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Criminality is an unfortunate but inevitable component of human society. As much as people would like to believe that there is a way to create a type of community that has no crime, psychologists and other experts in the field of criminology have done research and created various hypotheses which show that criminality is actually an inevitability under any circumstances where large numbers of human beings interact and then create a system of laws. herever there is a system of laws, there will be at least a few people who choose to behave in ways antithetical to those laws. Among the many theories that have been explored about the potential reasons for criminality, perhaps the most interesting and most logical is the hypothetical argument which is referred to as the labeling theory.
Labeling is the process by which an individual is identified by the society in which they…
Lilly, J. Robert. Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences. Thousand Oaks, CA:
SAGE. 2011. Print.
Siegel, Larry J. Criminology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage. 11th ed. 2012. Print.
Townsend, Kerry. "Frank Tannenbaum: 'Dramatization of Evil.'" Web. 2012.
Labeling Theory of Deviance
Labeling theory integrate well into radical criminology as it perceives criminal behavior to be defined by society. The powerful in the society like the judges, parents, police, to mention but a few tend to label the less powerful. Ones conduct is never classified as right or wrong but as a deviant behavior. It is not only criminal behaviors that are treated as deviant. The society's alcoholics and the mentally hill are also perceived to be showcasing deviant behaviors. Labeling leads to creation of stigma and modification of self-image (Wright, Gronfein, & Owens, 2000). The element of stigma comes about when the public takes to condemning and exclusion of a criminal. The criminal is avoided and treated with suspicion. He is barred from certain types of employments (Macionis & Gerber, 2011). Their own families may even reject them. The police also give them undue attention. The element…
Gottfredson, M.R. & Hirschi, T. (1990). A General Theory of Crime. Stanford, California:
Macionis, J.J. & Gerber, L.M. (2011). Sociology. Toronto: Pearson Canada.
Paternoster, R. (1987). The Deterrent Effect (If the Perceived Certainty and Severity Of
Punishment: A Review of the Evidence and Issues. Justice Quarterly 4, 173-218.
Originating in sociology and criminology, labeling theory (also known as social reaction theory) was developed by sociologist Howard S. Becker (1997). Labeling theory suggests that deviance, rather than constituting an act, results from the societal tendency of majorities to negatively label those individuals perceived as deviant from norms. Essentially, labeling theory involves how the self-identity and behavior of individuals determines or influences the terms used to describe or classify such individuals, and is associated with the concept of a self-fulfilling prophecy and stereotyping. The theory was prominent in the 1960s and 1970s, and some modified versions of the theory have developed. Unwanted descriptors or categorizations (including terms related to deviance, disability or a diagnosis of mental illness) may be rejected on the basis that they are merely "labels," often with attempts to adopt a more constructive language in its place. Labeling theory is also closely related to interactionism…
Akers, R.L., Sellers, C.S. (2004). Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Application, 4th Edition. Roxbury Publishing Company, Los Angeles, California.
Becker, H. Outsiders. 1963 (1997). New York, NY: Free Press.
Bench, L.L. And Allen, T.D. (2003). Investigating the Stigma of Prison Classification: An Experimental Design. Prison Journal, 83, 4, 367-382.
Durkheim, Emile (1897) . Suicide: a study in sociology. The Free Press.
Labeling Theory and Juvenile Crime
Do we perform to expectations? One study of gifted children suggested that this was the case: in an experiment, teachers were told that certain pupils in their classroom had tested as 'gifted.' Almost immediately, the teachers began to treat these children differently, and the children began to perform at a higher standard. However, the teachers had actually been intentionally misinformed -- the children had been selected at random. Similarly, in the famous 'brown eyes vs. blue eyes' experiment conducted by educator Jane Elliot, a class of children was divided into blue-eyed and brown-eyed children, and the brown-eyed children were treated as second-class citizens. The blue-eyed children's scholastic performance improved, simply because of the positive reinforcement they received for their behavior (A class divided, 2011, PBS).
The notion that 'labeling' certain individuals in a positive or negative fashion can be a self-fulfilling prophesy is borne out…
Becker, Howard. (1963). Outsiders: Studies in the sociology of deviance. London: Macmillan.
A class divided. (2011). PBS. Retrieved September 24, 2011 at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/divided/
Lemert, E.M. (1967). Human deviance, social problems and social control. Englewood Cliffs:
Labeling Theory: Theories of Deviance
In sociology and criminology, labeling theorists were among the first to suggest that crime was not produced by inherent defects within the individual’s biology or character, but rather was a social construction. Labeling theorists suggested that crime was the result of society’s need to label certain individuals as deviant. This labeling became a self-fulfilling prophesy, to the point that the labeled individuals made their deviant label a part of their identity. Labeling is often used against individuals who are racially, ethnically or socio-economically determined to be abnormal or aberrant, and thus has the effect of creating ostracized groups of entire classes of people. It is ultimately an unproductive concept both for society as well as victimizes the individuals who are labeled and creates rather than prevents the existence of a criminal underclass.
The concept of labeling theory first arose in the early 1960s,…
Disproportionate minority contact and juvenile justice. (2014). Coalition for Juvenile Justice
Retrieved from: https://csgjusticecenter.org/youth/publications/disproportionate- minority-contact-and-status-offenses/
Hadjimatheou, K. (2016). Criminal labelling, publicity, and punishment. Law and Philosophy,
The labeling theory of crime. (2016). Revise Sociology. Retrieved from:
What is restorative justice? (2018). The Center for Restorative Justice. Retrieved from:
The labeling theory is one of the various social behavior theories that seek to explain the cause of deviant behaviors within the society. Here, the theorists tend to describe deviant behavior as behavior that which becomes deviant only when labeled so. This approach tends to explain why the labeling theorists are not much interested in what causes the primary deviation. They tend to shelve the question of what causes primary deviation and tend to assume that the infarction of norms is distributed fairly evenly throughout the different social groups but they take the line that for various reasons that authorities notice and label only certain individuals. The labelists assume that all are fundamentally alike, before the effects of labeling sets in. They tend to assume that no individually is innately motivated to act in a deviant manner and no one has some traits impelling him to do so.…
Bernburg J.G., (2009). Labeling Theory. Retrieved September 30, 2018 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/226795096_Labeling_Theory
DeRoche C., (2015). Labels in Education: The Role of Parents and Parental Cultural Capital in Acquiring Diagnoses and Educational Accommodations. Retrieved September 30, 2018 from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&ved=2ahUKEwjb_Z2ZsOTdAhWlx4UKHUPiAzsQFjAHegQIChAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.sfu.ca%2Fcje%2Findex.php%2Fcje-rce%2Farticle%2Fdownload%2F1870%2F1811&usg=AOvVaw3b_VVgVRHmUTXFWRl09WTE
Knutsson J., (1977). Labeling theory: A critical Examination. Retrieved September 30, 2018 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/47664NCJRS.pdf
Scimecca J., (1977). Labeling Theory and Personal Construct Theory: Toward the Measurement of Individual Variation. Retrieved September 30, 2018 from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a3df/cc1e933604b2e4efdfc37912f942c6e535be.pdf
This in turn more often than not leads the stigmatized to acquire more and more deviant and possibly criminal identities (Lanier & Henry, 1998).
There can, of course, be other antecedents prior to labeling that can enhance the process of delinquency in juveniles. Mental and/or psychological impairments must also be considered as a contributing factor. Certain of these attributes can also contribute to highly suggestible levels in regards to behavior and allow socially sensitive entities to be easily swayed by stigma and stereotype.
Such deficits in neuropsychological functioning, such as self-control (especially impulse control), may serve to maintain antisocial behaviour throughout life. In contrast... antisocial behaviour that emerges during adolescence is, on this account, the result of an individual reaching biological maturity prior to reaching social maturity (where he or she has legal access to such liberties to consume alcohol, and operate a motor vehicle). (Carroll, Hemingway, Bower, Ashman, Houghton…
Adams, M.S., Robertson, C.T., Gray-Ray, P., & Ray, M.C. (2003). Labeling and Delinquency. Adolescence, 38(149), 171-177.
Barlow, H.D. (Ed.). (1995). Crime and Public Policy: Putting Theory to Work. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Bartusch, D.J., & Matsueda, R.L. (1996). Gender, Reflected Appraisals, and Labeling: A Cross-Group Test of an Interactionist Theory of Delinquency. Social Forces, 75(1), 145-176.
Braithwaite, J. (1995). 11 Reintegrative Shaming, Republicanism, and Policy. In Crime and Public Policy: Putting Theory to Work, Barlow, H.D. (Ed.) (pp. 191-205). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Criminal Justice Theories
Labeling theory suggests that criminal behavior can be the result of a person being considered a criminal. "People become stabilized in criminal roles when they are labeled as criminal, are stigmatized, develop criminal identities, are sent to prison, and are excluded from conventional roles. eintegrative responses are less likely to create defiance and a commitment to crime" (Patchin, 2011). Anyone who has ever filled out a job application and seen the question asking about criminal convictions understands that there is not only a social stigma attached to criminal behavior, but also that even past criminal behavior can impact a person's entire future. When non-criminal options are not available because of past criminal behavior, one can anticipate that a person may be more likely to reoffend.
Conflict theory focuses on the idea that people are not seeking consensus, but are instead looking to exert power. It is "the…
Patchin, J. (2011). Criminological theory summaries. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from University of Wisconsin Eau Claire website:
See, E. (2004). Student study guide for Ronald L. Akers and Christine S. Sellers'
Criminological theories: Introduction, evaluation, and applications, 4th Edition. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from Roxbury Publishing Company website: http://roxbury.net/images/pdfs/ct4ssg.pdf
Social Labeling Theory: Juvenile Delinquency
Social labeling theory was originally developed by the theorist Howard Becker to explain why certain individuals believe that a path of crime will be more advantageous to them then following social norms. Becker suggested that criminals often internalize the label of deviancy at a young age, believing that since more conventional and positive labels cannot apply to them, celebrating deviancy is the only possible path to happiness and some form of social approval, even if approval only comes from fellow deviants. Labeled criminals come to believe this, not because they are innately wicked or have psychological problem but because people labeled as criminals are often from historically disadvantaged groups, such as discriminated-against minorities, the poor, and those denied the advantages of education (“The Labeling Theory of Crime”).
Labeling theory also suggests that society is unwilling to label certain groups of people who do commit crimes…
“Disproportionate Minority Contact and Status Offenses.” Coalition for Juvenile Justice. Web. 7 Apr 2018. http://www.juvjustice.org/sites/default/files/resource- files/DMC%20Emerging%20Issues%20Policy%20Brief%20Final_0.pdf
Fantz, Ashley. “Outrage for six-month sentence for Brock Turner in Stanford rape case.” CNN. 6 Jun 2016. Web. 7 Apr 2018. https://www.cnn.com/2016/06/06/us/sexual-assault-brock-turner-stanford/index.html
“The Labeling Theory of Crime.” Revise Sociology. 20 Aug 2016. Web. 7 Apr 2018. https://revisesociology.com/2016/08/20/labelling-theory-crime-deviance/
Shepherd, Robert. “Plea Bargaining in Juvenile Court.” Criminal Justice, 23 (3): 1-3 Web. 7 Apr 2018. https://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/publishing/criminal_justice_section_newsl etter/crimjust_cjmag_23_3_shepherd.authcheckdam.pd
My Views on Hate Crimes
Although hate crime is often associated with some sort of violent crime motivated by a desire to hurt a group or person based on that group or person’s identity, Green, McFalls and Smith (2001) admit that hate crime is actually difficult “to define, measure and explain” (p. 479). The reason for the difficulty is that hate, in the obvious sense of a person persecuting another because the other person is different, is not always so explicitly manifested or expressed in the crime. In fact, it could be said that at some level hate is the motive behind all crime—hate for the state, hate for society, hate for the law, hate for one’s neighbor, hate for God, or even hate for one’s self. To make it even more complicated, Chakraborti and Garland (2009) argue that “hate crimes are not crimes in which the offender simply hates the victim, and in…
Chakraborti, N., & Garland, J. (2009). Hate crime: Impact, causes and responses. Sage Publications.
Green, D. P., McFalls, L. H., & Smith, J. K. (2001). Hate crime: An emergent research agenda. Annual review of sociology, 27(1), 479-504.
Spruill, L. (2020). Warren family returns home few months after hate crime incident. Retrieved from https://www.clickondetroit.com/news/local/2020/11/27/warren-family-returns-home-few-months-after-hate-crime-incident/
Thus, even "victimless" deviant activities are regulated through various methods of formal and informal control. The deviancy ascribed to Brenda's teen pregnancy, for example, stems largely from the way she challenges the norms regarding sexual behavior. Conflict theorists believe that laws and norms do not reflect values of society as a whole, but only of the dominant segment.
Similarly, it could be said that Brenda's drug habit is a victimless crime. If she pursues reasonable precautions, such as avoiding driving and staying in a private place, her drug use does not differ much from smoking or alcohol consumption. However, since drug use is frowned upon by the social elite, Brenda is seen as a criminal.
Similar to conflict and Marxist theories, feminist theorists see much social inequity in society.
This social inequity is one that divides the sexes. Early on in Brenda's life, the loss of job of…
A relationship exists between theories, research, practical application, and education. The latter three, in fact, ought to be directed by the former. Further, research works inform education as well as practical application through offering evidences for nursing instruction- and care provision- related best practices. Education forms the context for learning. Educators need to base their teaching on scholarly evidences in the areas of learning/teaching, learning/teaching theories, and practice arena requirements. Practice contexts are where learners are taught, patients are provided evidence-based care, and nurses acquire experiences to aid them in formulating novel nursing theories and topics for future studies. Theory is the foundation for:
· How to learn and teach nursing concepts like nursing theories, brain-based education, neurocognitive studies, principles/frameworks, learning approaches, adult learning models, and educational models.
· How to frame researches and understand findings within professional settings, and how to develop the profession for ensuring most…
One study examined 595 participants, who filled out questionnaires for the research and concluded that social bonding issues play a part in social deviance including the use of drugs and alcohol (Pawlak, 1993).
elating Theory to Social Issue
elating the two criminology theories to the current social issue of adolescent substance abuse, is relatively easy to do. In each of the theories, studies have been conducted to ascertain the amount, if any, of substance abuse that the theories support. Both of the theories have relatively clear markers for how they impact the possibility of adolescent substance abuse.
The research into the labeling theory, clearly indicates that adolescents often develop their self-image by the reaction of society to their existence. If a teenager believes he is labeled as a problem, or a throw-away child, he will most likely develop poor self-esteem, and one of the consequences of that low self-esteem,…
Harrison, Larry R (1997) Control theory, labeling theory, and the delivery of services for drug abuse to adolescents. Adolescence Marcos, a.C., & Johnson, R.E. (1988). Cultural patterns and causal processes in adolescent drug use: The case of Greeks vs. Americans. The International Journal of the Addictions, 23, 545-572.
Ray, M.C., & Downs, W.R. (1986). An empirical test of labeling theory using longitudinal data. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 23, 169-194.
Pawlak, Rebecca (1993) Effects of social bonds and childhood experiences on alcohol abuse and smoking. The Journal of Social Psychology
Criminology researchers usually draw on multiple sociological theories for understanding crime and offenders. Certain elements of serial-killing research continue to be a subject of speculation and exploration, on account of the numerous preconceptions and myths surrounding the crime. The significance of establishing a theoretic basis to explain sociological factors proves crucial to distinguishing between fact and fiction (Hickey, 2013).
Social Structure Theory
This class of theories concentrates on the socioeconomic status of a person and suggests that the poor perpetrate more offenses owing to their struggle to achieve social or monetary success. They are, particularly owing to their subcultural, racial, or ethnic status, restricted in several ways from lawfully attaining the great “American Dream\". Thus, they resort to deviant techniques to succeed. Structural theories provide convincing justifications for numerous offenses, with the exception of serial killing. Normally, serial killers lack financial or social motivation, and aren’t members of any specific…
Sociological theories have helped widen people's scope on social behaviors and societies. In fact, the study of sociological theories makes one develop a comprehensive understanding of sociology's past, present and future. There are a number of sociological theories namely: symbolic interaction theory, conflict theory, functionalist theory, feminist theory, critical theory, labeling theory, social learning theory, and structural strain theory among others (Giddens, 1997).
Government, religion, education, economics and family are some of the five major social institutions that have been there for quite some time. This term paper seeks to evaluate the impacts of functionalism, conflict, and interaction theories on the family institution. The paper will address how each of the theories apply to the family as a social institution; the similarities and differences that exist; how each theory affects the views of an individual who is a member of the family unit; how each of the theories affect approach…
Giddens, A. (1997). Sociology. Cambridge: Polity.
McLennan, G, Allanah, R., & Spoonley, P. (2000). Exploring society: Sociology
for New Zealand students. Auckland: Pearson.
Stephens, P., & Leach, A. (1998). Think Sociology. New York: Nelson Thornes.
social structures exert a definite pressure upon certain persons in the society to engage in nonconformist rather than conformist conduct," (Merton, 1938, p. 672). With his own italics emphasizing the stress and strain that social structures can produce in the individual, obert Merton outlines the basis of strain and stress theories. Stress is a natural part of life; it is how people cope with stress or react to it that matters most. Individual differences in background, situational variables, and also personality and psychological traits can also impact how people deal with stress and respond to stressors. However, some people will naturally encounter more stressors and more strain than others. Merton and other sociologists who recognized the value of strain theory showed how poverty and other structural variables cause stress and strain, and can often be the cause for behavioral problems including criminality. Yet once a person has been labeled a…
Agnew, R. & Scheuerman, H. (2015). Strain theories. Retrieved online: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396607/obo-9780195396607-0005.xml
"Labeing Theory," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.d.umn.edu/~bmork/2306/Theories/BAMlabeling.htm
McLeod, S. (2010). Stressful life events. Retrieved online: http://www.simplypsychology.org/SRRS.html
Merton, R.K. (1938). Social structure and anomie. American Sociological Review 3(5): 672-682.
Application of Schools of Criminal Thought
Within the classical school of thought (rational choice framework from economics), the charges against the perpetrator would be considered both logical and effective. Under classical thought, criminology holds that punishment is an effective deterrent to crime, and that punishment should be rationally aligned with the severity of the crime. The positivist school of thought (functionalist or biological, psychological, and sociological framework) would consider the crime and the punishment against a background of social and genetic influence. Within positivist criminology, the offender is viewed as having a flawed personality and character, brought about by significant deprivations during impressionable years, and that may at least be ameliorated through integrated therapies and treatment. The neo-classical school of thought (empiricism framework) considers crime -- and makes and implements policy -- through a rationalist, scientific, and evidence-based lens.
Theoretical Criminology Frameworks
Social bonding theory. Social bonding theory stems…
Biological explanations, in contrast to fair and severe punishment as advocated by classical theorists, stress the need for institutionalization and psychological and medical treatment for the 'ill,' but they also offers what seems like a defeatist attitude towards the improvement of the criminal, as the criminal has no rational choice in his or her behavior. The presumption is that irrationally generated behavior cannot be conditioned out of the individual through incarceration, and criminality must be treated like an illness, although opinions differ as to the best way to go about treating the individual so the criminal is 'cured' of the crime, or if a cure is even possible.
However, biosocial theories suggest that society plays an important role in causing crime, such as social learning theory: "Some children are raised in families in which violence is used as a means to achieve desires. Abusive parents model to their children that…
Greek, Cecil. (2005). "Criminological Theory." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/lectures.htm
Keel, Robert. (12 Feb 2007). "Biological and Psychological Theories of Deviance." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/biotheor.html
Keel, Robert. (12 Feb 2007). "Theories of Deviance." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/devtheor.html
Instead, it can provide an important springboard for future investigation in order to better understand the communication paradigms and expectations of cultures other than those in the United States. This, in turn, can lead to further nonverbal theorizing.
Furthermore, Burgoon's theory can also provide an important platform for more modern types of communication such as digital communication, for example (Littlejohn and Foss, 2009). Nonverbal cues are also inherent in this type of communication, although the assumption tends to be that this type of communication is primarily verbal. This is a very exciting development for communication studies. Currently, online communication has seen little in terms of formalizing theoretical findings. Because this communication medium is becoming increasingly important not only in personal interaction but also in the business world, it is becoming vitally important to provide theories of interaction by means of which such communications can most effectively be conducted. This can…
Littlejohn, S.W. And Foss, K.A. (2009). Encyclopedia of communication theory. Sage Publications.
Gudykunst, W.B. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Sage Publications.
Jacob, a. (2008). Expectancy Violations Theory (EVT) of Judee Burgoon. Retrieved from: http://www.slideshare.net/ajacob/expectancy-violations-theory
Kalman, Y.M. (2010). Online Pauses and Silence: Chronemic Expectancy Violations in Written Computer-Mediated Communication. Retrieved from: http://www.kalmans.com/evt.pdf
biological theories, sociological theories, and psychological theories of crime.
Biological explanations of criminal behavior
Lombroso's Theory dates back to the late 1800s, and is not widely accepted today. Lombroso believed that a person's body type and constitution can tell a researcher whether or not the person is "a born criminal" (Crossman, 2011). Lombroso believed that criminals inherited their deviance, and that the body type of a person, if it resembled "primitive men," meant that individual was a criminal through a biological connection.
Typically, Lombroso believed that if a person had five or more characteristics from this list (" ... large monkey-like ears, large lips, a twisted nose, excessive cheekbones, long arms, and excessive wrinkles on the skin") then that individual would likely be a "born criminal" (Crossman, p. 1). Females, according to Lombroso, needed just three of these characteristics to qualify as a "born criminal."
Another biological crime theory comes…
Crossman, A. (2011). Biological Explanations of Deviant Behavior. About.com.
Retrieved November 21, 2015, from http://sociology.about.com .
Jrank. (2010). Crime Causation: Sociological Theories -- Labeling Theory / Social Learning.
Theory. Retrieved November 21, 2015, from http://law.jrank.org .
label slp 3 in section Session Long Project 'll estimate cost equity rate return company's shareholders 'require'. This important piece information top manager estimate important input effort determine action company add shareholders.
SLP 1 OPM 500
Wal-Mart is one of the greatest American companies and it has been received with both praises as well as criticism. The current endeavor nevertheless is more focused on the financial aspect of the organization, namely the cost of its equity. At a general level, the cost of equity is understood as "the return that stockholders require for a company" (Investopedia, 2011). In other words, it is the amount of money that the organization has to pay in order to reward the investments made by the shareowners.
The cost of capital is an important financial tool as it sits at the basis of efficient decision making. In other words, the cost of equity portraits whether…
Cooper, R.A., 2011, Capital Asset Pricing Model, Reference for Business, http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Bre-Cap/Capital-Asset-Pricing-Model-CAPM.html last accessed on February 24, 2011
2011, Cost of equity, Investopedia, http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/costofequity.asp last accessed on February 24, 2011
2011, Capital Asset Pricing Model, Investopedia, http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/capm.asp last accessed on February 24, 2011
2011, Yahoo Finance, http://finance.yahoo.com / last accessed on February 24, 2011
I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away. (Fraley, 2004)
Fraley relates that it was found in the study of Hazan and Shaver "...based on this three-category measure...that the distribution of categories was similar to that observed in infancy. In other words, about 60% of adults classified themselves as secure; about 20% described themselves as avoidant; and about 20% described themselves as anxious-resistant." (2004) While measurement in this manner was "a useful way to study the association between attachment styles and relationship functioning, it didn't allow a full test of the hypothesis in the same kinds of individual differences observed in infants might be manifest among adults." (Fraley, 2004) Fraley states that the findings of rennan "suggested that there are two fundamental dimensions with respect to…
Borelli, Jessica L.; and David, Daryn H. (2003-2004) Imagination, Cognition and Personality. Volume 23, Number 4 / 2003-2004. Attachment Theory and Research as a Guide to Psychotherapy Practice. Yale University. Online Baywood Publishing Company, Inc. Amityville, NY. Online available at http://baywood.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,2,6;journal,14,102;linkingpublicationresults,1:300311,1
Tuovila, Pirjo (2007)What Are Fathers for? Attachment Theory and the Significance of Fathers. European Centennial Conference to Celebrate the Birth of Dr. John Bowlby, the Founder of Attachment Theory. Tampere Hall, Finland, 1-2 February 2007.
Levine, Robert a. (2002) Attachment Research as an Ideological Movement: Preliminary Statement. Revised from presentation at the ISSBD, 2002, Ottawa. Harvard University.
Blizard, Ruth a. (1997) the origins of Disassociate Identity Disorder from an Object Relations and Attachment Theory Perspective. Journal of Dissociation. Vol. X No. 4, December, 1997.
As the sessions proceeded, the therapist debriefed the client with the aim of de-escalating her psychologically. This enabled the client to explore and express a feeling of guilt and perception that she had failed to give her best to maintain her job. During the debriefing process, it was evident that the client believed that she was responsible for her job loss. She had been experiencing notable difficulties maintaining concentration and sleeping. Ultimately, this led to significant distress in social function.
After a week, the client reported to the therapist that she felt that she was not alone in the first time. As a result, she reported that she no longer needed the sedative medication, but remained compliant to the prescribed medication. After a while, the client related her belief in her ability to apply for new job opportunities. It is evident that the client's experience achieved the diagnostic criteria for…
Hillman, J.L. (2012). Crisis intervention and trauma counseling: New approaches to evidence-based practice. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Wainrib, B.R., & Bloch, E.L. (2008). Crisis intervention and trauma response: Theory and practice. New York: Springer.
Ziegler, S.M. (2010). Theory-directed nursing practice. New York: Springer Pub. Co.
If the impact was the result of government collusion against Hatfill, then many might believe that actual freedom can only be guaranteed by forcing the press to reveal those sources, so that corruption could be eliminated from the government. However, Martin does not even mention arguments like those found above. Instead, she touts the ideals of the free press, without any mention of who the press is meant to serve, the people, and without any look into the history of journalistic freedom in the United States.
I. Introduction: Martin's fails to adequately support her thesis, which is that the courts are using a new method, financial compulsion, to silence and intimidate journalists.
Martin's describes Toni Locy's predicament.
1. Judge Reggie alton, the judge from the Scooter Libby trial, is presiding over Hatfill's lawsuit.
2. alton has held Locy in contempt for failing to divulge sources.
3. Hatfill's sued the…
Miller, Judith. "Journalism on Trial." The Wall Street Journal 21 Feb. 2008: A16.
Significance of cultural diversity
Theories permit us to determine the world around us coherently and also to act in the world with a reasonable approach. Numerous theories have developed throughout the previous century in western countries that make an effort to clarify how human character evolves, why all of us behave the way we do, what external circumstances encourage us to behave in particular ways, and the way these elements have been connected. A few of these concepts structure their arguments on essential physical as well as social-emotional situations within our very first years of existence; some around the impact involving external influences of our own family members, neighbourhood, as well as culture; a few on the unique learning and also thought procedures; a few on triumphant finalization of precise developmental "activities" at each and every phase throughout lifespan; plus some on the way a healthy-or perhaps unhealthy-sense…
Crandell, T., Crandell, C. And Zanden, J.V. (2011). Human Development. Chapter 2, 10th Ed. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages, p. 1-768 .
Daniels, H., Cole, M., & Wertsch, J.V. (Eds.). (2007). The Cambridge companion to Vygotsky. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Eisenstadt, S.N. (1986). The axial age breakthroughs. In S.N. Eisenstadt (ed.), The origins and diversity of axial age civilizations. New York: State University of New York Press, pp. 1 -- 28.
Huntington, S.P. (1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of the world order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Crime is a normative aspect of any social construct. That however does not in any way imply that a criminal is a set of or his psychological and biological endowments, if that may be called so. These are actually two very different queries on altogether different premises. The differentiation is better captured when sociological pursuits (fraud, slander, calumny, insults, etc.) are ingrained into the discussion about criminality. It also discount the fact that criminality should be looked down upon, though crimes are an accepted social construct. In ways similar to an individual avoiding pain, so does the society abhor crime. As an extension, similarly as pain cannot be wished away and does form a feature of life, so does criminality about a social structure. That is however not at all to defend crime. Such a posit would be against the moral obligations that has tangible outcomes and become…
Emile Durkheim, (2008). The normal and the pathological, Oxford University Press.
Charles Spearman and his General Intelligence Theory
Spearman, a British psychologist, noted that individuals whose score on one mental ability test was excellent tended to maintain an impressive score in other tests as well (Nevid, 2012). On the other hand, those whose score on one cognitive test was unimpressive tended to perform badly in other tests administered. It is on the strength of this observation that Spearman concluded that being a general cognitive ability, intelligence could be expressed numerically or measured. In the words of Nevid (2012, p. 247), "he reasoned there must be an underlying general factor of intelligence that allows people to do well on mental tests, a factor he labeled 'g' for general intelligence."
It is, however, important to note that Spearman was also convinced that in addition to "g," intelligence included some other abilities that contributed "to performance on individual tests" (Nevid, 2012, p. 274).…
Comer, R. & Gould, E. (2012). Psychology Around Us (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Nevid, J. (2012). Psychology: Concepts and Applications (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Stenberg, R. (2008). Cognitive Psychology (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Weiner, I.B. (2012). Handbook of Psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Connecting Theory and Meaning of Disability Studies in Schools
The connecting theory application in the system of basic education has contributed to the development and establishment of a trans-disciplinary scientific strategized framework. This framework bases on the specified reverence for a considerable orientation in long-term and the engagement of decision makers in the education system on its application. The connecting theory involves work that cuts across education disciplines. This is with the aim of exposing the aspects perceived to be of outdated assumptions in the education system. This happens with their respective enrichment in the technological and social practice. The theory constitutes well-strategized research with knowledge meant for informing a scientific framework designated. This is to enable direct transformation towards the education system future with worldview fit (Fenton-Smith, & Stillwell, 2011).
The concrete developed strategic objectives aim at addressing the advancements with accuracy in understanding the aspect of science. This…
Albrecht, G.L. (2003). Handbook of disability studies. Thousand Oaks, Calif. [u.a.: Sage.
Dan Goodley & Michele Moore. (2010). Doing Disability Research: Activist lives and the academy. Retrieved from: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cdso20
Danforth, S. (2006). Vital questions facing disability studies in education. New York: Lang.
Fenton-Smith, B., & Stillwell, C. (2011). Reading Discussion Groups for Teachers:
As mentioned earlier, the desired outcome of nursing care is comfort and there are many articles in which the researchers have talked about the needs of the patients and the things that alter the comfort of the patients. Kolcaba suggested that the cancer patients who are terminally ill can benefit from comfort care as it pays attention to the perspective and needs of the patients. Through such kind of care, the patient is not only provided with pain relief, but the depression of the patient is also addressed adequately. As she said that patients who are not in pain but are depressed seek comfort in the transcendental sense as well as in the psycho-spiritual sense (Kolcaba, 1992 p 4). In some of her works, she has explained the use of the instruments and their application by the nurses. Kolcaba reckons that the instruments presented by her to evaluate the comfort…
Kolcaba K. (1994). A theory of holistic comfort for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(10): 1178-1184.
Kolkaba, K. (1992). Holistic comfort: Operationalizing the construct as a nurse-sensitive outcome..Advances in Nursing Science, 15 (1), pp. 1-10.
Kolkaba, K. (1997). The primary holisms in nursing..Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25 pp. 290-296.
Kolkaba, K. And Fisher, E. (1996). A holistic perspective on comfort care as an advance directive..Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 18 pp. 66-76.
In this view, the fact that underprivileged subcultures already promoted a different set of social values emphasizing "street smarts" and toughness instead of socially productive attributes and goals combined with the substitution of deviant role models for father figures is a significant source of criminal conduct, particularly in poor communities (Adler, Mueller & Laufer, 2008).
Other modern sociological perspectives began reconsidering crime and other forms of socially deviant behavior as primarily a function of individual psychology.
However, whereas earlier theories of individual responsibility focused on the role of rational choice, the modern approach viewed crime much more as a function of the cumulative psychological effects on the individual of the consequences of social labeling.
Furthermore, it has been suggested that much of the difference in crime rates in underprivileged communities also relates directly to the different types of characterizations and institutional responses to different types of crime in American society.…
John Adler, John Mueller, and John Laufer. Criminology (6th Edition). City, State:
McGraw-Hill, 2008. MLA
Adler J, Mueller J, and Laufer J. (2008). Criminology (6th Edition). City, State: McGraw-Hill. APA
Theory to Social Concerns or Human Behaviors
The Theory of Social Concerns or Human Behaviors provides a broad framework into which more narrowly focused research can be viewed from. This analysis will consider three individual research journal articles and first provide an overview of the work that was conducted. Then this analysis will try to relate the study and its results to the broader theories mentioned. The external factors related to a child's development can have a substantial influence on their development as well as be highly correlated with MEB issues later in life. The paper will conclude with a short discussion of why this research is important to society in regard to public health initiatives.
Parenting a Child with a Disability
Parents who have children with disabilities often have additional challenges that are presented in the situation when compared to the responsibilities of parents when their children…
Glanz, K., & Bishop, D. (2010). The Role of Behavioral Science Theory in Development and Implementation of Public Health Interventions. Annual Review of Public Health, 399-418.
Ha, J., Greenberg, J., & Seltzer, M. (2011). Parenting a Child With a Disability: The Role of Social Support for African-American Parents. The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 405-411.
Herrenkohl, T., Lee, J., Kosterman, R., & Hawkings, J. (2012). Family Influences Related to Adult Substance Use and Mental Health Problems: A Developmental Analysis of Child and Adolescent Predictors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 129-135.
Yoshikawa, H., Aber, J., & Beardslee, W. (2012). The Effects of Poverty on the Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Health of Children and Youth. American Psychologist, 272-284.
Labels: Latinos or Hispanics
Labeling people by their race is often a controversial subject of debate in political and social circles. Why classify people as Hispanics, Latinos or African-Americans when they can all be simply called Americans by virtue of them being citizens of the United States. However it appears that there is some political gains to be made by the use of ethnic labeling and often this kind of classification is very damaging or restricting. For example a person who comes from a Spanish speaking family and is labeled a Latino is expected to behave in certain race-specific manner. he/she is expected to be really 'hip', an expert in salsa or other forms of dancing, not really good in academics, coming from a poor family and supporting a certain political party. But what if that one individual wants to defy all these restricting attributes because he/she is not a…
Lind, Michael- The Diversity Scam. The New Leader; 7/1/2000;
Irving Lewis Allen: Unkind Words: Ethnic Labeling from Redskin to Wasp. Bergin & Garvey. New York 1990.
Abigail Bucuvalas: Interview with Assistant Professor Mica Pollock, "When Race Matters":
Labeling, Life Chances, And Adult Crime
Jon Gunnar Bernburg and Marvin D. Krohn build on a body of criminology research related to labeling theory in their report entitled "Labeling, Life Chances, and Adult Crime: The Direct and Indirect Effects of Official Intervention in Adolescence on Crime in Early Adulthood." The report reflects in-depth research and statistical analysis conducted by the researchers. Specifically, Bernburg and Krohn attempt to fill in gaps in prior research by addressing three specific areas. First, the authors examine "the effect of police intervention and juvenile justice intervention on subsequent early adulthood crime," (1295). To do so they use a random sample taken from a population of adolescents. Second, Bernburg and Krohn look at "the long-term effect of official intervention during adolescence on young adult criminality," and whether "educational attainment and periods of nonemployment mediate this effect," (1295). Third, the researchers try to determine "whether the effect…
Bernburg, Jon Gunnar and Krohn, Marvin D. "Labeling, Life Chances and Adult Crime: The Direct and Indirect Effects of Official Intervention in Adolescence on Crime in Early Adulthood."
Theory and practice of multicultural and bilingual education
The demands of the competitive marketplace have caused a fundamental shift in the needs of ESL learners and will change the structure of ESL education. During the 1980s and 19980s, the predominant emphasis in ESL instruction was on social graces and basic fluency "Those objectives are now outdated and inadequate to meet the pressing needs of today's children. Increasingly complex, high-tech demands from industry and commerce mandate that every graduate, including those for whom English is a second language, acquire knowledge and skills to compete for jobs" (Beckett & Haley 2000). The goal is for ESL students to graduate not merely with a grasp of English, but with knowledge of subject areas commensurate with their non-ESL peers. Demands for strong ESL student performance are growing amongst parents as well as school administrators, who wish to give a more equitable education…
Beckett, E.C., & Haley, P.K. (2000). Using standards to integrate academic language into ESL
fluency. The Clearing House, 74(2), 102-104.
Son, J. (2008). Using web-based language learning activities in the ESL classroom. International Journal of Pedagogies & Learning, 4(4), 34-43.
The objective of this study is to review an article titled “An Audience of One: Behaviorally Targeted Ads as Implied Social Labels” (Summers, et al. 2016 p 156). The authors argue that firms have relied on targeting to communicate effectively with a group of consumers. Targeting is the segmentation that involves selection from a smaller group of people based on defined variables. A common type of segmentation variables that firms use includes demographic variables using the gender and ethnicity as well as psychographic variables that include lifestyle, personality and values. However, an advanced in technology, and widespread of the internet has made a new form of targeting emerging. A behavioral targeting is referred as an internet-based marketing strategy using different elements that include browsing history and consumer purchase to assist in determining the type of adverts design and display. Typically, consumers are presented the digital adverts to reflect the…
" (Sinha and atra, 1999)
Sinha and atra state that "most researchers now content that a generalized price -- quality relationship does not exist" although the "degree to which a higher price implies higher quality" has been examined and as well has been the "topic of considerable research in marketing." (1999) Therefore for the purpose of this study this antecedent relating to price consciousness will not be a variable in understanding the questions posed in this study.
Sirha and atra (1999) state that this inference "is widely accepted as being context-specific, moderated by situational characteristic such as the extensiveness of a consumer's cognitive schemes and his/her product class knowledge" and cite the work of Peterson and Wilson (1985). Therefore, it can be understood that while the consumer might believe that a higher price being paid obtains the same equal receipt of quality in some categorical purchases but yet not in…
Aiken, Leona and Stephen West (1991), Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions. London: Sage Publications.
Ailawadi, Kusum and Bari Harlam (2004), "An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Retail Margins: The Role of Store Brand Share," Journal of Marketing, 68 (January), 147 -- 66.
Ailawadi, Kusum and Kevin Keller (2004), "Understanding Retail Branding: Conceptual Insights and Research Priorities," Journal of Ailawadi, Kusum L., Pauwels, Koen and Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E.M. (2008) Private Label Use and Store Loyalty. Journal of Marketing Vol. 72 (November 2008), 19 -- 30. 2008 American Marketing Association.
Ailawadi, Kusum, and Scott Neslin, and Karen Gedenk (2001), "Pursuing the Value Conscious Consumer: Store Brands vs. National Brand Promotions," Journal of Marketing, 65 (January), 71 -- 89.
Travis Hirschi's Social Bonding Theory
The theorist, Hirschi, asserts that those who exhibit deviant behavior desire to do so and that criminal behavior is seen among people with weak social bonds. In his social bonding model, he delineated four elements which make up social bonds, namely, attachment to partner/spouse, engagement in conforming behaviors, holding conventional beliefs and values, and dedication to conventionality (Wolfzorn, Heckert & Heckert, 2006). The theorist indicates that with increased attachment of a person to fellow human beings, their belief in conformist social values will increase. Furthermore, with increased investment and involvement in conventional activity, their propensity to deviate will decrease (Chriss, 2007).
Four Elements of Social Bonding Theory
Social bonding has four elements, namely: attachment, involvement, belief, and commitment.
The first component -- attachment -- denotes individuals' ties to their spouses or partners, and other members of the family. This aspect encompasses the extent of…
Further sub-categorization allows for greater comparison and contrasting of different categories and can make the data sets more meaningful. Not all of these codes will be decided beforehand -- in fact, it can be more enriching for the final analysis to break down the data afterwards, to ensure that the lived experience of the subjects affects the coding process.
Coding is often thought of in terms of word-based strategies of the subjects, and these can yield important assumptions about the ways individuals perceive their places in the world. Frequency of use of particular words, metaphors, analogies, and the use of local or regional phrases endemic to the area can all be flagged through coding and used to draw meaningful connections between apparently dissimilar sates of being (Gibbs 2010). By highlighting key words in transcripts, the researcher can physically have his or her eye drawn to meaningful bits of data. One…
Gibbs, Graham. (2010, February 19). How and what to code. Online QDA. University of Huddersfield. Retrieved August 9, 2010 at http://onlineqda.hud.ac.uk/Intro_QDA/how_what_to_code.php
RCT believes that everyone desires growth and that growth is by necessity connective in relational and cultural links. Mutual empathy and mutual empowerment foster these relationships in positive ways. (Jordan, "The role of mutual")
Sigmund Freud and Erik Erickson may arguably be two of the most influential icons in the field of human development and psychology. Their fundamental concept that human's develop over a lifetime and not just in a few stages from birth to adolescence and then are frozen into psychological patterns, revolutionized thinking in the field of developmental psychology. The term Life Span Development came to the fore as Erickson devised his eight stages of psychosocial development ranging from birth to eighty years old. Later as he himself passed eighty he realized that there is yet another stage and the count became nine. (Erikson & Erikson, 1997) One can see the striking resemblance between Erickson and Freud's stages…
Comstock, Dana L., et al. "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development 86.3 (2008): 279-288.
Crethar, Hugh C., Edil Torres Rivera, and Sara Nash. "In Search of Common Threads: Linking Multicultural, Feminist, and Social Justice Counseling Paradigms." Journal of Counseling and Development 86.3 (2008): 269-276
Erikson, E.H. & Erikson, J. M . The Life Cycle Completed / Extended Version. New York:
W.W. Norton. 1997
The observations from this examination are: that the individual can influence their thoughts and actions, by knowing how they will affect the process. Argyris and Schon's theories for actions shows, the positive or negative effect that these thoughts will have for all parties. In some cases, this could mean that there could be different thoughts / interpretations, about what is occurring for a particular event. In the case of any good leader, they must look at the situation outside of their own views, to be able to understand the thoughts and actions of others.
Argyris and Schon's theories provides: a way for leaders, to be able to understand the situation outside of their own perspective. Where, the actions theory will help them, to take a step back and see the situation from various points-of-views. Once this occurs, is when leaders will be able to understand how, the issue…
Anderson, L. (1994). Argyris and Schon's Theory. Retrieved July 2, 2010 from Action Research website: http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/argyris.html
Chitwood, R. (2004). Lack of Leadership. Retrieved July 2, 2010 from Max Sacks website: http://www.maxsacks.com/articles/article0803.html
Dick, Bob. (2006). Argyris and Schon. Retrieved July 2, 2010 from Action Research website: http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/argyris2.html#a_as_intro
Girls play with dolls and boys play with trucks. Girls play hopscotch and boys play football. Girls cry and boys do not. These essential shaping experiences create divisions between the genders, and proscribe gendered behaviors. In order to conform, both men and women buy into the gendered and stratified society. This gendered society is hierarchically organized so that men enjoy positions of political power with far greater proportions than women. Men, who are referred to as "founding fathers," have set the rules. If women want a modicum of political, social, or economic status they must also play by the same rules. A woman becomes successful only by acting "like a man" and using male vocabulary and discourse including that of power over others and oppression. Alternatively a woman becomes successful by acting in the extreme feminized version of herself, by sexualizing herself. This is because men understand women as sexualized…
At times patients cannot care for themselves, and nurses must remedy these self-care deficits (Dorothea Orem's Self-care theory, 2011, Nursing Theories).
Whenever possible, patients should be empowered to act as best as they can to care for themselves. The nurse is viewed as an aid to remedy the self-care deficit in Orem's view. The nurse is not seen as superseding the patient's basic right to autonomy. Although some nurses know this intuitively, when busy or rushed sometimes it can be easy to forget the value of allowing patients to do as much as possible as they can for themselves, even if this is something as simple as eating and drinking or going to the bathroom.
Given the preponderance of lifestyle-related diseases today, Orem's stress upon patient self-knowledge and awareness is essential. Patients will care for themselves when they return home from a healthcare environment in most instances, and they must…
Cody, W.K. (2006). Philosophical and theoretical perspectives. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett
Dorothea Orem's Self-care theory. (2011, January 11). Nursing Theories.
Retrieved April 6, 2011 at http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/self_care_deficit_theory.html
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…
American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.
Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.
Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic
For example, Tocqueville was able to explain 18th century European aristocrat behavior by looking at social consequences. Like Tocqueville, Marx believed that they could explain individual actions by looking at subconscious class interests. Frey has demonstrated that people will accept individually negative outcomes, if they have positive group benefits.
Nietzsche believed that, while conscious of class interests, individual actions and beliefs should be viewed from an individual perspective, since they are motivated by the positive consequences to the individual actor. In discussing his theory of bounded rationality, Simon seemed to combine elements from the different theorist, by showing how social actions include cognitive dimensions.
3. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of human behavior?
Again, the author does not make it clear how he feels human actions and other forms of human behavior are different. Instead, he explains how various theorists have attempted to differentiate human…
Positivist Theory of Crime, Lombroso
Criminal ehavior Treatment Program and Positivist Theory
The objective of this study is to examine the positivist theory of crime posited by Lombroso and to develop a crime prevention or treatment program.
Cesare Lombroso is held to be the founder of modern criminology and to have introduced the positivist movement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, which has made a more scientific approach to criminology available. Empirical scientific research in understanding criminality was first introduced by the positivist approach. According to Farr (nd) positivism is based in logic and is "the philosophy that combined epistemological phenomenalism with 'scientism' that is, with the belief in the desirability of scientific and technological progress." (Farr, nd, p.2)
Three Types of Positivism
Positivism as it relates to criminology can be divided into three types including: (1) biological; (2) psychological; and (3) Social. (Farr, nd, p.2) Positivist methods…
Deviance and Social Control (nd) McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0070918082/83003/Chapter7.pdf
Gowan, T. Whetstone, S. Making the criminal addict: Subjectivity and social control in a strong-arm rehab. Punishment and Society. January 2012. Vol 14 No 1. Retrieved from: http://pun.sagepub.com/content/14/1/69.abstract
Farr, Z. (nd) Critically assess the impact of positivist approaches to understanding crime. Retrieved from: http://www.essex.ac.uk/sociology/documents/pdf/ug_journal/vol8/2012sc242_Zoefarr.pdf
Various Theories on Depression, and Respective Treatments
Depression is a complex mood disorder that is characterized by various emotions, including sadness, self-blame, absence of pleasure and an overall sense of worthlessness, and by physical responses relating to sleep, appetite and motor symptoms. According to statistics, one in four adults will suffer from a depressive episode at some point in life. With a quarter of the population affected by depression, it is no wonder that one sees so many advertisements both on television and on billboards relating to the disorder. It is also understandable that many intellectual fields of study would give an opinion on what depression truly means and how it can be treated. This paper will thus examine psychological, sociological, cultural and biological theories on depression and will describe various treatments that take into account expertise from these various areas of study to better understand this complex…
Lastly, with respect to biological theory-based treatments, scientific research is vital. A study conducted in 2010 states that the finding of "various structural and chemical abnormalities in the brain through neuroimaging" has been the foundation in depression research in the last year. This study further states that the research combines various brain areas to arise specific symptoms, and that the new data could contribute to further understanding and treating depression. Specific treatments are not given as part of this study, but "biological" treatments will usually include medication, such as anti-depressants. [20: Papageorgiou, G. (2010). Biological theory of depression in the light of new evidence. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from http://www.annals-general-psychiatry.com/content/9/S1/S47 . ]
This paper has discussed various theories of depression and has expanded upon treatments that take into account these theories. Some treatments have been proven effective, and others have been illustrated simply as examples or as evidence of much needed field research. Depression has been shown to be a complex illness explained by various intelligent minds in different ways, yet in order to treat this disorder, one must take into account all this knowledge, and hope that advances in scientific research, such as that illustrated above, will provide for better treatments and, finally, more effective relief from depressive symptoms.
Jill Watson is an employee of Telecommunication Company and has been working for the company for approximately 7 years. Within the past few years, Jill has organized numerous health-fairs as well as countless health help sessions. She also regularly posted information on the company central bulletin boards about health and well-being. Moreover, she assists in providing screening program for many sick people. The goal of her health promotion is to enhance positive lifestyles and behavioral changes for people. Despite her promotional effort, many people still engage in smoking habits, do not engage in physical exercise, and are still overweight. While health promotion may be essential, however, providing health information is not sufficient to facilitate positive lifestyle or behavioral changes.
The objective of this study is to use the self-determination theory to assist Jill to understand the strategy to facilitate positive behavioral or lifestyles changes among her clients.…
Deci, E.L. & Ryan, R.M. (2013). Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology: Volume 1 Self-Determination Theory. SAGE Publications Ltd.
Ng, J.Y.Y., Ntoumanis, N., Thogersen-Ntoumani, C. (2012). Self-determination theory applied to health contexts: A meta-analysis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 325-340.
Niemiec, C.P., & Ryan, R.M. (2009). Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom: Applying self-determination theory to educational practice. Theory and Research in Education, 7, 133-144
Patrick, H. & Williams, G.C. (2012). Self-determination theory: its application to health behavior and complementarity with motivational interviewing. Int J. Behav Nutr Phys Act. 9: 18.
Yet the film ends on an optimistic, even triumphant note, with the raised hand of Bender symbolizing victory over the stereotypes subject to which the characters began the film.
The film "The Breakfast Club" contains myriad examples of group dynamics at play. Doing a close reading of the film was valuable in that it provided insight into how narratives can be shaped by psychological principles. In dissecting the actions of the film's principal characters, it became apparent that the filmmakers were not simply trying to create a plotline that would entertain a mass audience. The film also integrates psychological inquiry into its teenaged protagonists. Each character is given a back story which motivates his or her behavior and later undergoes a realization of his or her flaws in order to make a change. The film goes beyond just a high school narrative; it is about how to break free…
Aronoff, J., & Wilson, J.P. (1985). Personality in the social process. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum
Golembiewski, R.T. (Ed.) (2000). Handbook of organizational consultation. New York, NY:
Unfortunately, most quantitative studies lack external validity in the research design to allow for general conclusions.
Teaching Theories and Nursing
It was Nightingale that recognized the potential of combining sound logical reflection and empirical research in the development of scientific knowledge that lead to evidence-based practices of today. She saw the need to only classify one's illness by the best possible available knowledge but to also collect patient information in the form of survey. Nightingale's work was also groundbreaking as it was the first to integrate such ideas into one method. She understood how factors such as housing and nutrition could have a direct influence on the patient's health and prognosis (McDonald, 2001, p. 68). Still many researchers to come would look at her work as primitive, inconclusive and one-sided. They would see how such details act as an extension of evidence and the attention paid to details as research…
Ackermans, W. & Lohnes, P. (1981). Research methods for nurses. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Allen, K. (2005 Aug.). Online Learning: constructivism and conversation as an approach to learning. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 42, 247-256.
Bigge, M.L., & Shremis, S.S. (1999). Learning Theories for teachers. New York: Addison- Wesley Longman.
Bilyeu, S.M. (2005 April 1). When families complicate patient care: a case study with guidelines for approaching ethical dilemmas. MedSurg Nursing, 6.
Alcoholism and Upbringing
James' father is responsible for James' involvement in crime and burglary. Origin of the problem. Alcoholic parents are the reason for the moral decay of juveniles
Another reason for James' feelings of inadequacy
Effect of alcoholism in the upbringing of a child
The effect of taking James out of his mother's home as a juvenile
An examination of James' denial of his responsibility over his problem
Personality and sociological theory
An explanation of James' behaviors, and his father using the two frameworks
Thorburn (2005) suggests that a misapprehension that numerous alcoholics seem to have is that their behavior does not affect other people. They deny ever hurting other people but themselves. A great deal of research and huge anecdotal proof suggest otherwise. The behavior of alcoholics can affect those around them, including family members, friends, coworkers and employers. Children…
Plant, M.A., Peck, D.F., Samuel, E., & Stuart, R. (2000). Alcohol, drugs, and school-leavers.
London: Tavistock Publications.
Thorburn, D. (2005). Alcoholism myths and realities: Removing the stigma of society's most destructive disease. Northridge, Calif: Galt Pub.
Floyd, M.R., & Seale, J.P. (2002). Substance abuse: A patient-centered approach. Abingdon,
Complexity Theory in the Public Sector
The objective of this work is to examine complexity theory in the public sector. According to Paul Cairney in the work entitled "Complexity Theory in Public Policy" the term complexity "has relevance to a wide range of theories in public policy which describe the replacement of the simple "clubby days' of early post-war politics by complex relationships at multiple levels of government and among a huge politically active population." (2010, p.1) The focus on complexity, according to Cairney (2010) is "indirect and vague." (p.l) It is of the nature that indicates that there should be a shift in analysis "from individuals parts of a political system to the system as a whole; as a network of elements that interact and combine to produce systemic behavior that cannot be broken down into the actions of its constituent parts." (Cairney, 2010, p.1)
Defining Complexity Theory
Agaard, Peter (nd) The Promise and Facts of Emergent Strategy in Public Management. Retrieved from: http://egpa2010.com/documents/PSG11/Aagaard.pdf
Burren, Arwin van (nd) Knowledge Management for Government: Public-Private Communities of Practice and the Challenge of Co-Evolution. Paper presented at the British Academy of Management Annual Conference. 30 Aug -1 Sept. Retrieved from: http://repub.eur.nl/res/pub/7710/BSK-CDMN-2006-002.pdf
Cairney, Paul (2010) Complexity Theory in Public Policy. Political Studies Associations Conferences, University of Edinburgh. 1 Apr 2010. ID 43: Public Administration Specialist Group Panel: Complexity and Change in Public Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.psa.ac.uk/journals/pdf/5/2010/121_665.pdf
Mitchell, M. (2009) Complexity (Oxford: Oxford University Press) in: Cairney, Paul (2010) Complexity Theory in Public Policy. Political Studies Associations Conferences, University of Edinburgh. 1 Apr 2010. ID 43: Public Administration Specialist Group Panel: Complexity and Change in Public Policy. Retrieved from:
prescriptive aspects of LMX theory. Cite the source IN TEXT. (create a section of the paper for each of these aspects AND USE THE QUESTIONS AS HEADINGS)
LMX theory can be viewed from both a descriptive and prescriptive vantage points and in each case there is a dyadic relationship between the leader and their followers (Northouse, 2010). There can be both in-group and out-group relationships between the leader and their subordinates that represents a descriptive use of the concept. The in-group members are willing to do extra work and are more dedicated than the out-group type of subordinates. Because of this it is common for leaders to give this type of followers more of an empowered role in which they have more responsibility and can do more without being micromanaged. By contrast the out-group type of employee will need to be monitored more closely and will work more along the…
Northouse, P. (2010). Leadership Theory & Practice. Sage Publishing.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is perhaps the most commonly known theory of motivation, which is likely due to the broad applicability of the theory. Maslow developed his hierarchy of needs as part of his research on human potential and a component of positive psychology he termed self-actualization (Maslow, 1943; 1954). Maslow believed that human motivation is heightened when people seek fulfillment through personal growth and discovery. Self-actualized people are fully engaged with their potential, in an ongoing, lifelong effort to create meaning in their lives through highly personalized, positive endeavor (Maslow, 1962).
Doubtless, employers would enjoy not having to be concerned with motivating their employees if, in fact, their employees would "self-actualize" through their work. Indeed, some people do experience self-actualization when they are engaged in their paid employment. But, perhaps more often than not, people who become self-actualized are able to spend time either playing or laboring…
Maslow, A.H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370-96.
Maslow, A.H. (1954). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper and Row.
Maslow, A.H. (1962). Towards a Psychology of Being. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand Company.
Tay, L., & Diener, E. (2011). Needs and subjective well-being around the world. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(2), 354.
Mottern (2008) writes that Dr. William Glasser's internal control approach labeled as 'Choice Theory' postulates that the following five fundamental needs drive all of human behavior -- a physiological need to survive and 4 psychological needs (belongingness or love or acceptance; authority or acknowledgement or accomplishment; independence, or individuality or choice; and learning or excitement or enjoyment. To sum up, choice theory basically suggests that one's behavior is one's own choice.
People develop all through the course of their lifespan. In this context, the term 'development' may be defined as: one's capacity of making progressively better choices with regard to fulfilling one's fundamental needs. A choice will then be "good" if it brings one nearer to satisfying fundamental needs in a harmless manner (both to ourselves and others). A less effectual or "bad" choice would be one that fails to bring one nearer to satisfying fundamental needs, or one that…
" (Isaac, et al., 2002)
Isaac et al. (2002) states that within the first phase is three distinct Work Packages as follows: (1) WP1: Development of a conceptual framework and model of human error in ATM; (2) WP2: Development of a methodology (a taxonomy and an associated method of use) based on WP1 for analyzing errors and their causes in ATM incidents and preparation of user guidance material. The review is stated to include the following information sources: (1) human error taxonomies; (2) general psychological models of human performance and error; (3) approaches from other industries; (4) Models of ATM controller performance; and (4) consideration of current future controller task and behavior requirements. (Isaac, et al., 2002) it is stated that the Human Error in ATM taxonomy is inclusive of the following: (1) Human action, behavior, functions and performance; (2) Human error; (3) Framework; (4) Conceptual framework; (5) model; (6)…
Ananyan, Sergei, and Goodfellow, Michael (2004) New Capabilities of PolyAnalysts Text and Data Mining Applied to the STEADES Data at the International Air Transport Association (IATA) http://www.flightsafety.org/gain/IATA_data_mining_report.pdf
Frontline Management (2008) the Knowledge Exchange. Manage Performance and Knowledge. Online available at http://marcbowles.com/courses/frontline/fmd18/fmd18a.htm
Systems theory is actually used by some practitioners in domestic violence social work and counseling by being packed within the approach of "family system theory" (e.g. Nichols & Schwartz, 2005). This approach holds that the family is a holistic system where all parts are inextricably and holistically intertwined and each member of the family affects the other. The school and community -- outside systems -- too affect the family, and, in turn, the individual family members have an impact on these external systems. Believing that all causes and effects have reciprocal impact, systems theory also posits circular causality where not only are multiple causes the instigation of one problem, but oen problem may, in effect, eventuate in multiple causes. Domestic violence, for instance, of spouse attacking other spouse negatively impacts children, which leads to poor academic study, which my negatively impact teacher's rating, disturbing the school, and so forth. Other…
Family system theory, too avoids labeling behaviors as good and bad seeing them as factor of external elements (such as geography or time) that are, often, beyond individual's control and often beyond his or her awareness too. Taking this in mind enables the counselor to not only be more empathic and understanding of client but to also help detach the client from guilt regarding his activities and show him how to effectively reduce his negative behavior in a self-efficacious manner. By seeing the behavior as simply an action that has been learned and robotically repeated / reiterated through the generations, family system theory reuses to evaluate it and teaches the counselor / social worker and client to see it as a negative variable, through no fault of his own, that needs to be altered. Altering it will, in turn, not only make his own life and lives of those who are closest to him happier, but he will also positively impact the lives of countless effected others.
System theory, when applied to treatment of domestic violence, may be helpful too in that it treats not only first-order levels but provides understanding of, and probes underneath, to second-order levels too. First order levels refer to the situation where surface behavior may be changed but the underlying attitude remains unaltered (Nichols & Schwartz, 2005). The perpetrator, for instance, may learn new communication skills but the influence of his cultural internalizations regarding supposed inferiority of the female remains unchanged. System theory, on the other hand, may help the client realize the root of his perspectives and, by so doing, have a greater and more enduring impact on him. This would consequent in a second-order change where the underlying rationale is addressed leading to male and partner affecting a healthier relationship.
It is in this way that I see systems theory as contributing powerfully to amelioration of domestic violence.
Deductive and Inductive Theory Construction
There has been much controversy regarding feminism during recent decades and even though the contemporary society has reached a particularly advanced level when considering the idea of civilization, gender discrimination continues to occur in some areas. One's location is likely to be an important factor in making the respective individual more or less of a feminist. Geographic locations are thus essential in shaping a person's character and his or her determination to become a feminist. I believe that it is very likely for feminism to depend on factors such as geographic location, taking into account that many cultures are hesitant about accepting feminist ideas and some are even likely to use harsh criticism as a means to control or even to eradicate these respective ideas.
My theory is going to attempt to confirm the fact that geographic location can play an important role in making…
In that sense, he was a victim of his time period. He may have felt very differently if he were alive today, because science, technology, and even the study of metaphysics have advanced a great deal. Hempel was a scientist, but he was a bit of a philosopher, as well (Sarkar & Pfeifer, 2006).
That is a large part of the reason why his opinions on the issue seem odd. Philosophers are often willing to consider the possibilities and implications of something more being 'out there' and available to them and the rest of the world, but Hempel appeared to have no interest in that. y insisting that the parts made up the whole, and that the whole could be simply broken back down into those parts, Hempel cheated himself out of a lot of other ideas and issues that he could have considered and studied. He was a man…
Sarkar, Sahotra & Pfeifer, Jessica. (2006). The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge.
Porter's National Competitive Advantage Theory.
One of the principal differences between Porter's model and the traditional economic theories is that the latter emphasize what Porter refers to as "passive" factors such as land, location, and natural resources whereas Porter's model de-emphasizes such factors by virtue of their being passive and relatively unchangeable (George & Jones, 2008). Porter's model also defines the role of government as a stimulator of business growth in general and of competition between businesses in particular. In that regard, Porter argues that government should stimulate commerce and the demand for the products of business organization as well as to stimulate direct competition between and among business entities such as through enacting anti-trust legislation (George & Jones, 2008).
According to Porter's Competitive Advantage Theory, the relative economic competitive advantage of nations is directly dependent on the relationship between and among the following clusters of entities: (1) interconnected business…
George, J.M. And Jones, G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational
Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Robbins, S.P. And Judge, T.A. (2009). Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Prentice Hall.
'" (Moynihan, 1965)
Moynihan implies that the decreasing role of the black male is a central aspect to be addressed in resolving the matters of violence in the black communities. As a result, he proposes a series of social and political policies that would strengthen the role played by the black male in the family. These refer to better employment opportunities, wage increases or an improved social perception of the roles that fathers play within the family. The senator exemplifies by stating that the white families are mostly run by two parents and the presence and role of both mother and father foster the growth and development of a stable individual, who will not engage in criminal actions.
The report issued by Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan set the basis for years of controversy. Organized under the title the Negro Family: The Case for National Action, the findings were…
DuRant, R.H., Pendergats, R.A., Stevens, G., Linder, C.W., April 1994, Factors Associated with the Use of Violence among Urban Black Adolescents, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84, No. 6, pp. 612-617
Hall, J.D., August 2, 1993, Big Shots: A Boy and His Gun, Time Magazine, pp. 21-29
Moynihan, D.P., March 1965, the Moynihan Report - the Negro Family: The Case for National Action, Office of Policy Planning and Research, United States Department of Labor
April 1994, Reducing Violence - How do we Proceed? American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84. No. 4, pp.539-540