Labeling Theory Essays (Examples)

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Dissecting Criminal Labelling Theory Howard

Words: 584 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45508346

Thus, even "victimless" deviant activities are regulated through various methods of formal and informal control. The deviancy ascribed to Brenda's teen pregnancy, for example, stems largely from the way she challenges the norms regarding sexual behavior. Conflict theorists believe that laws and norms do not reflect values of society as a whole, but only of the dominant segment.

Similarly, it could be said that Brenda's drug habit is a victimless crime. If she pursues reasonable precautions, such as avoiding driving and staying in a private place, her drug use does not differ much from smoking or alcohol consumption. However, since drug use is frowned upon by the social elite, Brenda is seen as a criminal.

Feminist theory

Similar to conflict and Marxist theories, feminist theorists see much social inequity in society.

This social inequity is one that divides the sexes. Early on in Brenda's life, the loss of job of…… [Read More]

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Labeling People as Deviant

Words: 742 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53871403

Social Control and Deviance

How does this TV show present deviance?

'Tabboo' airs on National Geographic which shows stories of different people with deviant behaviors. It presents a complete biography along with the history of that particular behavior. One particular episode of deviant behavior that I witnessed in the program was about the Ethiopian Tribe in which beauty represented the strength of a woman. That strength was measured by the amount of scars that were present on the woman's body which were given through whipping. The program showed that in the Ethiopian tribe, a boy's sisters has to suffer before he can become a man, so the women encourage the whipper to whip them. The whole situation of whipping and suffering for a man in your family seemed very confusing but it was normal for the people in that tribe (Bell 2012). Whipping is a negative action, but the program…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bell, Elise. Sociology. October 14, 2012. http://ihasociology1.blogspot.com/2012/10/taboo-responses.html (accessed September 30, 2015 ).

Bryant, Lee. The Labelling Theory. n.d. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/sociology/crime-and-deviance/the-labelling-theory / (accessed September 30, 2015).
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Comparing Labeling and Conflict Theories

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31250599

Labeling and Conflict Theory

Conflict theory is largely based upon a Marxist conception of human relations. It suggests that the definition of crime is created by social elites to bolster their social position. For example, for many years within the criminal justice system, the crime of using crack cocaine was penalized significantly more than the use of powder cocaine. Not coincidentally, a Marxist theorist would note, people living in the inner city were more likely to use the cheaper, crack alternative. Both drugs were equally dangerous and deleterious to society yet based upon social class, abusers were punished very differently. Conflict theorists regard crime as a subjective, class-based notion -- hence, an African-American person sitting at a 'whites only' lunch counter was considered a criminal in the south during the 1950s, despite the fact that such a law clearly violated the African-American's constitutional rights. Many actions considered crimes may actually…… [Read More]

References

Greek, C. (2005). Conflict theory. Criminological Theory. Retrieved from:

http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/conflict.htm

Greek, C. (2005). Labeling theory. Criminological Theory. Retrieved from:

http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/becker.htm
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Criminology Theories and Their Impact

Words: 1252 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30304167

"

One study examined 595 participants, who filled out questionnaires for the research and concluded that social bonding issues play a part in social deviance including the use of drugs and alcohol (Pawlak, 1993).

Relating Theory to Social Issue

Relating the two criminology theories to the current social issue of adolescent substance abuse, is relatively easy to do. In each of the theories, studies have been conducted to ascertain the amount, if any, of substance abuse that the theories support. Both of the theories have relatively clear markers for how they impact the possibility of adolescent substance abuse.

The research into the labeling theory, clearly indicates that adolescents often develop their self-image by the reaction of society to their existence. If a teenager believes he is labeled as a problem, or a throw-away child, he will most likely develop poor self-esteem, and one of the consequences of that low self-esteem,…… [Read More]

References

Harrison, Larry R (1997) Control theory, labeling theory, and the delivery of services for drug abuse to adolescents. Adolescence Marcos, a.C., & Johnson, R.E. (1988). Cultural patterns and causal processes in adolescent drug use: The case of Greeks vs. Americans. The International Journal of the Addictions, 23, 545-572.

Ray, M.C., & Downs, W.R. (1986). An empirical test of labeling theory using longitudinal data. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 23, 169-194.

Pawlak, Rebecca (1993) Effects of social bonds and childhood experiences on alcohol abuse and smoking. The Journal of Social Psychology
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Sociological Theories Have Helped Widen People's Scope

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10234738

Sociological theories have helped widen people's scope on social behaviors and societies. In fact, the study of sociological theories makes one develop a comprehensive understanding of sociology's past, present and future. There are a number of sociological theories namely: symbolic interaction theory, conflict theory, functionalist theory, feminist theory, critical theory, labeling theory, social learning theory, and structural strain theory among others (Giddens, 1997).

Government, religion, education, economics and family are some of the five major social institutions that have been there for quite some time. This term paper seeks to evaluate the impacts of functionalism, conflict, and interaction theories on the family institution. The paper will address how each of the theories apply to the family as a social institution; the similarities and differences that exist; how each theory affects the views of an individual who is a member of the family unit; how each of the theories affect approach…… [Read More]

References List

Giddens, A. (1997). Sociology. Cambridge: Polity.

McLennan, G, Allanah, R., & Spoonley, P. (2000). Exploring society: Sociology

for New Zealand students. Auckland: Pearson.

Stephens, P., & Leach, A. (1998). Think Sociology. New York: Nelson Thornes.
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Sociological Theories of Mental Illness

Words: 1646 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45334137

social structures exert a definite pressure upon certain persons in the society to engage in nonconformist rather than conformist conduct," (Merton, 1938, p. 672). With his own italics emphasizing the stress and strain that social structures can produce in the individual, Robert Merton outlines the basis of strain and stress theories. Stress is a natural part of life; it is how people cope with stress or react to it that matters most. Individual differences in background, situational variables, and also personality and psychological traits can also impact how people deal with stress and respond to stressors. However, some people will naturally encounter more stressors and more strain than others. Merton and other sociologists who recognized the value of strain theory showed how poverty and other structural variables cause stress and strain, and can often be the cause for behavioral problems including criminality. Yet once a person has been labeled a…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, R. & Scheuerman, H. (2015). Strain theories. Retrieved online: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396607/obo-9780195396607-0005.xml

"Labeing Theory," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.d.umn.edu/~bmork/2306/Theories/BAMlabeling.htm

McLeod, S. (2010). Stressful life events. Retrieved online: http://www.simplypsychology.org/SRRS.html

Merton, R.K. (1938). Social structure and anomie. American Sociological Review 3(5): 672-682.
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Criminological Theories Criminology Theories Have

Words: 2014 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35903924

Therefore, in response to criminal actions, the rules and laws of a system are developed. It is their presence that represents the glue of the social parts.

One shortcoming of this theory however is the fact that it cannot explain the motivation behind the actual existence of criminal behavior. It tends to perceive the society as a whole, through statistics and factual dates and tries to predict its evolution. Durkheim notes that the continuous existence of the phenomenon is attributed the need of the society for the eventual contribution to the definition of that community. According to him, crimes have a concrete role, as opposed to other theories which fight against such attributions. Thus, identifying criminals draws the limit of correct behavior, by exerting severe punishment; there is a clear notion of the most valuable values in the respective society. Moreover, criminal activities often result in the change of certain…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Larry Siegel, (1992). Criminology. New York: West Publishing.

Lemert, Edwin. (1967). Human Deviance, Social Problems and Social Control. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

Mead, George H. (1934). Mind, Self and Society. C. Morris (ed). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Triplett, Ruth. (1990). Labeling and Differential Association: The Effects on Delinquent Behavior. University of Maryland. Wellford, Charles F.
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Sociological Theories Explaining Violent Behavior and Serial Murder

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26191356

Sociology and Violent Behavior

The sociological theories of violent behavior focus in assessing the interaction of and individual their with social environment to yield violent behaviors. The key aspects considered in the theories are personality, the learning process, information processing, intelligence and subsequent behavior (aggressive acts). This paper presents a discussion of the theories associated with violent behaviors and serial murder.

Theories of Violent Behavior

The labeling theory argues that the society plays a significant role in influencing an individual's conceptualization of deviance. Once the society labels and individual as deviant and reinforces the deviant label on a person by way of shunning them out of society, the individual accept the label. Since the society has already labeled the acts and the individual as deviant, the individual will have no reason to disprove the view of many. The labeling influences the individual's self-concept and subsequently drives them deeper into more…… [Read More]

References

Fonagy, P. (2003). Towards a developmental understanding of violence. The British Journal of Psychiatry. The Journal of Mental Science, 183, 190-192.

Myers, W. C., Bukhanovskiy, A., Justen, E., Morton, R. J., Tilley, J., Adams, K., . . . Hazelwood, R. R. (2008). The relationship between serial sexual murder and autoerotic asphyxiation. Forensic Science International, 176(3), 187-195.
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Biological Biosocial Classical Theories Biological

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1567850



Biological explanations, in contrast to fair and severe punishment as advocated by classical theorists, stress the need for institutionalization and psychological and medical treatment for the 'ill,' but they also offers what seems like a defeatist attitude towards the improvement of the criminal, as the criminal has no rational choice in his or her behavior. The presumption is that irrationally generated behavior cannot be conditioned out of the individual through incarceration, and criminality must be treated like an illness, although opinions differ as to the best way to go about treating the individual so the criminal is 'cured' of the crime, or if a cure is even possible.

However, biosocial theories suggest that society plays an important role in causing crime, such as social learning theory: "Some children are raised in families in which violence is used as a means to achieve desires. Abusive parents model to their children that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Greek, Cecil. (2005). "Criminological Theory." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/lectures.htm

Keel, Robert. (12 Feb 2007). "Biological and Psychological Theories of Deviance." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at  http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/biotheor.html 

Keel, Robert. (12 Feb 2007). "Theories of Deviance." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/devtheor.html
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Seeking the Ramifications in Cognitive Theory

Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93811635

Criminology

Application of Schools of Criminal Thought

Within the classical school of thought (rational choice framework from economics), the charges against the perpetrator would be considered both logical and effective. Under classical thought, criminology holds that punishment is an effective deterrent to crime, and that punishment should be rationally aligned with the severity of the crime. The positivist school of thought (functionalist or biological, psychological, and sociological framework) would consider the crime and the punishment against a background of social and genetic influence. Within positivist criminology, the offender is viewed as having a flawed personality and character, brought about by significant deprivations during impressionable years, and that may at least be ameliorated through integrated therapies and treatment. The neo-classical school of thought (empiricism framework) considers crime -- and makes and implements policy -- through a rationalist, scientific, and evidence-based lens.

Theoretical Criminology Frameworks

Social bonding theory. Social bonding theory stems…… [Read More]

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Expectancy Violations Theory Evt Begun

Words: 1844 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76062096

Instead, it can provide an important springboard for future investigation in order to better understand the communication paradigms and expectations of cultures other than those in the United States. This, in turn, can lead to further nonverbal theorizing.

Furthermore, Burgoon's theory can also provide an important platform for more modern types of communication such as digital communication, for example (Littlejohn and Foss, 2009). Nonverbal cues are also inherent in this type of communication, although the assumption tends to be that this type of communication is primarily verbal. This is a very exciting development for communication studies. Currently, online communication has seen little in terms of formalizing theoretical findings. Because this communication medium is becoming increasingly important not only in personal interaction but also in the business world, it is becoming vitally important to provide theories of interaction by means of which such communications can most effectively be conducted. This can…… [Read More]

References

Littlejohn, S.W. And Foss, K.A. (2009). Encyclopedia of communication theory. Sage Publications.

Gudykunst, W.B. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Sage Publications.

Jacob, a. (2008). Expectancy Violations Theory (EVT) of Judee Burgoon. Retrieved from:  http://www.slideshare.net/ajacob/expectancy-violations-theory 

Kalman, Y.M. (2010). Online Pauses and Silence: Chronemic Expectancy Violations in Written Computer-Mediated Communication. Retrieved from: http://www.kalmans.com/evt.pdf
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Sociological Psychological and Biological Theories of Criminals

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67400170

biological theories, sociological theories, and psychological theories of crime.

Biological explanations of criminal behavior

Lombroso's Theory dates back to the late 1800s, and is not widely accepted today. Lombroso believed that a person's body type and constitution can tell a researcher whether or not the person is "a born criminal" (Crossman, 2011). Lombroso believed that criminals inherited their deviance, and that the body type of a person, if it resembled "primitive men," meant that individual was a criminal through a biological connection.

Typically, Lombroso believed that if a person had five or more characteristics from this list (" ... large monkey-like ears, large lips, a twisted nose, excessive cheekbones, long arms, and excessive wrinkles on the skin") then that individual would likely be a "born criminal" (Crossman, p. 1). Females, according to Lombroso, needed just three of these characteristics to qualify as a "born criminal."

Another biological crime theory comes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crossman, A. (2011). Biological Explanations of Deviant Behavior. About.com.

Retrieved November 21, 2015, from http://sociology.about.com.

Jrank. (2010). Crime Causation: Sociological Theories -- Labeling Theory / Social Learning.

Theory. Retrieved November 21, 2015, from http://law.jrank.org.
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Label Slp 3 In Section Session Long

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42210984

label slp 3 in section Session Long Project 'll estimate cost equity rate return company's shareholders 'require'. This important piece information top manager estimate important input effort determine action company add shareholders.

SLP 1 OPM 500

Wal-Mart is one of the greatest American companies and it has been received with both praises as well as criticism. The current endeavor nevertheless is more focused on the financial aspect of the organization, namely the cost of its equity. At a general level, the cost of equity is understood as "the return that stockholders require for a company" (Investopedia, 2011). In other words, it is the amount of money that the organization has to pay in order to reward the investments made by the shareowners.

The cost of capital is an important financial tool as it sits at the basis of efficient decision making. In other words, the cost of equity portraits whether…… [Read More]

References:

Cooper, R.A., 2011, Capital Asset Pricing Model, Reference for Business,  http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Bre-Cap/Capital-Asset-Pricing-Model-CAPM.html  last accessed on February 24, 2011

2011, Cost of equity, Investopedia, http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/costofequity.asp last accessed on February 24, 2011

2011, Capital Asset Pricing Model, Investopedia, http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/capm.asp last accessed on February 24, 2011

2011, Yahoo Finance, http://finance.yahoo.com / last accessed on February 24, 2011
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Theory the Objective of This

Words: 2202 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10371204

I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away. (Fraley, 2004)

Fraley relates that it was found in the study of Hazan and Shaver "...based on this three-category measure...that the distribution of categories was similar to that observed in infancy. In other words, about 60% of adults classified themselves as secure; about 20% described themselves as avoidant; and about 20% described themselves as anxious-resistant." (2004) While measurement in this manner was "a useful way to study the association between attachment styles and relationship functioning, it didn't allow a full test of the hypothesis in the same kinds of individual differences observed in infants might be manifest among adults." (Fraley, 2004) Fraley states that the findings of Brennan "suggested that there are two fundamental dimensions with respect to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Borelli, Jessica L.; and David, Daryn H. (2003-2004) Imagination, Cognition and Personality. Volume 23, Number 4 / 2003-2004. Attachment Theory and Research as a Guide to Psychotherapy Practice. Yale University. Online Baywood Publishing Company, Inc. Amityville, NY. Online available at http://baywood.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,2,6;journal,14,102;linkingpublicationresults,1:300311,1

Tuovila, Pirjo (2007)What Are Fathers for? Attachment Theory and the Significance of Fathers. European Centennial Conference to Celebrate the Birth of Dr. John Bowlby, the Founder of Attachment Theory. Tampere Hall, Finland, 1-2 February 2007.

Levine, Robert a. (2002) Attachment Research as an Ideological Movement: Preliminary Statement. Revised from presentation at the ISSBD, 2002, Ottawa. Harvard University.

Blizard, Ruth a. (1997) the origins of Disassociate Identity Disorder from an Object Relations and Attachment Theory Perspective. Journal of Dissociation. Vol. X No. 4, December, 1997.
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Theory and Practice

Words: 1112 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96528828



As the sessions proceeded, the therapist debriefed the client with the aim of de-escalating her psychologically. This enabled the client to explore and express a feeling of guilt and perception that she had failed to give her best to maintain her job. During the debriefing process, it was evident that the client believed that she was responsible for her job loss. She had been experiencing notable difficulties maintaining concentration and sleeping. Ultimately, this led to significant distress in social function.

After a week, the client reported to the therapist that she felt that she was not alone in the first time. As a result, she reported that she no longer needed the sedative medication, but remained compliant to the prescribed medication. After a while, the client related her belief in her ability to apply for new job opportunities. It is evident that the client's experience achieved the diagnostic criteria for…… [Read More]

References

Hillman, J.L. (2012). Crisis intervention and trauma counseling: New approaches to evidence-based practice. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Wainrib, B.R., & Bloch, E.L. (2008). Crisis intervention and trauma response: Theory and practice. New York: Springer.

Ziegler, S.M. (2010). Theory-directed nursing practice. New York: Springer Pub. Co.
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Labels a Method of Silencing

Words: 1907 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52540256

If the impact was the result of government collusion against Hatfill, then many might believe that actual freedom can only be guaranteed by forcing the press to reveal those sources, so that corruption could be eliminated from the government. However, Martin does not even mention arguments like those found above. Instead, she touts the ideals of the free press, without any mention of who the press is meant to serve, the people, and without any look into the history of journalistic freedom in the United States.

Outline

I. Introduction: Martin's fails to adequately support her thesis, which is that the courts are using a new method, financial compulsion, to silence and intimidate journalists.

Martin's describes Toni Locy's predicament.

1. Judge Reggie Walton, the judge from the Scooter Libby trial, is presiding over Hatfill's lawsuit.

2. Walton has held Locy in contempt for failing to divulge sources.

3. Hatfill's sued the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Miller, Judith. "Journalism on Trial." The Wall Street Journal 21 Feb. 2008: A16.
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Theories of Human Development

Words: 2294 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63046726

Human Development

Significance of cultural diversity

Theories permit us to determine the world around us coherently and also to act in the world with a reasonable approach. Numerous theories have developed throughout the previous century in western countries that make an effort to clarify how human character evolves, why all of us behave the way we do, what external circumstances encourage us to behave in particular ways, and the way these elements have been connected. A few of these concepts structure their arguments on essential physical as well as social-emotional situations within our very first years of existence; some around the impact involving external influences of our own family members, neighbourhood, as well as culture; a few on the unique learning and also thought procedures; a few on triumphant finalization of precise developmental "activities" at each and every phase throughout lifespan; plus some on the way a healthy-or perhaps unhealthy-sense…… [Read More]

References

Crandell, T., Crandell, C. And Zanden, J.V. (2011). Human Development. Chapter 2, 10th Ed. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages, p. 1-768 .

Daniels, H., Cole, M., & Wertsch, J.V. (Eds.). (2007). The Cambridge companion to Vygotsky. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Eisenstadt, S.N. (1986). The axial age breakthroughs. In S.N. Eisenstadt (ed.), The origins and diversity of axial age civilizations. New York: State University of New York Press, pp. 1 -- 28.

Huntington, S.P. (1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of the world order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
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Theory Being Posed in The Normal and the Pathological

Words: 962 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67343622

Theoretical Argument

Crime is a normative aspect of any social construct. That however does not in any way imply that a criminal is a set of or his psychological and biological endowments, if that may be called so. These are actually two very different queries on altogether different premises. The differentiation is better captured when sociological pursuits (fraud, slander, calumny, insults, etc.) are ingrained into the discussion about criminality. It also discount the fact that criminality should be looked down upon, though crimes are an accepted social construct. In ways similar to an individual avoiding pain, so does the society abhor crime. As an extension, similarly as pain cannot be wished away and does form a feature of life, so does criminality about a social structure. That is however not at all to defend crime. Such a posit would be against the moral obligations that has tangible outcomes and become…… [Read More]

References

Emile Durkheim, (2008). The normal and the pathological, Oxford University Press.
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Intelligence Theories

Words: 586 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68155643

Intelligence

Charles Spearman and his General Intelligence Theory

Spearman, a British psychologist, noted that individuals whose score on one mental ability test was excellent tended to maintain an impressive score in other tests as well (Nevid, 2012). On the other hand, those whose score on one cognitive test was unimpressive tended to perform badly in other tests administered. It is on the strength of this observation that Spearman concluded that being a general cognitive ability, intelligence could be expressed numerically or measured. In the words of Nevid (2012, p. 247), "he reasoned there must be an underlying general factor of intelligence that allows people to do well on mental tests, a factor he labeled 'g' for general intelligence."

It is, however, important to note that Spearman was also convinced that in addition to "g," intelligence included some other abilities that contributed "to performance on individual tests" (Nevid, 2012, p. 274).…… [Read More]

References

Comer, R. & Gould, E. (2012). Psychology Around Us (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Nevid, J. (2012). Psychology: Concepts and Applications (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Stenberg, R. (2008). Cognitive Psychology (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Weiner, I.B. (2012). Handbook of Psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
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Connecting Theory and Meaning of Disability Studies in Schools

Words: 3635 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60588925

Connecting Theory and Meaning of Disability Studies in Schools

The connecting theory application in the system of basic education has contributed to the development and establishment of a trans-disciplinary scientific strategized framework. This framework bases on the specified reverence for a considerable orientation in long-term and the engagement of decision makers in the education system on its application. The connecting theory involves work that cuts across education disciplines. This is with the aim of exposing the aspects perceived to be of outdated assumptions in the education system. This happens with their respective enrichment in the technological and social practice. The theory constitutes well-strategized research with knowledge meant for informing a scientific framework designated. This is to enable direct transformation towards the education system future with worldview fit (Fenton-Smith, & Stillwell, 2011).

The concrete developed strategic objectives aim at addressing the advancements with accuracy in understanding the aspect of science. This…… [Read More]

References

Albrecht, G.L. (2003). Handbook of disability studies. Thousand Oaks, Calif. [u.a.: Sage.

Dan Goodley & Michele Moore. (2010). Doing Disability Research: Activist lives and the academy. Retrieved from: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cdso20

Danforth, S. (2006). Vital questions facing disability studies in education. New York: Lang.

Fenton-Smith, B., & Stillwell, C. (2011). Reading Discussion Groups for Teachers:
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Medical Theory Ever Since the

Words: 3095 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24024442

As mentioned earlier, the desired outcome of nursing care is comfort and there are many articles in which the researchers have talked about the needs of the patients and the things that alter the comfort of the patients. Kolcaba suggested that the cancer patients who are terminally ill can benefit from comfort care as it pays attention to the perspective and needs of the patients. Through such kind of care, the patient is not only provided with pain relief, but the depression of the patient is also addressed adequately. As she said that patients who are not in pain but are depressed seek comfort in the transcendental sense as well as in the psycho-spiritual sense (Kolcaba, 1992 p 4). In some of her works, she has explained the use of the instruments and their application by the nurses. Kolcaba reckons that the instruments presented by her to evaluate the comfort…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Kolcaba K. (1994). A theory of holistic comfort for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(10): 1178-1184.

Kolkaba, K. (1992). Holistic comfort: Operationalizing the construct as a nurse-sensitive outcome..Advances in Nursing Science, 15 (1), pp. 1-10.

Kolkaba, K. (1997). The primary holisms in nursing..Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25 pp. 290-296.

Kolkaba, K. And Fisher, E. (1996). A holistic perspective on comfort care as an advance directive..Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 18 pp. 66-76.
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Sociology - Crime Theories Making

Words: 1174 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24217799

In this view, the fact that underprivileged subcultures already promoted a different set of social values emphasizing "street smarts" and toughness instead of socially productive attributes and goals combined with the substitution of deviant role models for father figures is a significant source of criminal conduct, particularly in poor communities (Adler, Mueller & Laufer, 2008).

Other modern sociological perspectives began reconsidering crime and other forms of socially deviant behavior as primarily a function of individual psychology.

However, whereas earlier theories of individual responsibility focused on the role of rational choice, the modern approach viewed crime much more as a function of the cumulative psychological effects on the individual of the consequences of social labeling.

Furthermore, it has been suggested that much of the difference in crime rates in underprivileged communities also relates directly to the different types of characterizations and institutional responses to different types of crime in American society.…… [Read More]

References

John Adler, John Mueller, and John Laufer. Criminology (6th Edition). City, State:

McGraw-Hill, 2008. MLA

Adler J, Mueller J, and Laufer J. (2008). Criminology (6th Edition). City, State: McGraw-Hill. APA
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Application of Theory to Social Concerns or Human Behaviors

Words: 1143 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93027941

Social Concerns

Theory to Social Concerns or Human Behaviors

The Theory of Social Concerns or Human Behaviors provides a broad framework into which more narrowly focused research can be viewed from. This analysis will consider three individual research journal articles and first provide an overview of the work that was conducted. Then this analysis will try to relate the study and its results to the broader theories mentioned. The external factors related to a child's development can have a substantial influence on their development as well as be highly correlated with MEB issues later in life. The paper will conclude with a short discussion of why this research is important to society in regard to public health initiatives.

Parenting a Child with a Disability

Parents who have children with disabilities often have additional challenges that are presented in the situation when compared to the responsibilities of parents when their children…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Glanz, K., & Bishop, D. (2010). The Role of Behavioral Science Theory in Development and Implementation of Public Health Interventions. Annual Review of Public Health, 399-418.

Ha, J., Greenberg, J., & Seltzer, M. (2011). Parenting a Child With a Disability: The Role of Social Support for African-American Parents. The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 405-411.

Herrenkohl, T., Lee, J., Kosterman, R., & Hawkings, J. (2012). Family Influences Related to Adult Substance Use and Mental Health Problems: A Developmental Analysis of Child and Adolescent Predictors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 129-135.

Yoshikawa, H., Aber, J., & Beardslee, W. (2012). The Effects of Poverty on the Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Health of Children and Youth. American Psychologist, 272-284.
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String Theory the Fundamental Forces

Words: 1610 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81433491

This implies we live in a universe "in which six of the space dimensions have been collapsed or curled up in themselves." (Tipler 650). Since all of these dimensions are believed to be of the order of the Planck length they cannot be seen by any common experimental procedures currently in practice today.

Despite the attractiveness of string theory its utilization of large numbers of space dimensions raises many important questions regarding the formation of the universe, and questions about the possibility of ever verifying it in the lab. Considering the fact that many aspects of physics depend upon the existence of only three spatial dimensions, this might suggest that "three" is a deep principle within nature. Somehow, physics might demand that three dimensions of space grow infinitely while the others collapse on themselves; then again, the creation of our universe may have been utterly accidental in its outcome.

Clearly,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barrow, John D. The Origin of the Universe. New York: HarperCollins, 1994.

Calle, Carlos I. Superstrings and Other Things. Philadelphia: Institute of Physics, 2001.

Davies, Paul and John Gribbin. The Matter Myth. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992.

Filkin, David. Stephen Hawking's Universe. New York: Perseus, 1997.
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Sociological Theories of Crime Causation

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75510570

Sociological Theories

Compare and contrast your two selected theories.

The two sociological theories that will be examined are social disorganization and the social learning theory. The social disorganization theory is focused on how crime rates are directly tied to the environment where someone is living. While the social learning theory believes that people discover the world around them through modeling and observing the actions of others. (Akers, 2009)

The differences between the two are the social disorganization theory believes that the environment someone grows up in will have a direct effect on if they turn to criminal related activities. This is because of various attitudes about illegal behavior will create a sense of moral clarity or confusion about becoming involved. Whereas, the social disorganization theory believes that individuals are shaped by watching and learning about how others react to the world around them. This is when they will mirror this…… [Read More]

References

Akers, R. (2009). Social Learning and Social Structure. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
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Hispanics or Latinos

Words: 1722 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48649609

Labels: Latinos or Hispanics

Labeling people by their race is often a controversial subject of debate in political and social circles. Why classify people as Hispanics, Latinos or African-Americans when they can all be simply called Americans by virtue of them being citizens of the United States. However it appears that there is some political gains to be made by the use of ethnic labeling and often this kind of classification is very damaging or restricting. For example a person who comes from a Spanish speaking family and is labeled a Latino is expected to behave in certain race-specific manner. he/she is expected to be really 'hip', an expert in salsa or other forms of dancing, not really good in academics, coming from a poor family and supporting a certain political party. But what if that one individual wants to defy all these restricting attributes because he/she is not a…… [Read More]

References

Lind, Michael- The Diversity Scam. The New Leader; 7/1/2000;

Irving Lewis Allen: Unkind Words: Ethnic Labeling from Redskin to Wasp. Bergin & Garvey. New York 1990.

Abigail Bucuvalas: Interview with Assistant Professor Mica Pollock, "When Race Matters":

http://www.gse.harvard.edu/news/features/pollock10012003.html
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Direct and Indirect Intervention in Early Adulthood

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58001548

Labeling, Life Chances, And Adult Crime

Jon Gunnar Bernburg and Marvin D. Krohn build on a body of criminology research related to labeling theory in their report entitled "Labeling, Life Chances, and Adult Crime: The Direct and Indirect Effects of Official Intervention in Adolescence on Crime in Early Adulthood." The report reflects in-depth research and statistical analysis conducted by the researchers. Specifically, Bernburg and Krohn attempt to fill in gaps in prior research by addressing three specific areas. First, the authors examine "the effect of police intervention and juvenile justice intervention on subsequent early adulthood crime," (1295). To do so they use a random sample taken from a population of adolescents. Second, Bernburg and Krohn look at "the long-term effect of official intervention during adolescence on young adult criminality," and whether "educational attainment and periods of nonemployment mediate this effect," (1295). Third, the researchers try to determine "whether the effect…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bernburg, Jon Gunnar and Krohn, Marvin D. "Labeling, Life Chances and Adult Crime: The Direct and Indirect Effects of Official Intervention in Adolescence on Crime in Early Adulthood."
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Practice Bi-Lingual Theory and Practice of Multicultural

Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36330693

Practice

Bi-Lingual

Theory and practice of multicultural and bilingual education

The demands of the competitive marketplace have caused a fundamental shift in the needs of ESL learners and will change the structure of ESL education. During the 1980s and 19980s, the predominant emphasis in ESL instruction was on social graces and basic fluency "Those objectives are now outdated and inadequate to meet the pressing needs of today's children. Increasingly complex, high-tech demands from industry and commerce mandate that every graduate, including those for whom English is a second language, acquire knowledge and skills to compete for jobs" (Beckett & Haley 2000). The goal is for ESL students to graduate not merely with a grasp of English, but with knowledge of subject areas commensurate with their non-ESL peers. Demands for strong ESL student performance are growing amongst parents as well as school administrators, who wish to give a more equitable education…… [Read More]

References

Beckett, E.C., & Haley, P.K. (2000). Using standards to integrate academic language into ESL

fluency. The Clearing House, 74(2), 102-104.

 http://search.proquest.com/docview/196835515?accountid=10901 

Son, J. (2008). Using web-based language learning activities in the ESL classroom. International Journal of Pedagogies & Learning, 4(4), 34-43.
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Launch of Pdi Labeling in Australia in

Words: 1964 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55210695

Launch of PDI Labeling in Australia

In many countries, packaged foods are labeled with the "Percentage Daily Intake" of nutrients available in the food. These thumbnail-like labels are provided to consumers to help them make informed dietary decisions when they shop. This nutritional labeling is not mandatory and is in addition to other nutritional information that is included in the nutrition information panel typically located on the back of packaged foods. The effectiveness of this type of labeling to support healthful food choices and eating habits is the focus of this brief.

Selection of Launch Approach

A top-down approach to promoting nutritional labeling is preferred because multiple instruments must be employed to increase consumer interest in healthy eating, and the labeling policy must be embedded in a comprehensive and robust promotional campaign. Perhaps more than policymakers, advertising agencies hold the key to successfully changing the minds of the public with…… [Read More]

References

Bonsmann, SS, Fernandez Celemin, L, Larranaga, S, Egger, JM, Wills, C, Hodgkins, C and Raats, MM. [Flabel Consortium. Penetration of nutrition information on food labels across the EU-27 plus Turkey]. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2010; DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.179

Devine CM. (2005) A life course perspective: Understanding food choices in time, social location, and history. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 37(3):121 -- 128.

EUFIC - European Food Information Council (2010, October 13). Nutrition labels on food and drinks in the UK: Available, understood but not always used to make healthy choices. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 24, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com / releases/2010/10/101013153838.htm

European Association for the Study of Obesity (2009, May 7). Consumers More Likely To Identify Healthy Food Using Traffic Light Nutrition Labels. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 24, 2011 http://www.sciencedaily.com / releases/2009/05/090507055506.htm
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Rct Relational Cultural Theory as

Words: 2229 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4486894

RCT believes that everyone desires growth and that growth is by necessity connective in relational and cultural links. Mutual empathy and mutual empowerment foster these relationships in positive ways. (Jordan, "The role of mutual")

Sigmund Freud and Erik Erickson may arguably be two of the most influential icons in the field of human development and psychology. Their fundamental concept that human's develop over a lifetime and not just in a few stages from birth to adolescence and then are frozen into psychological patterns, revolutionized thinking in the field of developmental psychology. The term Life Span Development came to the fore as Erickson devised his eight stages of psychosocial development ranging from birth to eighty years old. Later as he himself passed eighty he realized that there is yet another stage and the count became nine. (Erikson & Erikson, 1997) One can see the striking resemblance between Erickson and Freud's stages…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Comstock, Dana L., et al. "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development 86.3 (2008): 279-288.

Crethar, Hugh C., Edil Torres Rivera, and Sara Nash. "In Search of Common Threads: Linking Multicultural, Feminist, and Social Justice Counseling Paradigms." Journal of Counseling and Development 86.3 (2008): 269-276

Erikson, E.H. & Erikson, J. M . The Life Cycle Completed / Extended Version. New York:

W.W. Norton. 1997
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National Brands Fight Private Labels

Words: 6876 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27941011

" (Sinha and Batra, 1999)

Sinha and Batra state that "most researchers now content that a generalized price -- quality relationship does not exist" although the "degree to which a higher price implies higher quality" has been examined and as well has been the "topic of considerable research in marketing." (1999) Therefore for the purpose of this study this antecedent relating to price consciousness will not be a variable in understanding the questions posed in this study.

Sirha and Batra (1999) state that this inference "is widely accepted as being context-specific, moderated by situational characteristic such as the extensiveness of a consumer's cognitive schemes and his/her product class knowledge" and cite the work of Peterson and Wilson (1985). Therefore, it can be understood that while the consumer might believe that a higher price being paid obtains the same equal receipt of quality in some categorical purchases but yet not in…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aiken, Leona and Stephen West (1991), Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions. London: Sage Publications.

Ailawadi, Kusum and Bari Harlam (2004), "An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Retail Margins: The Role of Store Brand Share," Journal of Marketing, 68 (January), 147 -- 66.

Ailawadi, Kusum and Kevin Keller (2004), "Understanding Retail Branding: Conceptual Insights and Research Priorities," Journal of Ailawadi, Kusum L., Pauwels, Koen and Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E.M. (2008) Private Label Use and Store Loyalty. Journal of Marketing Vol. 72 (November 2008), 19 -- 30. 2008 American Marketing Association.

Ailawadi, Kusum, and Scott Neslin, and Karen Gedenk (2001), "Pursuing the Value Conscious Consumer: Store Brands vs. National Brand Promotions," Journal of Marketing, 65 (January), 71 -- 89.
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Coding Classifying Categorizing and Labeling

Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86797904

Further sub-categorization allows for greater comparison and contrasting of different categories and can make the data sets more meaningful. Not all of these codes will be decided beforehand -- in fact, it can be more enriching for the final analysis to break down the data afterwards, to ensure that the lived experience of the subjects affects the coding process.

Coding is often thought of in terms of word-based strategies of the subjects, and these can yield important assumptions about the ways individuals perceive their places in the world. Frequency of use of particular words, metaphors, analogies, and the use of local or regional phrases endemic to the area can all be flagged through coding and used to draw meaningful connections between apparently dissimilar sates of being (Gibbs 2010). By highlighting key words in transcripts, the researcher can physically have his or her eye drawn to meaningful bits of data. One…… [Read More]

References

Gibbs, Graham. (2010, February 19). How and what to code. Online QDA. University of Huddersfield. Retrieved August 9, 2010 at  http://onlineqda.hud.ac.uk/Intro_QDA/how_what_to_code.php
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Nutritional Labeling Policy Beyond the

Words: 748 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29255147



Unfortunately, no consumer can be 'forced' to read calorie labels in a correct fashion. A recent study by the Journal of the American Dietetic Association found "significant numbers of people surveyed indicated that they lacked either the knowledge or inclination to effectively use labels...it appears that a large portion of the population isn't interested in having (nutritional information)" (Cox 2007). In a 2004 Food and Agriculture survey, "one-third of all participants were unable to accurately target their daily calorie needs" and this was "based on an expansive definition of 1500-2500 kcals" while "31% of participants looked at calories but only 5% looked at serving size" (Cox 2007). Calorie totals mean little if a person does not understand that a serving of ice cream that is 260 calories is 1/4 of a pint.

There are some policies that could be implemented to address some of the 'head in the sand' factor…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cox, Lee Ann. (19 May 2006). "Do Consumers Use Calorie Labels? Fat Chance, Says

New Study." University of Vermont. The View. Retrieved 19 Apr 2007 at http://www.uvm.edu/theview/article.php?id=2045

The Food Label." (May 1999). Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 19 Apr 2007 at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/fdnewlab.html
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Crime and Social Theory Deviance Interpreted by

Words: 1590 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21153466

Crime and Social Theory

Deviance Interpreted by Social Theories

Illicit Drug Use

Illicit drug use has historically been seen as a global threat towards society and a primary contributing factor for the prevalence other crimes, such as smuggling, home invasions, property crimes, assault, and murder. In 1969 President Nixon stated publicly that illicit drug use is a serious national problem and in 1971 declared the "War on Drugs" (National Public Radio, 2007). Over the two decades since, other governments around the world, including the United Nations, followed suit, but differed substantially from the United States in how much emphasis was placed on deterrence through incarceration (Bewley-Taylor, Hallam, and Allen, 2009, p. 1).

Prevalence of Illicit Drug Use

An estimated 21.8 million Americans were using illicit drugs in 2009, which represents about 8.7% of the population (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2010, p. 1). Of these, 16.7 million used…… [Read More]

References

Bewley-Taylor, Dave, Hallam, Chris, and Allen, Rob. (2009). The incarceration of drug offenders: An Overview, Report Sixteen. The Beckley Foundation Drug Policy Programme, International Centre for Prison Studies, Kings College of London, University of London. Retrieved June, 2011 from http://www.idpc.net/php-bin/documents/Beckley_Report_16_2_FINAL_EN.pdf

Giugliano, John. (2004). A sociohistorical perspective of sexual health: The clinician's role. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 11, 43-55.

Lo, Celia C. (2003). An application of social conflict theory to arrestees' use of cocaine and opiates. Journal of Drug Issues, 33, 237-266.

Mauer, Marc and King, Ryan S. (2007). A 25-year quagmire: The War on Drugs and its impact on American society. The Sentencing Project: Research and Advocacy for Reform. Retrieved June, 2011 at  http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/dp_25yearquagmire.pdf
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Argyris and Schon's Theories for

Words: 1350 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86417287

The observations from this examination are: that the individual can influence their thoughts and actions, by knowing how they will affect the process. Argyris and Schon's theories for actions shows, the positive or negative effect that these thoughts will have for all parties. In some cases, this could mean that there could be different thoughts / interpretations, about what is occurring for a particular event. In the case of any good leader, they must look at the situation outside of their own views, to be able to understand the thoughts and actions of others.

Abstract Conceptualization

Argyris and Schon's theories provides: a way for leaders, to be able to understand the situation outside of their own perspective. Where, the actions theory will help them, to take a step back and see the situation from various points-of-views. Once this occurs, is when leaders will be able to understand how, the issue…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anderson, L. (1994). Argyris and Schon's Theory. Retrieved July 2, 2010 from Action Research website: http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/argyris.html

Chitwood, R. (2004). Lack of Leadership. Retrieved July 2, 2010 from Max Sacks website:  http://www.maxsacks.com/articles/article0803.html 

Dick, Bob. (2006). Argyris and Schon. Retrieved July 2, 2010 from Action Research website: http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/argyris2.html#a_as_intro
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Muted Group Theory Addresses the

Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40213290

Girls play with dolls and boys play with trucks. Girls play hopscotch and boys play football. Girls cry and boys do not. These essential shaping experiences create divisions between the genders, and proscribe gendered behaviors. In order to conform, both men and women buy into the gendered and stratified society. This gendered society is hierarchically organized so that men enjoy positions of political power with far greater proportions than women. Men, who are referred to as "founding fathers," have set the rules. If women want a modicum of political, social, or economic status they must also play by the same rules. A woman becomes successful only by acting "like a man" and using male vocabulary and discourse including that of power over others and oppression. Alternatively a woman becomes successful by acting in the extreme feminized version of herself, by sexualizing herself. This is because men understand women as sexualized…… [Read More]

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Grounded Theory Examining a Specific

Words: 2659 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25228765

Still, they published their theory in a coauthored work and there were not large differences in the overall theory at this point (Hart & Gregor 2005).

As the two scholars' careers diverged, however, they continued to develop their thinking on grounded theory independently from each other. What has become known as the Glaserian approach (developed, of course, by Barney Glaser) stresses the non-prescriptive nature of inquiries that occur utilizing grounded theory, with much broader categories of conceptualizations inherent to this version of the theory (Hart & Gregor 2005). Glaser also asserted that rigorous verification methods, such as might be more typical in the traditional scientific method, were suitably applied only to a very few of the central theoretical hypotheses that developed in the course of a grounded theory inquiry, which was another aspect of the Glaserian grounded theory that makes it more open to adjustment from the observations themselves and…… [Read More]

References

Borgatti, S. (2010). "Introduction to grounded theory." Accessed 6 November 2010.  http://www.analytictech.com/mb870/introtoGT.htm 

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: a practical guide. London: Sage.

Dick, B. (2005). "Grounded theory: a thumbnail sketch." Accessed 6 November 2010. http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/grounded.html

Hart, D. & Gregor, S. (2005). Information systems foundations constructing and criticizing. Accessed 6 November 2010. http://epress.anu.edu.au/info_systems/mobile_devices/index.html
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Nursing Theory Is That it

Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61414434

At times patients cannot care for themselves, and nurses must remedy these self-care deficits (Dorothea Orem's Self-care theory, 2011, Nursing Theories).

Whenever possible, patients should be empowered to act as best as they can to care for themselves. The nurse is viewed as an aid to remedy the self-care deficit in Orem's view. The nurse is not seen as superseding the patient's basic right to autonomy. Although some nurses know this intuitively, when busy or rushed sometimes it can be easy to forget the value of allowing patients to do as much as possible as they can for themselves, even if this is something as simple as eating and drinking or going to the bathroom.

Given the preponderance of lifestyle-related diseases today, Orem's stress upon patient self-knowledge and awareness is essential. Patients will care for themselves when they return home from a healthcare environment in most instances, and they must…… [Read More]

References

Cody, W.K. (2006). Philosophical and theoretical perspectives. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett

Publishers.

Dorothea Orem's Self-care theory. (2011, January 11). Nursing Theories.

Retrieved April 6, 2011 at  http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/self_care_deficit_theory.html
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Nursing & Education Theory This

Words: 5668 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34391212

" (Jarvis, nd) Jarvis states that it is precisely "this movement along a maturity gradient that Mezirow regards as a form of emancipatory learning..." (Jarvis, nd) Jarvis states that according to Mezirow "emancipation is from libidinal, institutional or environmental forces which limit our options and rational control over our lives but have been taken for granted as beyond human control." (Jarvis, nd) Mezirow suggests that there are various levels of reflection which exist over the course of the individual's life and states that seven of these which occur during adult learning are those as follows:

reflectivity;

Affective reflectivity;

Discriminant reflectivity;

Judgmental reflectivity;

Conceptual reflectivity;

Psychic reflectivity; and Theoretical reflectivity. (Jarvis, nd)

II. MARGARET NEWMAN

Newman writes in the work entitled: "Health as Expanding Consciousness" that intuition plays a key role in her life and for example, in the books that she chooses to read, the people she meets, and the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Benner is Back! (2008) FOUCHE December 2008, Vol. 24, No. 2. Online available at http://www.Fouche.org.za/index.php/FOUCHE/article/viewFile/63/63

Benner P. From Novice to Expert, Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. Menlo Park: Addison-Wesley, 1984.

Boverie, Patricia Eileen, and Kroth, Michael (2001) Transforming Work: The Five Keys to Achieving Trust, Commitment and Passion in the Workplace. 2001 Basic Books.

Dreyfus HL, Dreyfus S. A five-stage model of the mental activities involved in directed skill acquisition. Unpublished study, University of California, Berkeley, 1980.
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Object Relation Attachment Theories and

Words: 26278 Length: 55 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34405449

During the next chapter of this clinical case study dissertation, the Literature Review section, this researcher relates accessed information that contributes a sampling of previous research to begin to enhance the understanding needed to help a patient "grow" not only in therapy, but also in life.

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

The theories and techniques used in psychoanalysis are very diverse; Freudian analysis is only one approach."

Thomas and McGinnis, 1991, ¶ 1)

Diverse Contentions

One recent University of New Hampshire study indicated that 63% of more than 3,000 surveyed American parents surveyed reported experiences of one or more instances of verbal aggression toward children in their homes. A Child Protective Services study, albeit reported that only 6% of child abuse cases involved "emotional maltreatment," form of abuse in which verbal abuse constitutes the most common form of maltreatment. The apparent low number of "official" verbal abuse cases likely relates to…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.

Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.

Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic

Books.
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Boudon 2001 Theories of Social

Words: 838 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87823124

For example, Tocqueville was able to explain 18th century European aristocrat behavior by looking at social consequences. Like Tocqueville, Marx believed that they could explain individual actions by looking at subconscious class interests. Frey has demonstrated that people will accept individually negative outcomes, if they have positive group benefits.

Nietzsche believed that, while conscious of class interests, individual actions and beliefs should be viewed from an individual perspective, since they are motivated by the positive consequences to the individual actor. In discussing his theory of bounded rationality, Simon seemed to combine elements from the different theorist, by showing how social actions include cognitive dimensions.

3. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of human behavior?

Again, the author does not make it clear how he feels human actions and other forms of human behavior are different. Instead, he explains how various theorists have attempted to differentiate human…… [Read More]

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Watson's Nursing Caring Theory the

Words: 3295 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16302880

Jean Watson and in reality "belonging becomes an ethic in itself and guides how we sustain our being in the world." Dr. Watson emphasizes the fact that the practices of nursing have experienced evolution and this has allowed certain distortions in the nursing practices. Dr. Watson brings to attention 'Palmer's epistemology as ethics' yet the epistemology, in the view of Palmer to be 'informed by cosmology' has great power in that it may either "form of deform the human soul" and thereby also form or deform the nurse's "way of being/becoming more human and humane (Palmer 1993; as cited by Watson, 2005)

III. Brief Analysis of Watson's Caring Mode

The model of caring in nursing model as proposed by Dr. Jean Watson is one that is fairly simplistic in nature that has as its key concepts the factors of love, kindness and empathy. In making an identification of the applications…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Levinas, E. (2000) Totality and Infinity. Pittsburgh, PA; Duqesne University Press (Original work published in 1969)

Fawcett, Jacqueline (2005) Contemporary Nursing Knowledge: Analysis and Evaluation of Nursing Models and Theories. Davis Company, Philadelphia. Online available at http://www.fadavis.com/related_resources/1_2042_618.pdf

Watson, J. (2005b) What, May I Ask is Happening to Nursing Knowledge and Professional Practices? What is Nursing Thinking at this Turn in Human History? Journal of Clinical Nursing, 14.

Palmer, P. (1987). Community, conflict and ways of knowing. Magazine for Higher Learning, 19, 20-25.
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Edwin Sutherland's Differential Association Theory

Words: 4613 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48469926

Warlords have apparently been in the process of financing their various struggles against the Western States in two different contexts. One is that which occurs in the several drug producing countries of the world, that is, those that come under the so called 'Golden Triangle', and the struggles that occur in the various different drug trafficking routes, like for example, in Sub-Saharan Africa, where there has been a complete erosion and fall of the central and the state authorities in military and in economic and in political areas. All these drug warlords in fact preside over anarchy, while at the same time attempting to manage the chaos in which they are forced to live. (Segell, 1997)

Therefore, the drug warlord becomes an individual who is a parochial militarist, and one who thrives on the lack of central authority on the one hand, while on the other, makes several attempts to…… [Read More]

References

Alonso, A; Rutan J.S. (November, 1984) "The impact of object relations theory on psychodynamic group therapy" The American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol: 141; No: 11; pp: 1376-1380.

Buckley, Peter. (2003) "Revolution and Evolution - A Brief Intellectual History of American

Psychoanalysis During the Past Two Decades" American Journal of Psychotherapy. Vol: 57; No: 1; pp: 1-17

Bulmer-Thomas, Victor. (2003) "Britain and Latin America, a changing relationship"
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Positivist Theory of Crime Lombroso

Words: 1786 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72636028

Positivist Theory of Crime, Lombroso

Criminal Behavior Treatment Program and Positivist Theory

The objective of this study is to examine the positivist theory of crime posited by Lombroso and to develop a crime prevention or treatment program.

Cesare Lombroso is held to be the founder of modern criminology and to have introduced the positivist movement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, which has made a more scientific approach to criminology available. Empirical scientific research in understanding criminality was first introduced by the positivist approach. According to Farr (nd) positivism is based in logic and is "the philosophy that combined epistemological phenomenalism with 'scientism' that is, with the belief in the desirability of scientific and technological progress." (Farr, nd, p.2)

Three Types of Positivism

Positivism as it relates to criminology can be divided into three types including: (1) biological; (2) psychological; and (3) Social. (Farr, nd, p.2) Positivist methods…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Deviance and Social Control (nd) McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0070918082/83003/Chapter7.pdf

Gowan, T. Whetstone, S. Making the criminal addict: Subjectivity and social control in a strong-arm rehab. Punishment and Society. January 2012. Vol 14 No 1. Retrieved from:  http://pun.sagepub.com/content/14/1/69.abstract 

Farr, Z. (nd) Critically assess the impact of positivist approaches to understanding crime. Retrieved from: http://www.essex.ac.uk/sociology/documents/pdf/ug_journal/vol8/2012sc242_Zoefarr.pdf
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Psychological Sociological Cultural and Biological Theories on Depression and Treatments That Take These Into Account

Words: 2590 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91688277

Depression Theories

Various Theories on Depression, and Respective Treatments

Depression is a complex mood disorder that is characterized by various emotions, including sadness, self-blame, absence of pleasure and an overall sense of worthlessness, and by physical responses relating to sleep, appetite and motor symptoms. According to statistics, one in four adults will suffer from a depressive episode at some point in life. With a quarter of the population affected by depression, it is no wonder that one sees so many advertisements both on television and on billboards relating to the disorder. It is also understandable that many intellectual fields of study would give an opinion on what depression truly means and how it can be treated. This paper will thus examine psychological, sociological, cultural and biological theories on depression and will describe various treatments that take into account expertise from these various areas of study to better understand this complex…… [Read More]

Lastly, with respect to biological theory-based treatments, scientific research is vital. A study conducted in 2010 states that the finding of "various structural and chemical abnormalities in the brain through neuroimaging" has been the foundation in depression research in the last year. This study further states that the research combines various brain areas to arise specific symptoms, and that the new data could contribute to further understanding and treating depression. Specific treatments are not given as part of this study, but "biological" treatments will usually include medication, such as anti-depressants. [20: Papageorgiou, G. (2010). Biological theory of depression in the light of new evidence. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from http://www.annals-general-psychiatry.com/content/9/S1/S47. ]

Conclusion

This paper has discussed various theories of depression and has expanded upon treatments that take into account these theories. Some treatments have been proven effective, and others have been illustrated simply as examples or as evidence of much needed field research. Depression has been shown to be a complex illness explained by various intelligent minds in different ways, yet in order to treat this disorder, one must take into account all this knowledge, and hope that advances in scientific research, such as that illustrated above, will provide for better treatments and, finally, more effective relief from depressive symptoms.
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Middle Range Theory

Words: 2959 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73514769

Range Theory

Scenario

Jill Watson is an employee of Telecommunication Company and has been working for the company for approximately 7 years. Within the past few years, Jill has organized numerous health-fairs as well as countless health help sessions. She also regularly posted information on the company central bulletin boards about health and well-being. Moreover, she assists in providing screening program for many sick people. The goal of her health promotion is to enhance positive lifestyles and behavioral changes for people. Despite her promotional effort, many people still engage in smoking habits, do not engage in physical exercise, and are still overweight. While health promotion may be essential, however, providing health information is not sufficient to facilitate positive lifestyle or behavioral changes.

The objective of this study is to use the self-determination theory to assist Jill to understand the strategy to facilitate positive behavioral or lifestyles changes among her clients.…… [Read More]

Reference

Deci, E.L. & Ryan, R.M. (2013). Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology: Volume 1 Self-Determination Theory. SAGE Publications Ltd.

Ng, J.Y.Y., Ntoumanis, N., Thogersen-Ntoumani, C. (2012). Self-determination theory applied to health contexts: A meta-analysis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 325-340.

Niemiec, C.P., & Ryan, R.M. (2009). Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom: Applying self-determination theory to educational practice. Theory and Research in Education, 7, 133-144

Patrick, H. & Williams, G.C. (2012). Self-determination theory: its application to health behavior and complementarity with motivational interviewing. Int J. Behav Nutr Phys Act. 9: 18.
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Application of Motivational Theory in Healthcare

Words: 898 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49458345

Employee Motivation

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is perhaps the most commonly known theory of motivation, which is likely due to the broad applicability of the theory. Maslow developed his hierarchy of needs as part of his research on human potential and a component of positive psychology he termed self-actualization (Maslow, 1943; 1954). Maslow believed that human motivation is heightened when people seek fulfillment through personal growth and discovery. Self-actualized people are fully engaged with their potential, in an ongoing, lifelong effort to create meaning in their lives through highly personalized, positive endeavor (Maslow, 1962).

Doubtless, employers would enjoy not having to be concerned with motivating their employees if, in fact, their employees would "self-actualize" through their work. Indeed, some people do experience self-actualization when they are engaged in their paid employment. But, perhaps more often than not, people who become self-actualized are able to spend time either playing or laboring…… [Read More]

References

Maslow, A.H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370-96.

Maslow, A.H. (1954). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper and Row.

Maslow, A.H. (1962). Towards a Psychology of Being. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand Company.

Tay, L., & Diener, E. (2011). Needs and subjective well-being around the world. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(2), 354.
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Group Dynamic Concepts Theories and

Words: 1526 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1014634

Yet the film ends on an optimistic, even triumphant note, with the raised hand of Bender symbolizing victory over the stereotypes subject to which the characters began the film.

Conclusion

The film "The Breakfast Club" contains myriad examples of group dynamics at play. Doing a close reading of the film was valuable in that it provided insight into how narratives can be shaped by psychological principles. In dissecting the actions of the film's principal characters, it became apparent that the filmmakers were not simply trying to create a plotline that would entertain a mass audience. The film also integrates psychological inquiry into its teenaged protagonists. Each character is given a back story which motivates his or her behavior and later undergoes a realization of his or her flaws in order to make a change. The film goes beyond just a high school narrative; it is about how to break free…… [Read More]

References

Aronoff, J., & Wilson, J.P. (1985). Personality in the social process. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum

Associates.

Golembiewski, R.T. (Ed.) (2000). Handbook of organizational consultation. New York, NY:

Marcel Dekker.
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Distance Education Theory Moore Opens

Words: 853 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9924729

He begins by introducing the concept of neo-Fordism (or neo-industrialization) which was characterized by product innovation. The age of neo-Fordism led to distance education adapting itself to the more demanding consumerist society as it started to produce a wider array of small-scale courses on which constant innovation can be made possible. Post-Fordism (or post-industrialization), on the other hand, does not have much difference from neo-Fordism only that it adds "high labor responsibility" prompting to the creation of "decentralized working groups who would be responsible themselves for the development of their own teaching programs (par. 27).

Pedagogical Consequences

After presenting how education revolved in accordance with the historical specificities of its time, Moore resigns to the fact that education will always be subjected to economic considerations, technological and organization efforts, as well as instructional motives. In the case of traditional and distance education, the considerations and motives to which it is…… [Read More]

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Leadership Theories and Practical Application

Words: 5554 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 940525



The benefits of high-quality relationships come from relational resources (Wright, et al. 2005) they create. Such resources include durable obligations (e.g., arising from feelings of gratitude, respect, and friendship), network contacts and connections (including privileged access to information and opportunities, social status, and reputation of influential others), and the ability to have open information exchanges with those around them (Valle & Halling, 1989).

Relationships that do not develop so well are considered lower quality. These relationships are not as beneficial for the individuals involved or for the organization as a whole (Gerstner & Day, 1997; Liden et al., 1997). Lower quality relationships are described as contractually defined, formal exchanges based on limited trust and in-role interactions (Luthans, 1998). These types of relationships generate management rather than leadership. They are characterized by lack of mutual respect, formal downward communications, little mutual understanding, limited support and commitment for one another, and no…… [Read More]

References

Bass, B.M. 2005. Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: The Free Press.

Bauer, T.N., & Green, S.G. 2007. Development of leader-member exchange: A longitudinal test. Academy of Management Journal, 39: 1538-1567.

Burns, J.M. 1978. Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.

Cox, T., & Beale, R.L. 2008. Developing competency to manage diversity. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
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Teaching Theories and an Ethical

Words: 3329 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18369149

Unfortunately, most quantitative studies lack external validity in the research design to allow for general conclusions.

Teaching Theories and Nursing

It was Nightingale that recognized the potential of combining sound logical reflection and empirical research in the development of scientific knowledge that lead to evidence-based practices of today. She saw the need to only classify one's illness by the best possible available knowledge but to also collect patient information in the form of survey. Nightingale's work was also groundbreaking as it was the first to integrate such ideas into one method. She understood how factors such as housing and nutrition could have a direct influence on the patient's health and prognosis (McDonald, 2001, p. 68). Still many researchers to come would look at her work as primitive, inconclusive and one-sided. They would see how such details act as an extension of evidence and the attention paid to details as research…… [Read More]

References

Ackermans, W. & Lohnes, P. (1981). Research methods for nurses. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Allen, K. (2005 Aug.). Online Learning: constructivism and conversation as an approach to learning. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 42, 247-256.

Bigge, M.L., & Shremis, S.S. (1999). Learning Theories for teachers. New York: Addison- Wesley Longman.

Bilyeu, S.M. (2005 April 1). When families complicate patient care: a case study with guidelines for approaching ethical dilemmas. MedSurg Nursing, 6.
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Nursing Theory Hildegard E Peplau Hildegard E

Words: 1640 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8321550

Nursing Theory: Hildegard E. Peplau

Hildegard E. Peplau was born in Reading, Pennsylvania in 1909. Peplau attended a diploma program in 1931 in Pottstown, Pennsylvania, completed a BA in interpersonal psychology at Bennington College in 1943, and received a MA in psychiatric nursing at Columbia University in New York in 1947. Finally, Peplau earned a Ph.D. In curriculum development in 1953. Hildegard's credentials include professor emeritus at Rutgers University and is known for starting the first post baccalaureate program in nursing. Peplau died at the age of 89 and had 50 years as a practicing nurse and is often acknowledged as the "mother of psychiatric nursing" although her ideas have affected all field of the nursing profession. (Lakeman, nd, p.1)

Peplau completed in 1948 the work entitled "Interpersonal Relations in Nursing" labeled as her "seminal work." (Lakeman, nd, p.1) At the time of the writing of the book, it was…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Jones, A. (1996) The value of Peplau's theory for mental health nursing. Br J. Nurs. 1996 Jul 25-Aug 7;5(14):877-81.

Berscheid, E. And Peplau, LA (nd) The Emerging Science of Relationships. Close Relationships (eds) Kelley, et al. (nd) WH Freeman and Company. Retrieved from: http://www.peplaulab.ucla.edu/Publications_files/Berscheid_Peplau_83.pdf

Lakeman, R. (nd) Remembering Hildegard Peplau. Retrieved from:  http://www.testandcalc.com/Richard/resources/Remembering%20Peplau%20-%20Vision%20-%20Lakeman.pdf 

Haber, J (2000) Hildegard E. Peplau: The Psychiatric Nursing Legacy of a Legend. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association. New York University's division of Nursing. April 2000. Vol.6, No.2. Stanford, CT. Retrieved from: http://jap.sagepub.com/content/6/2/56.abstract
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Psychological Theory

Words: 2096 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11794677

Alcoholism and Upbringing

Psychological theory

James' father is responsible for James' involvement in crime and burglary. Origin of the problem. Alcoholic parents are the reason for the moral decay of juveniles

Another reason for James' feelings of inadequacy

Effect of alcoholism in the upbringing of a child

The effect of taking James out of his mother's home as a juvenile

Reaction formation

An examination of James' denial of his responsibility over his problem

Personality theory

Sociological theory

Personality and sociological theory

An explanation of James' behaviors, and his father using the two frameworks

Thorburn (2005) suggests that a misapprehension that numerous alcoholics seem to have is that their behavior does not affect other people. They deny ever hurting other people but themselves. A great deal of research and huge anecdotal proof suggest otherwise. The behavior of alcoholics can affect those around them, including family members, friends, coworkers and employers. Children…… [Read More]

References

Plant, M.A., Peck, D.F., Samuel, E., & Stuart, R. (2000). Alcohol, drugs, and school-leavers.

London: Tavistock Publications.

Thorburn, D. (2005). Alcoholism myths and realities: Removing the stigma of society's most destructive disease. Northridge, Calif: Galt Pub.

Floyd, M.R., & Seale, J.P. (2002). Substance abuse: A patient-centered approach. Abingdon,
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Complexity Theory Public Sector

Words: 1799 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90380942

Complexity Theory in the Public Sector

The objective of this work is to examine complexity theory in the public sector. According to Paul Cairney in the work entitled "Complexity Theory in Public Policy" the term complexity "has relevance to a wide range of theories in public policy which describe the replacement of the simple "clubby days' of early post-war politics by complex relationships at multiple levels of government and among a huge politically active population." (2010, p.1) The focus on complexity, according to Cairney (2010) is "indirect and vague." (p.l) It is of the nature that indicates that there should be a shift in analysis "from individuals parts of a political system to the system as a whole; as a network of elements that interact and combine to produce systemic behavior that cannot be broken down into the actions of its constituent parts." (Cairney, 2010, p.1)

Defining Complexity Theory

Complexity…… [Read More]

References

Agaard, Peter (nd) The Promise and Facts of Emergent Strategy in Public Management. Retrieved from: http://egpa2010.com/documents/PSG11/Aagaard.pdf

Burren, Arwin van (nd) Knowledge Management for Government: Public-Private Communities of Practice and the Challenge of Co-Evolution. Paper presented at the British Academy of Management Annual Conference. 30 Aug -1 Sept. Retrieved from: http://repub.eur.nl/res/pub/7710/BSK-CDMN-2006-002.pdf

Cairney, Paul (2010) Complexity Theory in Public Policy. Political Studies Associations Conferences, University of Edinburgh. 1 Apr 2010. ID 43: Public Administration Specialist Group Panel: Complexity and Change in Public Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.psa.ac.uk/journals/pdf/5/2010/121_665.pdf

Mitchell, M. (2009) Complexity (Oxford: Oxford University Press) in: Cairney, Paul (2010) Complexity Theory in Public Policy. Political Studies Associations Conferences, University of Edinburgh. 1 Apr 2010. ID 43: Public Administration Specialist Group Panel: Complexity and Change in Public Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.psa.ac.uk/journals/pdf/5/2010/121_665.pdf
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Prescriptive Aspects of LMX Theory Cite the

Words: 1087 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81568804

prescriptive aspects of LMX theory. Cite the source IN TEXT. (create a section of the paper for each of these aspects AND USE THE QUESTIONS AS HEADINGS)

LMX theory can be viewed from both a descriptive and prescriptive vantage points and in each case there is a dyadic relationship between the leader and their followers (Northouse, 2010). There can be both in-group and out-group relationships between the leader and their subordinates that represents a descriptive use of the concept. The in-group members are willing to do extra work and are more dedicated than the out-group type of subordinates. Because of this it is common for leaders to give this type of followers more of an empowered role in which they have more responsibility and can do more without being micromanaged. By contrast the out-group type of employee will need to be monitored more closely and will work more along the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Northouse, P. (2010). Leadership Theory & Practice. Sage Publishing.
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Heinrich's Pyramid Theory as Related

Words: 2041 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95377057

" (Isaac, et al., 2002)

Isaac et al. (2002) states that within the first phase is three distinct Work Packages as follows: (1) WP1: Development of a conceptual framework and model of human error in ATM; (2) WP2: Development of a methodology (a taxonomy and an associated method of use) based on WP1 for analyzing errors and their causes in ATM incidents and preparation of user guidance material. The review is stated to include the following information sources: (1) human error taxonomies; (2) general psychological models of human performance and error; (3) approaches from other industries; (4) Models of ATM controller performance; and (4) consideration of current future controller task and behavior requirements. (Isaac, et al., 2002) it is stated that the Human Error in ATM taxonomy is inclusive of the following: (1) Human action, behavior, functions and performance; (2) Human error; (3) Framework; (4) Conceptual framework; (5) model; (6)…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ananyan, Sergei, and Goodfellow, Michael (2004) New Capabilities of PolyAnalysts Text and Data Mining Applied to the STEADES Data at the International Air Transport Association (IATA) http://www.flightsafety.org/gain/IATA_data_mining_report.pdf

Frontline Management (2008) the Knowledge Exchange. Manage Performance and Knowledge. Online available at http://marcbowles.com/courses/frontline/fmd18/fmd18a.htm

http://www.eurocontrol.be/humanfactors/gallery/content/public/docs/DELIVERABLES/HF26%

20(HRS-HSP-002-REP-01)%20Released.pdf
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Systems Theory Is Actually Used by Some

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9379117

Systems theory is actually used by some practitioners in domestic violence social work and counseling by being packed within the approach of "family system theory" (e.g. Nichols & Schwartz, 2005). This approach holds that the family is a holistic system where all parts are inextricably and holistically intertwined and each member of the family affects the other. The school and community -- outside systems -- too affect the family, and, in turn, the individual family members have an impact on these external systems. Believing that all causes and effects have reciprocal impact, systems theory also posits circular causality where not only are multiple causes the instigation of one problem, but oen problem may, in effect, eventuate in multiple causes. Domestic violence, for instance, of spouse attacking other spouse negatively impacts children, which leads to poor academic study, which my negatively impact teacher's rating, disturbing the school, and so forth. Other…… [Read More]

Family system theory, too avoids labeling behaviors as good and bad seeing them as factor of external elements (such as geography or time) that are, often, beyond individual's control and often beyond his or her awareness too. Taking this in mind enables the counselor to not only be more empathic and understanding of client but to also help detach the client from guilt regarding his activities and show him how to effectively reduce his negative behavior in a self-efficacious manner. By seeing the behavior as simply an action that has been learned and robotically repeated / reiterated through the generations, family system theory reuses to evaluate it and teaches the counselor / social worker and client to see it as a negative variable, through no fault of his own, that needs to be altered. Altering it will, in turn, not only make his own life and lives of those who are closest to him happier, but he will also positively impact the lives of countless effected others.

System theory, when applied to treatment of domestic violence, may be helpful too in that it treats not only first-order levels but provides understanding of, and probes underneath, to second-order levels too. First order levels refer to the situation where surface behavior may be changed but the underlying attitude remains unaltered (Nichols & Schwartz, 2005). The perpetrator, for instance, may learn new communication skills but the influence of his cultural internalizations regarding supposed inferiority of the female remains unchanged. System theory, on the other hand, may help the client realize the root of his perspectives and, by so doing, have a greater and more enduring impact on him. This would consequent in a second-order change where the underlying rationale is addressed leading to male and partner affecting a healthier relationship.

It is in this way that I see systems theory as contributing powerfully to amelioration of domestic violence.
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Deductive Logic and Theory Building

Words: 1060 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58114009

Deductive and Inductive Theory Construction

There has been much controversy regarding feminism during recent decades and even though the contemporary society has reached a particularly advanced level when considering the idea of civilization, gender discrimination continues to occur in some areas. One's location is likely to be an important factor in making the respective individual more or less of a feminist. Geographic locations are thus essential in shaping a person's character and his or her determination to become a feminist. I believe that it is very likely for feminism to depend on factors such as geographic location, taking into account that many cultures are hesitant about accepting feminist ideas and some are even likely to use harsh criticism as a means to control or even to eradicate these respective ideas.

My theory is going to attempt to confirm the fact that geographic location can play an important role in making…… [Read More]

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Holism and Hempel's Theory of

Words: 1073 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1691211

In that sense, he was a victim of his time period. He may have felt very differently if he were alive today, because science, technology, and even the study of metaphysics have advanced a great deal. Hempel was a scientist, but he was a bit of a philosopher, as well (Sarkar & Pfeifer, 2006).

That is a large part of the reason why his opinions on the issue seem odd. Philosophers are often willing to consider the possibilities and implications of something more being 'out there' and available to them and the rest of the world, but Hempel appeared to have no interest in that. By insisting that the parts made up the whole, and that the whole could be simply broken back down into those parts, Hempel cheated himself out of a lot of other ideas and issues that he could have considered and studied. He was a man…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Sarkar, Sahotra & Pfeifer, Jessica. (2006). The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge.
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Porter's National Competitive Advantage Theory One of

Words: 550 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28027888

Porter's National Competitive Advantage Theory.

One of the principal differences between Porter's model and the traditional economic theories is that the latter emphasize what Porter refers to as "passive" factors such as land, location, and natural resources whereas Porter's model de-emphasizes such factors by virtue of their being passive and relatively unchangeable (George & Jones, 2008). Porter's model also defines the role of government as a stimulator of business growth in general and of competition between businesses in particular. In that regard, Porter argues that government should stimulate commerce and the demand for the products of business organization as well as to stimulate direct competition between and among business entities such as through enacting anti-trust legislation (George & Jones, 2008).

According to Porter's Competitive Advantage Theory, the relative economic competitive advantage of nations is directly dependent on the relationship between and among the following clusters of entities: (1) interconnected business…… [Read More]

References

George, J.M. And Jones, G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational

Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Robbins, S.P. And Judge, T.A. (2009). Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River,

NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Moynihan's Theory on Violence in

Words: 1903 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75675037

'" (Moynihan, 1965)

Moynihan implies that the decreasing role of the black male is a central aspect to be addressed in resolving the matters of violence in the black communities. As a result, he proposes a series of social and political policies that would strengthen the role played by the black male in the family. These refer to better employment opportunities, wage increases or an improved social perception of the roles that fathers play within the family. The senator exemplifies by stating that the white families are mostly run by two parents and the presence and role of both mother and father foster the growth and development of a stable individual, who will not engage in criminal actions.

4. Conclusions

The report issued by Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan set the basis for years of controversy. Organized under the title the Negro Family: The Case for National Action, the findings were…… [Read More]

References

DuRant, R.H., Pendergats, R.A., Stevens, G., Linder, C.W., April 1994, Factors Associated with the Use of Violence among Urban Black Adolescents, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84, No. 6, pp. 612-617

Hall, J.D., August 2, 1993, Big Shots: A Boy and His Gun, Time Magazine, pp. 21-29

Moynihan, D.P., March 1965, the Moynihan Report - the Negro Family: The Case for National Action, Office of Policy Planning and Research, United States Department of Labor

April 1994, Reducing Violence - How do we Proceed? American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84. No. 4, pp.539-540
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Marxist Theory and Its Relation

Words: 319 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27976343

The dominant ideas and morality of bourgeois society serve as a vital defense of the material interests of the ruling class. Without this powerful ideology, the capitalist system just would not last for any length of time.

Marxism suggests three stages or concepts of law and lawlessness:

i) an expose' of rich and powerful and their crimes - this is acceptable but purely moral;

ii) a demonstration of crime and its connections with property - e.g. showing how theft accounts for a small amount of property crime compared with fraud yet theft is policed much more strenuously;

iii) what was intended to be a major concern for the next stage - crime and law. Law is seen as ideology, as a level in capitalism, as tied to the economic relations of capitalism - in a number of unclear methods which were to be cleared up later.… [Read More]

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Mind and Human Behavior Theories

Words: 4187 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33968140

Mind and Human Behavior

Define and discuss a particular theory of consciousness

Consciousness can be best grasped in context as a facet of an interactive wakeful state wherein most cognitive processing occurs non-consciously. However, on combining non-conscious and conscious processing in the wakeful state, how can we differentiate one from the other, how can consciousness be defined, and what purpose does it serve? The conclusions drawn with respect to the former question critically influence how the latter question is answered. What property makes a state non-conscious rather than conscious? This section will support the argument that, out of all possible answers commonly put forth (i.e., accessibility, intentionality, reflexivity, subjectivity), the element-- reflexive, auto noetic-consciousness -- is the only one observed solely in the state of consciousness (Peters, 2013).

The Quantum Theory of Consciousness

The consciousness issue has opposed traditional approaches, in which the human brain is perceived as a computer…… [Read More]

References

Albensi, B.C. and Janigro, D. (2003).Traumatic brain injury and its effects on synaptic plasticity. Brain Inj. 17(8): p. 653-63.

Anderson, J. R. (1990). Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York: Freeman.

Cerasoli, C. P., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic Motivation, Performance, and the Mediating Role of Mastery Goal Orientation: A Test of Self-Determination Theory.JournalOf Psychology, 148(3), 267-286. doi:10.1080/00223980.2013.783778

Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002).Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109-132.
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Customers' Attitudes Towards Own Labels

Words: 9570 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70772795

Tesco, the largest UK company, employs 260,000 people. This corporation has global aspirations and has come a long way in a relatively short period of time" (2003, p. 3).

According to the company's promotional literature, the employment figure for 2003 has almost doubled today, as shown in Table 1 below.

Table 1

Current Key Figures for Tesco

Category

Statistic

Staff worldwide

472,000

Staff in the UK

287,669

Stores worldwide

5,008

Total stores in the UK

2,545

Extra

13

Homeplus

Superstore

Metro

Express

OneStop

Number of markets

14

Which markets

China, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Japan, Malaysia, Poland, Republic of Ireland, Slovakia, South Korea, Thailand, Turkey, UK, USA

Note: Facts correct October 2010

Source: Tesco Quick Facts 2010

Figure 1. Respective Number of Tesco Retail Formats in the U.K.

Source: Based on tabular data in Tesco Quick Facts 2010

A brief summary of the company's guiding corporate strategy is provided in…… [Read More]

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Society Labels Individuals Which Sometimes

Words: 1882 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78031497

We know this in theory, however, reading about these very innocent families and the things that they have been force to endure makes it even more important to me that the nation begin healing and removing the fears that cause this type of behavior against innocent people.

The second and more far reaching point that the book makes is that nobody is safe from suspicion of this mindset is allowed to be continued. Regardless of the situation there may come a time in which each of us falls into a group or groups of people who are suddenly being eyed suspiciously.

In the past five years the Middle Eastern immigrants and descendants have faced the focus of the nation's evil suspicious eye. Before them the Blacks took their turn at bat and in addition to them there have been periods in American history in which Irish, Italian, and Spanish people…… [Read More]

References

We Are All Suspects Now: Untold Stories from Immigrant America After 9/11 (Paperback) by Tram Nguyen " Beacon Press (September 15, 2005)
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Psychology How Have You Been Labeled as

Words: 565 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42299334

Psychology

How have you been labeled as a child or as an adult, and how has this impacted your identity and performance?

As a child I was always labeled as intelligent. This impacted my identity by showing me how I was different from others (because of this special talent). When I became older, this established certain standards for academic performance. I used this to push myself to do more (based upon these beliefs).

Based on the newer, broader definitions of intelligence, (such as Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences), assess your own strengths and weaknesses. Do these definitions change the way you see yourself now?

These strengths and weaknesses are showing how I meet the various categories for intelligence (according to Gardner's theory). This based upon several predetermined criteria to include: the potential for brain isolation, the presence in core operations, a place in evolutionary history, distinct developmental progression, symbolic expression,…… [Read More]

Reference

Howard Gardner. (2012). In Fed. Retrieved from: http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm

Robbins, A. (1991). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
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Respondent Learning Theory and the

Words: 2048 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77575647



An article in the Journal of Sex Research brings attention to operant conditioning by juxtaposing - comparing and contrasting - it with the social learning theory that Julian P. Rotter developed. Social learning in fact embraces aspects of operant conditioning (which is also known as "radical behaviorism"), and Rotter assumed that "behavior is goal directed and emphasized expectations of reward and perceived values of rewards." Those rewards are the basis for a person to model his or her behavior after the behavior of others. "Rewards for desired behavior are presumed to reinforce that behavior," (Hogben, et al., 1998) Rotter asserted, and that part of his model matches up pretty closely with operant conditioning.

OPERANT THEORY IS the MOST PRACTICAL, APPLICABLE in EXPLAINING DEVIANT BEHAVIOR: In this scholarly article, the authors are alluding to behaviors related to sexual dynamics, in this case spousal abuse. For example, the reward that a deviant…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hogben, Matthew; & Dyme, Donn. (1998). Using Social Learning Theory to Explain

Individual Differences in Human Sexuality. The Journal of Sex Research 35(1), 58-72.

Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; & Hayes, Linda J. (1998). The Operant-Respondent Distinction

Revisited: Toward an Understanding of Stimulus Equivalence. Psychological Record, 48(2),
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Application of Criminology Theories Sociology

Words: 1885 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23733167

theoretical concepts from parts XII and XIII to the events and actors at the Malheur Wildlife Refuge occupation. Be sure to utilize the different sections in your application.

Environmental criminology often focuses on opportunity theory, which is linked with rational choice theory. Opportunity theory suggests that criminal behavior is motivated or prompted by available opportunities to commit the crime. Although the Malheur occupiers were not environmental criminals in the traditional sense of being motivated also by an environmentalist agenda with related ecological goals, the Malheur Wildlife Refuge is a nature preserve. There are also compounding issues related to territoriality, the "extent to which a space conveys a sense of being 'owned' or 'private' and has having clearly designated purposes," (XII, p. 459). Territoriality has been a primary driving factor in the occupation. The occupiers, spearheaded by Ammon Bundy and the Hammond brothers "sought to turn the refuge into a symbol…… [Read More]

References

Bernton, Hal. "Birds -- and staff -- return to Malheur National Wildlife Refuge." Seattle Times. 27 March, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/northwest/birds-and-staff-return-to-malheur-national-wildlife-refuge/

Carpenter, Zoe. "Inside the Bundy Brothers' Armed Occupation." The Nation. Jan 5, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.thenation.com/article/inside-the-malheur-wildlife-refuge-occupation/
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Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory Psychology

Words: 1475 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81510659

Piaget's Cognitive Development

The Webster Dictionary describes the word cognition as; the psychological means of distinguishing, including features such as consciousness, perception, reasoning and decision making (Cognition). Piaget's Cognitive Developmental theory was a novel idea at the time of its birth. In depth, this theory, was the first on the issue and continued the specification of the field for a while. All through this paper, Piaget's thesis will be torn down into its four phases and all will be methodically complete. It is the intention of this research study to see how well Piaget's ideas endured the test of time and see what developments made to the current theory.

Piaget makes the hypothesis that there were four main cognitive phases in practical development, agreeing to four consecutive methods of knowledge. All through each of these stages, children were theorized to ponder and reason in a way that was different. These…… [Read More]

Reference:

Cook-Cottone, C. (2004). Using piaget's theory of cognitive development to understand the construction of healing narratives. Journal of College Counseling, 7(2), 177-186.

Goswami, U. (2001). Cognitive development: No stages please -- we're british. British Journal of Psychology, 92(00071269), 257-77.

Hinde, E., & Perry, N. (2007). Elementary teachers' application of jean piaget's theories of cognitive development during social studies curriculum debates in arizona. The Elementary School Journal, 108(1), 63.

Leppo, M., Davis, D., & Crim, B. (2000). The basics of exercising the mind and body. Childhood Education, 76(3), 142-147.