.org/states

NCJJ. (2005). State Juvenile Justice Profiles, 2005 (pp. 1-392). Pittsburgh, PA: NCJJ.

NCJJ. (2016). National Center for Juvenile Justice. NCJJ.org. Retrieved 25 February 2016, from http://www.ncjj.org

NCSC. (2016). CSP Introduction. Ncsc.org. Retrieved 25 February 2016, from http://www.ncsc.org/Sitecore/Content/Microsites/PopUp/Home/CSP/CSP_Intro
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Australian Criminal Justice System

Words: 1948 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38503776

Criminal Justice System

Australian Criminal Justice System

"When all is said and done, the current criminal justice system is about as fair and effective as we can reasonably expect"

Overview of the Criminal Justice System: Fair and Effective - Penal Populism

The Democracy at Work thesis proposes that politicians have been properly responsive to public concern about crime by putting into place the more robust responses to offending which people want. An alternative perspective is that politicians have been populist in advocating these tougher policies. "Penal populism"; a term equivalent to Bottoms's (1995) "populist punitiveness"; is defined here as a punishment policy developed primarily for its anticipated popularity. Penal policy is particularly susceptible to populism, because there is a great deal of public concern about crime, and low levels of public knowledge about sentencing practice, sentencing effectiveness, and sentencing equity. This combination of concern and lack of knowledge can present…… [Read More]

References

Bottoms, A.E. (1995). The philosophy and politics of punishment and sentencing. In C. Clarkson and R. Morgan, eds., The politics of sentencing reform. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hogg, R., and D. Brown (1998). Rethinking law and order. Sydney: Pluto Press.

Toby, J. (1957). Social disorganization and stake in conformity: Complementary factors in the predatory behavior of hoodlums. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science 48: 12 -- 17.

Sallmann, P., and J. Willis (2003). Criminal justice in Australia. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
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Broad Judicial Discretion Regarding Juvenile Delinquency With Focus on the Future of Juvenile Justice

Words: 3688 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20953314

Future ole of the Juvenile Justice System in the United States

Young people are naturally prone to experimentation and impulsive behaviors that frequently result in their involvement with the law enforcement community, and police officers today generally enjoy wide latitude in resolving these incidents. In fact, in some if not most cases, police officers can release young offenders into the custody of their parents or guardians without the further involvement of the criminal justice system. Even when young offenders are arrested, though, the juvenile justice system tends to afford them with more leniency than their adult counterparts, due in part to the view that the role of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate rather than punish. These enlightened views of juvenile justice, though, are being replaced with "get-tough-on-crime" approaches in some states, and there remains a paucity of standardized models for states to follow. To gain some fresh insights…… [Read More]

References

Alridge, D.P. (2005, Summer). Introduction: Hip hop in history: Past, present, and future. The Journal of African-American History, 90(3), 190-193.

Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Boyd, T. (2002). The new H.N.I.C.: The death of civil rights and the reign of hip hop. New York:

Brookins, G.K. & Hirsch, J.A. (2002, Summer). Innocence lost: Case studies of children in the juvenile justice system. The Journal of Negro Education, 71(3), 205-210.
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Criminal Justice - Juvenile Justice

Words: 1947 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61302876



The problem of determining the right approach is compounded by the effects of the culture of violence to which many young offenders are exposed. In some cases, it is possible to reform their behavior but in other cases, juvenile offenders already take on the hardened attitude normally associated with adult offenders. As a result, some juveniles are too far gone to reach through non-punitive methods by the time they reach high school age.

In terms of the protections afforded by American due process principles, those principles are essential to the fair administration of criminal justice and they provide a much more fair judicial system than those of most other countries (Dershowitz 2002).

However, in terms of the distinction between due process with respect to suspending concepts of guilt in crimes perpetrated by juveniles, the strict application of punitive sentences for criminal conduct may sometimes be more appropriate. Certainly, there are…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, a.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.

Friedman, L.M. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.

Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E., Miller, C. (2007). Street Gang Mentality: A Mosaic of Remorseless Violence and Relentless Loyalty. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Sep. 2007: 1-7.

Schmalleger, F. (2008) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
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Treating Juvenile Delinquency Juvenile Justice Delinquency Treatment

Words: 2908 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7511071

Treating Juvenile Delinquency

Juvenile Justice

Delinquency treatment program:

Peer mentoring program for African-American male juveniles

A brief description of your community

African-American males are disproportionately represented in the incarcerated juvenile population, relative to their percentage of the general population. The reasons for this have been hotly debated amongst criminal justice professionals and laypersons. Possible reasons include racism within the police and justice systems, the ways laws are written, and also a lack of vocational opportunities. According to one study conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice in New Jersey, while 10% of white juveniles were adjudicated and sentenced for their first-degree offenses, more than 31% of African-American juveniles received sentences for the same crimes; white juvenile offenders were similarly found to receive lesser sentences than African-Americans in the state of Florida (Drakeford & Garfinkle 2000). Dealing with the unique problems of African-Americans within juvenile detention centers is clearly an essential…… [Read More]

References

Black male dropouts lead nation in incarceration. (2012). PR News wire. Retrieved:

 http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/black-male-dropouts-lead-nation-in-incarceration-63870242.html 

Drakeford, Will & Garfinkle, Lili Frank. (2000). Differential treatment of African-American

The National Center on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice. Retrieved:
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Criminal System the Juvenile Criminal System This

Words: 455 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18446102

Criminal System

The Juvenile Criminal System

This paper will seek to address two questions:

How is the juvenile justice system different from the adult system? Explain your response.

Response:

adek (2011) states that the two systems share both commonalities and differences. He presents the juvenile justice system as a rehabilitation center instead of a punishment center for juveniles. However, he also states that punishment is still a central feature of this system, though it is a last resort. Some similarities include "the police, judiciary, and corrections have discretion relative to decision making in both systems."

adek also states that "those adults and juveniles that admit guilt there is a system of procedural safeguards to protect their rights."

Furthermore, he argues that the other commonalities include age group separation, plea bargaining, as well as processes of hearings an appeals.

When adults are tried for crimes, it is clear that there is…… [Read More]

Gadek, Radek. (2011). The Juvenile Justice System and the Adult Justice System. Retrieved August 14, 2011, from  http://criminaljusticeonlineblog.com/11/the-juvenile-justice-system-and-the-adult-justice-system/ 

Gadek, Radek. (2011). The Juvenile Justice System and the Adult Justice System. Retrieved August 14, 2011, from
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Ethics in Justice System-How We

Words: 4207 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46525136

esearch also showed that offenders tend to be part of or return to communities with high concentrations of offenders. The concentration of offenders in these neighborhoods affects the community negatively by increasing the stigma associated with the community and also saddling the community with additional problems without providing added resources needed for restoring or maintaining order. The ultimate consequence is the that the criminal justice system destabilizes informal networks of social control and increases poor attitudes towards formal social controls, both of which have been shown to contribute to increases in crime and disorder in the communities. Churning results in unnecessary pressure being put on the other residents of the communities who are law-abiding in disadvantaged communities. The removal of men from the community through incarceration has the chilling effect of changing the family's socio-economic structure. The families of incarcerated members, especially men, of the community also face stigma and…… [Read More]

References

Burke, K. And Leben, S. (2007). Procedural Fairness: A key Ingredient in Public Satisfaction.

Court Review: The Journal of the American Judges Association. 44 (1), 4-25.

Davis, A.J. (2008). Racial Fairness in the Criminal Justice System: The Role of the Prosecutor. Colombia Human Rights Law Review. 202 (39), 202-32.

Hurwitz, J and Peffley, M. (2001). Racial Polarization on Criminal Justice Issues:
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Disparity and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System

Words: 989 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61826203

Disparity and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System

Discrimination in the justice system is the dissimilarity based on the difference in treatment given to people regardless of their qualifications or behavior. The criminal justice system has different forms of discrimination including pure justice, contextual discrimination, institutionalized discrimination, and systematic discrimination. Every stage of the criminal justice system experiences systematic discrimination. Further, this form of discrimination occurs without variation in all corners of the world. This implies that systematic discrimination happens when a certain gender, ethnic, age or race group encounters discrimination in different parts of the world. Critics are of the opinion systematic discrimination does not exist while other believes that it exists when groups of people encounter consistent discrimination in the criminal justice system (obinson & Williams, 2009).

Institutionalized discrimination is associated with disparities in the results and not in the policies. Institutionalized discrimination is based on the aspect…… [Read More]

References

Mustard, B. (2009). Racial, ethnic, and gender disparities in sentencing: Evidence from the U.S.

Federal Courts. New York: Springer.

Robinson, M. & Williams, M. (2009). The myth of a fair criminal justice system. South Carolina:

Edward Elgar Publishing.
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Compare the U S Justice System Ti India's Justice System

Words: 2789 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12825290

U.S. Justice System vs. India's Justice System

This paper compares the system of justice in India with the system of justice in the United States. Although they are both democracies -- in fact India is the biggest democratic country in the world -- the two countries are quite different in their approach to formal justice. Moreover, the system of justice in India has been the subject of a great deal of criticism in recent years due to the corruption that has been found in the system.

Comparing the U.S. And Indian Justice Systems

The legal system in India is backed by the Indian Constitution and is a mix of "adversarial and accusatorial," according to the Loyola University in Chicago (LU). There is an attempt to respect both Hindu and Muslim jurisprudence and to "preserve the timeworn tenets of both" (LU). In rural areas of India, an informal system of justice…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bhushan, Prashant. (2009). 'My Honest And Bonafide Perception.' Outlook India. Retrieved September 15, 2012, from  http://www.outlookindia.com .

Country Listing. (1995). India: The Criminal Justice System. Center for Children's Law and Policy. Retrieved September 14, 2012, from  http://www.country-data.com .

Global Corruption Report 2007: Corruption in Judicial Systems. (2007). New York: Cambridge

Loyola Library. (2010). Criminal Justice System in India. Retrieved September 14, 2012,
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Virginia Juvenile Justice Process

Words: 798 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97388011

Virginia Juvenile Justice Process

In 1800's the juvenile justice system was created to reform U.S.A. policies regarding youth offenders. United state's original intent of juvenile justice system has shifted due to a number of reforms aimed at both protecting the "due process of law" rights of youth, and creating an aversion towards jail among the young, these reforms has made the system more comparable to the adult system

History of Juvenile Competency Services in Virginia:

After a year long study conducted by the Virginia commission on youth the juvenile competency statutes were enacted. there were individuals from different groups that participated in the study, these individuals were from the Office of the Attorney General, juvenile court judges, prosecutors, public defenders, children's advocates, faculty from the University of Virginia and the University of ichmond, and senior administrative personnel from the state department of mental health, the state department of juvenile justice,…… [Read More]

Reference

Commonwealth of Virginia, (2011). Steps in the Virginia Juvenile Justice System. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from:

http://www.djj.virginia.gov/about_us/juvenileprocess.aspx

Eisten Law, (2008). History of America's Juvenile Justice System. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from  http://www.lawyershop.com/practice-areas/criminal-law/juvenile-law/history
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Crime as Schmalleger Explains the American Juvenile-Justice

Words: 1570 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34971095

Crime

As Schmalleger explains, the American juvenile-justice system was designed a century ago to reform kids found guilty of minor crimes, but more and more, the system has to cope with more violent crimes committed by younger people. The response on the part of lawmakers has been largely to siphon the worst of these young people out of the juvenile system by lowering the age at which juveniles charged with serious crimes can be tried in adult courts, a trend that seems to increase around election time. The underlying philosophy of early juvenile courts was parens patriae, which means that the courts took the role of parent and protected the rights of the child. Shifting the child to adult court reduces his or her rights rather than increasing them and also bring son harsher punishments. As Daniel P. Mears notes, the creators of the juvenile court system thought it would…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eskridge, Chris W. Criminal Justice, 4th edition. New York: Roxbury, 1993.

Schmalleger, Frank. Criminal Justice Today 8th edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005.
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Values in Justice System Organizations

Words: 2521 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77204422

The courts retooled by a generation of conservative judicial appointments and crazed case law now function as social abettors, in which the poor and the dark skinned are shunted off to a concrete hell with industrial efficiency. Left behind are broken families, more addiction, more disease, more illiteracy, and thus a more docile society" (Parenti, 2001).

There are different changes being made in the system to reflect new and evolving values. For example, recommendations have been made that all police interrogations be video taped, so that juries have access to the process of confession and not just a typed end-product. This way police can ensure the values of integrity in the confession process. The increasing use of DNA testing, where possible, is also a way of helping to ensure that only the guilty are punished and justice is upheld.

The main purpose of police department is to provide services to…… [Read More]

References

Parenti, C. (July 2001). The "New" Criminal Justice System: State Repression from 1968 to 2001. Monthly Review. 539(3): 19.

Platt, a. (2001). Social Insecurity: The Transformation of American Criminal Justice, 1965 -- 2000. Social Justice. 28(1): 138.

Wright, K. (1999). Leadership Is the Key to Ethical Practice in Criminal Justice Agencies. Criminal Justice Ethics. 18(2): 2.

Townsend, P. (September 2005). Detention Redemption: In One California County, Progressive Leaders and Law-Enforcement Officials Are Transforming a Troubled Juvenile-Justice System. The American Prospect. 16(9): 20+.
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Boot Camps Effective Juvenile Justice

Words: 1631 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26922530

In July, 2001, a 14-year-old boy died following the brutal treatment he was subjected to at the Fountain Hills facility in Arizona. The staff had forced him to "stand in the Arizona sun" in 100-degree temperatures, wearing black sweat pants, according to an article in the Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing (Bush, 2001). When he - or any of the other inmates - asked for water or food, he was "forced to eat mud." Also, the staff "stomped on the boys' chests and arms with boots if they did not perform tasks required of them."

In Prince Georges County, Maryland, on May 14 of 2001, a 17-year-old boy died of asphyxia when a teacher cut off his airway "in the act of restraining him." The article's writer, Carol Bush, asks: "Is it not time for the medical and nursing professionals to speak out on behalf of troubled youth…… [Read More]

References

Bush, Carol. (2001). Youth at risk - in facilities that are supposed to help! Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 14(4), 200.

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (2001). Juvenile Crime,

Juvenile Justice: Executive Summary. Retrieved February 26, 2005, from the National Academies Press. Web site: http://www.nap.edu/openbook/0309068428/html/index.html.

Mackenzie, Doris Layton, Gover, Angela R, Armstrong, Gaylene Styve, & Mitchell,
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Management in the Justice System Question Uploaded

Words: 533 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44041595

Management in the Justice System

Question uploaded

Challenges in the justice system: Case management of drug crimes

Drug abuse represents one of the greatest challenges for any criminal justice professional. The question of whether drug abuse should be viewed as a medical issue, a criminal issue, or a unique combination of both remains hotly-debated question, particularly in regard to juvenile offenders. There are indications that the two are often interlinked: "research indicates that a relatively small group of serious and violent juvenile offenders who are also serious drug users accounts for a disproportionate amount (more than half, according to one national study) of all serious crimes committed by delinquents" (VanderWaal et al. 2001: 1). Given the chronic and addictive nature of drug abuse, these offenders often go on to commit more crimes as adults, unless the cycle is broken.

Case management is one of the most common techniques used to…… [Read More]

Reference

VanderWaal, Curtis J. (et al. 2001). Breaking the juvenile drug-crime cycle. Department of Justice. Retrieved:  https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/186156.pdf
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Criminal Justice System Essay

Words: 3528 Length: Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

This essay discusses how the criminal justice system is an important part of the government, allowing for the prosecution, imprisonment, and rehabilitation of criminals. Apart from the court system and police, the criminal justice system has other components like criminal justice agencies that provide additional information for researchers to form studies and articles to help improve the criminal justice system as a whole. This Criminal Justice Essay will help students looking to understand what the system is and what components make up the system. By exploring the core of the criminal justice system, one can understand law and how the government carries out enforcement of the law within the country.

Titles

What is at the Core of the Criminal Justice System in the United States?

The Effects of the Criminal Justice System on Crime

Does the Criminal Justice System Need Change?

Selected Title: The Role of The American Criminal Justice…… [Read More]

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Juvenile Corrections

Words: 1407 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10711731

Juvenile Corrections

Juvenile delinquency is a common phenomenon in the globe today. Owing to the severe crimes, committed, different states handle the matter differently. On one hand, some states utilize the "punitive approach" that prioritizes crime control, punishment, and incarceration; on another, the restorative model, which stresses human rights, youth development research, and restoring the community. In the United States, the law does not tolerate juvenile delinquency; this explains the utilization of the "punitive approach" when handling juveniles. In addition, policies in the U.S. are becoming more punitive; therefore, juveniles have found themselves tried in the adult legal system. However, in the recent past, the U.S. has re-considered the death and life without parole sentences for juveniles, which it has termed as unconstitutional. Apparently, the state is gradually applying some human rights principles in relation to juvenile justice policy, a positive move, indeed (Caldwell, 2011).

Background

During the 19th century,…… [Read More]

References

Abrams, L.S., Kim, K., & Anderson-Nathe, B. (2005). Paradoxes of treatment in the juvenile corrections. Child and youth car form, 34(1), 7-25.

Caldwell, B. (2011). Punishment vs. restoration: A comparative analysis of juvenile delinquency law in the United States and Mexico.

Hirth, D. (2001). Early intensive help for high-risk juveniles. Corrections today, 80-83.

Perlin, M. (2013). Collaborative justice. Criminology and Law Enforcement, 1-3.
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Juvenile Delinquents

Words: 2220 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54718429

Juvenile Justice

Juvenile delinquents

Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims

Juvenile justice:

Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims

The adult justice system in America has long focused upon retribution and community restoration as well as rehabilitation of offenders. Victims must be 'made whole,' not just offenders within the adult system. However, the juvenile justice system has had a far less clear focus upon the restoration of justice to the community than that of its adult counterpart. This is partially due to the oft-expressed view that juveniles are less morally responsible than adults. Juvenile records are usually 'wiped clean' after the adolescents have served their time in probation or prison. The focus of the juvenile justice system is always on the improvement of the life of the juvenile and to reduce the likelihood of recidivism, rather than outright punishment.

On the other hand,…… [Read More]

References

Balanced and restorative justice. (2010). OJJDP report: Guide for implementing the balanced and restorative justice model. Retrieved July 4, 2010. http://www.ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/pubs/implementing/balanced.html

Giacomazzi, Andrew L. (2005, February). Review of Restorative justice by Ruth Ann

Strickland. (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2004). LPBR. 15.2: 139-142. Retrieved July 4,

2010. http://www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/strickland205.htm
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Juvenile Injustice How the Juvenile

Words: 1841 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47448693

, 2009). While there are schools in the juvenile system, some of these Hispanic children may come in so behind in their educations that they will requires special services to bring them current in their educations. Therefore, educational and mental health concerns are highlighted for Hispanic youth entering into the juvenile justice system.

Conclusion

The juvenile justice system in the United States is out-of-control. While Fairfax County, Virginia's juvenile justice system is not experiencing the same problems as other areas, it would be erroneous to assume that its system is still the best way of dealing with juvenile offenders. Fairfax County has a large Hispanic population, and Hispanic youth are overrepresented in its juvenile justice system. One must assume that a lack of cultural sensitivity has helped contribute to this problem. Ensuring that Hispanic youth and their families have access to the same quality of non-penal services as other youth…… [Read More]

References

Chambers, B. (2009, June 11). Latino youth in the juvenile justice system -- key facts.

Retrieved October 11, 2011 from Reclaiming Futures website: http://www.reclaimingfutures.org/blog/node/1028

County of Fairfax Virginia. (2011). Delinquency (juvenile criminal cases). Retrieved

from http://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/courts/jdr/jdrDelinquency.htm
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Juvenile Total Institutions Total Institutions Prisons Jails

Words: 1797 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65920440

Juvenile Total Institutions

Total Institutions ( prisons/jails) juveniles. A. Discuss history B. Goals C. programming youth held . D. Issues/Problems Present facilities Below Guideline paper. 1. Students expected draw information class material scholarly sources journal articles, government websites, NPO websites.

Bortner and Williams (1997)

define a total institution as a physical location such as a prison or a reformatory where all the total needs of the residents are met. The needs of the individuals are mostly physical such as health, clothing, nutrition, shelter, etc. For juveniles, total institutions must be able to meet their educational and psychological needs as the youth. For an institution to quality as a total institution, the totality of the care that is provided in the institutions must be reflected in the round the clock confinement of the residents including holidays and weekends Shoemaker, 2009.

Goffman (1961)

argues that in many different ways, correctional institutions also…… [Read More]

References

ABA Division for Public Education. The History of Juvenile Justice. In ABA Division for Public Education (Ed.), Dialogue on Youth and Justice (pp. 1-8). Chicago, IL: American bar association.

Austin, J., Johnson, K.D., & Weitzer, R. (2005). Alternatives to the Secure Detention and Confinement of Juvenile Offenders (pp. 41). Rockville, MD: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Dept of Justice.

Bortner, M.A., & Williams, L. (1997). Youth in Prison. New York: Rutledge.

Commonwealth v. Fisher, No. 213 48 (1905).
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Juvenile Rights at the Time

Words: 800 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42268713

Juveniles may commit crimes on the same level as adults do, but they are of a special case because of their age and relative psychological immaturity. The purpose of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate the minors and help them integrate better into the society. As research shows, police officers come into contact with different kinds of juveniles offenders. They may be mentally ill or handicapped. Some of them come from disorderly families, or are routinely abused physically and sexually by parents or other family members. Others may be simply neglected or have no family support when they are in need (Bartollas & Miller, 2008, pp. 101-2; Cole & Smith, 2007, p. 554). These unique circumstances make juveniles a special case.

As Lawrence and Hemmens (2008) write, police officers need to take special measures in treating juveniles during and after arrest especially because "young persons' views and attitudes toward…… [Read More]

References

Arundel, a. (2010) Arrest and Custody of Juveniles. Retrieved on February 17, 2011, from http://www.aacounty.org/Police/RulesRegs/Sections17-19/1702JuvArrestCust.pdf

Bartollas, C., & Miller, S.J. (2008) Juvenile Justice in America (5th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Cole, G.F., & Smith, C.E. (2007) the American System of Criminal Justice (11th edition). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

"Juvenile Arrest and Detention" (n.d.) Criminal Law Free Advice. Retrieved on February 18, 2011, from http://criminal-law.freeadvice.com/juvenile_law/juvenile-detention.htm
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Juvenile Offenders and Recividism

Words: 1280 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45219755

Juvenile delinquency has been an ever-evolving issue in the United States. From aims focused on prevention and rehabilitation that resulted in the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974; to a reverse trend beginning in the mid-1970's, the present has brought on a more prevalent tendency to try juveniles as adults. No more have courts taken to giving juveniles delinquents a second chance through rehabilitation (Schmalleger, 2016). In recent years, juveniles have faced life sentences without parole like an adult would. If the trend continues, will the number of juveniles tried as adults grow? Is it the responsibility of the juvenile justice system to prevent crime by enacting harsh penalties on the troubled youth of the country? From a Judeo-Christian perspective, everyone in one way or another, sins. It is up to the government and the community to help sinners see their wrongs and allow them a chance for…… [Read More]

References

Casey, S., & Day, A. (2015). Accountability in Juvenile Justice: A Framework to Assess Client Outcomes. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60(14), 1645-1668. doi:10.1177/0306624x15586767

Kretschmar, J. M., Butcher, F., Flannery, D. J., & Singer, M. I. (2016). Diverting Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth With Behavioral Health Issues From Detention. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 27(3), 302-325. doi:10.1177/0887403414560885

Mody, S. (2008). Juvenile Justice. Childhood Education, 1-3.

Schmalleger, F. (2016). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the twenty-first century (14th ed.). NJ: Pearson Education.
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Juvenile Sentencing the Issue of

Words: 2091 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61382395

According to Lawlor, Connecticut has "developed a flexible approach geared toward immediate intervention and proven results" (Lawlor). He explains that not every teenaged car thief with a record of several arrests should be sent to prison, just as not every 10-year-old first time truant needs to be simply sent home to his parents (Lawlor).

The state of Connecticut has sole responsibility for all probation, adult and juvenile, and all graduated sanctions programs are operated by the state or by private, non-profit organizations funded by the state (Lawlor). For more than twenty years, the term 'juvenile' in the state of Connecticut refers to only youths under the age of sixteen; youths who are sixteen years and older are treated as adults for all crimes (Lawlor). In 1995, before the graduated sanctions were implemented, the most serious violent juveniles were the focus of the juvenile court, and all other cases were for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bilchik, Shay. "Sentencing juveniles to adult facilities fails youths and society."

Corrections Today. April 1, 2003. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Feld, Barry C. "Abolish the juvenile court: youthfulness, criminal responsibility, and sentencing policy. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. September 22, 1997. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Grisso, Thomas. "The evolution of adolescence: a developmental perspective on juvenile justice reform. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. September 22, 1997. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
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Juvenile Corrections Before the Expansion

Words: 2458 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51190359



Juvenile facilities provide intensive and specialized therapeutic programs with brilliant results. The juvenile placed in juveniles' corrections enjoy an education-centered curriculum and trained staff that functions exclusively with the juvenile offenders' population. On the contrary, those juvenile held in adult jails and prisons do not enjoy these services (Siegel 2009, 671). Understanding that juveniles hold different emotional, safety, social and physical requirements from adult offenders, guidelines requiring certified juveniles to get placements in divergent setting other than adult prisons and jails is paramount. More than sixteen states in America hold certified juveniles in juvenile corrections and not in adult prison until these offenders reach eighteen years.

Six states hold juvenile in juvenile facilities until they attain the age of 21. Pennsylvania and Virginia passed the laws requiring that juveniles, regardless of their crime, get placement in juvenile correction facilities and not in adult jails (Dietch 2011, p.11). This is because…… [Read More]

Reference List

Deitch, M 2011. Juveniles in the adult criminal justice system in Texas. The University of Texas at Austin, school of Public Affairs.pp.1-44.

Elrod, P., Ryder, C 2011. Juvenile justice: A social, historical and legal perspective. Michigan: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Roberts, a., Springer, D 2007. Social work in juvenile and criminal justice settings. Texas: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

Siegel, L 2009. Introduction to criminal justice. New York: Cengage Learning.
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Juvenile Drug Abusers

Words: 2362 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56135135

e. school, religious activities, sports, family involvement)." ("Juvenile detention," 2005, p. 11-12). These negative affects of increased usage not only directly affect juvenile drug abusers with increased occurrence of detention, but also make less effective rehabilitation programs needed for these young offenders.

Prevention Programs:

Over the last two decades, there have been a plethora of clinical trial research that have identified effective adolescent substance use prevention programs.

Sadly, funding for drug use prevention services has decreased over recent years, partly due to the increased need for drug user treatment for young people. As an example, in 2002, Congress reduced funding for community drug prevention studies at the U.S. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), by $50 million, in order to increase drug user treatment studies at the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. With reduced funding, it is of even greater importance that prevention programs are as effective as possible. Kumpfer,…… [Read More]

References

Bilchik, S. (1997). From the administrator. Retrieved September 21, 2007, at http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/167251.pdf.

Juvenile detention as a disposition. (2005). Journal of Juvenile Justice Services, 20(2). Retrieved September 21, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Kumpfer, K., Alvarado, R., & Whiteside, H. (Jul 2003). Family-based interventions for substance use and misuse prevention. Substance Use & Misuse, 38(11-13). Retrieved September 21, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Lexcen, F. & Redding, R. (2000). Substance abuse and dependence in juvenile offenders. Retrieved September 21, 2007, at http://www.ilppp.virginia.edu/Juvenile_Forensic_Fact_Sheets/SubAbuse.html.
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Juvenile Gangs Have Been Thorns on the

Words: 1041 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89349132

Juvenile Gangs

Gangs have been thorns on the flesh of the citizens of the United States no wonder they have occupied a prominent position in American criminological literature. Gang wars between the Crips and the Bloods in Los Angeles are testament to the gang culture among certain communities in the United States. As opposed to the Dutch youth who are interested in music and romance of the West Side Story, especially the video clips and compact disc with gangster rap, the Americans juveniles appear to have negative associations (Klein, 2001). The language of the youngsters perceived to be engaging in juvenile gang activities is characterized by hyperbole and contains refers to competition and violence. The youth style personified by rappers like Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G. who appeared to talk about the hard life in their neighborhoods referred to juvenile gangs. This research paper seeks to review literature on criminal…… [Read More]

References List

Defleur, L.B. (1967). Delinquent Gangs in Cross-Cultural Perspective: the Case of Cordoba.

Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 4(1), 132-141.

Flores, J.R. (2006). Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED495786.pdf

Klein, M. (2001). The Eurogang Paradox: Street Gangs and Youth Groups in the U.S. And Europe. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
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Juvenile System vs Adult Justice

Words: 2540 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89874029



The actual court proceedings in a juvenile court consist of the arrest procedure, search and seizure, and custodial interrogation (Calderon 2006). The concept has been that the delinquent is a child rather than a criminal. Hence, rehabilitation rather than punishment is the court and the system's goal. ut the major aspects of the juvenile justice system continue to hound its supporters. One is the cause of serious juvenile crime. Another is that young offenders need to be rehabilitated under a surrogate entity of the parens patriae concept. Another is a recent redefinition of young violent offenders as adults and their transfer to adult courts and the criminal or adult justice system. There has been increasing belief that they pose a serious and genuine threat to the safety of other young people and the community as a whole. An increase in serious juvenile crimes warrants more severe punishment. ut moving them…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Calderon, M (2006). A reflective comparison of the juvenile criminal justice system vs. The adult criminal justice system. 23 web pages. Anai Rhoads. Retrieved on April 29, 2008 at http://www.anairhoads.org/calderon/juvadult.shtml

Colquitt, J. (2002). American Criminal Justice System. Retrieved on April 30, 2008 from http://www.law.ua.edu/conquitt/crimmain/crimmisc/crime.htm

Hopson, R. K and Obidah, J.E. (2002). When getting tough means getting tougher.

21 pages. The Journal of Negro Education: Howard University
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Juvenile Court Philosophy the Office

Words: 1751 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24143843

They must also determine what types of delinquent behavior and youth violence are causing the greatest concern in the community. (Medaris, 1996, para.# 5)

As can be seen from the above statement of the first step in implementing the SHOCAP program in any community, first look at statistics on juvenile crime and second ask the community what it is most afraid of with regard to juvenile crime. This intention seriously contradicts the intention of the juvenile justice system to demonstrate focus on individual cases of each juvenile offender and give it adequate time for understanding of all mitigating circumstances, rather than seeking to understand outside fear of crime. Many factors contribute to public opinion of crime and not all of those factors are realistically and truly connected to real crime occurrences and/or statistics. The "mitigating" factors of public crime fear are in dire need of reevaluation, starting with unrealistic and…… [Read More]

Resources

Cothern, L. (November 2000) "Juveniles and the Death Penalty," Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Accessed July, 10, 2008

http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/184748.pdf

Medaris, M (August 1996) "Serious Habitual Offender Comprehensive Action Program. (SHOCAP)" Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Factsheet Accessed July, 10, 2008, http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles/shocap.txt
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Juvenile Justice Interventions to Parental Intervention and

Words: 900 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85951983

juvenile justice interventions to parental intervention and readiness for change. The study evaluates Parenting with Love Limits (PLL) group therapy program to determine its effect on adolescent behavior and its effect on parent factors as well as parent adolescent relationship and readiness for change.

The methods and procedures used in conducting this study are descriptive and experimental. It also involves statistical analysis of data. It also reviews previous studies that relates to it. It is descriptive in the sense that it gives a reader an insight into what terminologies like recidivism, re-adjudication, and community based intervention mean with regard to reducing adolescent oppositional and conduct disorders. The design was experimental in the sense that it used The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to measure behavioral problems and social competencies of children as reported by their parents. The parents are reported to have completed the CBCL by themselves. The CBCL integrates 118…… [Read More]

References List

Sells, S.P., Early, K.W. & Smith, T.E. (2011). Reducing Adolescent Oppositional and Conduct

Disorders: An Experimental Design Using the Parenting with Love and Limits Model. Professional Issues in Criminal Justice 6(3&4), 9-30.

Warr, M. (2005). Making delinquent friends: Adult supervision and children's affiliations.

Criminology, 43(1), 77 -- 106.
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Juvenile Diversion in the Juvenile

Words: 1398 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38269181

The juvenile diversion system was established with funding from the iverside County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act of 2000, approved by the California Board of Corrections. This was a multi-year evaluation research project and was divided into five distinct areas to evaluate programs approved by the Board of Corrections, these being the Community-Based Probation Diversion, Youth Accountability Teams, the Gang Prevention-Project BIDGE, and the Family Violence Prevention Program-P.A.C.T., Youth Accountability Boards, and Youth Courts. The evaluation was meant to collect baseline data and follow-up data to measure the success of each program, with the data including juvenile arrest rates per 100,000; arrest rates for program participants; incarceration rats; rate of completion of probation; probation violation rate; rate of completion of restitution; rate of completion of community service; and rates of truancy and family violence for those to which these apply. Performance benchmarks were to be developed for each program (iverside…… [Read More]

References

Johnson, J.E. (1979, April 6). "The Impact of Juvenile Diversion: An Assessment Using Multiple Archival Perspectives."

Retrieved May 24, 2007 at http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED177411&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_accno&accno=ED177411.

Nadell-Hayes, S. & Macallair, D. (1995) Restructuring Juvenile Corrections in California: A Report to the Legislature. Retrieved May 24, 2007 at http://www.cjcj.org/pdf/restructuring.pdf.

Riverside County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (a.B. 1913) Projects (2007). Retrieved May 25, 2007 at http://ccjr.csusb.edu/ProgEvalRiversideProjects.htm.
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Juvenile Delinquency Juvenile Delinquents in

Words: 1672 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67903924

Economic conditions that have forced both parents to work and have caused teenaged unemployment have also been associated with delinquency, as children are not only unsupervised, but also unoccupied. In addition to this, children who face undue hardships, such as physical and sexual abuse, as well as failure to perform academically, also often turn to delinquency (oberts, 2005). Like Kim and Kim (2008) point out for South Korean children, stress is a likely culprit for the fact that dealing with difficult situations turns into delinquency in youth. This problem is further compounded if the youth has not had instruction in making good choices from parents and teachers (oberts, 2005).

Thus, although they are on separate sides of the world, the United States and South Korea face many of the same problems when it comes to juvenile delinquents. In both countries, the lack of a definite role for criminal justice personnel…… [Read More]

References

Kim, H. & Kim, H. (2006). Discriminative Factor Analysis of Juvenile Delinquency in South Korea. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe chi, 36(8), 1315-1323.

Kim, H. & Kim, H. (2008). Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime. New York: Nova.

Library of Congress (2009). A Country Study: South Korea. Retrieved August 18, 2009,

from the Library of Congress Web Site: http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/krtoc.html
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Juveniles Since Biblical Times Children Have Been

Words: 1748 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9544807

Juveniles

Since biblical times, children have been mentioned and admonished about social transgressions. The first man and woman, according to the Christian Holy Bible suggest that Adam and Eve, both children of God, were in trouble from the outset; the consequences were dire with no "out" such as rehabilitation. Today, of course, we see that rehabilitation is the primary focus for children's behaviors. Further, social attitudes toward children differ around the world in various cultures. These attitudes have changed over time, of course. The purpose of this paper is to detail differences in perception of children throughout history, with a particular emphasis in the periods between 1824-1960 and, in contrast the "modern" period after 1960.

The age at which children are considered responsible for their own actions (e.g., marriage, voting, etc.) has also changed over time, and this is reflected in the way they are treated in courts of law.…… [Read More]

References:

 http://law.jrank.org/pages/12069/Juvenile-Justice-Changing-social-attitudes-toward-children.html 

Melchiorre, A. (2004) At What Age?...are school-children employed, married and taken to court? Retrieved from:  http://www.right-to-education.org/node/53 

Rachel K. Jones and April Brayfield, Life's greatest joy?: European attitudes toward the centrality of children. Social Forces, Vol. 75, No. 4, Jun 1997. 1,239-69 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Akers, R.L. (1973). Law and Control in Society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
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Juveniles in Adult Incarceration Facilities

Words: 1568 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95514071

In addition, the threat of being placed in an adult facility not only doesn't lower crime rates among juveniles, but increases their chances of recidivism and violent behavior (Elikann, 1999). As one critic of the current laws stated: "This country's laws recognize that juveniles are too young to drink alcohol, vote, engage in legal contracts and enter into marriage, all because they are still developing mentally and emotionally" (Bilchik, 2003). Yet today, approximately 200,000 young offenders are funneled directly into the adult court system, "the majority for property crimes and drug-related offenses" (Bilchik, 2003). Sadly, while there are situations in which even an adolescent is a "lost cause" and must be kept locked away, the great majority of cases in which juveniles are tried as adults are unnecessary and unwise (Elikann, 1999). Granted, the juvenile justice system is overloaded and needs to change, but channeling children into the adult system…… [Read More]

References

Biden, J. (2). Attacking Youth Violence. Criminal Justice Ethics, 17 (1), 1998.

Bilchik, S. (2003). Sentencing Juveniles to Adult Facilities Fails Youths and Society. Corrections Today, 65 (2), 21.

Elikann, P. (1999). Superpredators: The Demonization of Our Children by the Law. Reading, MA: Perseus.

Feld, B. (1997). Abolish the Juvenile Court: Youthfulness, Criminal Responsibility, and Sentencing Policy. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 88 (1), 68-136.
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Juveniles & Justice Is it

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38463361

, 1914, p. 500).

Meanwhile when the state asserts control over the child due to his non-criminal behavior that governmental intervention supports parens patriae, Siegel maintains. (Parens patriae in Latin means "substitute parent"; its been the court's prerogative to intervene in cases where through no fault of his own a child has been neglected or is dependent, Alarid, et al., explains on page 326). States' intervention supports parens patriae simply because state courts believe -- and they assume without really knowing for certain -- that status offender is in his best interests (Siegel, 17). Approximately 150,000 under age youths (technically children) are sent to juvenile court as "status offenders" every year, Siegel explains (17). This policy takes due process and throws it out the window, just because the individual is under age.

The U.S. Congress passed the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act in 1974, which provides funds to make…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alarid, Leanne Fiftal, and Del Carmen, Rolando V. (2010). Community-Based Corrections.

Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.

McLaughlin, Andrew Cunningham, and Hart, Albert Bushnell. (1914). Cyclopedia of American

Government, Volume 1. Emeryville, CA: D. Appleton and Company.
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Juvenile Delinquency Has Long Plagued

Words: 1015 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29069253

In this form of punishment, authorities find infractions, encourage compliance and reward or punish and take away rights depending on the individual's response. In 1957, Fritz edl and David Wineman (as cited in Vander Ven, 2009) wrote about another approach in their book, the Aggressive Child, which proved to be much more successful at their juvenile residence Pioneer House. However, for various reasons, their methodology never received much of a following (Vander Ven, 2009).

Now, residential institutions are revisiting edl and Wineman's approach, which has greater credibility due to insights in the behavioral sciences over the past several decades. The distinction between typical youth and those who hate and are filled with anger, say edl and Wineman, is that while neither always behave perfectly, typical children will respond to interventions that remind them of what is good behavior. However, even these "normal" children under certain types of stress may not…… [Read More]

References

Edmondson, V.C. (2009) a new business: redirecting Black youth from the illegal economy

Reclaiming Children and Youth 18(3), 16-21 Hide details

Edwards, D.M. (2002). From illegal to legitimate professions: Alternatives to low-wage employment. UAB McNair Chronicle 3, 42-47.

Peterson, S.B. (2009) Made in America: the Global Youth Justice Movement: with more than 1,200 local youth and teen court programs in America -- Europe, Australia, Asia, and Canada are now implementing this model to harness the positive peer influence of youth volunteers to reduce juvenile crime. Reclaiming Children and Youth 18 (2), 48-53
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Juveniles as Adults When a

Words: 3421 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94721016

However, the prosecutor is not the only person who can seek a transfer. Juvenile court judges can also begin transfer proceedings (Michon, 2012). Furthermore, in some states there are automatic transfer laws, which require that juveniles over a certain age be tried as adults when they commit specific crimes, usually violent crimes like rape or murder. In states without automatic transfer laws, the defendant is entitled to a hearing prior to being transferred. At this hearing, which is known as the waiver hearing, fitness hearing, or certification hearing, the prosecutor has to show probable cause that the defendant committed the crime (Michon, 2012).

Establishing probable cause is only the first step in the waiver process. Once probable cause is established, it becomes the court's duty to determine whether the juvenile is likely to be rehabilitated. This is the most difficult part of the determination because it involves predicting the future…… [Read More]

References

Applegate, B., King Davis, R., & Cullen, F. (2009). Reconsidering child saving: The extent and correlates of public support for excluding youths from the juvenile court. Crime & Delinquency, 55(1), 51-77.

Fristsch, E., Caeti, T., & Hemmens, C. (1996). Spare the needle but not the punishment: The

incarceration of waived youth in Texas prisons. Crime and Delinquency, 42(4), 593-609.

Jordan, K., & Myers, D. (2007). The decertification of transferred youth: Examining the determinants of reverse waiver. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 5(2), 188-206.
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Juvenile Offenders' Ability to Understand Their Legal

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28498517

juvenile offenders' ability to understand their legal rights and one issue related to their ability to participate effectively in their own defense.

Ability to understand legal rights: Competency

Ability to participate effectively in their own defense: Treating juveniles differently

According to U.S. criminal law, part of the right to counsel includes the notion that a defendant must be able to participate in his or her defense (Sandborn 2009: 137). However, schizophrenics, persons with low IQ, and many other individuals who might seem otherwise unable to discern right from wrong have been found competent to assist in their own defense, even persons later found to be insane. The question of juvenile competency is particularly vexing given that juveniles have an innately 'different' status under the law. The focus of the juvenile justice system is rehabilitation, and to a lesser extent, restitution, while the focus of the adult justice system is usually…… [Read More]

Juveniles in the juvenile justice system often lack an understanding of Miranda Rights. This is the first contact most juveniles have with the legal system. Empirical studies investigating juveniles' comprehension of the Miranda warning indicate that they tend not to understand the warnings, which has significant implications for a " knowing and intelligent" waiver of such rights under the totality of circumstances test (Colwell, 2005).

According to Erik Erikson, normal psychosocial development includes the development of trust (birth to 12 months), autonomy (1 to 2 years), initiative (3 to 5 years), industry, identity (12 to 18 years), intimacy, generativity, and ego integrity (60s and above) (Crain, 2011). Development begins in infancy and progresses as the infantile ego interacts with the environment (Crain, 2011). In order for a child to progress from one stage to another requires full mastery of the previous stage. Attributes of autonomy in psychosocial maturity are self-reliance, work orientation, and identity (Greenberger, 1984). Attributes of social responsibility are social commitment, openness to sociopolitical change, and tolerance of individual and cultural differences (Greenberger, 1984).

When evaluating psychosocial maturity, juvenile justice professionals must be able to full understand the juvenile. Examples of questions a professional might ask include: Do you accept responsibility without being reminded or pressured? Are you sympathetic and responsive to what others need? Do you cope with change? Do you show confidence to handle situations that come
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Juvenile Offenders and Reoffending

Words: 11154 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46175369

elevance

Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are an important problem facing the United States criminal justice system. For more than one hundred years, states held the belief that the juvenile justice system acted as a vehicle to safeguard the public via offering a structure that enables the rehabilitation of children growing into adulthood. States identified the difference of children committing crimes versus adult offenders (Loeber & Farrington, 2012). For example, the states saw them as less blameworthy with a higher capacity for longstanding, true change. Therefore, states have founded a distinct court system especially for the handling and rehabilitation of juvenile offenders along with a separate and different youth-based service delivery system that offers additional aid not found in the adult justice system.

The juvenile justice system offers the study of criminal justice an important area to develop proper rehabilitation techniques that will help juvenile offenders and reoffenders find a means…… [Read More]

References

Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204012440107

Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012

Burfeind, J. & Bartusch, D. (2015). Juvenile delinquency (p. 158). Routledge.

Cale, J., Smallbone, S., Rayment-Mchugh, S., & Dowling, C. (2015). Offense Trajectories, the Unfolding of Sexual and Non-Sexual Criminal Activity, and Sex Offense Characteristics of Adolescent Sex Offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal Of Research And Treatment. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1079063215580968
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Juvenile Recidivism Rates and Analysis

Words: 12874 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40811758

Dugan: Should be on its own page.

Juvenile recidivism is a prevalent problem in the criminal justice system. Tackling reoffending remains a complex task requiring several strategies and aims. It involves research, acknowledgement of causes, factors, exploration, and evaluation of subgroups to generate long-term, positive changes in the lives of juvenile offenders. From gang violence to Interactive, Constructive, Active, and Passive (ICAP), researchers discover some of the reasons why juveniles reoffend and the kinds of intervention methods that may help or worsen the problem of juvenile recidivism. Intervention philosophies like surveillance, discipline, close monitoring may increase recidivism rates. estorative programs, counseling, skill building programs, as well as multiple coordinated services decrease recidivism rates. Comment by Max Dugan: I would put evaluation at the end of the list vs. first. Comment by Max Dugan: Need to spell out all acronyms before using in APA format.

elevance

Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are…… [Read More]

References

Aalsma, M., White, L., Lau, K., Perkins, A., Monahan, P., & Grisso, T. (2015). Behavioral Health Care Needs, Detention-Based Care, and Criminal Recidivism at Community Reentry From Juvenile Detention: A Multisite Survival Curve Analysis. American Journal Of Public Health, 105(7), 1372-1378. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2014.302529

Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204012440107

Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012

Bates, K. & Swan, R. (2013). Juvenile delinquency in a diverse society (1st ed.). SAGE Publications.
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Juvenile Delinquency Criminal Justice

Words: 1380 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15443616

Criminal Justice: Juvenile Delinquency

Juvenile delinquency is described as the participation of minors, usually under the legal age of 18, in criminal activities. Cases of juvenile delinquency have increased at an alarming rate in recent years. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, OJJDP (2015), juveniles under the age of 18 are responsible for about 10% of all homicides. In the period between 1990 and 2003, violent crimes by juveniles declined significantly - but after 2003, the previous trend continued and about 30% of murder crimes were attributed to delinquency. Today, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) incarcerates more than 33000 minors under the age of 18 for different criminal offenses (OJJDP, 2015). The fight against juvenile delinquency is often inconvenienced by recidivism. ecidivism occurs when juvenile offenders relapse back to their criminal ways after they are released from residential care. Majority of juvenile offenders are rearrested…… [Read More]

References

Burfeinf, J.W & Bartusch, D. (2011). Juvenile Delinquency: An Integrated Approach. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC.

National Institute of Justice (2015). Formal System Processing for Juveniles. Crime solutions. Retrieved 6 February 2015 from https://www.crimesolutions.gov/PracticeDetails.aspx?ID=9

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2015). Juvenile Justice System Structure and Process. Office of Justice Programs. Retrieved 6 February 2015 from http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/structure_process/index.html

Welsh, B. C & Siegel, L. J (2015). Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Practice, and Law. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
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Juvenile Courts

Words: 1459 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63160490

Juveniles as Adults: Pros and Cons

Severe and continuing juvenile offenders are progressively being tried as adults in criminal court all over the country. These juveniles face incarcerations in adult correctional facilities and the dangers that come from being with an adult criminal population. This type of movement poses significant inquiries for policy makers. To what degree do trials in criminal courts and imprisonment in adult reformatories endorse or hinder community security and the answerability and reintegration of juvenile offenders? This research paper deliberates on the legal consequences of adjudication in criminal court and offers a comprehensive review of research discoveries on the preventive effects of transfer laws, sentencing patterns and conviction and recidivism rates in juvenile as opposed to criminal courts, and programming and conditions in juvenile as opposed to adult correctional facilities. The pros and cons of trying juveniles as adults are discussed along with the evidence to…… [Read More]

References

Bartol, C.R., & Bartol, A.M. (2011). Chapter 6 Consulting with Juvenile and Civil Courts. Introduction to forensic psychology (3 ed., pp. 187-219). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Cooper, D.K. (1997). Juveniles' understanding of trial-related information: are they competent defendants?. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 15(2), 167-180.

NCIDS. (n.d.). Chapter 3: Juvenile Court Jurisdiction and Parties to Juvenile Proceedings. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from http://www.ncids.org/other%20manuals/JuvDefenderManual/JuvenileDefBook_03.pdf

Ojo, M., & Olufemi, D. (2012). A SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW OF ISSUES ON JUVENILE DELINQUENCY. Journal of International Social Research, 5(21), 468-482.
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Juvenile Delinquency Drug Crimes

Words: 9197 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69293543

Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes

Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will summarize existing literature about programs designed to prevent the juvenile drug-crime cycle and, based on that literature, identify interventions that offer the best chances for success. This paper will also provide guidelines and recommendations for developing a comprehensive juvenile justice system that can best address the needs of juvenile offenders involved with drug crimes.

This thesis is expected to make a contribution to the selection of successful interventions and the development of collaborative partnerships in the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other agencies as they attempt to break the cycle of drugs and crime afflicting U.S. juveniles.

Introduction

With the prevalence of drug crimes among juveniles and the complexity involved in their treatment, which must involve both the child…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abuse and Dependence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 5 (1): 201-211.

Allison, M., and Hubbard, R.L. (1985). Drug abuse treatment process: A review of the literature. International Journal of the Addictions 20:13211345.

Anglin, M.D., and Hser, Y. (1990). Treatment of drug abuse. In Drugs and Crime, vol. 13, edited by M. Tonry and J.Q. Wilson. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Ball, J.C., Rosen, J.A., Flueck, J.A., and Nurco, D.N. (1981). The criminality of heroin addicts: When addicted and when off opiates. In The Drugs-Crime Connection, edited by J.A. Inciardi. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
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Juvenile Delinquency and Crime's Impact

Words: 2126 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83690595

Crime and Its Impact on Youth

Crime impacts children differently than it does adults. This paper examines the differences and the reasons children are affected uniquely by crime. It looks in particularly at the multiple theories that can be used to explain these impacts, such as Strain Theory and Social Control Theory. It also identifies the unique challenges that children and adults face as they struggle to cope both with the environments in which they live and the criminal justice systems that confront them. The paper concludes that children are uniquely impacted by crime because they are still in their developmental stage, wherein their psychology and physicality are still highly susceptible to external influences.

Introduction

Children suffer from the effects of crime in different ways from adults. This is primarily due to the fact that children are still developing, both cognitively and physically, whereas adults are already developed. Crime thus…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, R. (2008). Strain Theory. In V. Parrillo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social problems.

(pp. 904-906). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Barrett, D., Ju, S., Katsiyannis, A., Zhang, D. (2015). Females in the juvenile justice system: influences on delinquency and recidivism. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24: 427-433.

Benns, W. (2015). American Slavery, Reinvented. The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/09/prison-labor-in-america/406177/