.several aspects of gene insertion may be more hazardous than traditional plant crossbreeding" (oseboro 2011). The memo came to light during the 1990s when a suit was brought against the FDA, arguing that allowing GMOs to be released into the market unlabeled "violated the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which mandates that new food additives be established safe through testing prior to marketing" (oseboro 2011). The suit was not successful.
However, even some food industry advocates believe that labeling GMOs might not necessarily be a negative step, given the fact that it has proven to be such a barrier between the U.S. And other nations, in terms of exporting American products. The EU is a large potential market, as is Latin America and other continents that do not allow GMOs to be sold. Labeling GMOs, it is hoped might make them more palatable to regulators. At present, current policies…… [Read More]
labeling of individuals is a method by which behaviour considered outside the norm can be categorized. While this may have some benefit to those categorizing the behaviour there is some question over what benefit it has to those being categorized.
ecker made reference to the nature of labeling in reference to deviant behaviour with his famous quote: "deviance is not a quality of the act the person commits, but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to an offender. The deviant is one to whom that label has successfully been applied; deviant behaviour is behaviour that people so label." While he relates it specifically to deviant behaviour it can be broadened to include anyone who is labeled, the point being that it is the labeler and not the labeled that is the focus.
With these people labeled as deviants of some type, whether it be…… [Read More]
Social Control and Deviance
How does this TV show present deviance?
'Tabboo' airs on National Geographic which shows stories of different people with deviant behaviors. It presents a complete biography along with the history of that particular behavior. One particular episode of deviant behavior that I witnessed in the program was about the Ethiopian Tribe in which beauty represented the strength of a woman. That strength was measured by the amount of scars that were present on the woman's body which were given through whipping. The program showed that in the Ethiopian tribe, a boy's sisters has to suffer before he can become a man, so the women encourage the whipper to whip them. The whole situation of whipping and suffering for a man in your family seemed very confusing but it was normal for the people in that tribe (ell 2012). Whipping is a negative action, but the program…… [Read More]
Labeling and Conflict Theory
Conflict theory is largely based upon a Marxist conception of human relations. It suggests that the definition of crime is created by social elites to bolster their social position. For example, for many years within the criminal justice system, the crime of using crack cocaine was penalized significantly more than the use of powder cocaine. Not coincidentally, a Marxist theorist would note, people living in the inner city were more likely to use the cheaper, crack alternative. Both drugs were equally dangerous and deleterious to society yet based upon social class, abusers were punished very differently. Conflict theorists regard crime as a subjective, class-based notion -- hence, an African-American person sitting at a 'whites only' lunch counter was considered a criminal in the south during the 1950s, despite the fact that such a law clearly violated the African-American's constitutional rights. Many actions considered crimes may actually…… [Read More]
Labeling Effects of First Juvenile Arrests
Labeling Juvenile First Offenders
Luberman, et al. (2014) studied the labeling effects of first juvenile arrests, which appear to take two primary forms: secondary deviance and secondary sanctioning. Using a robust quasi-experimental research design, the authors utilized a sample and structural aspects of a longitudinal study conducted by the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCH). The PHDCH longitudinal study conducted three waves of data collection at 3-year intervals with seven youth cohorts. The PHDCH selected a sample from 80 neighborhood clusters in the city of Chicago. The neighborhood clusters were stratified by seven categories of racial / ethnic composition and three levels of socio-economic status (high, medium, and low). Within the sampling unit of 80 neighborhood clusters, a sampling frame of 1,517 youth, from the 12-year-old to 15-year-old cohorts, were selected by simple random sampling.
In order to measure the re-arrest outcomes,…… [Read More]
Labeling Children: Gifted and Talented
New research suggests that complimenting children for their intelligence and academic performance may lead them to believe that good test scores and high grades are more important than learning and mastering something new (Mueller pp). According to research published in the American Psychological Association's Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, praising a child's scholastic aptitude is generally meant to boost the child's academic performance, however it actually leaves the child ill-prepared for coping with setbacks (Mueller pp).
Six studies of 412 fifth graders was conducted by psychologists Dr. Claudia M. Mueller and Dr. Carol S. Dweck of Columbia University (Mueller pp). The researchers compared the goals and achievement behaviors of children who had been praised for their intelligence with children who were praised for their effort and hard work under conditions of failure as well as success (Mueller pp).
The psychologists demonstrated, through their studies,…… [Read More]
Wine Fundamentals: French Generic Wine Labeling vs. Australian Wine Labeling and the Impact of Grape Variety Disclosure on estaurant Success
Introduction to Wine
The world of wine is exceedingly complicated, and to a layman, can appear equally overwhelming. egardless of one's own proficiency with wine, a relative fact remains true to anyone who wishes to drink it -- the bottle's label provides a gateway into what the customer is purchasing by providing the relative information necessary for a consumer to make a purchase choice. With so many options between red and white, still and sparkling, vintage and reserve, choosing a wine, especially for a casual buyer, can become a bit daunting. It is essential, then, for as much information as possible to be provided to that buyer.
Generic wine labels in France have no grape varieties printed, while varietal wine labels in Australia include the grape variety printed on the…… [Read More]
Launch of PDI Labeling in Australia
In many countries, packaged foods are labeled with the "Percentage Daily Intake" of nutrients available in the food. These thumbnail-like labels are provided to consumers to help them make informed dietary decisions when they shop. This nutritional labeling is not mandatory and is in addition to other nutritional information that is included in the nutrition information panel typically located on the back of packaged foods. The effectiveness of this type of labeling to support healthful food choices and eating habits is the focus of this brief.
Selection of Launch Approach
A top-down approach to promoting nutritional labeling is preferred because multiple instruments must be employed to increase consumer interest in healthy eating, and the labeling policy must be embedded in a comprehensive and robust promotional campaign. Perhaps more than policymakers, advertising agencies hold the key to successfully changing the minds of the public with…… [Read More]
Food Labeling Chaos
Do an online search for references to the Center for Science in the Public Interest. hat can you find out about this organization? here do they get their funding? ho do they answer to? hat is their mission? ho is on their board of directors? Based upon what you find, would you trust the nutrition information published by this organization?
The Center for Science in the Public Interest is a non-profit organization based in ashington, D.C. They were founded in 1971 and since the late 1970s they have been focused on issues of nutrition and the safety of food products. The group is funded both by private donors and through the sale of their newsletter, Nutrition Action Health Letter (Bennett & DiLorenzo 1998). According to their website, the mission of the organization is "to conduct innovative research and advocacy programs in health and nutrition, and to provide…… [Read More]
Unfortunately, no consumer can be 'forced' to read calorie labels in a correct fashion. A recent study by the Journal of the American Dietetic Association found "significant numbers of people surveyed indicated that they lacked either the knowledge or inclination to effectively use labels...it appears that a large portion of the population isn't interested in having (nutritional information)" (Cox 2007). In a 2004 Food and Agriculture survey, "one-third of all participants were unable to accurately target their daily calorie needs" and this was "based on an expansive definition of 1500-2500 kcals" while "31% of participants looked at calories but only 5% looked at serving size" (Cox 2007). Calorie totals mean little if a person does not understand that a serving of ice cream that is 260 calories is 1/4 of a pint.
There are some policies that could be implemented to address some of the 'head in the sand' factor…… [Read More]
label slp 1 OPM 500 for session long project, analyze OM perspectives organization. You choose list: 1. Walmart Costco 2. McDonald's 3. Amazon. 4. Dell 5. United Parcel Services For SLP paper, identify introduction, discussion, conclusion section: 1) The organization's main line business, 2) How inventory managed organization, 3) How inventory management practices improve customer satisfaction / reduce costs.
SLP 1 OPM 500
Wal-Mart is the greatest retailer in the United States and it has managed to gain and consolidate its strong competitive position as a result of a well developed and implemented strategic endeavor. Nevertheless, its business model has not always been successful and the economic agent has been faced with tremendous criticism. The organization has for instance been accused of exploiting its staff members, paying minimum wages and asking them to put in long hours. Also, the company was accused of sacrificing quality and responsibility in the name…… [Read More]
label slp 3 in section Session Long Project 'll estimate cost equity rate return company's shareholders 'require'. This important piece information top manager estimate important input effort determine action company add shareholders.
SLP 1 OPM 500
Wal-Mart is one of the greatest American companies and it has been received with both praises as well as criticism. The current endeavor nevertheless is more focused on the financial aspect of the organization, namely the cost of its equity. At a general level, the cost of equity is understood as "the return that stockholders require for a company" (Investopedia, 2011). In other words, it is the amount of money that the organization has to pay in order to reward the investments made by the shareowners.
The cost of capital is an important financial tool as it sits at the basis of efficient decision making. In other words, the cost of equity portraits whether…… [Read More]
The structure of yetta is similar to that of GLP-1 and performs the same functions. oth promote decreased appetite (Wilson).
Dr. Wysham was an observer at a study conducted on 20 Rockwood diabetic patients who were taking conventional diabetic medication for their uncontrolled blood sugar (Wilson 2005). She was not informed about their glucose levels for several months after the tests began. About two-thirds of the respondents were given different injectible doses of yetta to incorporate into their medication plan, while the rest were given placebos. All of them were instructed and trained to do the injections at certain times twice daily for a month. Then they were subjected to a physical exam. Dr. Wysham closely monitored their liver, kidney, blood counts, and other functions. She observed that the patients consistently lose weight while taking yetta. The average respondent-patient lost 15 pounds in the duration of the study, 5 lost…… [Read More]
If the impact was the result of government collusion against Hatfill, then many might believe that actual freedom can only be guaranteed by forcing the press to reveal those sources, so that corruption could be eliminated from the government. However, Martin does not even mention arguments like those found above. Instead, she touts the ideals of the free press, without any mention of who the press is meant to serve, the people, and without any look into the history of journalistic freedom in the United States.
I. Introduction: Martin's fails to adequately support her thesis, which is that the courts are using a new method, financial compulsion, to silence and intimidate journalists.
Martin's describes Toni Locy's predicament.
1. Judge Reggie alton, the judge from the Scooter Libby trial, is presiding over Hatfill's lawsuit.
2. alton has held Locy in contempt for failing to divulge sources.
3. Hatfill's sued the…… [Read More]
One of the most controversial issues in food politics today is the question of genetically modified organisms. Many consumers dispute whether such products are safe at all. But while the evidence regarding the safety of GMOs continues to be debated within the scientific community, another debate has arisen, specifically regarding the need to label products which contain GMOs within them. Because of the ubiquitous nature of GMOs in agriculture, GMO-containing products can span from everything from foods to pesticides. Producers oppose such labeling requirements, arguing that there is no evidence that GMOs cause consumers any harm. Proponents argue in favor of consumer choice.
In Favor Of Labeling GMOs
Perhaps the most obvious argument in favor of labeling GMO-containing products is that of consumer choice. Even if the products have not been found to cause harm, according to current scientific evidence, this does not mean that consumers do not have a…… [Read More]
" (Sinha and atra, 1999)
Sinha and atra state that "most researchers now content that a generalized price -- quality relationship does not exist" although the "degree to which a higher price implies higher quality" has been examined and as well has been the "topic of considerable research in marketing." (1999) Therefore for the purpose of this study this antecedent relating to price consciousness will not be a variable in understanding the questions posed in this study.
Sirha and atra (1999) state that this inference "is widely accepted as being context-specific, moderated by situational characteristic such as the extensiveness of a consumer's cognitive schemes and his/her product class knowledge" and cite the work of Peterson and Wilson (1985). Therefore, it can be understood that while the consumer might believe that a higher price being paid obtains the same equal receipt of quality in some categorical purchases but yet not in…… [Read More]
Looking at these figures, we can see immediately that the most important assumption Gates has made with respect to free cash flow is that the project will go beyond the initial three years contract. The nominal value of the cash flows associated with those first three years does not equal the initial outlay. Thus, for the project to be profitable, the company must take it well beyond the three-year time horizon.
Weighted Average Cost of Capital
A typical metric that is used in capital budgeting decisions to determine the discount rate is the firm's weighted average cost of capital. There are a number of faults with using the WACC, however. Most of these faults relate to the fact that the WACC is based on current figures. This expansion is a major expansion of the firm therefore the cost of capital is impacted…… [Read More]
The basic explanation for this is that they rely on always offering the lowest prices, which makes them cut back on other costs. However, the future might bring about more pretentious and harder to satisfy customers and strategies will then have to be developed.
3. Internet etailing
The best selling strategy is that of combining multiple channels. This is similar to the financial sector, where the investor is advised to diversify his portfolio in order to reduce risks and maximize its chances of income. In the retailing business therefore, the company should use multiple channels to get their product to the end consumer. A basic explanation as to why numerous internet only purchase stores have failed where multi-channel companies have succeeded could reside in that the multiple-channel companies offer the audience the chance to directly see the product before buying it. In other words, an interested potential buyer can go…… [Read More]
The objective of this study is to review an article titled “An Audience of One: Behaviorally Targeted Ads as Implied Social Labels” (Summers, et al. 2016 p 156). The authors argue that firms have relied on targeting to communicate effectively with a group of consumers. Targeting is the segmentation that involves selection from a smaller group of people based on defined variables. A common type of segmentation variables that firms use includes demographic variables using the gender and ethnicity as well as psychographic variables that include lifestyle, personality and values. However, an advanced in technology, and widespread of the internet has made a new form of targeting emerging. A behavioral targeting is referred as an internet-based marketing strategy using different elements that include browsing history and consumer purchase to assist in determining the type of adverts design and display. Typically, consumers are presented the digital adverts to reflect the…… [Read More]
Further sub-categorization allows for greater comparison and contrasting of different categories and can make the data sets more meaningful. Not all of these codes will be decided beforehand -- in fact, it can be more enriching for the final analysis to break down the data afterwards, to ensure that the lived experience of the subjects affects the coding process.
Coding is often thought of in terms of word-based strategies of the subjects, and these can yield important assumptions about the ways individuals perceive their places in the world. Frequency of use of particular words, metaphors, analogies, and the use of local or regional phrases endemic to the area can all be flagged through coding and used to draw meaningful connections between apparently dissimilar sates of being (Gibbs 2010). By highlighting key words in transcripts, the researcher can physically have his or her eye drawn to meaningful bits of data. One…… [Read More]
e. those discounting repetitive). In this case, 8 such digits.
Confidence level: The amount of confidence that I have about this data- that it closely approximates actual sample is quite high (95.9%)
3. The age range of 45-54 had the highest amount of women (54%) using the low-cholesterol diet followed by 55 and over (49%), then 35-44 age range (46%) least in the 1-24 age range (29%). It seems that preference for this diet peaks amongst females in the late middle years. With men, there is a slightly different shift with the majority (35%) actually preferring this diet in their older years and regressing as they decrease in age, with a major shift occurring between the 13% in the age interval 16-24 and the 25% of the age interval 25-34. Of the difference between the sexes, women by far (54% at its peak) are more interested in the diet than…… [Read More]
Tesco, the largest UK company, employs 260,000 people. This corporation has global aspirations and has come a long way in a relatively short period of time" (2003, p. 3).
According to the company's promotional literature, the employment figure for 2003 has almost doubled today, as shown in Table 1 below.
Current Key Figures for Tesco
Staff in the UK
Total stores in the UK
Number of markets
China, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Japan, Malaysia, Poland, Republic of Ireland, Slovakia, South Korea, Thailand, Turkey, UK, USA
Note: Facts correct October 2010
Source: Tesco Quick Facts 2010
Figure 1. Respective Number of Tesco Retail Formats in the U.K.
Source: Based on tabular data in Tesco Quick Facts 2010
A brief summary of the company's guiding corporate strategy is provided in…… [Read More]
Thus, even "victimless" deviant activities are regulated through various methods of formal and informal control. The deviancy ascribed to Brenda's teen pregnancy, for example, stems largely from the way she challenges the norms regarding sexual behavior. Conflict theorists believe that laws and norms do not reflect values of society as a whole, but only of the dominant segment.
Similarly, it could be said that Brenda's drug habit is a victimless crime. If she pursues reasonable precautions, such as avoiding driving and staying in a private place, her drug use does not differ much from smoking or alcohol consumption. However, since drug use is frowned upon by the social elite, Brenda is seen as a criminal.
Similar to conflict and Marxist theories, feminist theorists see much social inequity in society.
This social inequity is one that divides the sexes. Early on in Brenda's life, the loss of job of…… [Read More]
" Contributing factors include poverty, racial issues, teachers' assumptions and social positioning, and culturally-deficit instruction. Among these, teacher's assumptions appear to be the most significant. Additional research is recommended to explore these assumptions as they often result in an unwarranted diagnosis of disability and special education placement, especially among male African-American students.
4. Walther-Thomas, C. & Brownell, M. (1999). An interview with...Mara Sapon-Shevin: Implications for students and teachers of labeling students as learning disabled/gifted. Intervention in School and Clinic, 34(4), 244. Retrieved October 4, 2009, from Academic Research Library. (Document ID: 39366792).
Sapon-Shevin, an expert in special and gifted education, talks about the implications of labeling in children. Labels in schools affect both the opportunities for children and their subsequent performance in class. Instead of labeling, she suggests to describe students as being "good at some things" and "having difficulty with others." Noteworthy is a brainstorming activity she usually conducts…… [Read More]
How have you been labeled as a child or as an adult, and how has this impacted your identity and performance?
As a child I was always labeled as intelligent. This impacted my identity by showing me how I was different from others (because of this special talent). When I became older, this established certain standards for academic performance. I used this to push myself to do more (based upon these beliefs).
Based on the newer, broader definitions of intelligence, (such as Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences), assess your own strengths and weaknesses. Do these definitions change the way you see yourself now?
These strengths and weaknesses are showing how I meet the various categories for intelligence (according to Gardner's theory). This based upon several predetermined criteria to include: the potential for brain isolation, the presence in core operations, a place in evolutionary history, distinct developmental progression, symbolic expression,…… [Read More]
Labeling oneself a Christian should be sufficient to allow people to understand some basics about personality and faith, regardless of one's denomination within Christianity. However, there are many people out there who self-identify as Christians, whose beliefs seem to contradict Christ's teachings. There is a tremendous amount of hatred, violence, and discrimination committed in the name of Christ, which is as far from being Christ-like as possible. Therefore, while part of my belief is that it is not a Christian's place to judge whether or not another person is a Christian, part of my belief is that hatred is not a part of Christ's doctrine.
As a Christian, I believe in single God, who has existed from the beginning of time and will exist until the end of time. While there is a single God, he has manifested himself in three distinct forms, that of the Father, the…… [Read More]
GMO producers also feel that this would give consumers the impression that GMOs are unhealthy or unsafe and that non-GMO crops are preferred (aab & Grobe, 2003).
Valid scientific evidence is lacking as to whether GMOs are healthy or unhealthy in the long run. However, support is building for the position that regardless of the outcome, consumers have the right to know and to make an informed decision. Producers in the U.S. have placed pressure on Europe to withdraw their requirements for the labeling of GMO foods, as they claim that this attitude towards GMO foods will influence decisions in the U.S. (aab & Grobe, 2003). However, so far, these challenges have been met with resistance and labeling practices continue to spread.
On a national level, the battle still rages, but on an international level, the scales seem to tip towards the pro-labeling side and the right of the consumer…… [Read More]
We know this in theory, however, reading about these very innocent families and the things that they have been force to endure makes it even more important to me that the nation begin healing and removing the fears that cause this type of behavior against innocent people.
The second and more far reaching point that the book makes is that nobody is safe from suspicion of this mindset is allowed to be continued. egardless of the situation there may come a time in which each of us falls into a group or groups of people who are suddenly being eyed suspiciously.
In the past five years the Middle Eastern immigrants and descendants have faced the focus of the nation's evil suspicious eye. Before them the Blacks took their turn at bat and in addition to them there have been periods in American history in which Irish, Italian, and Spanish people…… [Read More]
Genetically Modified Foods
' There has been a great deal of controversy over genetically modified foods (GMOs). First, many individuals and organizations oppose the concept of altering the genetics of foods for any reason. And secondly, there is a hot debate as to whether or not food manufacturers should publish / label their packages as containing GMOs. This paper covers the controversies and provides several angles to the debates.
The way in which companies modify food genetically is through " ... the use of recombinant DNA biotechnological procedures that allow the genetic makeup" of the seeds to be changed materially (Schneider, et al., 2014). There are two ways GMOs can be produced through "recombination": either by moving genes from one organism to another organism; or by making changes in genes within an organism "that are already present" (Schneider, p. 1). The changes that occur after being genetically engineered result in…… [Read More]
Drug use patterns changed from soft and psychedelic drugs like cannabis and mushrooms to harder drugs like barbiturate pills and heroin. The focus on the hippie movement also dissolved. hat started as a relatively cohesive challenge to commercialism and corruption ended up being a fragmented array of debauch. The death of celebrity musicians like Jimi Hendrix and Janice Joplin triggered the end of the hippie heyday. In spite of its excesses, though, the hippie movement transformed American social values especially among youth culture.
Binkley, Sam. "Hippies." St. James Encyclopedia. 2002. Retrieved Nov 14, 207 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g1epc/is_tov/ai_2419100587
CBC. "Hippie Society: The Youth Rebellion." 2006. Retrieved Nov 14, 2007 at http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-69-580/life_society/hippies/
Erowid. "Hippies." 1996. Retrieved Nov 14, 2007 at http://www.erowid.org/culture/hippies/
Sayre, James K. "Late 60s and Early 70s anti-Vietnam war protests, social and political background notes and a short discussion of some of the best rock 'n roll music of…… [Read More]
Labels: Latinos or Hispanics
Labeling people by their race is often a controversial subject of debate in political and social circles. Why classify people as Hispanics, Latinos or African-Americans when they can all be simply called Americans by virtue of them being citizens of the United States. However it appears that there is some political gains to be made by the use of ethnic labeling and often this kind of classification is very damaging or restricting. For example a person who comes from a Spanish speaking family and is labeled a Latino is expected to behave in certain race-specific manner. he/she is expected to be really 'hip', an expert in salsa or other forms of dancing, not really good in academics, coming from a poor family and supporting a certain political party. But what if that one individual wants to defy all these restricting attributes because he/she is not a…… [Read More]
Labeling, Life Chances, And Adult Crime
Jon Gunnar Bernburg and Marvin D. Krohn build on a body of criminology research related to labeling theory in their report entitled "Labeling, Life Chances, and Adult Crime: The Direct and Indirect Effects of Official Intervention in Adolescence on Crime in Early Adulthood." The report reflects in-depth research and statistical analysis conducted by the researchers. Specifically, Bernburg and Krohn attempt to fill in gaps in prior research by addressing three specific areas. First, the authors examine "the effect of police intervention and juvenile justice intervention on subsequent early adulthood crime," (1295). To do so they use a random sample taken from a population of adolescents. Second, Bernburg and Krohn look at "the long-term effect of official intervention during adolescence on young adult criminality," and whether "educational attainment and periods of nonemployment mediate this effect," (1295). Third, the researchers try to determine "whether the effect…… [Read More]
Sequential Label and Supply
nist sp 800-50, "Building an Information Technology Security Awareness and Training Program"
Sequential Label and Supply
After a recent failure of the computer systems at Sequential Label and Supply, it has become clear that current security provisions are inadequate
The IT security team is under-funded and understaffed
There is a lack of respect for the IT team
Problems are dealt with as they present themselves rather than are anticipated and prevented
Agency IT security policy
At present, there is no formal security policy and problems tend to be addressed on an ad hoc basis. For example, when a disc brought in by an employee infected all of the computers with a virus, the ability to use such software was disabled: no fundamental reforms were made
There is a need to create a consistent, coherent security policy for the entire company, in all roles
Objectives include…… [Read More]
In modern school cultures, for instance, we often say, "Oh, they're Asian, they must be smart." So, the Asian-American person hears that they "must be smart, must overachieve, must get good grades." They then come to believe that this is far more than what society expects of them, but instead, what they are supposed to be as a person. So, they become that person, they apply themselves a bit more, study a bit more, and soon the prophecy seen from the outside world is internalized and factual.
Of course, this idea may be pejorative as well -- homosexuality being labeled as deviant, "you fag, you queer;" mental illness as "looney, nutty, off their rocker;" and so many negative ethic terms one's head would spin: "kike, spick, nigger, cholo, slant eye, towel head, beaner, etc."
We must then ask, why do we label? Perhaps it is the human tendency to box…… [Read More]
Decentralization and Policing
Define decentralization. Explain the ties between this movement and labeling theory. What is, in your informed opinion, the single most important practice to emerge from the decentralization movement? Why do you think that this is the case? The idea behind this movement is captured by the phrase "less not more"; however, Blomberg and Lucken contend that "not less -- more" was the result. How was this possible?
Decentralization refers to the dispersion of power by the central authority to the existing local and regional authorities. The central authority decides to delegate its functions and power to the authorities. Labeling theory helps in illustrating the reason to why people may engage in defiant behaviors. For instance, an individual associating with thieve might receive the label of being one of the thieves. The individual getting the label may start incorporating the behavior into his daily activities. Blomberg states that…… [Read More]
The purpose of this article was to show that restorative justice is significantly more satisfying as compared to courts for both offenders and victims. This was achieved with a randomized experimental design known as eintergrative Shaming Experiments ISE. This project is used to compare the effects of standard court processing with those of restorative justice intervention known as conferencing. In the article, the ISE data is used to examine whether conferences are equally beneficial for juvenile victims and adult victims as well (Gal, T & Moyal, 201).
The research method that was used in this article is a stratified randomized experimental design that was used to compare the outcomes of court and conference cases that were held in Canberra, Australia between 1995 and 2000. Shoplifting, drinking, property crimes and violent crimes were assigned within each other randomly to the estorative Justice Conferences or traditional courts using a computer…… [Read More]
During the course of a child's school years they will learn to define themselves as a person and shape their personality, sense of self-concept and perception of their potential for achievement for life (Persaud, 2000). Thus the early educational years may be considered one of the most impacting and important with regard to emotional, social and cognitive development for students of all disabilities. Labeling is a common by-product of educational institutions, one that has been hotly debated with regard to its benefits and consequences by educators and administrators over time. There are proponents of labeling and those that suggest that labeling may be damaging to students in some manner.
Students who are labeled at the elementary and middle school level as learning disabled may face greater difficulties achieving their true potential in part due to a decreased sense of self-esteem, self-concept and personal achievement (Persaud, 2000). The intent…… [Read More]
One study examined 595 participants, who filled out questionnaires for the research and concluded that social bonding issues play a part in social deviance including the use of drugs and alcohol (Pawlak, 1993).
elating Theory to Social Issue
elating the two criminology theories to the current social issue of adolescent substance abuse, is relatively easy to do. In each of the theories, studies have been conducted to ascertain the amount, if any, of substance abuse that the theories support. Both of the theories have relatively clear markers for how they impact the possibility of adolescent substance abuse.
The research into the labeling theory, clearly indicates that adolescents often develop their self-image by the reaction of society to their existence. If a teenager believes he is labeled as a problem, or a throw-away child, he will most likely develop poor self-esteem, and one of the consequences of that low self-esteem,…… [Read More]
In fact, many studies show that deviant or antisocial children may experience a strengthening of the bonds between parents and society in the process of their development.
Therefore, while social control theory is one view, there are many alternative theories that take other findings and variables into account. In general, the view that a deviant child who does not change by a certain age is "condemned "to a life of crime if sharply criticized, as it often does not concur with empirical findings. Theories put forward by Gottfredson and Hirsch propose another view of the life-course towards crime that takes into account the fact that in many case early deviant behavior does not necessarily lead to a life-long pattern of criminal behavior.
Describe the labeling theory and the consequences that labeling can have on a child. Should we be concerned with labeling? Why or why not?
In essence,…… [Read More]
MLPS QOS vs. ATM QOS
Quality of Service (QOS) is best defined as the performance attributes of an end-to-end flow of data (Zheng, 2001). The particular elements of QOS depend on the information that is being transported. For example, QOS for voice defines limits on specific parameters such as delay, delay variation, packet loss, and availability.
In the past, networks were engineered based on providing fixed bandwidth for relatively short duration voice calls. Today, the traffic on networks is based on statistical or bursty data. Therefore, it has become necessary to develop new statistical models to build new networks.
Functions of QOS
QOS applications are used in networks for many reasons, including to:
Guarantee a fixed amount of bandwidth for various applications.
Control latency and jitter, and ensure bandwidth for voice.
Provide specific, guaranteed and quantifiable service level agreements (SLAs).
Configure varying degrees of quality of service for multiple network…… [Read More]
social structures exert a definite pressure upon certain persons in the society to engage in nonconformist rather than conformist conduct," (Merton, 1938, p. 672). With his own italics emphasizing the stress and strain that social structures can produce in the individual, obert Merton outlines the basis of strain and stress theories. Stress is a natural part of life; it is how people cope with stress or react to it that matters most. Individual differences in background, situational variables, and also personality and psychological traits can also impact how people deal with stress and respond to stressors. However, some people will naturally encounter more stressors and more strain than others. Merton and other sociologists who recognized the value of strain theory showed how poverty and other structural variables cause stress and strain, and can often be the cause for behavioral problems including criminality. Yet once a person has been labeled a…… [Read More]
It is possible that an individual who was abused as a child was able to recover from the trauma of his/her experience, and tried to convert his/her negative experience into a positive one by helping out abused children, with the goal of helping them to also recover and develop as psychologically healthy individuals. This kind of psyche abolishes the phenomenon of double jeopardy, and provides a counter-argument to the earlier claim that abused children tend to have realtionships who will also abuse them.
7. eflect about the idea from the text regarding, "child abuse is transmitted across the generations." Do you agree with this statement?
I agree with the statement that child abuse is transmitted across the generations, as empirical studies have shown that indeed, abused individuals during their childhood (in the study's case, mothers) had indeed the tendency to also abuse their children. Again, this statement is just part…… [Read More]
She notified police and the parking ticket (because Berkowitz had parked too close to a fire hydrant) was traced to Berkowitz. But the police were just thinking that Berkowitz might be a witness; however, when the Yonkers police searched that Galaxie belonging to Berkowitz, they found a rifle and a .44 caliber Bulldog pistol -- along with detailed maps of the crime scenes that Berkowitz had created with his lust for killing women.
"hat took you so long?" Berkowitz is reported to have asked as the officers arrested him. In time during questioning, Berkowitz either played like he was mentally unbalanced -- which he of course was -- or was just rambling because he claimed that the dog he had killed was possessed by some kind of demon, and that the dog was demanding that Berkowitz go and do the killing. Other claims by Berkowitz included that he was a…… [Read More]
Not even 50 years ago, many people felt skeptical about the hazards of cigarette smoking. Although increasing numbers of studies showed that some connection existed between tobacco and lung and heart ailments, questions still remained about the true effects on health. In 1964, however, the United States Surgeon General Luther Terry confronted 200 media reporters in a State Department auditorium for two hours and completely changed the course of history. For the first time, the American government made it official: Smoking causes lung cancer. How much of an impact did this warning and other warnings to come by the Surgeon General and additional interested parties in the future alter the numbers of people smoking nationwide? The results are not too promising.
After the Surgeon General's first announcement, there was an immediate reaction. At this time, about 46% of people smoked in the U.S. When Americans heard the Surgeon…… [Read More]
Women Pea Coat
This apparel is a wool-blended pea coat selling at a price of 62.80 dollars and available online at Forever 21.com. The length of the pea coat is 32" from the high point shoulder to the where it falls on the thigh or hem. It adapts a traditional, military style silhouette with a slight slim in the middle section with modern proportions. The coat is belted, a sleek without much detail and has a hidden hook-bar closure at the top. It is double breasted with two front slanting pockets in addition to a hidden snap button at the bottom. This coat has a slight Napoleonic collar with sleeves 25" in length from the high pleated shoulder. It is fully lined with 100% polyester with the shell woven and comprising of 48% polyester, 45% wool, 4% acrylic, 2% rayon, and 1% nylon. The apparel is machine washable…… [Read More]
S. Food and Drug Administration, because they were in wide use before the 1938 Act (grandfathered in, as it were). (Dunn 1938)
The problem was that Act contained a definition for a "new drug" (one in need of prior approval to market), as any drug "the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling." FDCA § 201(p) (1). The manufacturers set out to establish then, that anything GRAS/GRAE therefore was not a new drug, and needed no FDA blessing.
Many medicines are ancient, and the active ingredients of many drugs on were first introduced before 1938. To make matters worse, between 1938 and 1962, the FDA considered drugs that were identical, related, or similar…… [Read More]
Wegmans store brand food items vs. well-Known brands
Wegmans hickory-smoked turkey lunchmeat vs. Hillshire Farms hickory-smoked turkey lunchmeat
Review placement on shelf: Both products are positioned side-by-side on a hanging rack in the dairy section
Cost of brand vs. cost of private label: Wegmans $2.99; Hillshire Farms $3.39 for the same amount in ounces
Ingredients same or different?: Virtually identical
Is private label made by brand manufacturer: Yes
Wegmans shredded cheddar vs. Kraft shredded cheese
Review placement on shelf: Wegmans was positioned at eye level, Kraft was positioned somewhat lower
Cost of brand vs. cost of private label: Wegmans was $3.89 for 16 ounces; Kraft was $3.19 for 8 ounces
Ingredients same or different?: Kraft offered a blend of different flavors and colors of cheddar cheese; Wegmans bags of shredded cheese only came in single flavors and colors
Is private label made by brand manufacturer?: Yes
Category 3:…… [Read More]
Your answer should be at least five sentences long.
The Legend of Arthur
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 9 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7A: Honor and Loyalty
1. Consider how Arthur's actions and personality agree with or challenge your definition of honor. Write a few sentences comparing your definition (from Journal 1.6A) with Arthur's actions and personality.
2. Write a brief paragraph explaining the importance or unimportance of loyalty in being honorable.
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 10 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7B: Combining Sentences
Complete the Practice Activity on page 202 of your text. After completing this activity, read over your Essay Assessment or another journal activity you've completed.
* Identify three passages that could be improved by combining two or more sentences with coordinating or subordinating conjunctions. Below the practice activity in your journal, write the original passages and the revised sentences you've created.
* Be sure to…… [Read More]
As Farrell (June 14, 2000) states: "The idea is to make milk the "cool" drink. The "mustache" still runs, with current stars such as Britney Spears." The success of such milk advertising to teens, it seems, represents an especially skillful endeavor, since milk is otherwise so much (and traditionally) associated with babyhood and early childhood, life stages (and self-images and reflections by others) that teens in particular generally yearn to leave far behind. Moreover, the considerable success of the "milk mustache" campaign proves very well the fact that just about anything can be successfully marketed to teens, as long as it is marketed to them with enough imagination, research, and skill (and with plenty of advertising dollars).
Some advertising for teens is also currently undergoing some interesting media changes, internationally. Within one global mega-conglomerate, Coca Cola, according to Foust (March 1, 2004):
Coke has diverted money into new initiatives that…… [Read More]
Nutritional claims and labeling are very valuable things for the consumer when deciding if he or she wants to eat the product, and the food industry knows that truth in advertising and package labeling is something that has to be addressed. If the label does not tell the consumer all the facts, it is possible the consumer could be ingesting something he or she really does not want (UK list of health claims, 2010). That is a vital issue with candy, because some people have adverse reactions to things such as sugar and caffeine -- or to artificial sweeteners that may be used to present the candy as something low-sugar and more healthful overall.
The UK Food Standards Agency is very particular about what is sold and how it is represented, so that is one of the most important issues for any new and novel food product (UK list of…… [Read More]
Actuarial vs. Clinical Predictions
There are several issues of note in the time-honored debate as to whether it is more effective to employs actuarial or clinical predications for the purpose of assessment. On the one hand, it would appear congruent with the job of psychologists to actually perform clinical studies and utilize predictions as such to evaluate various issues of people and of incidents. The principle problem with this approach is that it leaves room for human error, which can overthrow the entire purpose of a clinical study. Conversely, there is little denying the fact that an actuarial "set of rules" (Kaplan, year, p. 554) can oftentimes determine the results of clinical studies without such human error. However, the actuarial approach may possibly be bested by a clinical approach when there is a "variety of sources" (Kaplan, year, p.554) contributing data to clinical predications. Of course, the clinicians would still…… [Read More]
In both cases, that label can make intervention more difficult instead of less difficult. Certainly, some types of behavioral issues are functions of immaturity or of stages of development and personality or identity experimentation. However, bona fide delinquency issues should not be excused as features of personality, largely because doing so undermines the development of personal responsibility and the realization that negative behaviors have negative consequences.
Which represents the greatest threat to society: multiple murder, workplace violence, or violent bias crimes?
It is difficult to compare the three types of crimes by listing them in order because so much depends on context. For example, violent bias crimes could include multiple murders. In general, multiple murders are relatively rare outside of environments where criminality is already at issue, such as in connection with organize crime and criminal gang rivalries. Workplace violence is comparatively rare when it comes to serious crimes such…… [Read More]
puzzling or mysterious subject from a field of study or from an interest you have explored. Write an extended definition that explains this mystery for your readers. As appropriate, include information about its characteristics, parts, history, possible causes, effects, solutions, benefits, or dangers.
On some products, we see labels tagged with the logo EcoLogo and Green eal. ome people do not know what they stand for or why they are necessary. The following essay is an explanation of these labels and the reason for their existence.
Both labels, each produced by different companies, were issued as control against a practice called Greenwashing. Greenwashing is the practice of managers calling their brands / products 'natural', 'earth-friendly', 'environmental', 'green', 'organic', or the like -- when they may not, necessarily, be so. ome products have even branded themselves with empty semantics such as being 'biodegradable' or 'natural' (consider: 'natural' potato chips and 'natural'…… [Read More]
The experiment took place in a busy office building at around five o'clock in the evening. It started on the ground floor and involved walking into an elevator and not turning around. The total number of people who entered the elevator was six, two stopped on the third floor, which was the first stop and the other three stopped on the fifth, which was the last stop. The experiment ended on the fifth floor and took a little over three minutes.
The other five people upon entering the elevator realized that not everybody turned to face the entrance as usual. The group seemed baffled with the occurrence. Two people, a female and a male laughed asking jokingly if they were supposed to turn around. They appeared friendly and continued with interesting comment until they left the elevator. The other three smiled but seemed less concerned. However, the…… [Read More]
This is also true of defendants labeled as child molesters -- even if not convicted, the label or suspicion is so insidious, it is difficult for juries or even witnesses to apprehend the facts with an unbiased eye ("In the Supreme Court of the United States," 1990, IPT). There is also a psychological reason for labeling theory, suggested by this example of prejudice -- once a first impression is created, it is difficult to forget that first impression, as all subsequent actions are interpreted in relation to that first negative image or label.
O'Connor, T. (2005). "Labeling theory of crime." Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/301/301lect12.htm
In the Supreme Court of the United States." (1990). IPT. 2.7. Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://www.ipt-forensics.com/journal/volume2/j2_2_7.htm
Resources: framing the issue." (2003). Youth in the Media: McKnight Foundation. Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://www.mcknight.org/hotissues/framing_youth.aspx… [Read More]
Cultural Conditioning Block
Cultural conditioning refers to how society's standards and values are passed on to all members of society. Cultural conditioning is a block to critical thinking when people accept society's standards blindly, with this impacting how a person thinks by creating bias and selective perception.
Example: When Nolan tells Keating he does not approve of his unorthodox teaching methods, he is basing his judgment on the fact that Keating's methods and expectations of the students are different to the accepted standards of the school. This is an example of the cultural conditioning block because Nolan does not actually judge Keating's views but shows bias against them because they go against the school's standards and values.
eliance on Authority Block
Definition: eliance on authority is a block to critical thinking when people accept the views of the majority in place of thinking for themselves and forming their own opinions…… [Read More]
Life of Howard Becker and Key Concepts of the Labeling Theory of Deviance
Criminology theory has roots in sociology and psychology, so it is not surprising to learn that Howard Becker, a sociologist, developed social reaction theory or labeling theory. Becker observed that the language used to describe the attributes or groupings of individuals can influence their behavior and impact their self-identity (Miller, et al., 2009). Labeling theory addresses the idea of a self-fulfilling prophecy and the strengthening of stereotypes as a result of the propensity of more privileged classes of people to use pejorative linguistic labels when referring to less privileged classes of people (Miller, et al., 2009).
Becker learned to play the piano at an early age, studying music and playing the piano throughout his life. He was exposed to the deviant cultures of musicians who often used drugs or smoked marijuana. During the years that Becker taught…… [Read More]
If the child is punished for small infractions of the rules and other children are not, this makes him feel that life is unfair, and makes him act in the ways that he is expected to act. Formal labeling is manifest when teachers treat students labeled as gifted as brighter, which motivates the children to perform better on tests, or when students labeled as 'special education' or 'ESL' are assumed to be capable of less than other children. If less is expected of them, they will naturally perform at a lower standard.
Q5. Identify some of the factors that could lead to inept parenting in single parent family households.
Even the best single parent faces considerable challenges. Single parent households tend to be less affluent economically, which automatically presents a difficulty in terms of ensuring that children have safe and healthy environments in which to live. Single parents…… [Read More]
Gender and Smell ecognition
There has been a significant amount of speculation about innate gender differences in thought, cognitive ability, and the relative strength of certain senses. One of area that has received some attention is the ability to smell. Anecdotal evidence suggests that women have a stronger ability to smell than men, as does significant prior research. This research study will examine the relative strength of the sense of smell of a group of men compared to a group of women. Each test group will consist of 20 subjects. The expectation is that the women, as a group, will have a statistically significant better sense of smell than the men. However, at the outset of this study, it must be noted that many factors other than gender are known to influence the sense of smell including overall health and age. This study did not control for those additional factors,…… [Read More]
The 1988 and later 1992 Supreme Court decision in Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc. illustrates the functions and role of law in business and public health. This case relates to the tobacco industry's culpability in promoting smoking through marketing campaigns after knowledge of the detrimental effects of smoking, and in spite of the mandatory Surgeon General Warning labels that had been federally mandated since the 1960s and the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (1965 Act).
In the Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc., case, it was ultimately decided that the federal laws trumped state laws that permitted promotion of harmful materials, in this case, cigarettes. What is interesting about this case is that it pertains directly to marketing, rather than to the tobacco companies themselves. Separate litigation, of course, impinged upon the tobacco companies. The Cipollone v. Liggett Group case illustrates several key points. First, the case upholds…… [Read More]