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This notion was reinforced during her second marriage. After her son died, again because of the societal expectations, she had to remarry. It would not be good to be a single woman at her age. She however, did not want to be put into a marriage, so instead she decided to choose her husband. The shock was not necessarily in the choosing of a husband, it was in the person chosen. He was poor and from a lower social class. Giovanna however, had the last word, and she married her second husband and was rich because of the money her first husband had left her. The Wife of Bath's marriage was essentially what ended up defining her true person. She was perceived as an old hag and her husband did not want to marry her to begin with. However, because of their agreement, he had an obligation to. Because of…
King Arthur's formation of the Knights of the ound Table, his association with the wise Merlin, and the Guinevere-Lancelot are all fairly well-known elements of King Arthur's story that help to exemplify his heroism in the Anglo-Saxon conception of the term, but more than this Arthur was initially remembered and revered for helping to end in fighting between various war lords and factions that existed in the British Isles after the end of the oman Empire (Levin 1994). It was Arthur's battle prowess and his righteous dedication to a cause that enabled him to succeed in what was ultimately a highly militaristic endeavor, but it was his political savvy and wisdom as well as his humility that actually allowed him to unify a country of disparate families that could not see their common interests (Levin 1994). It is because of King Arthur's prowess as a leader both on and off…
John, E. (1996). Reassessing Anglo-Saxon England. Manchester: Manchester University
Levin, A. (1994). King Arthur's Death in Legend, History and Literature. Stevens Institute
of Technology Castle Point on the Hudson. Accessed 14 June 2011.
Many readers, even hundred of years ago, did not take the tale of King Arthur as "pure fiction" (15) and Ashe asserts that these readers were "more right than wrong" (15) in their assumptions. It is likely the story is true in some respects. In many ways, the man was a hero larger than life, which makes many skeptics call into question his existence. Ashe states that many even believed Arthur was a god, "euhemerized as a human warrior" (Ashe Origins). Many scholars believe a king by the name of Arthur actually did exist but they also acknowledge that many of the grandiose stories attached to him are romanticized. However, there seems to be enough factual history to satisfy most scholars that Arthur did exist.
In regard to the mythical Arthur, Ashe notes that because the figure has been romanticized, does not mean the figure cannot exist. He points to…
Ashe, Geoffery. The Discovery of King Arthur. New York: Anchor Press. 1985.
-. "The Origins of the Arthurian Legend." Arthuriana: The Origins of the Arthurian Legend." February 7, 2011. Web. http://www.arthuriana.org/
Brynjulfson, Sheila. "Questing for the Historical Arthur, King of Britons." February 7, 2011.
King Uther married Igraine and they had a son named Arthur. He was born at Tintagel Castle.
This was a very dangerous time and attacks by Saxons happened a lot. So King Uther gave his baby son to his wizard, Merlin, for safety.
Merlin sent Arthur away to be raised in the countryside by Sir Ector. He grew up with his foster brother, Kay. He never knew who his real parents were.
The Sword in the Stone
When King Uther died, no-one knew he had a son. So there was lots of arguing about who should be High-King of ritain.
Suddenly a mysterious stone magically appeared in the churchyard of St. Paul's Cathedral in London. Sticking out of it was a huge sword. There was a message on it. It said that whoever pulled the sword from the stone was the rightful High-King of ritain.
Lots of the local kings…
Geoffrey of Monmouth. History of the Kings of Britain. C. 1137.
Life of King Arthur. http://www.timelessmyths.com/arthurian/lifearthur.html#Constantine
EBK for Kids Online
.. [their] art is distinguished for its extensive curves and intricate knot work which is used to form complex decorations for weapons, jewelry and body tattooing." (Crystalinks) it seems that Guinevere is actually wearing a good deal more than one would expect from a Celtic warrior, and her knotty outfit is fitting. However, critics are fair in complaining that she might perhaps be wearing a bit too little for the weather. Speaking of minor inconsistencies, it seems a bit odd that Guinevere's broken hands heal almost overnight - and subsequently don't interfere with her shooting.
Guinevere's clothing and hands are not the only thing critics point to; they also suggest that she is being presented in a historically inaccurate way as a female warrior. In many movies it may be true that women are ahistorically buffed up - however, this is not necessarily one of those cases. While the historical…
Britannia. "King Arthur: What do Modern Historians Think of Him?" Britannia. available at http://www.britannia.com/history/historan.html
Crystalinks. "The Celts" Crystalinks. [online mythology database] available at http://www.crystalinks.com/celts.html
Davey, John. "Celtic Britain: Now Just Who Was Arthur?" available at http://www.kessler-web.co.uk/History/FeaturesBritain/BritishArthurWho.htm
Ford, David Nasj. "Early References to a real King Arthur." Early British Kingdoms. available at http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/arthur/karef.html
Death of King Arthur (La Mort le OI Artu) is not just one of many Medieval tales about the legendary King and his knights, some claim it is the best. It is actually the third part of a much larger work which also includes Lancelot, the Quest for the Holy Grail, and of course, The Death of King Arthur. The first two parts of the story deal with Arthur's establishment of his kingdom, the formation of the ound Table, and the quest for the Holy Grail. The final part of the story deals with the aftermath of the quest, the betrayal of the King by Lancelot and Guinevere, and the final battle on the plains of Salisbury; which results in the death of King Arthur. Throughout the tale the theme of religion plays an important part in the story, from Arthur's insistence that his knights swear to uphold the teachings…
Cable, James. (Trans). (1971) The Death of King Arthur. London: Penguin.
To most readers of his works in the 21st century, Mark Twain is probably best known as a humorist. He is someone who, by the deft use of language, entertainingly offbeat characters and the more-than-occasional plot twist can keep us reading and laughing to the end. But of course he was in fact far more than simply a humorist. His work - from short stories like "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" to novels like Huckleberry Finn and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court - was as much social commentary and an attempt to right the wrongs of the world that he saw around him as it was any attempt to make people laugh. This paper examines the ways in which Twain used wit, repartee and an engaging cast of characters in Connecticut Yankee to make a strong statement against imperialism.
hile some of Twain's work…
Anderson, Kenneth. "The Ending of Mark Twain's Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court." Mark Twain Journal 14 (Summer 1969): 21.
Anderson, Kenneth. "Mark Twain, W.D. Howells, and Henry James: Three Agnostics in Search of Salvation." Mark Twain Journal 15 (Winter 1970): 13-16.
Carter, Everett. "The Meaning of 'A Connecticut Yankee'. In A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court. New York: Norton.
Foner, Philip S. Mark Twain: Social Critic. New York: International Publishers, 1958.
Gilgamesh, Beowulf, And Young Goodman Brown
The relationship between male figures in stories such as The Epic of Gilgamesh, Beowulf, both by anonymous writers, and "Young Goodman Brown" by Nathaniel Hawthorne not only highlight the importance of male bonds in literature and across cultures, but also help to provide balance and guidance to titular figures. Each of these stories depicts a journey, enlightenment, and transformation, which help to drive the story forward.
In The Epic of Gilgamesh, the relationship that is formed between Gilgamesh and Enkidu is one of a kind and necessary for the continued existence of Uruk. At the beginning of the epic, Gilgamesh was considered to be a tyrant. The men of Uruk claim,
Gilgamesh sounds the tocsin for his amusement, his arrogance has no bounds by day or night. No son is left with his father, for Gilgamesh takes them all, even the children; yet the…
Arthur's dream of Mordred's treachery, and its implications for the overall King Arthur myth.
Arthur's Dream of Mordred's Treachery
The legend of King Arthur is full of various significant dreams and their interpretations. Celtic history, of which the King Arthur legend is a part, placed a huge emphasis on the meanings of dreams. Dreams were taken very seriously, and often professional dream interpreters were employed in order to divine the true meaning of dreams. In the King Arthur legend, dreams turn out to be very significant and symbolic for Arthur. One of the most important symbolic dreams that Arthur has is his dream of the treachery of his son/nephew, Mordred. Mordred was Arthur's son by his half-sister, Morgaine. Arthur knew nothing of Mordred's existence until Mordred himself was an adult. However, Arthur does have a symbolic dream after inadvertently sleeping with his half-sister, right at the moment that Mordred is…
American Dream" in Arthur Miller's "Death of a Salesman" with References to Mark Twain and Henry Thoreau
Arthur Miller's play entitled "Death of a Salesman" is a story about a man who has created a conflict with his family because of his great belief in the American Dream. Willy Loman, the main character in the story, makes a living by being a salesman, and the story revolves around his frustrations in life, particularly the strain in his relationship with his eldest son, iff Loman. Willy's frustrations stems from the fact that iff was not able to have a permanent and stable job, and is often fired from work because of some petty offense or misconduct on his son's part. Willy always insist that his son iff must develop relations with other people, and he must also have charisma and the ability to interact with them in order to achieve prosperity…
Miller, Arthur. "Death of a Salesman." New York: Penguin Books USA Inc. 1949: 137-8.
Thoreau, Henry. E- text of "Walden: Part I, Economy." American Transcendentalism Web site. 15 November 2002 http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/webtexts/walden/chapter01a.html .
Twain, Mark. "A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court." New York: Penguin Books USA Inc. 61, 303.
And the historic facts of those tribes (the amphictyon, twelve clans that rotate the functions of the priest so that each clan has those duties for one month of the year) may have been used by Spenser to build his knight's story around in a sense.
Because meanwhile, the knights in Spenser's tale seem to "...rotate the service of virtue from legend to legend, which the stationless and free-lance Arthur functions once in each of their legends in their stead - like an itinerant Levite" (Nohrnberg, p. 39).
Meanwhile, Arthur is often the right man at the right time: "When the rightful exponent of any virtue in its normal functioning is helpless or elsewhere, it is the moment for Arthur, the helper from heaven" (Parker, 1960). When the Salvage Man has gone past the limits he can deal with, along comes Arthur along that forest path, to help.
Nohrnberg, James. The Analogy of the Faerie Queene. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976.
Parker, Pauline M. The Allegory of the Faerie Queene. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1960.
Spenser, Edmund. Faerie Queene, Book I. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1896.
No other hero is so frequently mentioned. He is the only person so important that triads are enlarged into tetrads to fit him in. (Ashe 45)
The account that did the most to establish Arthur as a prominent historical figure was the History of the Kings of Britain written in 1135 by Geoffrey of Monmouth, a elsh monk, and the book provides a history of the earliest kings of Britain, some 99 in all, including King Coel, known to us today from the nursery rhyme as Old King Cole. About one-fifth of the book is devoted to Arthur, and Geoffrey provides the first organized version of the story. Many of the elements that would be part of the later tradition were missing, however. Arthur's court is not at Camelot but at a place called Caerlon-on-Usk, or City of Legions. Geoffrey contributed at least three new elements to the existing histories…
Ashe, Geoffrey. "The Arthurian Fact." The Quest for Arthur's Britain, Geoffrey Ashe (ed.). Chicago: Academy Chicago Publishers, 1987.
Beowulf. Library of the Future CD-Rom, 4th Edition. Irvine: World Library, 1996.
Capellanus, Andreas, the Art of Courtly Love. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.
Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales. New York: Holt, 1963.
Love Triangle Story Lines of Lancelot, Arthur and Guenivere to Tristram, King Mark and Isolde from Malory's Morte Darthur
hen Melanie McGarrahan Gibson says of the "Tale of Sir Gareth" in Sir Thomas Malory's Morte Darthur that "in the happiest ending of all of Morlay's tales, love and marriage triumph" (Gibson 220), she is touching on more than just the wholesome and happy nature of the tale. Though unique in its existence as the "happiest of all of Malory's tales," it is reprehensive of a larger problem within Malory's narrative scheme. The tale itself is one of the steady progresses. After overcoming all obstacles, love and marriage win in the end. This is a romantic sentiment and perhaps it is true to some extent.
The purpose of current research paper is to analysis the two dominant love triangle storylines in Morte Darthur i.e. between Lancelot-Queen Guinevere- Arthur and love triangle…
Archibald, E. "Lancelot of the Laik: Sources, Genre, Reception, the Scots and Medieval Arthurian Legend Ed. R. Purdie and N. Royan." Cambridge: Brewer, 2005. 71-82.
Dobbin M.W. "The Women of Malory's -- Morte Darthur -- ," Ph. D. Diss., Athens, University of Georgia. 1987
Duby, G. The Courtly Model, in C. Klapisch-Zuber, ed., "A History of Women. Silence of the Middle Ages," Cambridge (Mass.), Harvard University, 1992 pp. 250 -- 266.
Greenwood, M.K., "Women in Love, or Three Courtly Heroines in Chaucer and Malory: Elaine, Criseyde and Guinevere," in A Wyf There Was. Essays in Honour of Paule Mertens-Fonck, ed. J. Dor, Liege, Liege Language and Literature, 1992 pp. 167-177.
" It is she who meets with Arthur and brings him to the rescue of her Knight.
But although he is good and true, the Red Cross night is not perfect, he can be defeated without help from God and the name of Arthur who represents England's great past, and the vision of his queen. Significantly, Arthur's glory and victory over Orgoglio comes not through military might, but through showing the evil giant his shield, which blinds Orgoglio with its goodness, shining like a mirrored diamond of purity and a vision of true faith. The victory of Arthur thus is of right, not simply of might, and a connection between Elizabeth, her Red Knight, and England's glory days of yore and true faith. Arthur's victory shows that England's past was not Catholic, but pre-Catholic, an England of a purer faith that Elizabeth seeks to restore as England's…
Book II: "The Queen of Air and Darkness,"
Morgause raises four boys. She is not a good mother, and she does not give her boys a sense of right and wrong. She often ignores them for days at a time and beats them when they displease her. She acts as if they were pets rather than human beings, to be loved or not at her convenience. But despite this common maltreatment, the boys turn out very differently. Gawaine is the oldest of the boys and in many ways the most normal. He becomes a knight in Arthur's court, fighting for him loyally. The way in which he is affected by his upbringing is his rages. When provoked Gawaine goes into a berserk rage in which he does things he would normally never do. The next child, Agravaine, is probably the least well-adjusted of the four. He…
Sophocles writes, "Tiresias: That's your truth? Now hear mine: honor the curse your own mouth spoke. From this day on, don't speak to me or to your people here. You are the plague. You poison your own land" (Sophocles, 2004, p. 47). Each of these men has positive qualities, but their tragic flaw outweighs these qualities, and leads to pity and their downfall in the end. In addition, their tragic ends have tragic consequences on those around them, which is another element these two works have in common.
It is interesting to see the similarities in the plotting of these dramas as well. Essentially, they follow the tragic character from a turning point in their lives to the culmination of their problems and how they choose to face them. Their families and loved ones are left behind to sort out their lives without them, while they take the "easy" way…
Miller, Arthur. (1962). Death of a salesman. Masters of Modern Drama. Haskell M. Block and Robert G. Shedd, ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Miller, Arthur. (2005). Tragedy and the common man. Retrieved from the Virginia Community College System Web site: http://vccslitonline.cc.va.us/tragedy/milleressay.htm24 Feb. 2007.
Palmer, R.H. (1992). Tragedy and tragic theory: An analytical guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Sophocles. (2004). The Oedipus plays of Sophocles: Oedipus the king, Oedipus at Kolonos, and Antigone (Bagg, R., Trans.). Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
Frankenstein and the Once and Future King are similar in respects of secrecy that ended in destruction. Victor Frankenstein's secrecy was with his science. He believed that science was full of secrets and when they were revealed they were to be kept secret. Arthur's lineage was filled with secrecy in affairs that he inherited and even had an affair of his own. Arthur also kept the affairs of others secret. The secrecy in both tales brought destruction in the end to the point of death.
'Victor's secrecy caused him to be alienated from any social society; including people he loved (Shelley, 2003). He lived in isolation exploring the science of making the creature and bringing it to life. Once the monster was made and alive, he still kept the secret until the end. The monster had haunted him and murdered his entire family, all the people he loved. Victor only…
Shelley, M. (2003). Frankenstein. New York, NY: Barnes & Noble Classics.
White, T.H. (n.d.). The Once and Future King. Retrieved from Spark Notes: http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/futureking/themes.html
In works of fiction, the hero's journey will always be fraught with danger. He will not only have to overcome his own shortcomings, but will also encounter individuals who hope to impede his journey and prevent him from accomplishing his goals or individuals who will help them overcome their obstacles and succeed. Literature throughout history and literature that transcends cultures exhibit this same proclivity. Each component of the hero's journey, beginning with his quest, his initiation into the situation which will lead to his development, his separation from his origin, and finally his transformation at the end of the story is heavily dictated by the attention and communication he receives from the other male character. The stories "Young Goodman Brown," The Epic of Gilgamesh, Beowulf, and "The Legend of King Arthur" all show pairings of male characters, the protagonist and another male figure who either acts as an…
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown." 1854.
Hinds, Gareth. Beowulf. Cambridge, MA: Candlewick, 2007. Print.
"King Arthur, and the Legend of the Knights of the Round Table." N.p., n.d.
Sanders, N.K. The Epic of Gilgamesh: an English Version with an Introduction. New York, NY:
Oddly enough, Twain's simple, homespun character seems to believe what people say about his genius, eventually, as people treat him with awe. He uses his power to create industry and to mimic the life he knew in America. He says he: "was pretty well satisfied with what I had already accomplished. In various quiet nooks and corners I had the beginnings of all sorts of industries under way -- nuclei of future vast factories, the iron and steel missionaries of my future civilization" (Chapter 10). Twain satirizes both the medieval peoples' ignorance, but also the Yankee inability to conceive of a better or different world than American industrial, mechanized life.
The lessons of the satire are twofold -- first of all, the dangers of ignorance and the refusal to progress in knowledge and understanding, exemplified by the superstitions of Camelot. but, as so many of the traditions and beliefs of…
Twain, Mark. A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court. Complete E-Text available at Literature.org. 1 May 2007. http://www.literature.org/authors/twain-mark/connecticut
The French tradition of the Arthurian legends, however, are far less overtly political in their approach to the tales and to Guinevere in particular, and though politics and loyalties are still important elements of these stories the aspects of romance, love, and sexuality are far more prominent. Beginning with the poet Chretien de Troyes, Guinevere began to take on a more active role that at once justifies the feminine and begins to suggest the degradation and un-holiness of the female body and intent. Though Man might still be the more active and potent partner, Woman can corrupt and influence Man, these tales suggest, and the character of Guinevere seems a brand new creation given her immensely increased prominence when compared to all known earlier forms of the legends (Fulton, 3).
Erec and Enide is the tale of one of Arthur's knights and the peasant maid he loves and marries, but…
Bruce, J. Douglas. The Development of Arthurian Romance in Medieval France. The Sewanee Review 13(3)(1905): 319-35.
Chretien de Troyes. Erec and Enide. Accessed 5 June 2012. http://omacl.org/Erec/
Chretien de Troyes. Lancelot or, the Knight of the Cart. Accessed 5 Juen 2012. http://omacl.org/Lancelot/
Fulton, Helen. A Woman's Place. Quondam et Futurus 3(2)(1993): 1-25.
However, because of Gilgamesh's thought that he may be invincible, he is actually putting his friend's life at risk by going on his adventure. In his attempt to prove that he is brave and that he would rather die for a cause, he actually indirectly causes the death of Enkidu, who shows that he was the stronger of the two.
5) Defining Honor
Honor is a characteristic that few individuals posses. It is a special type of distinguishing factor, that although many attempt to have, very few actually embrace it to its full meaning. Honor entails pride and personal excellence. It is fully believing in an action or an entity that represents something very important to the self and to those around. To me, honor is being able to stand up for your beliefs despite the opinion of others.
Honor in society can actually be viewed in two ways, depending…
Bad Experience ith a Priest:
comparison of the Catholicism aspects in Scott's Ivanhoe and Twain's a Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
In reading Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, one cannot deny that the blame for the collapse of Hank's new civilization falls on the Church. Throughout the novel, Twain paints a negative image of the Church and its priests. This negative image can also be found in Sir alter Scott's Ivanhoe. Scott gives us characters such as the confused Templar and the misaligned Prior. Both writers have poor views of religion and this is evident in their unflattering portraits of the corrupt medieval church.
Scott's portrait of the Prior is not a very pleasant one. Nothing about him seems to be spiritual. hen we first meet him, his costume is basically appropriate for a priest, but it is said to be "composed of materials much…
Boston Literary World. 15 February 1890. University of Virginia. 10 March 2003. http://etext.virginia.edu/railton/yankee/cyboslw.html .
Chandler, Alice. "A Dream of Order." Lincoln: University of Nebraska press.
Church. 2003. Twainquotes. 10 March 2003. http://www.twainquotes.com/Church.html .
Clemens, Samuel Langhorne. "A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court." New York W.W. Norton & Company. (1982).
The question of how the knights may prove themselves as Christian men of might and lordly loyalty yet negotiate courtly love ethics is important to Malory, rather than the Camelot kingdom's ethics and laws as in Tennyson.
Also, the French tales adapted by Malory for his story were more fascinated and focused upon the character of the French Lancelot and Lancelot's relationship with Queen Guinevere. These were seen as embodying Christian courtly love ideals as well as being adulterous. The noble French Lancelot sacrifices all for the queen -- his sworn loyalty to his lord and king, his reputation, and even his faith in the divine in Malory. This is seen as somewhat sublime albeit foolhardy by the author Malory. But this act provokes mostly outrage and nationalist pride in Tennyson instead. Tennyson crafts poems that give greater significance to the coming of Arthur at the earlier parts of the…
"The body of a bloodied Christ is divinely displaced from its sepulcher" and transferred to the est, where it must regain its rightful place, symbolically making Christianity's ownership of Jerusalem rightful and just."
Allen, Charlotte. "The real grail tale," Belief Net, December 16, 2009.
Hughes, Linda K. "Reinventing King Arthur: The Arthurian Legends in Victorian
Culture." Victorian Studies, 48. 3 (April 1, 2006): 559-560. http://www.proquest.com / (accessed December 16, 2009).
Miesel, Sandra. "The real Holy Grail," Crisis Magazine, 2004. Accessed December 16, 2009
from Inside Catholic at http://insidecatholic.com/Joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6747&Itemid=48
hitman, J. "Transfers of Empire, Movements of Mind: Holy Sepulchre and Holy Grail." MLN,
123. 4 (September 1, 2008): 895-923,978. http://www.proquest.com / (accessed
December 16, 2009).
Charlotte Allen, "The real grail tale," Belief Net, December 16, 2009, p.2. http://www.beliefnet.com/Entertainment/Movies/The-Da-Vinci-Code/The-Real-Grail-Tale.aspx
Sandra Miesel, "The real Holy Grail," Crisis Magazine, 2004, Accessed December 16, 2009 from Inside Catholic at http://insidecatholic.com/Joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6747&Itemid=48
Allen, Charlotte. "The real grail tale," Belief Net, December 16, 2009.
Hughes, Linda K. "Reinventing King Arthur: The Arthurian Legends in Victorian
Culture." Victorian Studies, 48. 3 (April 1, 2006): 559-560. http://www.proquest.com / (accessed December 16, 2009).
Many of the other characters of the legend, such as Guinevere and Merlin are present in this film, as is the Sword in the Stone legend of Excalibur, Arthur's weapon (it was his father who removed it from the stone.
Ultimately, Arthur denounces his oman citizenship when he is disillusioned by the oman leaders and their activities, especially Bishop Germanius, and he joins the Woads to fight the Saxon Army that is attempting to gain control of Britain. In the end, many of his knights are killed in a ferocious battle, including Lancelot, and when the battle is over; Arthur has won and is declared king, with Guinevere by his side.
This film is so different from the traditional Arthur legend that is seems quite unlikely, but legends are often wrong, and so, the film could actually be based on historical fact, since new evidence comes out all the time…
King Arthur. Dir. Antoine Fuqua. Perf. Clive Owen, Keira Knightley. Touchstone Pictures, 2004.
Spartacus. Dir. Stanley Kubrick. Perf. Kirk Douglas, Jean Simmons, Tony Curtis. Universal Pictures, 1960.
The author of this report is asked to answer to a number of questions relating to the Dark Ages. Specifically, the author is asked to define what "Dark Ages" means. Second, the author is asked to ask how this society unwittingly paved the way for a preservation of literature and art from the classical era. In particular, the author is asked to identify how Ireland was instrumental in this re-emergence. Finally, there is to be a summation of the Arthurian legend and how modern ethics is driven in part by this literature and dynamic and a definition of chivalric code is also to be offered.
In terms of history, the Dark Ages is the millennia or so that followed the end of the oman Empire. It refers to the cultural and economic downfall that ostensibly happened in Western Europe after the oman Empire was reduced to…
Fordham. (2013, October 9). Internet History Sourcebooks. FORDHAM.EDU. Retrieved
October 9, 2013, from http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/roland-ohag.asp
MLT. (2013, October 9). Code of Chivalry. Medieval Life and Times. Retrieved October
9, 2013, from http://www.medieval-life-and-times.info/medieval-knights/code-of-chivalry.htm
He was a second round draft pick, but he just couldn't seem to connect with the Falcons. However, he never gave up on his dream to be a number one quarterback in the league. His fan web site notes, "You know the lyrics to the song 'I get knocked down, but I get up again - you're never gonna keep me down!'? Brett might not either, but he sure lives by those words" (Editors). In 1992, the Green Bay Packers traded a number one draft pick to take Favre, a move that many thought was totally crazy. However, in his first game, he went in for the injured first-string quarterback, and ended up leading the team to a nail-biting victory over the Cincinnati Bengals, 24-23. In that same year, he became the youngest quarterback ever to play in the Pro-Bowl (23). He took over the head quarterback position after the…
Beowulf. Trans. Charles W. Kennedy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Editors. "Bio." OfficialBrettFavre.com. 2008. 14 Feb. 2008. http://www.officialbrettfavre.com/bio/
Editors. "Brett Favre: The Person. BrettFavre.com. 2008. 14 Feb. 2008. http://220.127.116.11/person.php
Pearl Poet's Sir Gawain
The Arthurian Legends are one of the most mysterious of Middle English literature. For many years historians have tried to match King Arthur to one of the Early Kings of Britain, however, all attempts have met without success. It is now generally accepted that King Arthur and the other Knights of the Round table represent a composite of the behaviors and attitudes of people of that time period. The same can be said of the character of Sir Gawain in "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." As social attitudes changed, so do the ideal characteristics that exemplify virtue and purity. The character Sir Gawain appears in many versions of the Arthurian Legends. The characteristics and attitudes of Sir Gawain seem to shoe a shift over time. The most widely accepted version of the character of Sir Gawain is the version that is attributed to the poet…
Abrams, M.H. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1993.
Andrew, Malcolm, and Ronald Waldron, eds. The Poems of the Pearl Manuscript. 2d ed.
London: Arnold, 1982; Gordon, E.V., ed. Pearl. Oxford: Clarendon, 1953.
Bishop, Ian. Pearl in Its Setting- A Critical Study of the Structure and Meaning of the Middle English Poem. Oxford: Blackwell, 1968
Blues music however did not cross racial lines, with the majority of famous blues musicians still residing in New Orleans and various other well-known black music entertainment venues of the South.
Gospel music has been an African-American church tradition with influences from traditional African music and especially prevalent during the slavery era. Later (most likely because of those particular ignominious associations and all they implied, especially in the South) gospel music was strongly discouraged within mainstream society and actively suppressed.
Similarly, blues music represented a blending of black musical traditions with a centuries-long history originating from the earliest days of American slavery. Sammy Davis Jr. And Nat King Cole, were and remain today among the best-known of early black entertainers within the (then) up-and-coming rock 'n roll genre of the 1940's. Each had a heavy influence upon Elvis himself.
Obviously, though, the blending of Southern musical traditions was not started…
African-American Musical Tradition." (June 9, 1998). Retrieved January 9, 2007,
From: http://www.questia.com/html .
Bane, Michael. White Boy Singin' the Blues: The Black Roots of White Rock.
Harmondsworth, Eng: Penguin, 1982.
Comparing Sir Gawain to the archetype character of a knight, similar to the knights in King Arthur's court, he possesses characteristics that define and at the same time provide a humane side to his knightly stature. As the archetypal knight, Sir Gawain is similar to King Arthur's knights in that he possesses the brave and resolute attitude of an honorable knight. He had shown these qualities when he met the Green Knight at the Green Chapel for a duel, where the impending threat and doom of death did not hinder him from courageously accepting his enemy's proposal. Despite the feeling that danger awaits him, Gawain mustered enough courage to at least face the challenge ahead of him: " ... If I turned back now / Forsook this place for fear, and fled ... / I were a caitiff coward; I could not be excused." These lines tells us…
The wife's lie is revealed in "Bisclavet" because the inner humanity of the werewolf does shine through, albeit to another man. "This beast understands, feels like a man," says the king. (p.5) Ultimately, the king's friendship, a relationship forged in the male sphere of the hunt with Bisclavet is more meaningful and lasting than that of the marital bond, borne of a lie of concealment, first on the part of the man, then on the part of the woman. After the full truth is revealed and the werewolf becomes human again: "The king ran to hug him tight;/He kissed him a hundred times that day." (p.9) hen he learns that his friend is in fact a man, and also that the truth has set the man free, the king cannot restrain his lover-like affection. For the first time in the werewolf's life, the man has honest relationship that allows him…
De France, Marie. "Bisclavet." Translated by Judith P. Shoaf. 1991-96. [12 Oct 2006] http://web.english.ufl.edu/exemplaria/marie/bisclavret.pdf
De France, Marie. "Lanval." Translated by Judith P. Shoaf. 1991-96. [12 Oct 2006] http://web.english.ufl.edu/exemplaria/marie/lanval.pdf
Courtly Love -- the French Ethos Embodied in the Romantic Lancelot, and the English Ethos Embodied in the Dutiful Gawain
In many ways, the courtly love narratives of medieval chivalric romance were equally as formulaic as Hollywood romances today. The typical Hollywood romance is boy meets girl, boy loses girl, boy gets girl, while the typical courtly love scenario might be defined along the lines of knight pines for (married) lady, married lady pines for knight, knight does great deeds in the name of the unattainable lady, and both come to tragic ends. The French chivalric romance adopted many of the characters and conventions of the English tales of Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table, such as the thwarted love for the greatest and most loyal knight Lancelot for Arthur's queen Guinevere. But when the French chivalric genre, as exemplified Chretien de Troyes' Lancelot, "Knight of the Cart"…
De Troyes, Chretien. "The Knight of the Cart." Online Medieval and Classical library Electronic edition was edited, proofed, and prepared by Douglas B. Killings, 1996. http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/OMACL/Lancelot / [30 Apr 2005]
Malory, Sir Thomas. Le Morte D'Arthur: Sir Thomas Malory's Book of King Arthur and of his Noble Knights of the Round Table, Volumes 1 and 2. Bartleby.com, 2001.
http://www.bartleby.com/35/2 [30 Apr 2005]
She receives the wounded king after the last battle and offers to cure him if he remains long enough." (Rise, 2001) Because Christianity had such a difficult time "assimilating a benevolent enchantress," into Camelot's structure of tales, particularly a female outside of male religious spheres of power, Morgana "becomes more and more sinister," in later tales, and also more human in her jealousies and passionate wrangling in Camelot. (Rise, 2001)
In Malory's "Morte d'Arthur" for example, Morgana gives Excalibur to her lover Accolon so he can use it against Arthur. In the anonymous but still clearly Christian poem "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight" Morgana is presented as the instigator of the Green Knight's visit to Arthur's court, partly motivated by her desire to frighten the Queen. (Camelot Project, 2004) "Part of Christianity's failure to understand the character of Morgan was their misapplied versions of morality. They imposed a Judeo-Christian…
Mythical Realm. "Morgan le Fay." 2004. http://www.mythicalrealm.com/legends/morgan_le_fay.html [22 Mar 2004]
Morgan le Fay," Camelot Project at the University of Rochester. 2004. http://www.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/morgmenu.htm [22 Mar 2004]
Took, Thalia. "Morgana." 2004. http://www.thaliatook.com/morgana.html[22 Mar 2004]
Rise, Brian Edward. "Morgan le Fay.' Folklore Encyclopedia.
This includes the need to maintain chastity, a test Perceval passes when he "has a close call with sexual temptation: slipping into bed with a demon in alluringly feminine form, he is only saved when his glance falls on the red cross inscribed on his sword pommel. The 'lady' and her silk tent disappear in a flash and a puff of smoke, leaving the tell-tale sulphurous stench of hell. A distraught Perceval stabs himself through the left thigh in penance" (Kaeuper 258). Such ability to resist is the mark of a knight, though many of the stories also suggest that the knight often fails this test at some point and then has to do penance to make up for his failure.
hether the Grail derives from Christian ideas first or from Celtic images and stories, over time the idea of the Grail did become more associated with Christian symbols so…
Kaeuper, Richard W. Chivalry and Violence in Medieval Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Loomis, Roger Sheman. The Development of Arthurian Romance. London: Hutchinson University Library, 1963.
Edmund Spenser opens, prefaces, and introduces The Faerie Queen with a letter addressed to Sir alter Raleigh. In this letter, Spenser outlines his intention behind writing the epic poem, "hich For That It Giveth Great Light to The Reader." Spenser writes, "The generall end therefore of all the booke is to fashion a gentleman or noble person in vertuous and gentle discipline." To accomplish this goal, The Faerie Queen features "the historye of King Arthure, as most fitte for the excellency of his person, being made famous by many mens former workes, and also furthest from the daunger of envy, and suspition of present time." Spenser thus explains why The Faerie Queen alludes to the Arthurian legends; the hearkening to the past is no small accident. The author hopes to engender in the reader a sense of lofty ambition, hope, and courage that the Arthurian legend represents. In…
Jusserand, J.J. Spenser's "Twelve Private Morall Vertues as Aristotle Hath Devised" Modern Philology. Vol. 3 No. 3. 1906.
Nestrick, William V. "The Virtuous and Gentle Discipline of Gentlemen and Poets." ELH. Vol. 29, No. 4, 1962.
Neuse, Richard. "Book VI as Conclusion to The Faerie Queen." ELH. Vol. 35, No. 3. P. 329-353.
Spenser, Edmund. The Faerie Queen. 1589. Retrieved online: http://www.bartleby.com/39/14.html
unter and the unted:
Courtly Love and the Many Faces of the ero
Literature abounds in depictions of the hero.
Solomon, Esther, Gawain, and countless others call to mind tales of strength, valor, and passion. Whether a text's purpose is religious, instructional, or purely a matter of entertainment, a single character stands out. Emotion is often overpowering, as too, are the choices between what is right and what is wrong. Morality plays an equally important role in each of these "superhuman" stories. Frequently, the path of virtue is crossed by the highways of desire. A hero may take the high road, or he may take the low road, but which choice is correct depends upon the specific circumstances of the narrative, and upon the central figure's point-of-view. A bewildering array of problems, impossible tasks, and larger-than-life villains can turn closely-held beliefs inside out, and cause a hero to commit acts…
Heide Estes, "Bertilak Reads Brut: History and the Complications of Sexuality in Sir Gawain and the Green
Knight," Essays in Medieval Studies, 17, 72, Allen J. Frantzen, Ed. Illinois Medieval Association, 2000.
Guinevere Shaw, "Interpretations of Honor in the Medieval Period," URL: http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Hall/1170/medhero.html.
Chivalry in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
Although Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is considered to be a romantic poem because of its nature and the era in which it was written, it does not represent romance in the traditional sense of courtly love during the medieval times. It is worth mentioning that Sir Gawain and the Green Knight does not substantially represent any of the conventions listed in "The Art of Courtly Love" by Capallanus, but instead focuses on the chivalrous nature of an honorable knight who struggles when his chivalry comes into conflict with his basic need for self-preservation.
This paper will examine Gawain's character, which is clearly very noble, and how this conflict between morality and mortality becomes almost a mockery by the poet by the end of the poem. Through satire, the poet is able to show the reader how even the noblest and…
Abrahms, M.H. ed. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York: Norton and Company. 1986.
Conflict in First Knight
Personal v Political Conflict in First Knight
First Knight is a 1995 film based on the Arthurian legends made popular through literary works by medieval poets such as Chretien de Troyes. While many Arthurian films make reference to magic and supernatural elements, First Knight is devoid of this references and focuses on the conflicts that arise opposing rulers or leaders, as well as the conflicts that arise between lovers. While First Knight can be considered to be a romantic film in the traditional literary sense, in addition to the being a love story, an underlying theme of rebellion and civil conflict gives insight into the socio-political conditions of the time. First Knight explores the personal and romantic conflicts that arise as a result of mutinous behavior against Arthur and Camelot.
The main underlying theme of the film is the conflict that arises when Malagant, formerly a…
Might Is Right. (n.d.) Modern Arthurian Literature. College of Liberal Arts at the California
Polytechnic State University. Retrieved 6 January 2012 from, http://cla.calpoly.edu/~dschwart/engl380/firstknight/
Zucker, J. & Lowry, H. (Producers), & Zucker, J. (Director). (1995). First Knight [Motion
Picture]. United States of America: Columbia Pictures.
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…
Beauvoir, Simone de, and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.pp. lv, 786
Eisenstein, Zillah R. The Radical Future of Liberal Feminism. The Northeastern Series in Feminist Theory. Northeastern University Press ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986.pp. xi, 260
Engels, Fredrick. "The Development of Utopian Socialism." Trans. Lafargue, Paul. Marx/Engels Selected Works. Revue Socialiste. Ed. Basgen, Brian. Vol. 3. New York: Progress Publishers, 1880. 95-151.
Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State. 1894. Retrieved April 10, 2003 from. http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1884-Family/
By the late thirteenth century he had his own seal. The various officials concerned with the holy infirmary, the infirmary for sick brothers and almsgiving were under his authority. From 1340, the hospitaller was a brother from the tongue of France."(Nicholson, 77) Thus, the knights were mainly warriors who nevertheless had numerous other attributions, such as being actively engaged in charity actions and other social services. Percival's quest for the Holy Grail exemplifies the sublime missions assigned to the most virtuous of knights.
Thus, knighthood can be identified as an important cell in the Middle Ages, with a complex ideology of its own but also with a determinate role in society.
Harper-Bill, Christopher ed. And Ruth Harvey ed. Medieval Knighthood IV: Papers from the Fifth Strawberry Hill Conference 1990. oodbridge: Boydell, 1992
Kaeuper, Richard . Chivalry and Violence in Medieval Europe. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Harper-Bill, Christopher ed. And Ruth Harvey ed. Medieval Knighthood IV: Papers from the Fifth Strawberry Hill Conference 1990. Woodbridge: Boydell, 1992
Kaeuper, Richard W. Chivalry and Violence in Medieval Europe. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Nicholson, Helen. The Knights Hospitaller. Woodbridge: Boydell, 2001.
Prestage, Edgar. Chivalry: A Series of Studies to Illustrate Its Historical Significance and Civilizing Influence. London: Kegan Paul, 1968
The supernatural element is also often present in the Arthurian legends, such as the appearance of the Green Knight in Sir Gawain, and it is an important part of the mystical experiences described in the legends. In a sense, the knights, just like the epic heroes, are confronted with the supernatural so as to prove their worthiness, but the difference is that the knights, such as Lancelot, Percival or King Arthur himself engage in a mystical experience rather than in a mere confrontation with their own destiny, as Ulysses does. The romance is thus more concerned with the inner qualities of the knights. Courtly love also plays a very important part in the romances, as the knights are usually devoted to God, to their king or liege and to a beautiful and virtuous lady.
The Odyssey and the Arthurian Legend
There are many similarities, as well as significant differences between…
Mark Twain, The Prince and the Pauper
Anno Domini 1544,
October the First
My dear Hugh,
It is with a heavy heart that I take up quill and inkpot to pen this sad missive, informing thee of the death of Miles thy brother during that recent battle between his majesty our most puissant sovereign King Henry the Eighth and his sworn enemy, that perifidious frog the Dauphin of France, which did of late take place in pitched battle at Boulogne-sur-Mer in the month of August, in the year of our lord 1544.
As doubtless thou hast heard at Hendon Hall, in the heat of summer His Majesty did command His Grace the Duke of Norfolk to raise the engines of siege so as to break the will of the French garrison in that wretched town, so close to the Channel which doth separate our blessed England from the…
Women occupy conflicted and ambiguous roles in Middle English and enaissance English literature. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, and Shakespeare's Twelfth Night all show how male authors in particular grappled with the role of women in an increasingly patriarchal society. Women feature prominently in each of these stories, even if their status and perceived morality is questionable. Each of these stories features women who have a fair degree of power, albeit expressed within the confines of a patriarchal social and political construct. What's more, the women in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Canterbury Tales, and Twelfth Night create their own power; power is not "given" to them by self-serving benevolent men. In fact, women like Morgan Le Fay, Lady Bertilak, the Wife of Bath, and Viola all wield power effectively. Women and men occupy separate and distinct spheres, and each wields a different type…
Arkin, L. (1995). The role of women in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Retrieved online: http://msuweb.montclair.edu/~furrg/arkin.html
Chaucer, G. (1475). The Canterbury Tales. Retrieved online: http://www.canterburytales.org/
Shakespeare, W. (1601). Twelfth Night. Retrieved online: http://shakespeare.mit.edu/twelfth_night/full.html
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Retrieved online: http://www.yorku.ca/inpar/sggk_neilson.pdf
mythology is important for both individualistic and collective reasons. On an individual level, mythology could teach moral or human truths, whereas on a collective level mythology could be used to keep people in touch with their origins. Mythological stories could then be used to teach children values such as hard work, diligence and obedience. Role models are created through mythological figures. Also, the mythology of different cultures can serve to teach the student about the values of that culture. This is particularly important in the world today, since advancing technology and phenomena such as globalization has brought foreign cultures much more frequently in touch with each other than was previously the case. It is therefore important to study mythology for the values that it can teach both children and adults, and also for understanding the heritage inherent in these stories.
Mythology derives from the complexity of the human…
Oregon Mediation Center. "Dispute Resolution Mythology." 2004. http://www.to-agree.com/medres/pg23.cfm
Miller, Ken. "An Introduction to the Mythology of the Druids." Oct.-Nov. 2002. Bandarach Council of Druids. http://www.bandarach.org/Paper002.htm
In total contrast with these heroes lies the modern hero or better said the modern man defined by his struggle for power. The idea of an individual selling his or her soul to the devil for knowledge is an old motif in Christian folklore, one that is centered upon in Cristopher Marlowe's "Doctor Faustus."
Doctor Faustus, a well-respected German scholar unsatisfied with the traditional forms of knowledge decides he wants to learn to practice magic. He begins his career as a magician summoning Mephastophilis, a devil while Valdes and Cornelius instruct him in the black arts. Despite the devil's warnings about hell Faustus tells the devil to return to his master Lucifer with an offer of Faustus's soul in exchange for twenty-five years of service from Mephistopheles. As the twenty-five years have passed, Faustus begins to dread his impending death and on the final night he is overcome by…
1. The Norton Anthology of English, Norton Topics Outline. 2003-2006. W.W. Norton and Company. On the Internet at http://www.wwnorton.com/nael/middleages/topic_4/welcome.htm.Last retrieved on November 24, 2006
2. The Sixteenth century topics: The Magician, the Heretic and the Playwright: Overview. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 2003-2006. W.W. Norton and Company. On the Internet at http://www.wwnortoncom/nto/16century/topic_1/welcome.htm
3. Jokinen, Aniina. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Luminarium: Anthology of English Literature. November 2006. On the Internet at http://www.luminarium.org/medlit/gawainintro/htm.Last retrieved on November 24, 2006
4. Sera, Joseph. A character analysis of Sir Gawain. Pace University Student Projects on Gawain. November 2006. On the Internet at http://csis.pace.edu/grendel/projs2d/ana/page.htm.Last retrieved on November 24, 2006
Mario, however, is not so lucky. He finds Bowser, and is forced to do battle with the giant beast until Bowser inadvertently casts himself into the fiery abyss of his own creation. Bowser's downfall is rather ironic: what ultimately ruins his grand designs of Mushroom domination is the structure of the castle that he built himself.
Despite the dissimilarities concerning the identities of their enemies, both Mario and Sir Gawain are victorious because they live up to their reputations as good and honorable heroes. Sir Gawain travels back to Camelot where he is praised by his King and the other Knights of the Round Table. Mario receives an identical homecoming -- he is praised as the conquering hero of the Mushroom realm. Stories, feasts, and games follow in both lands. Eventually in the Mushroom realm, even Bowser is allowed into the noble games and he races alongside Mario is his…
Sir Gawain cuts off the knight's head, and the knight leaves, with a promise from Gawain to extract his pledge next year.
Gawain, true to form, finds the Green Knight's abode and resides there, waiting and dreading the final strike. All the while, the Green Knight's wife makes attempts to seduce Gawain. Yet although the woman is apparently false (later, this is shown to be a deliberately staged test of Gawain's chaste honor to his host) Gawain is true to his values and the honor owed to even a less than hospitable host. For his valor of spirit as well as his manly courage, the Green Knight spares Gawain. But as inspiring as this story may be in terms of knightly valor, it is noteworthy that the female body, unlike the male body is never tested -- rather it is only a sexual test for Gawain, or a symbol of…
Anonymous. "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." New York: Knopf, 2003.
Upper-class women are thought of as living a grand life free of great responsibilities. While this may be the case at times getting to travel and wearing the latest fashions, sometimes they are more like birds in gilded cages, made to look pretty and forced to sing a tune not of their own making. In The Knight's Tale, Othello, and Le Morte d'Arthur, the authors write about upper-class women either in the sense of being worshipped and obsessed over or as something to be conquered and taken, or both. They use female characters not as characters in of themselves, but rather as plot devices to move the story further, becoming motivations for the much more complex male characters to literally fight over.
While the focus of the literary work Le Morte d'Arthur is for the most part exclusively on the male characters of the story, the female characters have an…
Compare and contrast two other Olympic deities with the story of Zeus. Discuss and elaborate in your answer how these gods interact with Zeus and why the stories about their origins are important to our understanding of Greek mythology
Zeus overtook and destroyed his father, the Titan Cronos -- but was nearly destroyed by the birth of his own daughter, Athena. Zeus, fearing that her mother Metis would become wiser than himself, ate his lover while she was pregnant, and Athena was born from Zeus' skull, fully formed. Zeus proved his ability to 'give birth,' thus showing his greatness as a god, and Athena gained her unique status, having been entirely mentally generated by a male, although female in appearance. Unlike the other deities of Olympus, she seldom had conflicts with Zeus, as Zeus seemed to respect her wisdom.
Zeus also had another special relationship with Hermes, another of his…
Ganz, Timothy. (2009). Early Greek Myth. Excerpted at About.com March 20, 2009 at http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/grecoromanmyth1/a/hesiodagesofman.htm
Seeing that he was miserable, she told him he could either have her loyal but ugly or beautiful and unfaithful (Chaucer pp). The knight leaves the decision up to her thus, giving the old hag exactly what she wanted, to be in control of her husband. This decision resulted in the old hag becoming beautiful and loyal (Chaucer pp).
omen are central to this tale from the beginning to the end. The knight is saved by the queen, then is sent on a quest to find what appeared to be an impossible answer to a riddle concerning women, and then is saved again at the last minute by another woman who, although wise, was ugly and undesirable. However, he proved true, loyal and obedient, and granted the hag the one thing she wished, control over her man. And in doing so, he received what he truly wanted which was a…
Beowulf. Retrieved September 25, 2005 at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/AnoBeow.html
Chaucer, Geoffrey. "The Miller's Prologue and Tale; The Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale."
Retrieved September 25, 2005 at http://www.librarius.com/cantales.htm
Dockray-Miller, Mary. "The masculine queen of 'Beowulf.'" Women and Language. September 22, 1998. Retrieved September 24, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
In comparing a number of literary elements in one story, Smith and Wiese (2006) contend that at times, when attempting to transform an old story into a modern multicultural version, cultural meanings of the original story may be lost. In turn, the literature does not subject the reader to another culture. For instance, in the story about the fisherman, that Smith and Wiese access, the plot remains similar plot, however, significant changes transform the reported intent to make the story multicultural. Changes included the fisherman's daughter's stated name, being changed from one common to her culture to Maha. Instead of God, as written in the original version, the reference notes "Allah." Other changes Smith and Wiese point out include:
& #8230;The admonition to retrieve the fish or "be sorry" instead of the threatened curse, the reference to the golden shoe as a sandal instead of a clog;
Anderson, Connie Wilson. (2006). Examining Historical Events through Children's Literature.
Multicultural Education. Caddo Gap Press. 2006. Retrieved May 03, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1229798181.html
Banned Book Quiz. (2009). Retrieved May 03, 2009 from http://www.shetland-library.gov.uk/documents/BannedBooksWBD09quiz.pdf
Bottigheimer, Ruth B. (2008). Stories of heaven and earth: Bible heroes in contemporary
Crusaders were able to implement feudal states throughout their travels during this period of warfare, many of which have been termed Crusader states and which were erected throughout the Holy Land and in parts of Asia Minor as well as Greece. The most famous of these, of course, was the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which took place in 1099 and reigned until its fall in 1291.
Kingdom of Jerusalem
It should be remembered that for the vast duration of the reign of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, European settlers were widely outnumbered by Franks and Muslims, and only comprised approximately 15 to 25% of the entire population (Kedar 148). The Europeans lived in areas which were both rural as well as urban, and despite attempts to integrate with the surrounding foreigners, they did not infiltrate areas which were predominantly Muslim and which had never had many Christian dwellers (Ellenblu…
Dark ages and the middle ages existed between fifth and fourteenth century. The Dark Ages observed traditional and modern clashes when there was no intellectual growth not only the public but also the kings and rulers of the countries were illiterate. The Roman culture was deteriorating and the intellectual growth in Roman society stopped. The Dark Age prevailed in whole of Europe and. It is stated that the period was a transition between the Roman height and the High Middle Ages. The Latin literature also fell and the progress could not continue. The social and cultural dominancy of the Europe over rest of world could not sustain. The history speaks that the social and demographic richness and achievements converted into social challenges. It was a time of backwardness for the rich as well as poor as compared to the Roman era when literature and literary growth was prevalent.
Brehaut. E., (1912), "An Encyclopedist of the Dark Ages," Concilio Toletano, Retrieved from:
Hall, F.R., (1980), "CHAUCER AND CHIVALRY," Knight Templar Magazine, pp.28
Northern and Southern California
Gender and the Middle Ages
Legend, Faith, and Historical Reality
'woman,' as was understood by a resident of Europe during the Middle Ages, was either the mother of Jesus or the physical embodiment of Eve's sin. In the rhetorical discourse of courtly love, women functioned either as representations of desire or objects of adoration for men to save. They could inspire heroic deeds in the hearts of knights yet in the Christian discourse of the lives of the saints and miracles, women functioned as representations of what was worldly, fleshy and desirable in a negative fashion. Thus, to eschew the feminine in the religious discourse of the period was evidence of saintliness, as seen through the eyes of saintly hagiographers.
omen thus occupied an ideologically precarious position within the context of Medieval Europe. They were symbolically central. They were not socially marginal as a group, as…
Bennett, Judith. Medieval Life: Cecilia Penifader of Brigstock, c. 1297-1344Medieval Life: Cecilia Penifader of Brigstock, c. 1297-134. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998.
A de Troyes, Chretien. "Yvain: The Knight with the Lion." Arthurian Romances. New York: Penguin Classics, 1991.
Joinville, Jean. Life of Saint Louis. New York: Penguin Classics.
Chretien de Troyes, "Yvain: The Knight with the Lion," Arthurian Romances, (New York: Penguin Classics, 1991), p.296.
The ible, he argued, cites the creation of Eve for Adam as proof that a wife is man's support, as well as many other examples of humble and devoted wives.
The knight told his brother that he desired a young wife, who was no older than thirty, for she would be more pliable. Placebo cautioned that it takes great courage for an older man to marry a young woman (Classic Notes, 2004). He warned him that a young woman who married an older man may have ulterior motives, which the man would never know until he was married. Despite the fact Placebo has a wonderful wife, he understands what faults she has and advises January to be aware of who he marries.
The brothers argue about the merits of marriage, with Placebo predicting that January would not please his wife for more than three years, but Placebo eventually agrees to…
Kittredge, George. (2000). Chaucer's Discussion of Marriage. Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Hall/1170/chaucerhtml/marriage.html.
Classic Notes. (2004). Canterbury Tales. The Wife of Bath's Tale. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.gradesaver.com/ClassicNotes/Titles/canterbury/ .
Classic Notes. (2004). Canterbury Tales. The Merchant's Tale. Retrieved from the Internet at
Celtic history and influence in Britain spanned several centuries: between the 7th and 1st centuries BCE. The Celts originated in Central and Western Europe and they eventually migrated to the British Isles. The Celts would have a huge impact on early British linguistic and cultural development. They would later be considered adversaries of the omans, who successfully dominated and nearly obliterated Celtic culture on the islands. After the downfall of the oman Empire and waning oman rule in Great Britain, Celtic culture enjoyed a small resurgence. However, Druidic religion and culture would be overshadowed by Christianity.
However, the lingering effects of Celtic culture remained strong throughout British history. Celtic influence on British culture focuses on language, weapons, culture, religion, and art. Language and cultural identity are inextricable from Celtic influence, and many Celtic languages are still spoken throughout the British Isles today including Welsh, Manx, and both…
"The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle on Alfred the Great."
Wife Bath: Feminism Chaucer
Chaucer appears to create the Wife of Bath shine intentionally from the rest of the characters in the novel; she has been possibly one of his most controversial figures since her contradictions as to what she states and just what she does. The writer's formation of her character offers one significant objective which has been to surprise his readers. Chaucer chooses to consider each and every bad attribute that ladies were thought to have in those times and also the outcome has been Alisoun. This kind of vivacity and boldness had been seldom observed in female fictional figures of that era (Oberembt 287).
The Wife Bath: Feminism Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales had been written towards the end of the Fourteenth century, however it was left incomplete. It has been setup as numerous stories within one story. The primary frame has been a travelling crowd…
Chance, Jane. The Mythographic Chaucer: the Fabulation of Sexual Politics. Minneapolis: The University of Minnisota Press, 1995.
Coghill, Nevill trans. Chaucer The Canterbury Tales. London: Penguin Books, 2003.
Cook, A. Feminism in Chaucer's "The Wife of Bath." Books, 2010. Available at: http://alisoncook.xomba.com/feminism_chaucers_wife_bath
Fjalldal, M.J. Forever Young: Chaucer's Wife of Bath and Her Fear of Losing Her Outer Beauty. Haskoli Islands, 2010.
CHAACTES IN TOTILLA FLAT
Tortilla Flat" by John Steinbeck was first published in 1935. It is set in the Monterey coast of California. This book features the adventures of a group of men of Mexican-American descent called the paisanos. As California writer and critic Gerald Haslam has noted, "Steinbeck must be recognized for seeing the diversity of the state's population, for writing about the paisanos of Monterey, for example, at a time when the majority of Californians did not acknowledge the importance or even the existence of mixed-blood Mexicans." (Shillinglaw, Susan. "Steinbeck and Ethnicity, 1995)
Thought they are troublesome people they are good at heart and like to help less fortunate people than them. The members of the gang are Danny, Pablo, Jesus Maria, Pilon and Big Joe Portagee.
They are soon joined by another paisano, the Pirate. All these men like to do is to enjoy a…
References (Shillinglaw, Susan. Steinbeck and Ethnicity, 1995) www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=23148594(DeMott, Robert. Steinbeck's Typewriter: Essays on His Art. Troy, NY: Whitston, 1996). After the Grapes of Wrath: Essays on John Steinbeck in Honor of Tetsumaro Hayashi. Eds. Coers, Donald V., Paul D. Ruffin, and Robert J. Demott. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1995 (DeMott, Robert. Steinbeck's Typewriter: Essays on His Art. Troy, NY: Whitston, 1996). (John Steinbeck, Tortilla Flat, 1935).
Shillinglaw, Susan, Steinbeck and Ethnicity After the Grapes of Wrath: Essays on John Steinbeck in Honor of Tetsumaro Hayashi, OH: Ohio University Press, 40-55, 1995.) (Walter Neary, Students Drawn to Human Themes of Hope, Equality The Californian, 1992)
The Cid is a fair and just man, which is part of the knightly image, and he lives a good and just life. He is pious, and he commands respect, as the growth of his forces during his exile indicates. The image of the knight is also extremely brave, especially in battle, and both books hold up this image. The Cid and his men are extremely brave on the battlefield, and they support each other, as well. In one battle, one of his knights loses his horse. Simpson writes, "His lance is broken, but he grasps his sword and smites mightily, now on foot" (Simpson 33). This is one of the enduring images of the knight, that he is brave among all other things, and that he is extremely brave in battle.
Another image of the knight in both books is that they share a camaraderie and sense of working…
Gies, Joseph and Frances. Life in a Medieval Castle. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1974.
The Poem of the Cid. Trans. By Lesley Byrd Simpson. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.
Courtly Love" is expressed in ir Gadwain and the Green Knight
How social and cultural events influenced the development of the selected theme "Courtly Love"
What makes the selected work uniquely English
The term 'courtly' love only evolved far later. Here, in ir Gawain and the Green Knight,, t he poet refers to it as 'courtesy'. It is still uncertain whether courtly love was a social construction or a literary notion that existed in many medieval romances (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/literature/sir-gawain-and-the-green-knight/about.html). Either way, it was pervasive. The most influential and earliest book on courtly love was that written by Andreas Capellanus in the 1170s where he provides rules of love that are illustrated by a story of a knight on the way to the court of King Arthur. The knight was a man devoted to pleasing the lady. The fact that the lady was married was no impediment to the knight. He was…
Armitage, Simon (2007). Sir Gawain and the Green Knight: A New Verse Translation. New York: Norton. Cooke, Jessica (1998). "The Lady's 'Blushing' Ring in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." The Review of English Studies 49 (193) [HIDDEN]
Dinshaw, Carolyn. "A Kiss Is Just a Kiss: Heterosexuality and Its Consolations in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." Diacritics. Vol. 24 No. 2/3 (Summer 1994) pp. 204 -- 226