Labeling Essays (Examples)

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Label Slp 1 Opm 500 for Session

Words: 942 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35386214

label slp 1 OPM 500 for session long project, analyze OM perspectives organization. You choose list: 1. Walmart Costco 2. McDonald's 3. Amazon. 4. Dell 5. United Parcel Services For SLP paper, identify introduction, discussion, conclusion section: 1) The organization's main line business, 2) How inventory managed organization, 3) How inventory management practices improve customer satisfaction / reduce costs.

SLP 1 OPM 500

Wal-Mart is the greatest retailer in the United States and it has managed to gain and consolidate its strong competitive position as a result of a well developed and implemented strategic endeavor. Nevertheless, its business model has not always been successful and the economic agent has been faced with tremendous criticism. The organization has for instance been accused of exploiting its staff members, paying minimum wages and asking them to put in long hours. Also, the company was accused of sacrificing quality and responsibility in the name…… [Read More]

References:

Greenwald, R., 2005, Wal-Mart: the high cost of low price, Documentary

Kumar, S., 2006, Total Quality Management, Firewall Media

Fisher, A., Fisher, T., 2009, The data asset: how smart companies govern their data for business success, John Wiley and Sons

Toomey, J.W., 2000, Inventory management: principles, concepts and techniques, Springer
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Label Slp 3 In Section Session Long

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42210984

label slp 3 in section Session Long Project 'll estimate cost equity rate return company's shareholders 'require'. This important piece information top manager estimate important input effort determine action company add shareholders.

SLP 1 OPM 500

Wal-Mart is one of the greatest American companies and it has been received with both praises as well as criticism. The current endeavor nevertheless is more focused on the financial aspect of the organization, namely the cost of its equity. At a general level, the cost of equity is understood as "the return that stockholders require for a company" (Investopedia, 2011). In other words, it is the amount of money that the organization has to pay in order to reward the investments made by the shareowners.

The cost of capital is an important financial tool as it sits at the basis of efficient decision making. In other words, the cost of equity portraits whether…… [Read More]

References:

Cooper, R.A., 2011, Capital Asset Pricing Model, Reference for Business,  http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Bre-Cap/Capital-Asset-Pricing-Model-CAPM.html  last accessed on February 24, 2011

2011, Cost of equity, Investopedia,  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/costofequity.asp  last accessed on February 24, 2011

2011, Capital Asset Pricing Model, Investopedia,  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/capm.asp  last accessed on February 24, 2011

2011, Yahoo Finance, http://finance.yahoo.com / last accessed on February 24, 2011
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Label Drug Use Useless Costly

Words: 3084 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33447573

The structure of yetta is similar to that of GLP-1 and performs the same functions. oth promote decreased appetite (Wilson).

Dr. Wysham was an observer at a study conducted on 20 Rockwood diabetic patients who were taking conventional diabetic medication for their uncontrolled blood sugar (Wilson 2005). She was not informed about their glucose levels for several months after the tests began. About two-thirds of the respondents were given different injectible doses of yetta to incorporate into their medication plan, while the rest were given placebos. All of them were instructed and trained to do the injections at certain times twice daily for a month. Then they were subjected to a physical exam. Dr. Wysham closely monitored their liver, kidney, blood counts, and other functions. She observed that the patients consistently lose weight while taking yetta. The average respondent-patient lost 15 pounds in the duration of the study, 5 lost…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Business Editors (2005). Understand the impact of regulatory reform and raised drug

Safety awareness on off-label drug use. 2 pages. Business Wire: Gale Group

2007). Januvia approved in the European Union for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. 4 pages.

2007). Late breaking data released at ADA showed that the investigational use of Januvia and Metformin as initial combination therapy provided significant glucose lowering efficacy over 54 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes. 8
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Labels a Method of Silencing

Words: 1907 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52540256

If the impact was the result of government collusion against Hatfill, then many might believe that actual freedom can only be guaranteed by forcing the press to reveal those sources, so that corruption could be eliminated from the government. However, Martin does not even mention arguments like those found above. Instead, she touts the ideals of the free press, without any mention of who the press is meant to serve, the people, and without any look into the history of journalistic freedom in the United States.

Outline

I. Introduction: Martin's fails to adequately support her thesis, which is that the courts are using a new method, financial compulsion, to silence and intimidate journalists.

Martin's describes Toni Locy's predicament.

1. Judge Reggie alton, the judge from the Scooter Libby trial, is presiding over Hatfill's lawsuit.

2. alton has held Locy in contempt for failing to divulge sources.

3. Hatfill's sued the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Miller, Judith. "Journalism on Trial." The Wall Street Journal 21 Feb. 2008: A16.
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National Brands Fight Private Labels

Words: 6876 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27941011

" (Sinha and atra, 1999)

Sinha and atra state that "most researchers now content that a generalized price -- quality relationship does not exist" although the "degree to which a higher price implies higher quality" has been examined and as well has been the "topic of considerable research in marketing." (1999) Therefore for the purpose of this study this antecedent relating to price consciousness will not be a variable in understanding the questions posed in this study.

Sirha and atra (1999) state that this inference "is widely accepted as being context-specific, moderated by situational characteristic such as the extensiveness of a consumer's cognitive schemes and his/her product class knowledge" and cite the work of Peterson and Wilson (1985). Therefore, it can be understood that while the consumer might believe that a higher price being paid obtains the same equal receipt of quality in some categorical purchases but yet not in…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aiken, Leona and Stephen West (1991), Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions. London: Sage Publications.

Ailawadi, Kusum and Bari Harlam (2004), "An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Retail Margins: The Role of Store Brand Share," Journal of Marketing, 68 (January), 147 -- 66.

Ailawadi, Kusum and Kevin Keller (2004), "Understanding Retail Branding: Conceptual Insights and Research Priorities," Journal of Ailawadi, Kusum L., Pauwels, Koen and Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E.M. (2008) Private Label Use and Store Loyalty. Journal of Marketing Vol. 72 (November 2008), 19 -- 30. 2008 American Marketing Association.

Ailawadi, Kusum, and Scott Neslin, and Karen Gedenk (2001), "Pursuing the Value Conscious Consumer: Store Brands vs. National Brand Promotions," Journal of Marketing, 65 (January), 71 -- 89.
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Hansson Private Label Hansson Is

Words: 3683 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60364966

7

14949.4

16860

18861.8

19394.5

19933.7

20479

20882.2

Looking at these figures, we can see immediately that the most important assumption Gates has made with respect to free cash flow is that the project will go beyond the initial three years contract. The nominal value of the cash flows associated with those first three years does not equal the initial outlay. Thus, for the project to be profitable, the company must take it well beyond the three-year time horizon.

Weighted Average Cost of Capital

A typical metric that is used in capital budgeting decisions to determine the discount rate is the firm's weighted average cost of capital. There are a number of faults with using the WACC, however. Most of these faults relate to the fact that the WACC is based on current figures. This expansion is a major expansion of the firm therefore the cost of capital is impacted…… [Read More]

Strategically, this project is not as high risk as Hansson currently believes. The firm need not be dependent on a single customer because it is experiencing strong demand and has been able to build its business rapidly even in a mature market. Hansson will likely need this capacity in the coming years anyway. In addition, the increased leverage does not take Hansson into a dangerous position. It leaves the company with more debt than it has ever had, but not a historically high LTD/Equity ratio, as this was higher in 2003. There is little reason to believe that the company is increasing its liquidity risk to a point that would even result in an increase in the cost of debt, so Hansson need not worry much about leverage.

Thus, the question becomes one of capturing a market opportunity and where this fits into overall corporate strategy. If Hansson is to continue to grow, it will need to ride the growth of its major retail partners. The drug stores, retailers and clubs are the strongest source of growth within the industry and for Hansson. The company is growing along with the growth of these customers, and these customers have big ambitions. Hansson needs to take a long-term view of its relationship with these major customers -- it has the opportunity to lay the foundations of that relationship and send a signal to all major private label retailers that Hansson is the company to deal with for personal care products, that it is ready to grow with them to a position of market dominance. Strategically and financially, this investment is a great fit and it is therefore recommended that Hansson sign the contract and make the investment.

Hansson can finance this deal entirely with debt from its bank. It is important that Hansson does not focus strictly on the one customer, but works to fill capacity sooner rather than later by courting other major customers, using this deal as an example of its future outlook as a partner to major retailers. Hansson is not projecting at any point more than 85% utilization of the new facility, which indicates that if the company can bring its capacity utilization up with new contracts from other retailers as well, the net present value of this project can be improved further. All indications are that this opportunity is greater than what is included in Gates' calculations, and that Hansson needs to use this investment as a springboard for another round of growth, not just an one-off investment.
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Retail Management Private Labels the

Words: 1116 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31746732

The basic explanation for this is that they rely on always offering the lowest prices, which makes them cut back on other costs. However, the future might bring about more pretentious and harder to satisfy customers and strategies will then have to be developed.

3. Internet etailing

The best selling strategy is that of combining multiple channels. This is similar to the financial sector, where the investor is advised to diversify his portfolio in order to reduce risks and maximize its chances of income. In the retailing business therefore, the company should use multiple channels to get their product to the end consumer. A basic explanation as to why numerous internet only purchase stores have failed where multi-channel companies have succeeded could reside in that the multiple-channel companies offer the audience the chance to directly see the product before buying it. In other words, an interested potential buyer can go…… [Read More]

References

Beal, B., Getting Loyalty Programs Right, CRM News, July 14, 2004, http://searchcrm.techtarget.com/news/article/0,289142,sid11_gci992695,00.htmllast accessed on May 15, 2008

Liebeck, L., 1996, Private Label Goes Premium - Private Label Product Sales at Supermarkets, Drug Stores and Discount Stores - Cover Story, Drug Store News, November 4, 1996

Liebeck, L., Private Label Goes Premium..., Drug Store News, November 4, 1996

Beal, B., Getting Loyalty Programs Right, CRM News, July 14, 2004
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Behaviorally Targeted Ads as Implied Social Labels Article Analysis

Words: 2045 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18321242

Introduction 

The objective of this study is to review an article titled “An Audience of One: Behaviorally Targeted Ads as Implied Social Labels”  (Summers, et al. 2016 p 156). The authors argue that firms have relied on targeting to communicate effectively with a group of consumers. Targeting is the segmentation that involves selection from a smaller group of people based on defined variables.  A common type of segmentation variables that firms use includes demographic variables using the gender and ethnicity as well as psychographic variables that include lifestyle, personality and values.  However, an advanced in technology, and widespread of the internet has made a new form of targeting emerging. A behavioral targeting is referred as an internet-based marketing strategy using different elements that include browsing history and consumer purchase to assist in determining the type of adverts design and display. Typically, consumers are presented the digital adverts to reflect the…… [Read More]

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Codes Were Labeled Thus for

Words: 1173 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45828525

e. those discounting repetitive). In this case, 8 such digits.

Confidence level: The amount of confidence that I have about this data- that it closely approximates actual sample is quite high (95.9%)

3. The age range of 45-54 had the highest amount of women (54%) using the low-cholesterol diet followed by 55 and over (49%), then 35-44 age range (46%) least in the 1-24 age range (29%). It seems that preference for this diet peaks amongst females in the late middle years. With men, there is a slightly different shift with the majority (35%) actually preferring this diet in their older years and regressing as they decrease in age, with a major shift occurring between the 13% in the age interval 16-24 and the 25% of the age interval 25-34. Of the difference between the sexes, women by far (54% at its peak) are more interested in the diet than…… [Read More]

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Customers' Attitudes Towards Own Labels

Words: 9570 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70772795

Tesco, the largest UK company, employs 260,000 people. This corporation has global aspirations and has come a long way in a relatively short period of time" (2003, p. 3).

According to the company's promotional literature, the employment figure for 2003 has almost doubled today, as shown in Table 1 below.

Table 1

Current Key Figures for Tesco

Category

Statistic

Staff worldwide

472,000

Staff in the UK

287,669

Stores worldwide

5,008

Total stores in the UK

2,545

Extra

13

Homeplus

Superstore

Metro

Express

OneStop

Number of markets

14

Which markets

China, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Japan, Malaysia, Poland, Republic of Ireland, Slovakia, South Korea, Thailand, Turkey, UK, USA

Note: Facts correct October 2010

Source: Tesco Quick Facts 2010

Figure 1. Respective Number of Tesco Retail Formats in the U.K.

Source: Based on tabular data in Tesco Quick Facts 2010

A brief summary of the company's guiding corporate strategy is provided in…… [Read More]

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Dissecting Criminal Labelling Theory Howard

Words: 584 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45508346

Thus, even "victimless" deviant activities are regulated through various methods of formal and informal control. The deviancy ascribed to Brenda's teen pregnancy, for example, stems largely from the way she challenges the norms regarding sexual behavior. Conflict theorists believe that laws and norms do not reflect values of society as a whole, but only of the dominant segment.

Similarly, it could be said that Brenda's drug habit is a victimless crime. If she pursues reasonable precautions, such as avoiding driving and staying in a private place, her drug use does not differ much from smoking or alcohol consumption. However, since drug use is frowned upon by the social elite, Brenda is seen as a criminal.

Feminist theory

Similar to conflict and Marxist theories, feminist theorists see much social inequity in society.

This social inequity is one that divides the sexes. Early on in Brenda's life, the loss of job of…… [Read More]

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Psychology How Have You Been Labeled as

Words: 565 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42299334

Psychology

How have you been labeled as a child or as an adult, and how has this impacted your identity and performance?

As a child I was always labeled as intelligent. This impacted my identity by showing me how I was different from others (because of this special talent). When I became older, this established certain standards for academic performance. I used this to push myself to do more (based upon these beliefs).

Based on the newer, broader definitions of intelligence, (such as Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences), assess your own strengths and weaknesses. Do these definitions change the way you see yourself now?

These strengths and weaknesses are showing how I meet the various categories for intelligence (according to Gardner's theory). This based upon several predetermined criteria to include: the potential for brain isolation, the presence in core operations, a place in evolutionary history, distinct developmental progression, symbolic expression,…… [Read More]

Reference

Howard Gardner. (2012). In Fed. Retrieved from: http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm

Robbins, A. (1991). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
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Society Labels Individuals Which Sometimes

Words: 1882 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78031497

We know this in theory, however, reading about these very innocent families and the things that they have been force to endure makes it even more important to me that the nation begin healing and removing the fears that cause this type of behavior against innocent people.

The second and more far reaching point that the book makes is that nobody is safe from suspicion of this mindset is allowed to be continued. egardless of the situation there may come a time in which each of us falls into a group or groups of people who are suddenly being eyed suspiciously.

In the past five years the Middle Eastern immigrants and descendants have faced the focus of the nation's evil suspicious eye. Before them the Blacks took their turn at bat and in addition to them there have been periods in American history in which Irish, Italian, and Spanish people…… [Read More]

References

We Are All Suspects Now: Untold Stories from Immigrant America After 9/11 (Paperback) by Tram Nguyen " Beacon Press (September 15, 2005)
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Should Food Products Be Labeled if They Contain Gmos

Words: 711 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94382712

Genetically Modified Foods

' There has been a great deal of controversy over genetically modified foods (GMOs). First, many individuals and organizations oppose the concept of altering the genetics of foods for any reason. And secondly, there is a hot debate as to whether or not food manufacturers should publish / label their packages as containing GMOs. This paper covers the controversies and provides several angles to the debates.

The way in which companies modify food genetically is through " ... the use of recombinant DNA biotechnological procedures that allow the genetic makeup" of the seeds to be changed materially (Schneider, et al., 2014). There are two ways GMOs can be produced through "recombination": either by moving genes from one organism to another organism; or by making changes in genes within an organism "that are already present" (Schneider, p. 1). The changes that occur after being genetically engineered result in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jalonick, M.C. (2014). Debate over genetically modified foods continues amid confusion.

PBS News Hour. Retrieved September 15, 2015, from http://www.pbs.org.

Kopicki, A. (2013). Strong Support for Labeling Modified Foods. The New York Times.

Retrieved September 16, 2015, from  http://www.nytimes.com .
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Hippy Is an Establishment Label

Words: 1527 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33642663

Drug use patterns changed from soft and psychedelic drugs like cannabis and mushrooms to harder drugs like barbiturate pills and heroin. The focus on the hippie movement also dissolved. hat started as a relatively cohesive challenge to commercialism and corruption ended up being a fragmented array of debauch. The death of celebrity musicians like Jimi Hendrix and Janice Joplin triggered the end of the hippie heyday. In spite of its excesses, though, the hippie movement transformed American social values especially among youth culture.

orks Cited

Binkley, Sam. "Hippies." St. James Encyclopedia. 2002. Retrieved Nov 14, 207 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g1epc/is_tov/ai_2419100587

CBC. "Hippie Society: The Youth Rebellion." 2006. Retrieved Nov 14, 2007 at http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-69-580/life_society/hippies/

Erowid. "Hippies." 1996. Retrieved Nov 14, 2007 at http://www.erowid.org/culture/hippies/

Sayre, James K. "Late 60s and Early 70s anti-Vietnam war protests, social and political background notes and a short discussion of some of the best rock 'n roll music of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Binkley, Sam. "Hippies." St. James Encyclopedia. 2002. Retrieved Nov 14, 207 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g1epc/is_tov/ai_2419100587

CBC. "Hippie Society: The Youth Rebellion." 2006. Retrieved Nov 14, 2007 at http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-69-580/life_society/hippies/

Erowid. "Hippies." 1996. Retrieved Nov 14, 2007 at http://www.erowid.org/culture/hippies/

Sayre, James K. "Late 60s and Early 70s anti-Vietnam war protests, social and political background notes and a short discussion of some of the best rock 'n roll music of the times." 2007. Retrieved Nov 14, 2007 at  http://www.bottlebrushpress.com/antivietnamwarprotests.html
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Hispanics or Latinos

Words: 1722 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48649609

Labels: Latinos or Hispanics

Labeling people by their race is often a controversial subject of debate in political and social circles. Why classify people as Hispanics, Latinos or African-Americans when they can all be simply called Americans by virtue of them being citizens of the United States. However it appears that there is some political gains to be made by the use of ethnic labeling and often this kind of classification is very damaging or restricting. For example a person who comes from a Spanish speaking family and is labeled a Latino is expected to behave in certain race-specific manner. he/she is expected to be really 'hip', an expert in salsa or other forms of dancing, not really good in academics, coming from a poor family and supporting a certain political party. But what if that one individual wants to defy all these restricting attributes because he/she is not a…… [Read More]

References

Lind, Michael- The Diversity Scam. The New Leader; 7/1/2000;

Irving Lewis Allen: Unkind Words: Ethnic Labeling from Redskin to Wasp. Bergin & Garvey. New York 1990.

Abigail Bucuvalas: Interview with Assistant Professor Mica Pollock, "When Race Matters":

http://www.gse.harvard.edu/news/features/pollock10012003.html
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Direct and Indirect Intervention in Early Adulthood

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58001548

Labeling, Life Chances, And Adult Crime

Jon Gunnar Bernburg and Marvin D. Krohn build on a body of criminology research related to labeling theory in their report entitled "Labeling, Life Chances, and Adult Crime: The Direct and Indirect Effects of Official Intervention in Adolescence on Crime in Early Adulthood." The report reflects in-depth research and statistical analysis conducted by the researchers. Specifically, Bernburg and Krohn attempt to fill in gaps in prior research by addressing three specific areas. First, the authors examine "the effect of police intervention and juvenile justice intervention on subsequent early adulthood crime," (1295). To do so they use a random sample taken from a population of adolescents. Second, Bernburg and Krohn look at "the long-term effect of official intervention during adolescence on young adult criminality," and whether "educational attainment and periods of nonemployment mediate this effect," (1295). Third, the researchers try to determine "whether the effect…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bernburg, Jon Gunnar and Krohn, Marvin D. "Labeling, Life Chances and Adult Crime: The Direct and Indirect Effects of Official Intervention in Adolescence on Crime in Early Adulthood."
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Nist SP 800 50 Building an Information Technology Security Awareness and Training Program

Words: 1013 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49412307

Sequential Label and Supply

nist sp 800-50, "Building an Information Technology Security Awareness and Training Program"

Sequential Label and Supply

After a recent failure of the computer systems at Sequential Label and Supply, it has become clear that current security provisions are inadequate

The IT security team is under-funded and understaffed

There is a lack of respect for the IT team

Problems are dealt with as they present themselves rather than are anticipated and prevented

Agency IT security policy

At present, there is no formal security policy and problems tend to be addressed on an ad hoc basis. For example, when a disc brought in by an employee infected all of the computers with a virus, the ability to use such software was disabled: no fundamental reforms were made

Awareness

There is a need to create a consistent, coherent security policy for the entire company, in all roles

Objectives include…… [Read More]

References

Whitman, M. & Mattord, H. (2005). Readings and cases in the management of information security. Cengage.

Wilson, M & Hash, J. (2003). Building an information technology security awareness and training program. NIST. Retrieved from:

 http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-50/NIST-SP800-50.pdf
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Carbon Footprint One of the

Words: 512 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84069682

In modern school cultures, for instance, we often say, "Oh, they're Asian, they must be smart." So, the Asian-American person hears that they "must be smart, must overachieve, must get good grades." They then come to believe that this is far more than what society expects of them, but instead, what they are supposed to be as a person. So, they become that person, they apply themselves a bit more, study a bit more, and soon the prophecy seen from the outside world is internalized and factual.

Of course, this idea may be pejorative as well -- homosexuality being labeled as deviant, "you fag, you queer;" mental illness as "looney, nutty, off their rocker;" and so many negative ethic terms one's head would spin: "kike, spick, nigger, cholo, slant eye, towel head, beaner, etc."

We must then ask, why do we label? Perhaps it is the human tendency to box…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

What is a carbon footprint? (2011, January). Retrieved March 2011, from CarbonFootprint.com: http://www.carbonfootprint.com/carbonfootprint.html

Yarrow, J. (2008). How to Reduce Your Carbon Footprint. San Francisco and London: Chronicle Books.
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Decentralization and Policing Define Decentralization Explain the

Words: 1483 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83253226

Decentralization and Policing

Define decentralization. Explain the ties between this movement and labeling theory. What is, in your informed opinion, the single most important practice to emerge from the decentralization movement? Why do you think that this is the case? The idea behind this movement is captured by the phrase "less not more"; however, Blomberg and Lucken contend that "not less -- more" was the result. How was this possible?

Decentralization refers to the dispersion of power by the central authority to the existing local and regional authorities. The central authority decides to delegate its functions and power to the authorities. Labeling theory helps in illustrating the reason to why people may engage in defiant behaviors. For instance, an individual associating with thieve might receive the label of being one of the thieves. The individual getting the label may start incorporating the behavior into his daily activities. Blomberg states that…… [Read More]

Reference

Blomberg, T.G., & Lucken, K. (2010). American penology: A history of control. New Brunswick [N.J.: AldineTransaction.

Rosenfeld, R. Fornango, R. & Rengifo, A (2007). The Impact of Order-Maintenance Policing

On New York City Homicide And Robbery Rates:1988-2001. Criminology Volume 45

Number 2
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Justice of Restoration

Words: 1214 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49023831

estorative Justice

The purpose of this article was to show that restorative justice is significantly more satisfying as compared to courts for both offenders and victims. This was achieved with a randomized experimental design known as eintergrative Shaming Experiments ISE. This project is used to compare the effects of standard court processing with those of restorative justice intervention known as conferencing. In the article, the ISE data is used to examine whether conferences are equally beneficial for juvenile victims and adult victims as well (Gal, T & Moyal, 201).

The research method that was used in this article is a stratified randomized experimental design that was used to compare the outcomes of court and conference cases that were held in Canberra, Australia between 1995 and 2000. Shoplifting, drinking, property crimes and violent crimes were assigned within each other randomly to the estorative Justice Conferences or traditional courts using a computer…… [Read More]

Reference

Gal, T. & Moyal, S. (2011). Juvenile victims in restorative justice: Findings from the Reintegrative Shaming Experiments
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Learning Disabled During the Course of a

Words: 1262 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24918403

Learning Disabled

During the course of a child's school years they will learn to define themselves as a person and shape their personality, sense of self-concept and perception of their potential for achievement for life (Persaud, 2000). Thus the early educational years may be considered one of the most impacting and important with regard to emotional, social and cognitive development for students of all disabilities. Labeling is a common by-product of educational institutions, one that has been hotly debated with regard to its benefits and consequences by educators and administrators over time. There are proponents of labeling and those that suggest that labeling may be damaging to students in some manner.

Students who are labeled at the elementary and middle school level as learning disabled may face greater difficulties achieving their true potential in part due to a decreased sense of self-esteem, self-concept and personal achievement (Persaud, 2000). The intent…… [Read More]

References

Beilke, J.R. & Yssel, N. (Sept., 1999). "The chilly climate for students with disabilites in higher education." College Student Journal, Retrieved October 19, 2004 from LookSmart. Available: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles.mi_m0FCR/is_3_33/ai_62839444/pg_3

Clark, M. (1997). "Teacher response to learning disability: A test of attributional principles." The Journals of Learning Disabilities, 30 (1), 69-79. Retrieved Oct 4, 2004 from LDOnline. Available:

 http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/self_esteem/teacherresponse.html .

Clark, M. And Artiles, A. (2000). "A cross-national study of teachers' attributional patterns." The Journal of Special Education, 32(2), 77-99.
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Criminology Theories and Their Impact

Words: 1252 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30304167

"

One study examined 595 participants, who filled out questionnaires for the research and concluded that social bonding issues play a part in social deviance including the use of drugs and alcohol (Pawlak, 1993).

elating Theory to Social Issue

elating the two criminology theories to the current social issue of adolescent substance abuse, is relatively easy to do. In each of the theories, studies have been conducted to ascertain the amount, if any, of substance abuse that the theories support. Both of the theories have relatively clear markers for how they impact the possibility of adolescent substance abuse.

The research into the labeling theory, clearly indicates that adolescents often develop their self-image by the reaction of society to their existence. If a teenager believes he is labeled as a problem, or a throw-away child, he will most likely develop poor self-esteem, and one of the consequences of that low self-esteem,…… [Read More]

References

Harrison, Larry R (1997) Control theory, labeling theory, and the delivery of services for drug abuse to adolescents. Adolescence Marcos, a.C., & Johnson, R.E. (1988). Cultural patterns and causal processes in adolescent drug use: The case of Greeks vs. Americans. The International Journal of the Addictions, 23, 545-572.

Ray, M.C., & Downs, W.R. (1986). An empirical test of labeling theory using longitudinal data. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 23, 169-194.

Pawlak, Rebecca (1993) Effects of social bonds and childhood experiences on alcohol abuse and smoking. The Journal of Social Psychology
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Family Deliquency and Crime Define

Words: 2992 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18765636

In fact, many studies show that deviant or antisocial children may experience a strengthening of the bonds between parents and society in the process of their development.

Therefore, while social control theory is one view, there are many alternative theories that take other findings and variables into account. In general, the view that a deviant child who does not change by a certain age is "condemned "to a life of crime if sharply criticized, as it often does not concur with empirical findings. Theories put forward by Gottfredson and Hirsch propose another view of the life-course towards crime that takes into account the fact that in many case early deviant behavior does not necessarily lead to a life-long pattern of criminal behavior.

Question 4.

Describe the labeling theory and the consequences that labeling can have on a child. Should we be concerned with labeling? Why or why not?

In essence,…… [Read More]

References

ACF Questions and Answers Support. Retrieved April 9, 2008 from http://faq.acf.hhs.gov/cgi-bin/acfrightnow.cfg/php/enduser/std_adp.php?p_sid=qnPNlL5i&p_lva=&p_faqid=68&p_created=1001610478&p_sp=cF9zcmNoPTEmcF9ncmlkc29y dD0mcF9yb3dfY250PTEzJnBfc2VhcmNoX3RleHQ9JnBfc2VhcmNoX3R5 cGU9MyZwX2NhdF9sdmwxPTEwJnBfY2F0X2x2bDI9MzAmcF9zb3J0X2J 5PWRmbHQmcF9wYWdlPTE*&p_li =

Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/statutes/define.cfm

Crime Theories. Retrieved April 9, 2008 from NCWC. Web site: http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/111/111lect03.htm

Overview of Labeling Theories. Retrieved April 9, 2008 http://home.comcast.net/~ddemelo/crime/labeling.html
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Mpls Qos vs ATM Qos

Words: 3797 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17711253

MLPS QOS vs. ATM QOS

Quality of Service (QOS) is best defined as the performance attributes of an end-to-end flow of data (Zheng, 2001). The particular elements of QOS depend on the information that is being transported. For example, QOS for voice defines limits on specific parameters such as delay, delay variation, packet loss, and availability.

In the past, networks were engineered based on providing fixed bandwidth for relatively short duration voice calls. Today, the traffic on networks is based on statistical or bursty data. Therefore, it has become necessary to develop new statistical models to build new networks.

Functions of QOS

QOS applications are used in networks for many reasons, including to:

Guarantee a fixed amount of bandwidth for various applications.

Control latency and jitter, and ensure bandwidth for voice.

Provide specific, guaranteed and quantifiable service level agreements (SLAs).

Configure varying degrees of quality of service for multiple network…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Flannagan, Mike. Administering Cisco QOS for IP Networks. Syngress Media Inc., March 2001.

Hesselbach, Xavier. On the Quality of Service Enhancement in Variable Bit Rate Networks. Department of Applied Mathematics and Telematics,

Polytechnic University of Catalonia, 1998.

Paw, Dave. McDysan, Dave. ATM & MPLS Theory & Application: Foundations of Multi-Service Networking. McGraw-Hill Osborne Media, September 2002.
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Sociological Theories of Mental Illness

Words: 1646 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45334137

social structures exert a definite pressure upon certain persons in the society to engage in nonconformist rather than conformist conduct," (Merton, 1938, p. 672). With his own italics emphasizing the stress and strain that social structures can produce in the individual, obert Merton outlines the basis of strain and stress theories. Stress is a natural part of life; it is how people cope with stress or react to it that matters most. Individual differences in background, situational variables, and also personality and psychological traits can also impact how people deal with stress and respond to stressors. However, some people will naturally encounter more stressors and more strain than others. Merton and other sociologists who recognized the value of strain theory showed how poverty and other structural variables cause stress and strain, and can often be the cause for behavioral problems including criminality. Yet once a person has been labeled a…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, R. & Scheuerman, H. (2015). Strain theories. Retrieved online: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396607/obo-9780195396607-0005.xml

"Labeing Theory," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.d.umn.edu/~bmork/2306/Theories/BAMlabeling.htm

McLeod, S. (2010). Stressful life events. Retrieved online: http://www.simplypsychology.org/SRRS.html

Merton, R.K. (1938). Social structure and anomie. American Sociological Review 3(5): 672-682.
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Families Delinquency & Crime Describe

Words: 2165 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31046334

It is possible that an individual who was abused as a child was able to recover from the trauma of his/her experience, and tried to convert his/her negative experience into a positive one by helping out abused children, with the goal of helping them to also recover and develop as psychologically healthy individuals. This kind of psyche abolishes the phenomenon of double jeopardy, and provides a counter-argument to the earlier claim that abused children tend to have realtionships who will also abuse them.

7. eflect about the idea from the text regarding, "child abuse is transmitted across the generations." Do you agree with this statement?

I agree with the statement that child abuse is transmitted across the generations, as empirical studies have shown that indeed, abused individuals during their childhood (in the study's case, mothers) had indeed the tendency to also abuse their children. Again, this statement is just part…… [Read More]

References

Bates, K., C. Bader, and F. Mencken. (2003). "Family structure, power-control theory, and deviance: extending power-control theory to include alternate family forms." Western Criminology Review, Vol. 4, No. 3.

Egelman, B. And A. Susman-Stillman. (1996). "Dissociation as mediator of child abuse across generations." Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 20, Issue 11.

Flowers, R. (2001). Runaway kids and teenage prostitution: America's lost, abandoned, and sexually exploited children. Wesport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Simons, R., C. Johnson, J. Beaman, and R. Conger. (1993). "Explaining women's double jeopardy: factors that mediate the association between harsh treatment as a child and violence by a husband." Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 55.
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David Berkowitz Known as Son

Words: 3683 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91413393

She notified police and the parking ticket (because Berkowitz had parked too close to a fire hydrant) was traced to Berkowitz. But the police were just thinking that Berkowitz might be a witness; however, when the Yonkers police searched that Galaxie belonging to Berkowitz, they found a rifle and a .44 caliber Bulldog pistol -- along with detailed maps of the crime scenes that Berkowitz had created with his lust for killing women.

"hat took you so long?" Berkowitz is reported to have asked as the officers arrested him. In time during questioning, Berkowitz either played like he was mentally unbalanced -- which he of course was -- or was just rambling because he claimed that the dog he had killed was possessed by some kind of demon, and that the dog was demanding that Berkowitz go and do the killing. Other claims by Berkowitz included that he was a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Breslin, Jimmy. (1993). 25th Anniversary. New York Magazine, 26(16), 153-154.

Brogaard, Berit. (2012). The Making of a Serial Killer / the Superhuman Mind. Psychology Today. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from http://www.psychologytoday.com.

Caputi, Jane. (1987). The Age of Sex Crime. Madison, WI: Popular Press.

Crossman, Ashley. (2013). Labeling Theory. About.com. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from http://sociology.about.com.
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Surgeon General Warning on Tobacco

Words: 1387 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62537848

Warning Labels

Not even 50 years ago, many people felt skeptical about the hazards of cigarette smoking. Although increasing numbers of studies showed that some connection existed between tobacco and lung and heart ailments, questions still remained about the true effects on health. In 1964, however, the United States Surgeon General Luther Terry confronted 200 media reporters in a State Department auditorium for two hours and completely changed the course of history. For the first time, the American government made it official: Smoking causes lung cancer. How much of an impact did this warning and other warnings to come by the Surgeon General and additional interested parties in the future alter the numbers of people smoking nationwide? The results are not too promising.

After the Surgeon General's first announcement, there was an immediate reaction. At this time, about 46% of people smoked in the U.S. When Americans heard the Surgeon…… [Read More]

References Cited

Bowman, Lee. "Potomac Watch: 40 years ago, government linked smoking to cancer."

Scripps Howard News Service, January 10, 2004. 31. May 2005. http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/156042_pot10.html

Eckman, B, & S. Goldberg. "The viability of the Marlboro Man among the 18-24 segment." Bates no. 204462266-2024462292., 8, 1992.

Geoffrey Fong. "UW Researcher to get U.S. Grant to study Warning Labels." 31 May, 2005.  http://www.adm.uwaterloo.ca/infonews/release/2002/153%20Cigarette%20warning%20labels%20studied,%20July%2024,%202002.html
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Garment Evaluation

Words: 1073 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72362323

Women Pea Coat

Major components

This apparel is a wool-blended pea coat selling at a price of 62.80 dollars and available online at Forever 21.com. The length of the pea coat is 32" from the high point shoulder to the where it falls on the thigh or hem. It adapts a traditional, military style silhouette with a slight slim in the middle section with modern proportions. The coat is belted, a sleek without much detail and has a hidden hook-bar closure at the top. It is double breasted with two front slanting pockets in addition to a hidden snap button at the bottom. This coat has a slight Napoleonic collar with sleeves 25" in length from the high pleated shoulder. It is fully lined with 100% polyester with the shell woven and comprising of 48% polyester, 45% wool, 4% acrylic, 2% rayon, and 1% nylon. The apparel is machine washable…… [Read More]

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Food and Drug Law in

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77408681

S. Food and Drug Administration, because they were in wide use before the 1938 Act (grandfathered in, as it were). (Dunn 1938)

The problem was that Act contained a definition for a "new drug" (one in need of prior approval to market), as any drug "the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling." FDCA § 201(p) (1). The manufacturers set out to establish then, that anything GRAS/GRAE therefore was not a new drug, and needed no FDA blessing.

Many medicines are ancient, and the active ingredients of many drugs on were first introduced before 1938. To make matters worse, between 1938 and 1962, the FDA considered drugs that were identical, related, or similar…… [Read More]

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Branding Experiment

Words: 384 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79850358

Wegmans store brand food items vs. well-Known brands

Lunchmeat

Wegmans hickory-smoked turkey lunchmeat vs. Hillshire Farms hickory-smoked turkey lunchmeat

Review placement on shelf: Both products are positioned side-by-side on a hanging rack in the dairy section

Cost of brand vs. cost of private label: Wegmans $2.99; Hillshire Farms $3.39 for the same amount in ounces

Ingredients same or different?: Virtually identical

Is private label made by brand manufacturer: Yes

Dairy

Wegmans shredded cheddar vs. Kraft shredded cheese

Review placement on shelf: Wegmans was positioned at eye level, Kraft was positioned somewhat lower

Cost of brand vs. cost of private label: Wegmans was $3.89 for 16 ounces; Kraft was $3.19 for 8 ounces

Ingredients same or different?: Kraft offered a blend of different flavors and colors of cheddar cheese; Wegmans bags of shredded cheese only came in single flavors and colors

Is private label made by brand manufacturer?: Yes

Category 3:…… [Read More]

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Beowulf as a Hero Lesson

Words: 8817 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81934961

Your answer should be at least five sentences long.

The Legend of Arthur

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 9 of 16

Journal Exercise 1.7A: Honor and Loyalty

1. Consider how Arthur's actions and personality agree with or challenge your definition of honor. Write a few sentences comparing your definition (from Journal 1.6A) with Arthur's actions and personality.

2. Write a brief paragraph explaining the importance or unimportance of loyalty in being honorable.

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 10 of 16

Journal Exercise 1.7B: Combining Sentences

Complete the Practice Activity on page 202 of your text. After completing this activity, read over your Essay Assessment or another journal activity you've completed.

* Identify three passages that could be improved by combining two or more sentences with coordinating or subordinating conjunctions. Below the practice activity in your journal, write the original passages and the revised sentences you've created.

* Be sure to…… [Read More]

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Consumer Behavior - Branding the

Words: 2754 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14186640

As Farrell (June 14, 2000) states: "The idea is to make milk the "cool" drink. The "mustache" still runs, with current stars such as Britney Spears." The success of such milk advertising to teens, it seems, represents an especially skillful endeavor, since milk is otherwise so much (and traditionally) associated with babyhood and early childhood, life stages (and self-images and reflections by others) that teens in particular generally yearn to leave far behind. Moreover, the considerable success of the "milk mustache" campaign proves very well the fact that just about anything can be successfully marketed to teens, as long as it is marketed to them with enough imagination, research, and skill (and with plenty of advertising dollars).

Some advertising for teens is also currently undergoing some interesting media changes, internationally. Within one global mega-conglomerate, Coca Cola, according to Foust (March 1, 2004):

Coke has diverted money into new initiatives that…… [Read More]

References

Farrell, G. (June 14, 2000). Milk does a body good, but ads do the industry even better. USA today. Money Section. 7b. Retrieved October 14, 2005, from www.usatoday.com/educate/college/business/casestudies/20010831-

biz01.pdf.

Foust, D. (March 1, 2004). Coke: Wooing the TiVo generation. Business week online. Retrieved October 15, 2004, at http://www.businessweek.com / magazine/content/04_09/b3872088.htm.

Grimaldi, V. (2005).What is branding? Brandchannel.com. Retrieved October
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Epistemology and Ontology

Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43958043

POSITIVISM vs. INTEPETIVISM DEBATE

Epistemology and Ontology

For my part, however, I no longer want to be labeled as a positivist researcher or an interpretive researcher. It is time for us to move beyond labels and to see the underlying unity in what we are trying to achieve via our research methods. The commonalities in my view are compelling and paramount. We ought to celebrate them because they underpin the value of our role as scholars. The differences, on the other hand, are ancillary. We should understand them, but they should not divide us. The challenge for us now is to rethink and develop a new rhetoric so we come to a deeper understanding of the metatheoretical assumptions that underlie our research. (Weber, 2004, X)

Weber's declaration is at the heart of this paper's examination. The paper attempts to gauge the frameworks of three articles in relation to Weber's concerns…… [Read More]

References:

Ashforth, B., & Humphrey, R. (1997). The Ubiquity and Potency of Labeling in Organizations. Organization Science, 8(1), 43-58.

Becker, J., & Niehaves, B. (2007). Epistemological perspectives on IS research: A framework for analysing and systematizing epistemological assumptions. Information Systems Journal, 17(2), 197-214.

Boland Jr., R., & Tenkasi, R. (1995). Perspective Making and Perspective Taking in Communities of Knowing. Organization Science, 6(4), 350-372.

Jackson, J.W. (1993). Realistic group conflict theory: A review and evaluation of the theoretical and empirical literature. Psychological Record, 43(3), 395-405.
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Functional Food Product the Product

Words: 879 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22215298

Nutritional claims and labeling are very valuable things for the consumer when deciding if he or she wants to eat the product, and the food industry knows that truth in advertising and package labeling is something that has to be addressed. If the label does not tell the consumer all the facts, it is possible the consumer could be ingesting something he or she really does not want (UK list of health claims, 2010). That is a vital issue with candy, because some people have adverse reactions to things such as sugar and caffeine -- or to artificial sweeteners that may be used to present the candy as something low-sugar and more healthful overall.

The UK Food Standards Agency is very particular about what is sold and how it is represented, so that is one of the most important issues for any new and novel food product (UK list of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bass, Frank M. The Future of Research in Marketing: Marketing Science. Journal of Marketing Research 30, 1 (1993): 1-6.

Cateora, P.R., & Graham, J.L. International Marketing 11th Ed. Mc Graw-Hill (2002).

Coughlan et al. Predicting affective responses to unexpected outcomes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 85(2), 211-225, (2001).

Jain, S.C. International Marketing Management, Wadsworth Publishing Group, Belmont, (1990).
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Actuarial vs Clinical Predictions There Are Several

Words: 1214 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15352387

Actuarial vs. Clinical Predictions

There are several issues of note in the time-honored debate as to whether it is more effective to employs actuarial or clinical predications for the purpose of assessment. On the one hand, it would appear congruent with the job of psychologists to actually perform clinical studies and utilize predictions as such to evaluate various issues of people and of incidents. The principle problem with this approach is that it leaves room for human error, which can overthrow the entire purpose of a clinical study. Conversely, there is little denying the fact that an actuarial "set of rules" (Kaplan, year, p. 554) can oftentimes determine the results of clinical studies without such human error. However, the actuarial approach may possibly be bested by a clinical approach when there is a "variety of sources" (Kaplan, year, p.554) contributing data to clinical predications. Of course, the clinicians would still…… [Read More]

References

Kaplan, R.M. (no date). Psychological assessment and theory creating and using psychological tests. Beverly: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Suzuki and Ponterotto. (2000). Multicultural assessment. Handbook of Multicultural Assessment. New York: Jossey-Bass.
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Criminal Psychology What Are the

Words: 787 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92818315

In both cases, that label can make intervention more difficult instead of less difficult. Certainly, some types of behavioral issues are functions of immaturity or of stages of development and personality or identity experimentation. However, bona fide delinquency issues should not be excused as features of personality, largely because doing so undermines the development of personal responsibility and the realization that negative behaviors have negative consequences.

Which represents the greatest threat to society: multiple murder, workplace violence, or violent bias crimes?

It is difficult to compare the three types of crimes by listing them in order because so much depends on context. For example, violent bias crimes could include multiple murders. In general, multiple murders are relatively rare outside of environments where criminality is already at issue, such as in connection with organize crime and criminal gang rivalries. Workplace violence is comparatively rare when it comes to serious crimes such…… [Read More]

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Puzzling or Mysterious Subject From a Field

Words: 912 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52630126

puzzling or mysterious subject from a field of study or from an interest you have explored. Write an extended definition that explains this mystery for your readers. As appropriate, include information about its characteristics, parts, history, possible causes, effects, solutions, benefits, or dangers.

On some products, we see labels tagged with the logo EcoLogo and Green eal. ome people do not know what they stand for or why they are necessary. The following essay is an explanation of these labels and the reason for their existence.

Both labels, each produced by different companies, were issued as control against a practice called Greenwashing. Greenwashing is the practice of managers calling their brands / products 'natural', 'earth-friendly', 'environmental', 'green', 'organic', or the like -- when they may not, necessarily, be so. ome products have even branded themselves with empty semantics such as being 'biodegradable' or 'natural' (consider: 'natural' potato chips and 'natural'…… [Read More]

Sources

Chan P (2009) Beware of 'Greenwashing' Tangerine Living

http://tangerineliving.com/tangerinehome/4025

EcoLogo

http://www.ecologo.org/en/
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Field Experiment on the Interactive Perspective of Deviance

Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66312090

Behavior Experiment

The experiment took place in a busy office building at around five o'clock in the evening. It started on the ground floor and involved walking into an elevator and not turning around. The total number of people who entered the elevator was six, two stopped on the third floor, which was the first stop and the other three stopped on the fifth, which was the last stop. The experiment ended on the fifth floor and took a little over three minutes.

eactions

The other five people upon entering the elevator realized that not everybody turned to face the entrance as usual. The group seemed baffled with the occurrence. Two people, a female and a male laughed asking jokingly if they were supposed to turn around. They appeared friendly and continued with interesting comment until they left the elevator. The other three smiled but seemed less concerned. However, the…… [Read More]

Reference

Alder, P., & Alder, P. (2012). Constructions of Deviance: Social Power, Context, and Interaction (7th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Beauvais, F. (1992). Characteristics of Indian Youth and Drug Use. American Indian and Alaska

Native Mental Health Research Journal .

Cullen, F.T., & Cullen, J.B. (1978). Toward A Paradigm of Labeling Theory. NCJRS, 53.
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Social Inertia Quotation Analysis This

Words: 354 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99379963

This is also true of defendants labeled as child molesters -- even if not convicted, the label or suspicion is so insidious, it is difficult for juries or even witnesses to apprehend the facts with an unbiased eye ("In the Supreme Court of the United States," 1990, IPT). There is also a psychological reason for labeling theory, suggested by this example of prejudice -- once a first impression is created, it is difficult to forget that first impression, as all subsequent actions are interpreted in relation to that first negative image or label.

orks Cited

O'Connor, T. (2005). "Labeling theory of crime." Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/301/301lect12.htm

In the Supreme Court of the United States." (1990). IPT. 2.7. Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://www.ipt-forensics.com/journal/volume2/j2_2_7.htm

Resources: framing the issue." (2003). Youth in the Media: McKnight Foundation. Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://www.mcknight.org/hotissues/framing_youth.aspx… [Read More]

Works Cited

O'Connor, T. (2005). "Labeling theory of crime." Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/301/301lect12.htm

In the Supreme Court of the United States." (1990). IPT. 2.7. Retrieved 15 Oct 2007.  http://www.ipt-forensics.com/journal/volume2/j2_2_7.htm 

Resources: framing the issue." (2003). Youth in the Media: McKnight Foundation. Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://www.mcknight.org/hotissues/framing_youth.aspx
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Blocks to Critical Thinking

Words: 815 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10676390

Cultural Conditioning Block

Cultural conditioning refers to how society's standards and values are passed on to all members of society. Cultural conditioning is a block to critical thinking when people accept society's standards blindly, with this impacting how a person thinks by creating bias and selective perception.

Example: When Nolan tells Keating he does not approve of his unorthodox teaching methods, he is basing his judgment on the fact that Keating's methods and expectations of the students are different to the accepted standards of the school. This is an example of the cultural conditioning block because Nolan does not actually judge Keating's views but shows bias against them because they go against the school's standards and values.

eliance on Authority Block

Definition: eliance on authority is a block to critical thinking when people accept the views of the majority in place of thinking for themselves and forming their own opinions…… [Read More]

Reference Block

Definition: Frame of reference refers to how people see the world based on their own knowledge, experiences, and position. This is a block to critical thinking because it limits people's perceptions and prevents them from seeing the bigger picture.

Example: When McAllister speaks to Keating, he tells him that he is misguided and that encouraging students to be artists will only lead to later disappointments. He also says that encouraging students to dream and think for themselves will not help them. This is an example of frame of reference because McAllister is judging what he has observed on the class based on his own ideas on the value of dreams and free thinking. McAllister's frame of reference is a block to critical thinking because he is not able to consider what the lesson might mean to the students.
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Howard Becker's Seminal Work in Sociology

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57962481

Life of Howard Becker and Key Concepts of the Labeling Theory of Deviance

Criminology theory has roots in sociology and psychology, so it is not surprising to learn that Howard Becker, a sociologist, developed social reaction theory or labeling theory. Becker observed that the language used to describe the attributes or groupings of individuals can influence their behavior and impact their self-identity (Miller, et al., 2009). Labeling theory addresses the idea of a self-fulfilling prophecy and the strengthening of stereotypes as a result of the propensity of more privileged classes of people to use pejorative linguistic labels when referring to less privileged classes of people (Miller, et al., 2009).

Becker learned to play the piano at an early age, studying music and playing the piano throughout his life. He was exposed to the deviant cultures of musicians who often used drugs or smoked marijuana. During the years that Becker taught…… [Read More]

References

Becker, H.S. (1997, March 1). Outsiders: Studies in the sociology of deviance. New York,

NY: Free Press.

Becker, H. (2005). An introduction to the Danish and Brazilian editions of Outsiders. Retrieved from  http://howardsbecker.com/articles/danishintro.html 

Miller, F.P., Vandome, A.F., & McBrewster, J. (2009). Labeling theory. Saarbrucken,
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Families Delinquency & Crime What

Words: 1939 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81598206

If the child is punished for small infractions of the rules and other children are not, this makes him feel that life is unfair, and makes him act in the ways that he is expected to act. Formal labeling is manifest when teachers treat students labeled as gifted as brighter, which motivates the children to perform better on tests, or when students labeled as 'special education' or 'ESL' are assumed to be capable of less than other children. If less is expected of them, they will naturally perform at a lower standard.

Module 4

Q5. Identify some of the factors that could lead to inept parenting in single parent family households.

Even the best single parent faces considerable challenges. Single parent households tend to be less affluent economically, which automatically presents a difficulty in terms of ensuring that children have safe and healthy environments in which to live. Single parents…… [Read More]

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Gender and Smell Recognition

Words: 1851 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54073248

Gender and Smell ecognition

There has been a significant amount of speculation about innate gender differences in thought, cognitive ability, and the relative strength of certain senses. One of area that has received some attention is the ability to smell. Anecdotal evidence suggests that women have a stronger ability to smell than men, as does significant prior research. This research study will examine the relative strength of the sense of smell of a group of men compared to a group of women. Each test group will consist of 20 subjects. The expectation is that the women, as a group, will have a statistically significant better sense of smell than the men. However, at the outset of this study, it must be noted that many factors other than gender are known to influence the sense of smell including overall health and age. This study did not control for those additional factors,…… [Read More]

References

Dalton, P., Doolittle, N., & Breslin, P. (2002). Gender-specific induction of enhanced sensitivity to odors. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 199-200.

Lehrner, J. (1993). Gender differences in long-term odor recognition memory: verbal vs. sensory influences and the consistency of label use. Chem. Senses, 18(1), 17-26.

Lenochova, P., & Havlicek, J. (2008). Human body odour individuality. Chemical Signals in Vertebrates, 11(3), 189-198. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-73945-8_18

McGivern, R., Mutter, K., Anderson, J., Wideman, G., Bodnar, M., & Huston, P. (1998).