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Kodak and Fujifilm
The history and core business of Kodak and Fujifilm
Kodak and Fujifilm have been the most popular companies in the history of U.S. And world photography industry. Little is known about the history and the existing rivalry between the two companies over the years. Both companies have intriguing historical backgrounds; how they began and how they continue to grow and challenge one another in the industry. Fujifilm was set up in early 1934 with the primary objective of becoming the leading Japanese photographic film producer. After ten years of its establishment, the company produced X-ray films, motion picture films and photographic films. By the 1940s, Fujifilm penetrated into the lens, equipment, and optical glass markets. At the end of the Second World War, Fuji photo entered the diversification market, entering the magnetic materials, electronic imaging, and medical printing fields (Hellriegel, Jackson & Slocum, 2008).
On the other…… [Read More]
It is common sense for a company to lower their costs when they are aware of the upcoming losses from the market. Unfortunately, Kodak was slow to realize that where Fujifilm adapted to it quite quickly, After many power changes, the eventual leader Shigetaka Komori put the company on the right path.
The restructuring and the remodeling plan that he started, he basically went onto lay off people and cut down the costs. (the Economist, 2012) in just eighteen months, Komori ensured that the development labels, managers and researchers that were extra, and extra costs were removed from the company. Surely, it was not an easy task to lay off people but the entire change basically reduced the cost about 2.5 billion dollars. (Inagaki and Osawa, 2012)
From all this discussion, we basically see that a failure to change and a lack of strategic planning can cause any company a…… [Read More]
Kodak's Digital Strategy
It is very notable to mention how Kodak experienced a downfall with the emergence of digital imaging. Kodak's stock fell from about 80 USD to 3 USD within a period of less than ten years. The number of employees also declined. In 1988, the company employed about 140,000 employees but currently it has employees of not more than 20,000. This was as an unavoidable challenge and Kodak used all its efforts it had to overcome the challenge of digital imaging just like any other film company. Eastman Kodak had a vision of selling many cameras at lower prices to draw massive profits to the papers, inks and chemical used in printmaking. This strategy saw its downfall with the digital revolution and the foreign competitors negatively affected Kodak's venerable command in the photography business (Grant 22).
Kodak slowly responded to this emerging digital revolution. From the time…… [Read More]
The company finds itself having to try to attract talented people, but without the cash or desirable location (sorry, Rochester) to attract the best talent. Further, there is perpetual uncertainty about the future of the company. Thus, reinventing itself as an innovator has proven to be a much greater challenge for Kodak than it has been for Fujifilm. Part of the problem was the conservative culture at Kodak, and part of it is that Kodak waited far too long to recognize the changes in the external environment and mount a credible response.
For its part, Fujifilm's management did a better job and the company is performing better today. Also, because it utilizes local production, it is not weighed down by pensions as Kodak is. For both of these companies, the same three steps are recommended to improve managerial flexibility. Both companies need to realize that they are now in the…… [Read More]
Kodak, long dominant in the photography business, has struggled with the transition to digital technology. Beginning in the 1980s, the company saw a number of strategic shifts. The company is now faced with four potential paths ahead, each one representing a different strategic view of the company and the industry. This paper will first present some historical context to Kodak's current situation, and then discuss the different strategic options in turn. As a result of this analysis, a recommendation will be made with respect to the best path forward for Kodak.
For most of its life, Kodak was a dominant photography company, with a business built on technological superior in silver halide imaging and on economies of scale. Only when Japanese firms began entering the U.S. market did Kodak face any serious competition. By the time this was occurring, the first digital cameras were being introduced. At this point, Kodak…… [Read More]
" (Tully, 2004 p. 61) Though die hard print photography lovers, mostly professional photographers who do much of their own developing, may complain about the rapid advances of digital technology, as they are still set in the abilities of the print film technology to do things digital cannot yet the decision made in 2004 proved wise. There may be a time in the future when some of these changes can be reversed on a professional level the changes are crucial today, to save this consumer driven brand. (Tully, 2004 p. 61)
Though there are clear arguments for and against digital technology, that expanse broad circumstances, it is clear that this highly consumer driven technology will advance to an even better system than is currently available. Technology continues to drive the consumer, especially in today's global world market. The development of better digital technology may eventually outmode all film print technology…… [Read More]
Eastman Kodak has been facing difficulty external environmental circumstances for nearly two decades, as the digital photography revolution has severely impacted Kodak's business. The company's revenues have declined for at least the past five years, and in four of those years Kodak recorded a loss. In the fifth year, 2007, the profit derived from "extraordinary items" rather than operating income (MSN Moneycentral, 2011). The company's businesses include digital and still cameras, inkjet printers, retail printing kiosks, imaging sensors, document scanners and photographic film, paper and processing chemicals (Eastman Kodak 2010 Annual Report). The declining demand conditions have been in place for a long time, but Kodak does not seem to have any answers as to how to build its business, either in photography or in other imaging product or service lines. Inkjet printer systems are one of the only growth businesses for Kodak, with sales up 45% in 2010.…… [Read More]
foresees that the wide-reaching digital camera market will rise from twenty five percent annually to six billion dollars in 2003. If Kodak maintains a twenty percent share, cameras might become a one billion dollar business for the corporation.
he fourth support of Kodak's digital policy is already paying indelibly. Over the past two years, the business has mounted some 19,000 Picture Maker booths at trade stores wide-reaching that print images from together digital and customary film. hese plans agree to unenthusiastic, CDs digital-camera remembrance cards and permit consumers to edit pictures and make its copies. At about $15,000 each one, Carp states they are extremely cost-effective and report for about $200 million in auctions. With ninety five percent of consumers who use them coming back frequently as they manufacture stable photo manuscript auctions. However, each of Kodak's innovative products will be beneath strong viable pressure every step of the mode.…… [Read More]
Investing in new research and development and trying to outshine Fuji should have been the main objective. This could be accomplished through more R&D funds, more canny market assessment of consumer needs, and providing bonuses for innovation, not cutting back salaries and making staff member's dependant upon bonuses for their livelihood.
How does this example relate to the concept of economic Darwinism?
According to the theory of economic Darwinism: "behavior leading to the lowest payoff" leads to arbitrary behavior when a company attempts to replace that behavior with better policies (Sloth & Jacobson, 2006). In other words, when confronted with the reality that a previous strategy does not work, in this case the long release of new products in an increasingly competitive environment, companies have difficulty behaving rationally, even after they have realized what worked in the past no longer works in the reality of the current market environment. They…… [Read More]
The company is not exactly starting from scratch, but in some ways it will have to behave as a new company in a new industry in order to shape its image in a new way and to decide on how to create a unique niche for itself.
The company has the opportunity to forge a new identity and to enter new fields in a way that will serve its needs into the future. How to do this is the problem. Other companies also have the opportunity to do the same, which increases competition for Kodak and so makes whatever it does come under greater scrutiny.
The entire shift to digital is the biggest threat to the traditional business of the company and has already reduced its overall effectiveness. Other entrants into the same field include Canon, Fuji, and Sony, and these companies also have considerable funding and much…… [Read More]
Kodak Case Study
The primary factor that motivated Kodak to change its organizational architecture was a decrease in performance, or at the very least a decrease in relative performance when compared to other companies in the industry (Case, n.d.). More specifically, the falling stock price that the company experienced from 1982 to 1984, which was certain to be displeasing to the board of directors in and of itself and which also marked a drop in stockholder and investor confidence in the company, prompted the changes the organization undertook (Case, n.d.). The increased pace of innovation and of bringing new products to market was also an impetus fror the company in designing and adopting the changes to organizational architecture that the company deemed necessary (Case, n.d.). Taken as a whole, it is safe to say that increased competition and a fall for the company from the safe and secure pinnacle of…… [Read More]
There are several key objectives that Kodak should set. The first is that it has to achieve significant financial objectives. There should be revenue and profit targets for the company, as declining revenues and profits have been identified as key issues. The third objective should be with respect to operations. Kodak has suffered in recent years because it has not adjusted quickly to changing technology. The company should set as an objective that it needs to be much faster on its feet. Thus, the company needs to establish itself both operationally and culturally as an innovator. Innovation can be measured in the number of new patents or in the number of new product launches. Human resources objectives should include lowering the average age of the workforce, and bringing in more creative young people to the business. The company recognizes that it needs to revitalize the way it approaches business,…… [Read More]
In the 1990s, Kodak was the pioneer of technology and one of the most popular names in the tech world. It was this company that actually made one of the first digital cameras and went on to rule the camera business all through the 1990s. Today, the value of the company has dropped from 20 billion pounds to just 100 million pounds in the past fifteen years. ("KODAK MOMENTS FOM GOING," 2012, p. 6) When it was founded in 1880s, the slogan of Kodak was "You press the button, we do the rest." This shows that Kodak itself was quite aware of how ahead it was as compared to other companies. People bought the goods, relied on the products and were glad that they were using Kodak. Due to the advent of digital photography and digital cameras, Kodak's success started to decline all because of one reason. Where many…… [Read More]
Kodak and Fujifilm, And Leadership Assessment
Kodak and Fujifilm
The History and Core Business of Each Company
Eastman Kodak, in the words of Hill and Jones (2007, p. 482), "was incorporated in new jersey on October 24, 1901, as a successor to the Eastman Dry Plate Co., the business originally established by George Eastman in September 1880." It is important to note that as the authors further point out, the Dry Plate Company had primarily been established to facilitate the development of the more portable and user friendly dry photographic plate. Essentially, Eastman is credited with laying a strong foundation for a fledging business. His key goal was to see photography simplified. It was not, however, until 1888 that the availability of photography to everyone stated to appear as a rather realistic goal. In 1888, Eastman introduced the very first camera that could be easily carried around (Hill and Jones,…… [Read More]
Eastman Kodak was once the dominant player in photography, as a maker of film in particular, but all other ancillary photography products as well. The advent of digital cameras put the nail into the coffin of this business, which had already been challenged by the arrival of new players into the market. Since that point, Kodak has basically been in a death spiral, laying off employees, selling off businesses, and losing market value. The company's most recent successes were lawsuits that it filed in defense of some of its patents. The company is now valued at just $300 million, but it has $2.6 billion in unfunded pension obligations and there are doubts as to whether or not Kodak will survive the year.
There are many objectives that Kodak can set for itself. The first operational target is to have a profitable business that does not involve selling patents.…… [Read More]
Kodak and Fujifilm
Fujifilm and Eastman Kodak: History and Core Business
Founded in 1934, Fujifilm has in the recent past "expanded to become an innovative leader in a variety of business fields" (Fujifilm, 2013). As the firm further points out, apart from being the first photographic film maker in Japan, it has over time "leveraged its imaging and information technology to become a global presence known for innovation in healthcare, graphic arts, optical devices, highly functional materials and other high-tech areas" (Fujifilm, 2013). Currently, the company has its headquarters in Tokyo, Japan. Fujifilm's core business happens to be the development as well as production, distribution and sale of a wide range of photography related products and equipment including but not limited to photofinishing chemicals and equipment, color paper, digital cameras, and color photographic film. The company is also involved in the production and sale of other products such as optical…… [Read More]
Eastman Kodak Company (hereafter known as Kodak) has not achieved a maximum penetration of the college student market. In terms of current initiatives, Kodak sponsors the Student Filmmaker Program. The program provides project grants, educational allowance programs, scholarships, and support services. Kodak's Cannes Program offers an opportunity for students to extend the Cannes International Film Festival (Kodak). hile these initiatives have increased the exposure of Kodak within the student population of budding cinematographers, they have done less to introduce Kodak to the larger student population.
Consideration of the unique characteristics of the college marketplace will be essential to the success of this marketing plan. Specifically, the age demographic that is almost exclusively 18-24 years of age is an important consideration, as is the powerful spending power of this demographic (CampusParty).
Marketing Goals and Objectives
The overarching goal of this marketing plan is to expose the student campus population to Kodak's…… [Read More]
Strategic Management at Eastman Kodak
Eastman Kodak was previously a legendary brand and a market leader in the photographic sector. With its catchy slogan, "You press the button, we do the rest" (Eastman Kodak, 2011), the company was successful in marketing its camera offerings. After monopolizing the U.S. photography market and becoming the market leader, Kodak employed over 150,000 people and sold as high as $17 billion in 1988 (Eastman Kodak, 2011). Currently, Kodak has recorded a 90% loss of its market value and is battling the threat of extinction.
Key objectives for Eastman Kodak
Kodak created numerous objectives, all of which are essential to the success of the company within the Cloud service industry. First, the firm strived to sustain the lead on technology developments. The competitive cloud service sector has experienced an influx of new technologies like digital imaging. The company aims at attaining the first mover advantage…… [Read More]
Concomitantly, the traditional core of the business is declining faster than the growth of the digital business, resulting in an overall decline of sales. This results the risk that an increasing amount of investors may begin to lose faith in the company's long-term sustainability. Although Perez has indicated a time line for the implementation of new developments, Guerrera indicates that, in the light of current trends, this may be too long for investors to retain their faith and investments in Kodak. Yee indicates the same thing on the basis of drops in shares during 2003, when Kodak announced a 72 per cent dividend cut and its intention to phase out film by means of its acquisition of digital companies. Investors were very skeptical of this move at such a late stage in the digital world, and doubted Kodak's ability to mitigate its tardiness in entering the market. According to Yee,…… [Read More]
S/G/a expenses were 19.6% of sales in 2005 and 17.1% of sales in 2009. It would take a further 16% reduction in the S/G/a expense just to break even at 2009 sales, so a cut of 20% or more in 2010 is needed to allow the company to break even in the face of steadily declining sales. One piece of goods news, however, is that the company's revenues improved quarter over quarter for Q4 2009 (MSN Moneycentral, 2010).
For the problem with the unfunded pension liabilities, Eastman Kodak has restructured its pension plans and expects to gain $18 million from that move. However, it also expects that its pension liability will increase by $30 million in 2010 (2009 Form 10-K). The company seems unable to make the necessary changes to reduce this expense. As such, Eastman Kodak is having a difficult time finding profitability. The company was having difficulty with…… [Read More]
business approaches, management, marketing Eastman Kodak Fujifilm. Eastman Kodak a developer pioneer photographic films 130 years. Although invented digital camera, company unprepared rapid technologies filed bankruptcy protection January 2012.
Labor elations and Collective Bargaining
Plan on Unionizing Nurses
In this case, the situation is represented by a 500 hundred bed hospital with 1.000 registered nurses. The American Professionals Union is trying to unionize these nurses. The hospital's management must decide whether it should support their nurses' efforts, or attempting to persuade them to remain union free.
The plan that must be developed is based on the following steps: establishing the pro-or con position that the hospital's management must take, determining what the reasons that would determine nurses to join the union are, identifying the benefits provided by the American Professionals Union to nurses for joining the union, developing a strategy that would determine nurses to remain union free.
Unions' Advantages…… [Read More]
Kodak's Slow Adoption Of Information Technology
Corporate history reveals only a few blunders that are as confounding as Kodak's wasted digital photography opportunities; what's more, Kodak was, in fact, the inventor of digital photography technology. The company's strategic failure stemmed directly from its decades-long weakening, with digital photography destroying Kodak's film-based model of business. For several decades, management was unable to realize that digital photography constituted a disruptive new technology, at the same time company researchers extended that technology's boundaries (Mui, 2012). Kodak had a head start into digital technologies and could manufacture industry-leading digital cameras and technologies ahead of competitors. But it took a whole decade for digital cameras to dominate the market for cameras. It was only in 2002 that total digital camera sales finally exceeded analog camera sales. In hindsight, the company possessed over two valuable decades' time for responding to a threat to its existence. Considering…… [Read More]
However, Eastman needed him for the roller project, and together, they persisted.
In 1885, the Eastman-Walker Roll Holder received a patent. It revolutionized photography, allowing amateur photographers to take up to 50 photographs in an hour, and did away with the huge camera boxes and heavy glass plates of the era.
In 1885, to get rid of Walker's temper tantrums, but because he was a major stockholder, Eastman assigned him to manage the London office of Kodak. Walker introduced Eastman to the Dickmans of London in 1889. Several years later, as Walker's business sense drove the London office into the ground, and as Eastman finally tired of Walker's continual grumbling, Eastman fired him and replaced him with George Dickman.
How important was Walker to Eastman and the success of the Kodak company? He co-invented, with Eastman, one of the most successful creations that drove the profitability of the Kodak Company…… [Read More]
A major weakness that can be mitigated for P&G is that of copycat and "me too" products that erode the prestige of the brand. When margins are high competitors tend to enter the market. The industry that P&G operates in is fairly easy to enter. There are many substitutes for Tide as there are many substitutes for Coke. P&G must be very careful to maintain the prestige and quality of the brand so that competitors can not erode its influence on consumers.
Compare the strengths and weaknesses of P&G's resources and capabilities to that of Eastman Kodak (Case 7). These companies are in very different industries. How does this affect strategic analysis of resources and capabilities?
The first major strength of P&G relative to Kodak is its margins and cost structure. P&G has the benefit of increasing earnings without having a corresponding increase in capital expenditures. Eastman Kodak however, as…… [Read More]
Change management initiatives of HP, IBM, Kodak, and McDonald's
Although it is said that the only constant in business is change, the need for change has thwarted many potential corporate superstars of the recent past, including Hewlett Packard, IBM, Kodak, and McDonald's. Although these companies were able to deal with the changes demanded by exterior economic circumstances and internal corporate pressures with varying degrees of success, all met with roadblocks on their way to pursuing change. Kotter's model for successful change suggests that all change entails a certain amount of urgency; a period of coalition building during the pre-change process; the need to create a vision for the change; communicating that vision; removing obstacles; creating short-term wins; building on the change; and permanently anchoring that change in the corporation's culture (Kotter's 8-step change model, 2013, Mind Tools).
HP: Three significant errors
However, in the case of HP, critical…… [Read More]
Using Kotter's 8 steps, the three most significant errors made out of all the change stories presented were: McDonald's failure to create urgency when it implemented its initial menu changes; Kodak's failure to communicate its vision for change; and Fiorina's failure to form a powerful coalition prior to the merger between HP and Compaq Computer Corp. However, it is important to keep in mind that Kotter's approach may not best describe organizational change; its popularity may be more attributable to its usable format than from any evidence that Kotter's approach to change management is superior to competing approaches (Appelbaum et al., 20120).
McDonald's made half-hearted efforts to respond to consumer demands for healthier menu options. However, at that time, it had not seen any reduction in profits because of the perceived lack of nutritional value of its offerings and was not committed to expanding beyond its traditional fast-food repertoire.…… [Read More]
Daniel a. Carp as guest lecturer
From: Cathi Bea, Assistant
Based upon his credentials as chairman, president and chief executive officer at Eastman Kodak Company, I would recommend considering Daniel A. Carp as a candidate to lecture the MBA students at Daniel University. Indeed, the many accomplishments and leadership, and speaking skills displayed by Mr. Carp appear to make him a choice from which this University can profit.
SOLID BACKGROUD I Business
Daniel A. Carp shows great tenacity in his career, as well as exceptional skill in business and public speaking. Beginning his illustrious career as statistical analyst during 1970, he used his skill and learning to work up to increasingly responsible positions. Following several management positions within the company, Mr. Carp was elected as a member of the Board of Directors in December of 1997, after which he was promoted to president and chief executive officer. He served in…… [Read More]
Those proposals included broadening its vital presence, and strong growth, in commercial markets and health imaging, refocusing research and development dollars; speeding investments in commercial markets; and taking over other companies and technologies to enlarge Kodak's portfolio of digital products and services.
On the force of its taking over Kodak Versamark and NexPress, Kodak's Graphic Communication Group is piling a portfolio of major variable-date printing equipment providers. Kodak's Digital and Film Imaging Systems business persists to prove its success in digital markets. In 2003, Kodak's share of the consumer digital camera market went up to No. 4 across the world, making the strong acceptance of the Kodak Easyshare range of cameras. Kodak the sole company coming in the Top 5 also ranks No. 2 in digital camera sales in America. Following just 8 months after entering the snapshot printer market in April 2003, Kodak claimed the top slot and persists…… [Read More]
Kodak decided to implement this initiative after conducting market research on the costs of printing at home. According to a study by InfoTrends, the greatest obstacle to printing at home is the cost of ink and supplies (Kodak, 2007). Another printer from the new line, the Kodak EasyShare 5300 offers a 3-inch color LCD display that enables photo viewing and cropping directly from the printer, with a memory card slot that provides an additional quick and simple way to print digital pictures without a PC. Other printers in the new line consist of printers geared toward home-office users. In this way Kodak maintained competitive with other photo companies offering the same products. Kodak's main marketing strategy is that the company is producing a less-expensive product with few frills that still fits its customers' needs. This allows Kodak to create a cheaper product that consumers love but competitors don't want to…… [Read More]
It uses a great deal of expensive and cutting-edge technology, and none of this is cheap. hile DR can do a great deal for a hospital radiology department, that department also must have the funds available to support what needs to be purchased and accomplished where DR is concerned if the department chooses to use this technology.
Image quality, other than cost, is quite probably the largest issue that is faced by those that wish to use this new technology. Therefore, it is important to discuss and compare the differences between the image quality of CR and the image quality of DR, so that more can be understood regarding the differences between them. One study looked at the plate readers that are used for CR images, and found that there were enough statistically significant differences between different plate readers as to indicate that there may be problems with…… [Read More]
LOG IN TO www.cengagebrain.. MY USE ID IS
The first of five key objectives for Eastman Kodak that encompasses the operational, financial, human resource aspects of the business is to utilize the Cloud and elastic computing to provision its own resources. Many of the physical locations that this company operates can use elastic computing and any variety of software, platforms, and infrastructure provided as a service to reduce critical operations and maintenance costs. Instead of having all of these resources in an on-premise physical environment, the company can reduce expenses by paying for these resources on demand with computer resources that are available as such (Harper, 2014). The second objective for Kodak Eastman would be to issue as many of its products and services as possible via the cloud. In this sense, the company could actually become a cloud service provider that can issue many of the critical requirements for…… [Read More]
Digital Technology: Implications for Organizations
Implications for Organizations: Digital Technology
Explain the concept of a digital or media revolution. What are the differences between digital and media technology? Which type or types of media are changing the way businesses and individuals are conducting themselves?
The term, 'digital revolution' is used to refer to the advancement of technology from mechanical, analog devices to digital devices such as smart phones, and digital computers (Couldry, 2012). The digital revolution began way back in the 1950s and 60s, when the invention of the transistor paved way for the development of the World Wide Web. Since then, it has been a step-by-step process, which has seen new inventions come up, and analog devices be gradually replaced with digital formats. Today, personal computers are being taken over by tablets and smart phones, and it is all part of the digital revolution.
This introduction prompts…… [Read More]
Splashes of color like red and several shades of blue are added to the collage in a "dragonfly, wing-like" formation. A cutout photograph of a boy is pasted on the "wing" of a lighter shade of blue, perhaps to note a sense of calm to his surroundings.
The Hawkins' exhibit will consist of 80 objects, a retrospective of his nearly a quarter of a century career. The work is described as "at its core, about the pleasure of intense looking." Third mind is described as referring to another piece of Hawkins' work, "ichard Hawkins: Of two minds simultaneously," which means to be undecided, uncertain or unsure, the description states. Hawkins is aware of the duplicity that this body of work creates, which is stated to be intentional.
The Art Institute of Chicago was founded in 1879 as a school and museum. The museum holds art from African-American artists to silk…… [Read More]
The first was instant photography, where both photographer (and human subject) could sample their image immediately. The second was digital photography, with a different -- and less expensive -- type of instant image.
Garn observes that Polaroid's instant film led the way to an even more immediate film processing technique: the digital image. "Ironically, this alternative hastened the demise of Polaroid" (Garn).
Current Status of the Technology
The current status of Polaroid technology is questionable. ith the rise of digital filmmaking and photography -- Polaroid, once at the height of the photography industry, has plummeted. In the 70s, Polaroid had the SX-70, "the first integrated camera and film system [that allowed] the pictures to develop outside the camera by themselves" ("Polaroid Corporation"). Kodak followed with its EK-4 and EK-6 after severing ties with Polaroid. Law suits followed. Polaroid eventually won $925 million in damages as a result of infringement by…… [Read More]
changing nature of digital printing, info-imaging, and to determine the steps Heart's Desire Printing and Design Co. must take in order to remain viable and profitable in the competitive business printing marketplace. Until the recent years, upgrades at the company have involved purchases of printing presses, which may have included computerized controls. Computers have been utilized in the different debarments for separate functions. Accounting and invoicing were handled by the accounting department. Sales, reorders, and CRM were handled by the sales staff. This staff each has the use of computers on their desks, to automate the day-to-day business functions. The art department is using Mac-based machines for graphic design. ut because the computer equipment in the rest of the office is PC windows based, the task of file sharing, and cross platform communication is cumbersome.
This plan will investigate the marketplace demand for expanding the digital info-imaging services, and how…… [Read More]
Inappropriate use of the terms "noncontingent reinforcement" and "differential reinforcement of other behaviors"
Shakespeare would not have anticipated this issue -- labels for procedures when he wrote "What is in a name, a rose with any other would smell as sweet." The controversy is not about the effect of the procedure but rather relates to if the applied behavior analysis on the use of the terms 'noncontingent reinforcement' -- NC and 'differential reinforcement of other behaviors' -- DO are appropriate and the definitions of the process. The irony is that there is no dispute in the effectiveness of the processes but if the use of the terms is confusing and if the definition of reinforcement is contingent on behavior. The question then is if the issue will be dead and if it can be shown that an alternate name may clear the confusion especially with regard to the term 'contingent…… [Read More]
Domestic and International Human Resources
Adler (1990) emphasizes the importance of the international experience in the business world. The developing technologies between the time of Adler's presentation and 2004 has made this all the more prominent. When distinguishing between domestic and international human resources then, it is important to note that the one seldom goes before the other, while the domestic human resources paradigm has developed over a far longer time than international human resources. Adler (1990) explains that there has been an evolution in the business world from domestic human resources to international or global human resources. This has to be taken into account when business is conducted both on the local and international level.
When a company is domestically orientated, the product or service remains focused on the domestic market. Thus, research and development, as well as marketing occur on the domestic level. With a centralized…… [Read More]
To protect themselves, many Americans chose to avoid working with or becoming friends with those who immigrated. A lack of trust permeated everything that the Americans did in regards to the immigrants, at least with the men. This was not always true of the women, as they often got along together and shared the trials and difficulties of raising families. However, many men who owned shops and stores would not hire an immigrant laborer (Glazer, 1998).
They believed that immigrants took jobs away from people in the U.S., and they did not want to catch any diseases that these immigrants might have brought with them. The general attitude during this time period was that immigrants were so different from Americans that they could never mesh into one society, but that attitude has obviously changed, as today America is a mix of all kinds of people (Glazer, 1998; Sowell, 1997).
What…… [Read More]
The First Nuclear Test
Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.
This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…… [Read More]
S. And throughout Europe, Panasonic painstakingly interviewed each American photography store dealer and distributor they could. This resulted in the SL series of cameras they pioneered and eventually dominated the market with (Johansson, Nonaka, 1987). Panasonic had transformed their customer listening systems into a new product development platform with the ability to transform an entire market. They successfully penetrated the U.S. market and took huge amounts of sales from Kodak as a result (Johansson, Nonaka, 1987).
A third example is the continued development of the netbook and tablet PC. Lenovo purchased IBM's PC business in 2005 and quickly re-vamped the entire product line to be more aligned to the needs of the Asian market (Millson, Wilemon, 2009). The result has been continued market share growth and the launch of a state-of-the-art tablet PC that rivals the iPad, using an Intel-based processor however running Windows operating system internals. This was all…… [Read More]
(Computed Radiography Digital Solutions)
The advantages of the system can be numerous. One of them is better image quality, wherein better trabecular details would be seen; another advantage is that there is absolutely no need for retakes. This would save time and money, as well as avoid additional radiation for the patient. There will also be no loss of films, because there is no danger of these images being misplaced or lost, unlike as in the case of conventional x-rays. It is also possible to obtain multiple images with one single exposure, and the images can be manipulated according to the need of the attending physician/s. In addition, it is also possible to obtain multiple images on one film, and images can also be provided on medium other than film, like for example, on a CD, on paper, or they can even be viewed on a monitor. These are some…… [Read More]
Antitrust Laws: Apple's Case
Competition is a vital element of any vibrant marketplace. Thanks to competition, both businesses and individuals get to benefit from lower prices, increased product variety, higher-quality commodities, and greater innovation. Antitrust laws are meant to ensure that consumers are protected from unfair business practices and anticompetitive mergers, and that consequently, effective levels of competition are created and sustained in the economy.
Antitrust laws differ from country to country and, at times, from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. In the U.S., antitrust laws include the Sherman Act of 1890 and the Federal Trade Commission and Clayton Acts, both of 1914 (FTC, 2014). The Sherman Act, whose violation is punishable by criminal law, outlaws any attempts to monopolize a market or restrain trade through rig bids, divide markets, or price fixation (FTC, 2014). The Federal Trade Commission Act, on the other hand, illegalizes any '"unfair methods of competition' and 'unfair…… [Read More]
Strategic Management Concept: Outsourcing
Strategic Management: Ourtousrcing
Definition of outsourcing
Outsourcing is defined as the contracting another person or company to perform a specialized function (Lacity and Hirschheim, 1993). Outsourcing can also be defined as contracting out a business process to a third party. In the current business environment, all business will outsource in some way. The term outsourcing not only refers to the large contracting of firms to perform specific functions, but also refers to any non-core activity that a business contracts out to another company. For example, an insurance company could outsource its janitorial operations to another company, which would ensure that the insurance company can focus on its core business. Outsourcing ensures that a business can concentrate on its core business and its overall strategy (Grossman and Helpman, 2005). The firms contracted to perform or offer the service have the necessary expertise and have specialized in the…… [Read More]
Logistics Cost Benefits
LMT 305 Cost and Benefits Analysis in everse Logistics-- Fall 2015
When it comes to a company that moves any sort of raw material, products or shipments in general, the subject of logistics is a very important one. Whether one is speaking of forward logistics or reverse logistics, there should be a fairly constant amount of cost/benefit analysis used and harnessed so as to maximize profit and logistical capacity. Indeed, there is almost always more than one way to do something form a logistical standpoint but the benefits of each method as well as the costs should always be assessed to make sure the proper method is used. Both cost and benefits need to be taken into full account because both matter a great deal.
Some people might be confused by forward logistics as compared to reverse logistics. However, the subjects are…… [Read More]
Corporate Social esponsibility
As the title in the header suggests, this report is about corporate social responsibility. What shall be included in this report is a brief description of what is meant by corporate social responsibility, the contribution to the subject made by the article chosen for this report, a discussion of why the article is important as it relates to understanding and applying the knowledge related to corporate social responsibility, the review of an additional article that does much the same and a conclusion that ties it all together. While some may dismiss corporate social responsibility as needless and overly reactionary, there is such a thing as being both a good business person and a good steward towards society even if people widely disagree as to what the minimum standards should be.
Business News Daily offers a good definition and summary of what corporate social responsibility is along…… [Read More]
Reinforcement Magnitude and Response Rate
Original research is detailed within this document about the correlation between reinforcement magnitude and response rate. Literature indicates there is a positive correlation between these two phenomena, which served as the hypothesis for this experiment. Participants were randomly assigned colored tokens that correlated to amounts of candy for correctly stringing together beads. The results indicate that the more candy they were given (which functioned in this study as research magnitude), the longer more prolonged their response rate was -- because they opted to continue with the clinical trials. These results served to underscore the fact that there is a causal relationship between reinforcement magnitude and response rate consistent with literature on this topic.
This paper will explore the phenomenon of reinforcer magnitude on response rate. t is attempting to determine if there is a correlation between the magnitude of reinforcement and the rate of…… [Read More]
Joint costing systems should bear in mind the legal constraints on the use of such systems, and should provide accurate information to managers in order to be most useful in the managerial accounting context.
Firms need to remain competitive, which indicates that the market will set prices to some degree. This implies that firms can make better decisions with respect to what projects/products they wish to pursue by understanding the cost structure of the product. If the product is not viable at the cost at which it can be produced, then the firm can improve profitability by dumping the product.
Banham, R. (2000). Off target? CFO Magazine. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from http://www.cfo.com/article.cfm/2990860/c_3046531?f=magazine_alsoinside
Frederick, S. (2011).
The persuasive power of opportunity costs. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from http://hbr.org/2011/01/column-the-persuasive-power-of-opportunity-costs/ar/1
Katz, D. (2002). Activity-based costing (ABC). CFO Magazine. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from http://www.cfo.com/article.cfm/3007694
McKinsey & Co.…… [Read More]
"Hopefully, I am evolving as an artist and a designer, and Digital Kitchen seems to be a place that [offers me the best] chance at getting to the next level" (Remson, 2002, p. 6).
There are always "next levels" for Carson. Looking at his design for the book the Architecture of Patterns, at first the eye sees the + signs and interprets them as crosses in a cemetery. A closer look and maybe they are just "X's" turned on their sides. Small, smaller, with a few very large + positioned on the cover. The book title is blurred and interrupted by the +'s. Carson's design for Quicksilver and Pukas Surfboards is rowdy; a surfboard shape is permeated with circles and a macrame-like swirl connecting to what could be a bow. it's bizarre, but it's pure Carson. The Bark catalog design uses fonts creatively, a patented Carson approach. "Born on the…… [Read More]
The local and regional councils that administer the Porirua City metropolitan area have different, but interrelated responsibilities that must be taken into account in formulating effective economic developmental initiatives as described in Table 1 below.
espective esponsibilities and Areas of Interest for egional and Local Councils in New Zealand
Description of esponsibilities and Areas of Interest
esponsible for the integrated management of natural and physical resources, management of natural resources such as water and soil.
esponsible for carrying out multiple functions that enable them, among other things, to promote development projects with the private sector; also responsible for land-use planning, subdivision, service delivery, etc.; however, local councils are not involved in educational, health and welfare matters and these remain in the domain of national government.
Source: Gouldson & oberts, p. 54
Therefore, local councils would be best suited for establishing priorities for…… [Read More]
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…… [Read More]
Since the generation with the highest birth-rate is reaching the retirement age, they are prone to travel more and lead to an increase demand for hotel rooms. (15%) j. Fast food outlets in emerging markets
The fast food industry is expected to register an increase during the following years, especially within emerging markets. Here are some factors that would generate the increase in demand for fast food products:
Increased interest from foreign investors which enter the emerging markets and strongly promote the products (45%)
Growing economies and wages, implying an increased focus on jobs, in the detriment of home cooking (35%)
Changing consumers needs (20%) k. Credit cards issued by financial institutions
Credit cards encompass products offered by banks or other financial institutions which allow their clients to use the bank's money and then pay them back at a previously specified interest rate. Credit cards have always had great success…… [Read More]
Most recently he held the position of Vice President of Marketing and Product Management at Whopper Systems, a developer of PACS medical imaging and information management software. John defined the product portfolio and roadmap, managed strategic partnerships and was instrumental in the company's growth and eventual acquisition by Eastman Kodak Health Imaging. John holds a B.Sc in General Science (Physics) from Tel-Aviv University and is currently in his second year of studies at the McMaster Graduate School of Business.
Chief Medical Officer - Michelle Pfeiffer, M.D.
Michelle is a 5th year resident in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the McMaster University Medical Center. Michelle co-founded and is Vice President of Societal Resources, a company with diverse health care interests ranging from import/export of medical instruments to diabetes education in the United States and serving as a liaison between Medical Bandages and the Bosnian Ministry of Health. Michelle also helped design…… [Read More]
This example from Gilbert's book better illustrates our discussion of "constructivism" in class. As discussed, constructivism suggests that we actively construe much of our experience. The "reality" is filtered through our minds based on our wishes, expectations, goals, and mood. Also, what we believe to be real is a combination of reality (sensation) and how we interpret that reality (perception) ("Social Cognition"; "Constructing Reality: hat is and hat was"). hen Gilbert's respondents say that they would be devastated two years after the death of their child, they construct the future based on their mood and what they feel presently (Gilbert also refers to this as "presentism"). The thought of the death of their child affects their mood and their mood in turn influences their construction of the future (the "reality"). Their construction of the future is not totally inaccurate but is a combination of reality and their interpretations. As Gilbert…… [Read More]
e all delight in Don Giovanni's 'badness,' Leporello's actions suggest. Don Giovanni does what many of us wish we could do, but dare not. The Don loves women and leaves them, without any care for social conventions. hile Leporello's decision to not engage in transgressions with women may be class-based in some instances, even the Don's higher-born counterparts do not openly defy conventional sexual wisdom to the same degree as he does. The celebratory and openly joyous nature of the "Madamina" aria is a kind of celebration of sexuality members of the audience may wish to engage in, but do not. Despite the literal word-painting of the appearance of the blondes and brunettes, there is a stark contrast between the 'mind in the gutter' literal wordings of Leporello's leering commentary with the agile beauty of Mozart's music.
Elvira is silent throughout the aria, conveying her sense of resistance and disgust.…… [Read More]
isk esillience" concepts Operations Process Management examine statement: Preventive maintenance viewed process maintaining "health" a machine. Using health care analogy, explain differences tradeoffs breakdown maintenance, preventive maintenance total productive maintenance, detailed case study required apply theory model concept.
The importance of preventive maintenance
The emergent challenges facing economic agents have created a context in which the machineries and the equipments are no longer perceived as the primary source of income, nor as the operational focus of the economic agents. Today, entrepreneurs strive to attain their organizational goals through the satisfaction of the customer needs, through the motivation of the employees, through the pleasing of the community or through the creation of value for the shareowners.
In such a context, the emphasis placed on the purchase, replacement and functioning of the organizational machineries has decreased. But much like a paradox, despite the decreased investments in machineries, the company and…… [Read More]
history of the 1920's, a colorful era of tycoons, gangsters, bohemians and inventors. Areas covered include the arts, news and politics, science and humanities, business and industry, society fads and sports. The bibliography includes fives sources, with five quotations from secondary sources, and footnotes.
The 1920's are commonly referred to as the 'Roaring Twenties', an appropriate title for a decade that did indeed roar out of the Victorian Era. Gone were the corsets and up went the skirt hems as flapper girls bared their legs and speakeasies with bathtub gin dominated the nightlife.
Tycoons became America's royalties while bohemian lifestyles bore the twentieth century's most influential era of art and literature. Inventions brought us into the modern age of convenience and history making events.
The twenties began with a serious but short-lived post-war recession, following World War 1.
Yet, by the mid-twenties, business and industry had created legends that have…… [Read More]
Communication Issues and Differences
Discuss the common communications issues that exist between business and IT. Provide examples from your organization if available to illustrate the impact of these issues. Discuss methods for avoiding these issues.
Information Technology departments often have a substantially different communication cultures and styles than business related departments such as finance or accounting, because of IT's difference of short-term organizational priorities. Although all departments within an organization ideally share the same vision of profit and expansion as the result of success an innovation, communication conflicts can occur when, for example, an IT department wishes to conduct a costly testing procedure upon a new system that the finance department deems unnecessary. hat seems necessary from a technical point-of-view seems financially spurious to one who does not understand the necessary software protocols of a new system's evolving development and lifecycle.
Likewise, when a HR department wishes to revise department…… [Read More]
Libraries and Newspaper Preservation
Double Fold -- the Book that Shook the World of Librarians
The man whose name has become "mud" in the domain of librarians the world over is also a novelist, journalist, founder / head of a non-profit corporation known as "American Newspaper epository" (AN), and "library activist"; his real name is Nicholson Baker, and the book that brought so much attention to him, and to the practice of some libraries to destroy newspaper archives, is Double Fold: Libraries and the Assault on Paper.
It all began in 1993 for Baker, as he explains in the Preface to his award-winning book, when he was writing a piece for The New Yorker, and, while interviewing librarians around the country, " ... found out that the card catalogs were being thrown out everywhere. I grew less cheerful, and the essay grew longer," he wrote (vii).
And then, after establishing…… [Read More]
In addition to the America's, your company also did well in the European market.
The company was able to fortify its No. 2 annual share position. In calendar 2003, your company held a 10.5% market share compared to 9.6% market share in 2002 ("Dell Annual Report 2004"). In deed the company's globel presence is increasing at a remarkable rate.
In 2004 your company's Gross margin as a percentage of net revenue increase to 18.2%, compared to 17.9% in 2003 and 17.7% in 2002("Dell Annual Report 2004"). In addition, your company's cost savings initiative drove the year-over-year improvement for fiscal 2004 and 2003 ("Dell Annual Report 2004").
The company also made a concerted effort to improve margins by implementing four main cost reduction initiatives ("Dell Annual Report 2004"). These cost reduction initiatives affect warranty costs, manufacturing costs, design costs, and operating expenses ("Dell Annual Report 2004"). In addition, the cost savings…… [Read More]
The research found that 86% of hard-of-hearing people find muzak annoying; 34% of the general public in the NOP survey expressed their dislike of it while 36% of the general public said that they never notice background music. ("Research Carried Out by NOP...") Age too was found to be an important factor in how a person feels about background music as 45% of the 45- to 54-year-olds surveyed found piped music to be annoying compared to 21% of the 15- to 24-year-olds. (Ibid.)
Background music is particularly annoying for hard of hearing people since it drowns out important sounds such as speech and announcements for them. Even those using hearing aids find muzak problematic as most hearing aids amplify all sounds equally, making speech and background music become very hard to distinguish.(Ibid.)
The worst places for background music, according to a majority of the people who find piped music annoying,…… [Read More]