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George Eastman -- History of
Words: 1879 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 99470809
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However, Eastman needed him for the roller project, and together, they persisted.

In 1885, the Eastman-Walker Roll Holder received a patent. It revolutionized photography, allowing amateur photographers to take up to 50 photographs in an hour, and did away with the huge camera boxes and heavy glass plates of the era.

In 1885, to get rid of Walker's temper tantrums, but because he was a major stockholder, Eastman assigned him to manage the London office of Kodak. Walker introduced Eastman to the Dickmans of London in 1889. Several years later, as Walker's business sense drove the London office into the ground, and as Eastman finally tired of Walker's continual grumbling, Eastman fired him and replaced him with George Dickman.

How important was Walker to Eastman and the success of the Kodak company? He co-invented, with Eastman, one of the most successful creations that drove the profitability of the Kodak Company…


Ackerman, C. George Eastman. Frederick, MD: Beard Books, 1930.

Brayer, E. George Eastman: A Biography. Baltimore, MD.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Goldman, P.B. "George Eastman 1854-1932." Various. MonkeyShines on Great Inventors. Toledo, OH: Great Neck Publishing, 1997. 69-70.

Johnston, P. "Exposing History: George Eastman." History Today (peer-reviewed) (1989): 3-4, Volume 39, Issue 12.

P& G Case How Should P& g's
Words: 1155 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 95335031
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A major weakness that can be mitigated for P&G is that of copycat and "me too" products that erode the prestige of the brand. When margins are high competitors tend to enter the market. The industry that P&G operates in is fairly easy to enter. There are many substitutes for Tide as there are many substitutes for Coke. P&G must be very careful to maintain the prestige and quality of the brand so that competitors can not erode its influence on consumers.

Compare the strengths and weaknesses of P&G's resources and capabilities to that of Eastman Kodak (Case 7). These companies are in very different industries. How does this affect strategic analysis of resources and capabilities?

The first major strength of P&G relative to Kodak is its margins and cost structure. P&G has the benefit of increasing earnings without having a corresponding increase in capital expenditures. Eastman Kodak however, as…


1) "P&G 2010 Annual Report." P&G 2010 AR Letter: Brand Building, Competitive Advantage. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. .

2) "Procter & Gamble Co. (PG) | Statement of Financial Position, Assets." Stock Analysis on Net. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. .

3) Stempel, Jonathan, and Liana B. Baker. "Photography Pioneer Kodak Files for Bankruptcy." Reuters. Thomson Reuters, 19 Jan. 2012. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. .

Stories of Change
Words: 1306 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9976991
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Change management initiatives of HP, IBM, Kodak, and McDonald's

Kotter's Model

Although it is said that the only constant in business is change, the need for change has thwarted many potential corporate superstars of the recent past, including Hewlett Packard, IBM, Kodak, and McDonald's. Although these companies were able to deal with the changes demanded by exterior economic circumstances and internal corporate pressures with varying degrees of success, all met with roadblocks on their way to pursuing change. Kotter's model for successful change suggests that all change entails a certain amount of urgency; a period of coalition building during the pre-change process; the need to create a vision for the change; communicating that vision; removing obstacles; creating short-term wins; building on the change; and permanently anchoring that change in the corporation's culture (Kotter's 8-step change model, 2013, Mind Tools).

HP: Three significant errors

However, in the case of HP, critical…


Adamy, J. (2007). For McDonald's, it's a wrap. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved: 

Kotter's 8-step change model. (2013). Mind Tools. Retrieved:

Change Using Kotter's 8 Steps the Three
Words: 1571 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 66692477
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Using Kotter's 8 steps, the three most significant errors made out of all the change stories presented were: McDonald's failure to create urgency when it implemented its initial menu changes; Kodak's failure to communicate its vision for change; and Fiorina's failure to form a powerful coalition prior to the merger between HP and Compaq Computer Corp. However, it is important to keep in mind that Kotter's approach may not best describe organizational change; its popularity may be more attributable to its usable format than from any evidence that Kotter's approach to change management is superior to competing approaches (Appelbaum et al., 20120).

McDonald's made half-hearted efforts to respond to consumer demands for healthier menu options. However, at that time, it had not seen any reduction in profits because of the perceived lack of nutritional value of its offerings and was not committed to expanding beyond its traditional fast-food repertoire.…


Applebaum, S., Habashy, S., Malo, J., & Shafiq, H. (2012). Back to the future: Revisiting

Kotter's 1996 change model, Journal of Management Development, 31(8), 764-782.

Palmer, I., Dunford, R., & Akin, G. (2009). Managing organizational change: A multiple perspectives approach, 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill.

Parker, D., Verlinden, A., Nussey, R., Ford, M., & Pathak, R.D. (2013). Critical evaluation of project-based performance management: Change intervention integration, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 62(4), 407-419.

Recommendation of Daniel a Carp as a Guest Speaker
Words: 769 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35715434
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Daniel a. Carp as guest lecturer

From: Cathi Bea, Assistant

Based upon his credentials as chairman, president and chief executive officer at Eastman Kodak Company, I would recommend considering Daniel A. Carp as a candidate to lecture the MBA students at Daniel University. Indeed, the many accomplishments and leadership, and speaking skills displayed by Mr. Carp appear to make him a choice from which this University can profit.


Daniel A. Carp shows great tenacity in his career, as well as exceptional skill in business and public speaking. Beginning his illustrious career as statistical analyst during 1970, he used his skill and learning to work up to increasingly responsible positions. Following several management positions within the company, Mr. Carp was elected as a member of the Board of Directors in December of 1997, after which he was promoted to president and chief executive officer. He served in…

Newsbytes News Network, Nov 15, 2000 database:

The Eastman Kodak Company,

The Industry Standard, July 9, 2001 database:

Marketing Strategy Plan Firm Chosen
Words: 2585 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72002294
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Those proposals included broadening its vital presence, and strong growth, in commercial markets and health imaging, refocusing research and development dollars; speeding investments in commercial markets; and taking over other companies and technologies to enlarge Kodak's portfolio of digital products and services.

On the force of its taking over Kodak Versamark and NexPress, Kodak's Graphic Communication Group is piling a portfolio of major variable-date printing equipment providers. Kodak's Digital and Film Imaging Systems business persists to prove its success in digital markets. In 2003, Kodak's share of the consumer digital camera market went up to No. 4 across the world, making the strong acceptance of the Kodak Easyshare range of cameras. Kodak the sole company coming in the Top 5 also ranks No. 2 in digital camera sales in America. Following just 8 months after entering the snapshot printer market in April 2003, Kodak claimed the top slot and persists…


Eastman Kodak. . Retrieved from Accessed on 4 June, 2005

Health, Safety, and Environment 2004 Annual Report: Employee Training an Important Practice at Kodak. Eastman Kodak Company. Retrieved at . Accessed on 4 June, 2005

Introduction. Retrieved at /U.S./en/corp/kodakHistory/index.shtml. Accessed on 4 June, 2005

Kodak Reports Significant Progress in Digital Growth Strategies. 22 September, 2004. Retrieved at  on 4 June, 2005

Marketing Strategies Planning Implementation &
Words: 3342 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95689371
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Kodak decided to implement this initiative after conducting market research on the costs of printing at home. According to a study by InfoTrends, the greatest obstacle to printing at home is the cost of ink and supplies (Kodak, 2007). Another printer from the new line, the Kodak EasyShare 5300 offers a 3-inch color LCD display that enables photo viewing and cropping directly from the printer, with a memory card slot that provides an additional quick and simple way to print digital pictures without a PC. Other printers in the new line consist of printers geared toward home-office users. In this way Kodak maintained competitive with other photo companies offering the same products. Kodak's main marketing strategy is that the company is producing a less-expensive product with few frills that still fits its customers' needs. This allows Kodak to create a cheaper product that consumers love but competitors don't want to…


Ailawadi, K., Borin, N., Farris, P. (1995). Market Power and Performance: A Cross-Industry Analysis of Manufacturers and Retailers. Journal of Retailing,(71)(3): 211-248.

Blair, R. & LaFontaine, F. (2005). The Economics of Franchising. Cambridge Brandt, M. (2000). Introducing New Products. Retrieved November 12, 2007, at .

Cuneo, a. (2006). A Cingular Waste. Advertising Age. (May).

Christensen, C. & Anthony, S. (2007). Will Kodak's New Strategy Work?.

Digital Imaging in the Hospital
Words: 2187 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43212326
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It uses a great deal of expensive and cutting-edge technology, and none of this is cheap. hile DR can do a great deal for a hospital radiology department, that department also must have the funds available to support what needs to be purchased and accomplished where DR is concerned if the department chooses to use this technology.

Image Quality

Image quality, other than cost, is quite probably the largest issue that is faced by those that wish to use this new technology. Therefore, it is important to discuss and compare the differences between the image quality of CR and the image quality of DR, so that more can be understood regarding the differences between them. One study looked at the plate readers that are used for CR images, and found that there were enough statistically significant differences between different plate readers as to indicate that there may be problems with…

Works Cited

Cesar, LJ. 1997. Computed radiography: its impact on radiographers. Radiologic Technology.

Daniels, C. 1998. The benefits of digital radiography. Radiologic Technology.

Demonstrated Clinical Benefits and Competitive Prices to Drive Digital Radiography Market. 2004. BusinessWire.

FUJIFILM Computed Radiography for Mammography Progresses From Market Entrant to Market Leadership Worldwide. 2002. PR Newswire.

Log in to Www Cengagebrain My User ID
Words: 1642 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53980039
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LOG IN TO www.cengagebrain.. MY USE ID IS

The first of five key objectives for Eastman Kodak that encompasses the operational, financial, human resource aspects of the business is to utilize the Cloud and elastic computing to provision its own resources. Many of the physical locations that this company operates can use elastic computing and any variety of software, platforms, and infrastructure provided as a service to reduce critical operations and maintenance costs. Instead of having all of these resources in an on-premise physical environment, the company can reduce expenses by paying for these resources on demand with computer resources that are available as such (Harper, 2014). The second objective for Kodak Eastman would be to issue as many of its products and services as possible via the cloud. In this sense, the company could actually become a cloud service provider that can issue many of the critical requirements for…


Hill, C.W., Jones, G.R. (2014). Strategic Management Cases: An Integrated Approach. New York: Cengage Learning.

Harper, J. (2014). The business value of cognitive computing. Retrieved from 

Harper, J. (2014). Capitalizing on cognitive computing. Retrieved from 

Silver, C. (2014). Why web 3.0, the semantic web, will be even more disruptive than web 1.0.  Retrieved from

Art Museum Review the George
Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8690500
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Splashes of color like red and several shades of blue are added to the collage in a "dragonfly, wing-like" formation. A cutout photograph of a boy is pasted on the "wing" of a lighter shade of blue, perhaps to note a sense of calm to his surroundings.

The Hawkins' exhibit will consist of 80 objects, a retrospective of his nearly a quarter of a century career. The work is described as "at its core, about the pleasure of intense looking." Third mind is described as referring to another piece of Hawkins' work, "ichard Hawkins: Of two minds simultaneously," which means to be undecided, uncertain or unsure, the description states. Hawkins is aware of the duplicity that this body of work creates, which is stated to be intentional.

The Art Institute of Chicago was founded in 1879 as a school and museum. The museum holds art from African-American artists to silk…


1. The Art Institute of Chicago. "The Art Institute of Chicago: Exhibitions." 2 December 2010 the Art Institute of Chicago 2010. .

2. The Art Institute of Chicago. "The Art Institute of Chicago: Exhibitions." 2 December 2010. The Art Institute of Chicago 2010. .

3. George Eastman House. "Current Exhibitions • George Eastman House." 2 December 2010. George Eastman House 2000-2010. .

4. George Eastman House. "Photographs by Jessica Lange • George Eastman House." 2 December 2010. George Eastman House 2000-2010. .

Technology of Polaroid an Analysis
Words: 1419 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14737152
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The first was instant photography, where both photographer (and human subject) could sample their image immediately. The second was digital photography, with a different -- and less expensive -- type of instant image.

Garn observes that Polaroid's instant film led the way to an even more immediate film processing technique: the digital image. "Ironically, this alternative hastened the demise of Polaroid" (Garn).

Current Status of the Technology

The current status of Polaroid technology is questionable. ith the rise of digital filmmaking and photography -- Polaroid, once at the height of the photography industry, has plummeted. In the 70s, Polaroid had the SX-70, "the first integrated camera and film system [that allowed] the pictures to develop outside the camera by themselves" ("Polaroid Corporation"). Kodak followed with its EK-4 and EK-6 after severing ties with Polaroid. Law suits followed. Polaroid eventually won $925 million in damages as a result of infringement by…

Works Cited

"About Impossible." The Impossible Project. Web. 13 July 2011.

Bray, Hiawitha. "Polaroid shutting 2 Mass. Facilities, laying off 150." Boston Globe. 8

Feb 2008. Web. 13 July 2011.

Garn, Andrew. "Polaroid: Instant Joy." A.M. Richard Fine Art. 2010. Web. 13 July

Hearts Desire a Case Study
Words: 2469 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 96308296
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changing nature of digital printing, info-imaging, and to determine the steps Heart's Desire Printing and Design Co. must take in order to remain viable and profitable in the competitive business printing marketplace. Until the recent years, upgrades at the company have involved purchases of printing presses, which may have included computerized controls. Computers have been utilized in the different debarments for separate functions. Accounting and invoicing were handled by the accounting department. Sales, reorders, and CRM were handled by the sales staff. This staff each has the use of computers on their desks, to automate the day-to-day business functions. The art department is using Mac-based machines for graphic design. ut because the computer equipment in the rest of the office is PC windows based, the task of file sharing, and cross platform communication is cumbersome.

This plan will investigate the marketplace demand for expanding the digital info-imaging services, and how…


Convergence of imaging and IT is important to industry growth. (2001) Eastman Kodak Co. Accessed 18 May 2003, /U.S./en/corp/pressReleases/pr20020923-01.shtml.

Kim, DH 1993. "The Link between Individual and Organizational Learning." Sloan Management Review 34 (4): 37-50.

Peck, Gretchen, (2003)Digital Printing: New Opportunities Revealed

Understanding the Convergence is a Key to Success. Digital Output" Accessed 18 May 2003)

Inappropriate use of the terms "noncontingent reinforcement" and "differential reinforcement of other behaviors"

Shakespeare would not have anticipated this issue -- labels for procedures when he wrote "What is in a name, a rose with any other would smell as sweet." The controversy is not about the effect of the procedure but rather relates to if the applied behavior analysis on the use of the terms 'noncontingent reinforcement' -- NC and 'differential reinforcement of other behaviors' -- DO are appropriate and the definitions of the process. The irony is that there is no dispute in the effectiveness of the processes but if the use of the terms is confusing and if the definition of reinforcement is contingent on behavior. The question then is if the issue will be dead and if it can be shown that an alternate name may clear the confusion especially with regard to the term 'contingent…


Carr, James E; Severtson, Jamie M. (2005) "On the Appropriateness of the Term

"Noncontingent Reinforcement" European Journal Of Behavior Analysis, vol. 21, no. 6, pp: 21 -- 24.

Kodak, Tiffany; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Romaniuk, Cathryn. (2003) "A comparison of differential reinforcement And Noncontingent Reinforcement For The Treatment Of A Child's multiply Controlled Problem behavior Behavioral Interventions" Behav. Intervent, vol. 18, no, 1: 267 -- 278.

Poling, Alan; Normand, Matthew. (1999) "Noncontingent Reinforcement:An Inappropriate

Report on Human Resources
Words: 2557 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54961918
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Human Resources

Domestic and International Human Resources

Adler (1990) emphasizes the importance of the international experience in the business world. The developing technologies between the time of Adler's presentation and 2004 has made this all the more prominent. When distinguishing between domestic and international human resources then, it is important to note that the one seldom goes before the other, while the domestic human resources paradigm has developed over a far longer time than international human resources. Adler (1990) explains that there has been an evolution in the business world from domestic human resources to international or global human resources. This has to be taken into account when business is conducted both on the local and international level.

When a company is domestically orientated, the product or service remains focused on the domestic market. Thus, research and development, as well as marketing occur on the domestic level. With a centralized…


Adler, Nancy J. (1990). "Globalization and Human Resource Management: Strategic International Human Resource Development" Faculty of Management Mcgill University, April 20. 

Baumann, M.A. (2003). "Training, rewards help convince workers to stay." Hotel & Motel Management, December 8. Internet Database:

Bentley, Ross. (2002). "Barriers to flexible working." Computer Weekly, May 30. Internet Database:

Berta, Dina (2003). "Human resources: offering more to obtain, retain the best workers: Emphasis on leadership development, team building and diversity" Nation's Restaurant News, August 18. Internet Database:

H-1B Shortage in Today's Society
Words: 10207 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 8476703
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To protect themselves, many Americans chose to avoid working with or becoming friends with those who immigrated. A lack of trust permeated everything that the Americans did in regards to the immigrants, at least with the men. This was not always true of the women, as they often got along together and shared the trials and difficulties of raising families. However, many men who owned shops and stores would not hire an immigrant laborer (Glazer, 1998).

They believed that immigrants took jobs away from people in the U.S., and they did not want to catch any diseases that these immigrants might have brought with them. The general attitude during this time period was that immigrants were so different from Americans that they could never mesh into one society, but that attitude has obviously changed, as today America is a mix of all kinds of people (Glazer, 1998; Sowell, 1997).



13 MEXUS 45, P52

21 BYE J. Pub. L. 153 P. 157

U.S.C. Section 1101(a)(15)(F)(i) (2006

U.S.C. Section 1184(g)(1)(a)(i) (2000

Atomic Testing Though Modern People
Words: 11346 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 33269463
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The First Nuclear Test

Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.

This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…


Adams, Cecil. 1984. "Did John Wayne die of cancer caused by a radioactive movie set?" The Straight Dope.  (Accessed August 19, 2008).

American Cancer Society. 2006. "Radiation exposure and cancer."  (Accessed August 19, 2008).

Ball, Howard. 1996. "Downwind from the bomb." The New York Times.  (Accessed August 19, 2008).

Brodersen, Tom. 2002. "Compensation available to fallout cancer victims." Sharlot Hall

Ps of Marketing of the
Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47826287
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S. And throughout Europe, Panasonic painstakingly interviewed each American photography store dealer and distributor they could. This resulted in the SL series of cameras they pioneered and eventually dominated the market with (Johansson, Nonaka, 1987). Panasonic had transformed their customer listening systems into a new product development platform with the ability to transform an entire market. They successfully penetrated the U.S. market and took huge amounts of sales from Kodak as a result (Johansson, Nonaka, 1987).

A third example is the continued development of the netbook and tablet PC. Lenovo purchased IBM's PC business in 2005 and quickly re-vamped the entire product line to be more aligned to the needs of the Asian market (Millson, Wilemon, 2009). The result has been continued market share growth and the launch of a state-of-the-art tablet PC that rivals the iPad, using an Intel-based processor however running Windows operating system internals. This was all…


Badri, M.A., Davis, D.L., & Davis, D.F. (1995). Decision support for global marketing strategies: The effect of country of origin on product evaluation. The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 4(5), 49-64.

Domzal, T.J., & Unger, L.S. (1987). Emerging positioning strategies in global marketing. The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 4(4), 23-23.

Gabrielsson, P., Gabrielsson, M., Darling, J., & Luostarinen, R. (2006). Globalizing internationals: Product strategies of ICT manufacturers. International Marketing Review, 23(6), 650-671.

Johansson, J.K., & Nonaka, I. (1987, Market research the Japanese way. Harvard Business Review, 65(3), 16-16.

Radiography Digital Radiography Is a
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11298504
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(Computed Radiography Digital Solutions)

The advantages of the system can be numerous. One of them is better image quality, wherein better trabecular details would be seen; another advantage is that there is absolutely no need for retakes. This would save time and money, as well as avoid additional radiation for the patient. There will also be no loss of films, because there is no danger of these images being misplaced or lost, unlike as in the case of conventional x-rays. It is also possible to obtain multiple images with one single exposure, and the images can be manipulated according to the need of the attending physician/s. In addition, it is also possible to obtain multiple images on one film, and images can also be provided on medium other than film, like for example, on a CD, on paper, or they can even be viewed on a monitor. These are some…

Antitrust Case Against Apple
Words: 1061 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31914189
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Antitrust Laws: Apple's Case

Competition is a vital element of any vibrant marketplace. Thanks to competition, both businesses and individuals get to benefit from lower prices, increased product variety, higher-quality commodities, and greater innovation. Antitrust laws are meant to ensure that consumers are protected from unfair business practices and anticompetitive mergers, and that consequently, effective levels of competition are created and sustained in the economy.

Antitrust laws differ from country to country and, at times, from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. In the U.S., antitrust laws include the Sherman Act of 1890 and the Federal Trade Commission and Clayton Acts, both of 1914 (FTC, 2014). The Sherman Act, whose violation is punishable by criminal law, outlaws any attempts to monopolize a market or restrain trade through rig bids, divide markets, or price fixation (FTC, 2014). The Federal Trade Commission Act, on the other hand, illegalizes any '"unfair methods of competition' and 'unfair…


Carmody, T. (2012). DOJ Files Antitrust Suit against Apple and Five Publishers over E-Book Pricing. Wired. Retrieved 1 March 2014 from 

Catan, T., Trachtenberg, J. & Bray, C. (2012). U.S. Alleges E-Book Scheme. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 1 April 2014 from 

FTC. (2014). The Antitrust Laws. Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved 1 March 2014 from 

Herther, N. (2013). Apple Gambles on Winning E-Book Antitrust Suit. Information Today. Retrieved 1 April 2014 from

Strategic Management Concept of Outsourcing
Words: 2661 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71713513
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Strategic Management Concept: Outsourcing

Strategic Management: Ourtousrcing

Definition of outsourcing

Outsourcing is defined as the contracting another person or company to perform a specialized function (Lacity and Hirschheim, 1993). Outsourcing can also be defined as contracting out a business process to a third party. In the current business environment, all business will outsource in some way. The term outsourcing not only refers to the large contracting of firms to perform specific functions, but also refers to any non-core activity that a business contracts out to another company. For example, an insurance company could outsource its janitorial operations to another company, which would ensure that the insurance company can focus on its core business. Outsourcing ensures that a business can concentrate on its core business and its overall strategy (Grossman and Helpman, 2005). The firms contracted to perform or offer the service have the necessary expertise and have specialized in the…


CHAN, F.T., KUMAR, V. & TIWARI, M.K. 2009. The relevance of outsourcing and leagile strategies in performance optimization of an integrated process planning and scheduling model. International Journal of Production Research, 47, 119-142.

DUHAMEL, F., GUTIERREZ-MARTONEZ, I., PICAZO-VELA, S. & LUNA-REYES, L.F. 2012. The Key Role of Interfaces in IT Outsourcing Relationships. International Journal of Information Technologies and Systems Approach (IJITSA), 5, 37-56.

FEENSTRA, R.C. & HANSON, G.H. 1996. Globalization, outsourcing, and wage inequality. National Bureau of Economic Research.

FEENSTRA, R.C. & HANSON, G.H. 1999. The impact of outsourcing and high-technology capital on wages: estimates for the United States, 1979-1990. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 907-940.

Looking Into Logistics Cost Benefits
Words: 2521 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45679960
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Logistics Cost Benefits

Drake Nash

LMT 305 Cost and Benefits Analysis in everse Logistics-- Fall 2015


When it comes to a company that moves any sort of raw material, products or shipments in general, the subject of logistics is a very important one. Whether one is speaking of forward logistics or reverse logistics, there should be a fairly constant amount of cost/benefit analysis used and harnessed so as to maximize profit and logistical capacity. Indeed, there is almost always more than one way to do something form a logistical standpoint but the benefits of each method as well as the costs should always be assessed to make sure the proper method is used. Both cost and benefits need to be taken into full account because both matter a great deal.

Logistics Cost/Benefit

Some people might be confused by forward logistics as compared to reverse logistics. However, the subjects are…


Andrade, R., Vieira Junior, M., Lucato, W., & Vanalle, R. (2013). Reverse logistics and competitiveness: a brief review of this relationship. InPOMS ANNUAL CONFERENCE, 24th.

Choudhary, A., Sarkar, S., Settur, S., & Tiwari, M. (2015). A carbon market sensitive optimization model for integrated forward -- reverse logistics. International Journal Of Production Economics, 164433-444. doi:10.1016/j.ijpe.2014.08.015

Fernie, J., Sparks, L. (2009). Logistics & Retail Management: Emerging issues and new challenges in the retail supply chain. London: Kogan Page Limited.

Fortes, J. (2009). Green supply chain management: A literature. Otago Management Graduate Review, 7(1), 51-62.

Ethical Spending of Corporate Profits
Words: 1024 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 36299606
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Corporate Social esponsibility

As the title in the header suggests, this report is about corporate social responsibility. What shall be included in this report is a brief description of what is meant by corporate social responsibility, the contribution to the subject made by the article chosen for this report, a discussion of why the article is important as it relates to understanding and applying the knowledge related to corporate social responsibility, the review of an additional article that does much the same and a conclusion that ties it all together. While some may dismiss corporate social responsibility as needless and overly reactionary, there is such a thing as being both a good business person and a good steward towards society even if people widely disagree as to what the minimum standards should be.


Business News Daily offers a good definition and summary of what corporate social responsibility is along…


Fallon, N. (2015). What is Corporate Social Responsibility?. Business News Daily. Retrieved 24 October 2015, from 

Porter, E. (2014). Motivating Corporations to Do Good. Retrieved 24 October 2015, from 

Time. (2012). Why Companies Can No Longer Afford to Ignore Their Social Responsibilities -- Retrieved 24 October 2015, from

The Effect of Reinforcer Magnitude on Response Rate
Words: 2164 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 53470093
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Reinforcement Magnitude and Response Rate

Original research is detailed within this document about the correlation between reinforcement magnitude and response rate. Literature indicates there is a positive correlation between these two phenomena, which served as the hypothesis for this experiment. Participants were randomly assigned colored tokens that correlated to amounts of candy for correctly stringing together beads. The results indicate that the more candy they were given (which functioned in this study as research magnitude), the longer more prolonged their response rate was -- because they opted to continue with the clinical trials. These results served to underscore the fact that there is a causal relationship between reinforcement magnitude and response rate consistent with literature on this topic.


This paper will explore the phenomenon of reinforcer magnitude on response rate. t is attempting to determine if there is a correlation between the magnitude of reinforcement and the rate of…

In this new study conducted by Aaron J. Brownstein and Stanley S. (1968) three adult pigeons were the subjects; two schedules of reinforcement were simultaneously available during training time. Concurrent schedules were programmed by changeover-key procedure. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of relative reinforcement rate and changeover delay in response-independent concurrent schedules of reinforcement. Results showed that there is no change in a behavior.

These studies demonstrated the importance of the reinforcement effect in any research. Every study suggested that the dimension or magnitude of a reinforcer has a big impact on any dependent variable. It is very clear that reinforcement is a very effective approach to behavior modification and learning. For instance, Jenkins and Clayton (1948) demonstrated that reinforcement magnitude has a very significant effect upon the rate of response of pigeons. It could also be determined that superior performance of learning or preference assessment is obtained when the reinforcer is present for a longer period of time.

The effect of reinforcement quantity on response rates was measured. Multiple trials were done in order to obtain solid results. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the magnitude of a reinforcer will influence the time a participant will spend stringing beads. Based on previous research a strong correlation and a significant difference should be found on the results, since reinforcement magnitude is projected to have an effect on response rate.

Costing & Pricing Costing Decisions
Words: 1535 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 97119816
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Joint costing systems should bear in mind the legal constraints on the use of such systems, and should provide accurate information to managers in order to be most useful in the managerial accounting context.

Firms need to remain competitive, which indicates that the market will set prices to some degree. This implies that firms can make better decisions with respect to what projects/products they wish to pursue by understanding the cost structure of the product. If the product is not viable at the cost at which it can be produced, then the firm can improve profitability by dumping the product.

orks Cited:

Banham, R. (2000). Off target? CFO Magazine. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from

Frederick, S. (2011).

The persuasive power of opportunity costs. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from

Katz, D. (2002). Activity-based costing (ABC). CFO Magazine. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from

McKinsey & Co.…

Works Cited:

Banham, R. (2000). Off target? CFO Magazine. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from 

Frederick, S. (2011).

The persuasive power of opportunity costs. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from 

Katz, D. (2002). Activity-based costing (ABC). CFO Magazine. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from

David Carson When David Carson
Words: 1749 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49275025
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"Hopefully, I am evolving as an artist and a designer, and Digital Kitchen seems to be a place that [offers me the best] chance at getting to the next level" (Remson, 2002, p. 6).

There are always "next levels" for Carson. Looking at his design for the book the Architecture of Patterns, at first the eye sees the + signs and interprets them as crosses in a cemetery. A closer look and maybe they are just "X's" turned on their sides. Small, smaller, with a few very large + positioned on the cover. The book title is blurred and interrupted by the +'s. Carson's design for Quicksilver and Pukas Surfboards is rowdy; a surfboard shape is permeated with circles and a macrame-like swirl connecting to what could be a bow. it's bizarre, but it's pure Carson. The Bark catalog design uses fonts creatively, a patented Carson approach. "Born on the…

Works Cited

Adweek. "End of Print?" 44.42, (1994): p. 32.

Blackwell, Lewis, and Carson, David. The End of Print: The Grafik Design of David Carson.

San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2000.

Carson, David. "click: dcd work, bio, clients." Retrieved Nov. 17, 2010, from .

Local Economic Development in Porirua
Words: 3414 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47188932
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The local and regional councils that administer the Porirua City metropolitan area have different, but interrelated responsibilities that must be taken into account in formulating effective economic developmental initiatives as described in Table 1 below.

Table 1

espective esponsibilities and Areas of Interest for egional and Local Councils in New Zealand

Council Type

Description of esponsibilities and Areas of Interest

egional Councils

esponsible for the integrated management of natural and physical resources, management of natural resources such as water and soil.

Local Councils

esponsible for carrying out multiple functions that enable them, among other things, to promote development projects with the private sector; also responsible for land-use planning, subdivision, service delivery, etc.; however, local councils are not involved in educational, health and welfare matters and these remain in the domain of national government.

Source: Gouldson & oberts, p. 54

Therefore, local councils would be best suited for establishing priorities for…


Blair, J.P. & Carroll. (2009). Local economic development: Analysis, practices, and globalization. New York: Sage Publishing.

-. Social capital in local economic development. In Theories of local economic development:

linking theory to practice, J.E. Rowe (ed.) (2009), Auckland: Ashgate Publishing.

Colbert, E. (1997). The Pacific Islands: Paths to the present. Boulder, CO: Westview Press

Delimitations Today Modern Business Systems
Words: 20751 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 13650636
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A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…


American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-

Jacobs at p. 237.

Strategic and Innovative Marketing Future
Words: 2244 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36914406
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Since the generation with the highest birth-rate is reaching the retirement age, they are prone to travel more and lead to an increase demand for hotel rooms. (15%) j. Fast food outlets in emerging markets

The fast food industry is expected to register an increase during the following years, especially within emerging markets. Here are some factors that would generate the increase in demand for fast food products:

Increased interest from foreign investors which enter the emerging markets and strongly promote the products (45%)

Growing economies and wages, implying an increased focus on jobs, in the detriment of home cooking (35%)

Changing consumers needs (20%) k. Credit cards issued by financial institutions

Credit cards encompass products offered by banks or other financial institutions which allow their clients to use the bank's money and then pay them back at a previously specified interest rate. Credit cards have always had great success…


Reilly, M.D., Working Wives and Convenience Consumption, the Journal of Consumer Research, Volume 8, Number 4, March 1982

Williams, J., New Online Shopping Trends, WebPro News, September 2006, , last accessed on November 16, 2007

Prema, K., Faxes are Evolving (Trends in the Usage of Fax Machines), High Beam Research, March 2006

The Death of Film? Digital cameras claim the future, Financial Express, February 2006,,last  accessed on November 16, 2007

Science Business Plan Entry Science
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12129535
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Most recently he held the position of Vice President of Marketing and Product Management at Whopper Systems, a developer of PACS medical imaging and information management software. John defined the product portfolio and roadmap, managed strategic partnerships and was instrumental in the company's growth and eventual acquisition by Eastman Kodak Health Imaging. John holds a B.Sc in General Science (Physics) from Tel-Aviv University and is currently in his second year of studies at the McMaster Graduate School of Business.

Chief Medical Officer - Michelle Pfeiffer, M.D.

Michelle is a 5th year resident in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the McMaster University Medical Center. Michelle co-founded and is Vice President of Societal Resources, a company with diverse health care interests ranging from import/export of medical instruments to diabetes education in the United States and serving as a liaison between Medical Bandages and the Bosnian Ministry of Health. Michelle also helped design…

Stumbling on Happiness by Daniel
Words: 2361 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53788965
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This example from Gilbert's book better illustrates our discussion of "constructivism" in class. As discussed, constructivism suggests that we actively construe much of our experience. The "reality" is filtered through our minds based on our wishes, expectations, goals, and mood. Also, what we believe to be real is a combination of reality (sensation) and how we interpret that reality (perception) ("Social Cognition"; "Constructing Reality: hat is and hat was"). hen Gilbert's respondents say that they would be devastated two years after the death of their child, they construct the future based on their mood and what they feel presently (Gilbert also refers to this as "presentism"). The thought of the death of their child affects their mood and their mood in turn influences their construction of the future (the "reality"). Their construction of the future is not totally inaccurate but is a combination of reality and their interpretations. As Gilbert…

Works Cited

"Constructing Reality: What is and What was," lecture notes.

Gilbert, Daniel. Stumbling on Happiness. New York: Random House, 2006.

"Killing Us Softly 4: Advertising's Image of Women," Media Education Foundation, 2010.

"Person Perception," lecture notes.

Giovanni the Aria From Wolfgang
Words: 1944 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47695270
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e all delight in Don Giovanni's 'badness,' Leporello's actions suggest. Don Giovanni does what many of us wish we could do, but dare not. The Don loves women and leaves them, without any care for social conventions. hile Leporello's decision to not engage in transgressions with women may be class-based in some instances, even the Don's higher-born counterparts do not openly defy conventional sexual wisdom to the same degree as he does. The celebratory and openly joyous nature of the "Madamina" aria is a kind of celebration of sexuality members of the audience may wish to engage in, but do not. Despite the literal word-painting of the appearance of the blondes and brunettes, there is a stark contrast between the 'mind in the gutter' literal wordings of Leporello's leering commentary with the agile beauty of Mozart's music.

Elvira is silent throughout the aria, conveying her sense of resistance and disgust.…

Works Cited

Fisher, Burton D., ed. Mozart's Don Giovanni (translated from Italian and including music highlight transcriptions). 2002. Opera Journeys Libretto Series. Coral Gables, Florida.

"Madamina" from Don Giovanni. Sung by Luca Pisaroni. July 2011.

Retrieved from YouTube, November 2011:

Risk Resillience Concepts Operations Process Management Examine
Words: 1192 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 21925460
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isk esillience" concepts Operations Process Management examine statement: Preventive maintenance viewed process maintaining "health" a machine. Using health care analogy, explain differences tradeoffs breakdown maintenance, preventive maintenance total productive maintenance, detailed case study required apply theory model concept.

Operations management

The importance of preventive maintenance

The emergent challenges facing economic agents have created a context in which the machineries and the equipments are no longer perceived as the primary source of income, nor as the operational focus of the economic agents. Today, entrepreneurs strive to attain their organizational goals through the satisfaction of the customer needs, through the motivation of the employees, through the pleasing of the community or through the creation of value for the shareowners.

In such a context, the emphasis placed on the purchase, replacement and functioning of the organizational machineries has decreased. But much like a paradox, despite the decreased investments in machineries, the company and…


Roberts, J., 1997, Total productive maintenance, New Mexico State University,  last accessed on May 11, 2011

1999, MRC Bearings' TPM journey: from totally painted machines to taking pride in our machines, Maintenance Resources, last accessed on May 11, 2011

Business resilience, Janellis Business Consulting Services,  last accessed on May 11, 2011

Preventive maintenance, Reliability Engineering Resources,  last accessed on May 11, 2011

History of the 1920's
Words: 1472 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72964786
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history of the 1920's, a colorful era of tycoons, gangsters, bohemians and inventors. Areas covered include the arts, news and politics, science and humanities, business and industry, society fads and sports. The bibliography includes fives sources, with five quotations from secondary sources, and footnotes.

The 1920's are commonly referred to as the 'Roaring Twenties', an appropriate title for a decade that did indeed roar out of the Victorian Era. Gone were the corsets and up went the skirt hems as flapper girls bared their legs and speakeasies with bathtub gin dominated the nightlife.

Tycoons became America's royalties while bohemian lifestyles bore the twentieth century's most influential era of art and literature. Inventions brought us into the modern age of convenience and history making events.

The twenties began with a serious but short-lived post-war recession, following World War 1.

Yet, by the mid-twenties, business and industry had created legends that have…

Bryer, Jackson R. Edited. F. Scott Fitzgerald: Novels and Stories 1920-1922.

Library of America. September 2000. . (accessed 02-14-2002).

Communication Issues and Differences

Discuss the common communications issues that exist between business and IT. Provide examples from your organization if available to illustrate the impact of these issues. Discuss methods for avoiding these issues.

Information Technology departments often have a substantially different communication cultures and styles than business related departments such as finance or accounting, because of IT's difference of short-term organizational priorities. Although all departments within an organization ideally share the same vision of profit and expansion as the result of success an innovation, communication conflicts can occur when, for example, an IT department wishes to conduct a costly testing procedure upon a new system that the finance department deems unnecessary. hat seems necessary from a technical point-of-view seems financially spurious to one who does not understand the necessary software protocols of a new system's evolving development and lifecycle.

Likewise, when a HR department wishes to revise department…

Work Cited

Patterson, Beth & Steve Lindsey. (October 2000) Weighing Resources Technology can streamline workforce planning and cost analysis HR Magazine: 103.

Wiegers, Karl. (July 1994) "Creating a Software Engineering Culture." Originally Published in Software Development magazine. Process Impact Website. Retrieved 15 Feb 2005 at

Libraries and Newspaper Preservation Double Fold --
Words: 2424 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54761027
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Libraries and Newspaper Preservation

Double Fold -- the Book that Shook the World of Librarians

The man whose name has become "mud" in the domain of librarians the world over is also a novelist, journalist, founder / head of a non-profit corporation known as "American Newspaper epository" (AN), and "library activist"; his real name is Nicholson Baker, and the book that brought so much attention to him, and to the practice of some libraries to destroy newspaper archives, is Double Fold: Libraries and the Assault on Paper.

It all began in 1993 for Baker, as he explains in the Preface to his award-winning book, when he was writing a piece for The New Yorker, and, while interviewing librarians around the country, " ... found out that the card catalogs were being thrown out everywhere. I grew less cheerful, and the essay grew longer," he wrote (vii).

And then, after establishing…


Albanese, Andrew. "Duke Receives Baker's Archives." Library Journal 129.11 (2004):


Baker, Nicholson. Double Fold: Libraries and the Assault on Paper. New York: Random

House, 2001.

Dell Current Situation Goals Objectives
Words: 6047 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80945560
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In addition to the America's, your company also did well in the European market.

The company was able to fortify its No. 2 annual share position. In calendar 2003, your company held a 10.5% market share compared to 9.6% market share in 2002 ("Dell Annual Report 2004"). In deed the company's globel presence is increasing at a remarkable rate.

In 2004 your company's Gross margin as a percentage of net revenue increase to 18.2%, compared to 17.9% in 2003 and 17.7% in 2002("Dell Annual Report 2004"). In addition, your company's cost savings initiative drove the year-over-year improvement for fiscal 2004 and 2003 ("Dell Annual Report 2004").

The company also made a concerted effort to improve margins by implementing four main cost reduction initiatives ("Dell Annual Report 2004"). These cost reduction initiatives affect warranty costs, manufacturing costs, design costs, and operating expenses ("Dell Annual Report 2004"). In addition, the cost savings…


Balance Sheet (Dell Inc. Annual). 20 March 2005 at 

Cash Flows. 20 March 2005 (Dell Inc. Annual) at 

Dell Annual Report 2004" 20 March 2005. 

Dell Fiscal 2004 in Review." 20 March 2005

Piped Music Piped or Background
Words: 1120 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 488309
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The research found that 86% of hard-of-hearing people find muzak annoying; 34% of the general public in the NOP survey expressed their dislike of it while 36% of the general public said that they never notice background music. ("Research Carried Out by NOP...") Age too was found to be an important factor in how a person feels about background music as 45% of the 45- to 54-year-olds surveyed found piped music to be annoying compared to 21% of the 15- to 24-year-olds. (Ibid.)

Background music is particularly annoying for hard of hearing people since it drowns out important sounds such as speech and announcements for them. Even those using hearing aids find muzak problematic as most hearing aids amplify all sounds equally, making speech and background music become very hard to distinguish.(Ibid.)

The worst places for background music, according to a majority of the people who find piped music annoying,…

Works Cited

Braun, Josh. "Red Tape: That Kind of Muzak Don't Soothe the Soul." Daily Nexus.

November 19, 2001. June 15, 2005.

Hagenbaugh, Barbara. "Muzak thinks outside the box." USA TODAY. August 05, 2004. June 15, 2005. 

Muzak: Past, Present, and Future." 27th December 2000. June 15, 2005.

Systems Thinking Is a Way
Words: 2722 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11182706
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They must never become complacent and assume that they have considered all factors and can now relax, or they can slip into the "boiling frog" phenomenon: circumstances may turn so gradually negative that they do not notice the changes until they have large problems instead of small ones to solve (Beckford, 2002).


Just as the example of the soldiers at the bridge faced with a battle situation for which they had no previous experience, business leaders must expect the unexpected. If they create a culture of lifelong learning within their businesses, their staff and employees will always be open to looking at old facts in new ways, ready to find forward-thinking solutions. uch a company philosophy and structure can keep even the oldest company packed with fresh ideas and innovative solutions to the new problems they face.

Annotated Bibliography

Barker, Randolph T., and Camarata, Martin R. 1998. "The Role…

Swanson and Torrco discuss how the Human Resources Department must not only support but play an active part in a company's overall business strategy. Because of this they must be an integral part in any kind of systems thinking. The authors give multiple examples, such as the type of traning given to employees as well as their efforts to maintain the quality of employees' work. How such HR goals are achieved will have a profound effect on company culture and must be part of the company's overall plan.

Vogelsang-Coombs, Vera. 1997. "Governance Education: Helping City Councils Learn." Public Administration Review, Vol. 57.

This article tightly focuses on how one group can become dysfunctional -- city councils. The authors suggest ways city councils can learn to function more effectively. While it remains to be seen if city councils, as a group, would put in the time and effort to use systems thinking to improve their functioning, and whether dynamics within the group would or would not thwart such attempts, the article has a good discussion on "groupthink," a group phenomenon that blinds the group to lurking risks and dangers.