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Labor-management (or capitalist-working class) relations and class conflicts were central elements of Marx's analysis of capitalism. Conflict between the classes characterized the 19th and early 20th century by and large, yet when one conducts a web search using the key words "labor-management relations" a diverse range of images of labor and management today arise. On one hand, the union that represents federal employees posts a memo on its website (http://www.opm.gov/lmr/LMR_memo.asp) that emphasizes "the shared obligation of labor and management to ensure that official time is authorized and used appropriately." (James, 2005) The union leader and director Kay Cole James writes of "the equally important responsibility of labor and management to work together to deliver the best possible service to the American people ... Much is being asked of government today, and it has never been more important for labor and management to find common ground," rather than to seek out…
To rectify this situation in the future, management must work with union officials to clearly define activities that are prohibited in the workplace at all times. Where, the union would establish an effective procedure for disciplining employees, who refuse to follow company policy. If the employee does not improve their behavior within a stated period, they can be terminated immediately. At the same time, you would want to have a way to evaluate and monitor the new system that has been implemented. One way to do this is to have employees' complete anonymous surveys about what issues are affecting them. This information could then be used by managers to understand what issues are on the minds of employees. At which point, management can begin working with HR personnel and union officials in addressing these issues. Once this takes place, it will help to prevent the situation from spiraling out of…
Holey, W. (2009). The Bargaining Process and Outcomes. The Labor Relations Process. (pp. 331 -- 332). Mason, OH: Cenegage.
Holley, W. (2009). Phases in Labor Relations. The Labor Relations Process.(pp. 11 -- 15) Mason, OH: Cenegage.
Holey, W. (2009). The Reinstatement Offer. The Labor Relations Process. (pg. 411). Mason, OH: Cengegage.
Labor Management Practices in India
Businesses have huge market opportunities in India, especially in such areas as healthcare, information technology, agriculture and tourism sector (Guenthner, 2009; Timmons, 2007) . As the divisional president of this company I foresee an immense investment opportunities in this country, not only at the national level but also at the state level. In order to put the investment prospects of India into perspective, I will present a profile of the labor management practices in India as well as a specific sector of that country's economy in which this company can invest profitably. I will start by presenting an executive summary of the country's political, social and economic system.
Originally, India was operating an autarkic economic system. However, since the 1990s, the government of India introduced some policy reforms aimed at liberalization of the country's economy. As a result, the country is gradually becoming…
BBC News 2011, India Country Profile, BBC News, viewed 16 April 2011,
Central Intelligence Agency 2011, India, CIA - World Fact Book, viewed 16 April
Both of these things are issues that affect the workers on an everyday basis. The management side of this issue had the power to make these changes and the labor side of the issue in the form of the union did not choose to bargain about them because they understood that they way the contract was written management had the right to make changes such as these.
In the case of Are Teaching Assistants (TAs), Research Assistants (RAs), and Proctors Employees Under the NLRA, the question at hand was whether or not these different groups were indeed classified as employees of the university and if so whether they were entitled to join the union and have the protections that being a union member would afford them. This issue again affected these people in regards to their everyday working environments. If they were to be classified as employees and thus allowed…
Burt, Lindy. 2006. "Industrial Relations Theory: Lessons from a Private Sector Model for Public
Sector Transformation," viewed 9 October 2010,
"History of Labor Unions." 2010, viewed 9 October 2010, < http://www.shmoop.com/history-labor-unions/ >
Union Management Relations in Perspective
Unions are very important for fostering change both in the national and international societies. This is a judgment based on the consideration of the managerial features which helps to engender that crucial bond between an employee and his/her employer. Unions which run under management regularly pay attention to their output of work although sometimes they could wield significant influence on the political and social landscapes.
Trade Unions are generally beneficial to employees as its major objective is to protect the workers from any form of exploitation by the company. If for example, a worker finds his pay unfair, he could relate with his coworkers who will jointly demonstrate publicly so as to be given a more befitting pay. Trade unions also help the company management, as they are aware of what the workers need hence they have a better knowledge of their workers and are…
History of Labor Relations in the United States:
From Industrialization to the Present Day
According to the textbook, Labor Relations, by Arthur A. Sloane & Fred Witney, the history of labor relations in the United States, has seen the increasingly professional nature of the labor union towards the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century. This phenomena has caused union and management to form a more amicable relationship between one another, by in large, in many industries. However, this positive relationship, over the course of the history of the United States history, has been a relatively recent development. Legally speaking, labor unions have gained more rights in terms of their bargaining power with management, and workers have gained the right to freely organize and join such unions. ut these legal rights came only with great difficulty.
The American public's attitude towards unionization has also alternately…
Because of the blow dealt to the economy by the Great Depression many American workers began to distrust the nature of American industrialization, even capitalism. The 1930's were thus a fairly prosperous time for the labor movement in the sense that long-standing legal prohibitions were struck down that impeded the labor movement and worker autonomy in an unfavorable economy. After World War II, however, the balance between employees and employers began to shift slightly again, in favor of management. But management never retained the same unregulated place in industry as it had before the Great Depression. The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 ceded some bargaining power back to management at the expense of union membership, as did the La Griffin Act of 1957. But these acts clarified the terms of the earlier acts, rather than openly prohibited labor's right to exist, to organize, and to negotiate as an entity with managerial organizations of industry.
Today, this negotiation between the rights of labor and management continues. Union behavior as a management structure has become controversial. Even the long-merged AFL and CIO's organizational structure has undergone substantial revisions in recent years. (125) Nationally, it has been alleged, the major union structures often resemble the corporations they deal with, having elected heads and delegates from different industries and areas of the country. Local versions of unions often mimic this structure, or have their own structure, dependant upon local needs. (157) Membership in local unions was hard hit in the nation, particularly when the national arms of the AFL and the CIO were accused of having 'connections' or links to mob-related activities during the 1950's. Even relatively independent union organizations were viewed as suspect because of this perceived connection.
However, unionism as a force in America could never really die. The gains unions had accomplished for workers in terms of limiting hours were not forgotten, and even during the darkest days of labor and accusations leveled upon its increasingly bureaucratic structures, the memory of The Great Depression remained fresh in many workers' memories, even during the relatively prosperous 1950's and 1960's. Although unionization in America today has become increasingly fragmented, professional, and atomized, with the creation of professional and governmental unions and organizations, unions remain forces to be reckoned with in the landscape of industry.
Highs and Lows
A New Innovation in Car Manufacturing Industry
In 1982, General Motors (GM) decided to counter the challenge of the Japanese car manufacturers who were continuously enjoying the lion's share in the U.S. market. The consumers had started loving and appreciating the small but high-class Japanese cars. Seeing this, General Motors aimed to change their strategies.
The story began when the General Motors produced The Chevrolet Vega as an answer to Japanese challenge in 1970. A number of problems were identified with this model. Later in 1975, they produced another small car, the Chevette which too had discouraging results. They then produced the Chevrolet Spectrum with Japanese assistance. This model was not up to the mark as well. These disappointing outcomes made people think that the General Motors do not have the capability to manufacture small and…
, . "Saturn Corporation." Funding Universe. ., Web. 20 April 2011. .
, . "Saturn History." We love Saturns. . G-Biz Unlimited, Web. 20 April 2011. .
French, Thomas D. . Partington, Michael. Court, David. Moguire, Tim I.. "Marketing in 3-D." The McKinsey Quarterly . . (1999): 6. Web. 20 April 2011. .
Guzda, Henry p.. "Lessons in Co-management." Monthly Labor Review . 125. 8 (2002): 33+. Web. 20 April 2011. .
Labor Negotiating Practices
The issue of labor negotiating practices is one of the most important issues that companies must address. This is because the sensitiveness of labor problems is reflected in their legal implications. The battle between employers and employees becomes more and more difficult and requires advanced negotiation skills.
Company's Stance towards Labor Issues
The company that is analyzed in this case is represented by the companies that joined their forces in order to purchase Twinkies and other important brands from Hostess in their attempt to invest in their revival. These companies are represented by Metropoulos and Co. And Apollo Global Management. The potential of these brands has been acknowledged by the two companies that are interested in opening up new production plants. This means that they will hire a large number of employees. However, the issue in this case is that these companies are not interested in allowing…
1. Feintzeig, R. (2013). New Twinkie Maker Shuns Union Labor. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 20, 2013 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324474004578443062380660262.html .
2. Farrell, J. (2013). Twinkies and Labor Unions: Explaining the Hostess Collapse. Retrieved May 21, 2013 from http://www.policymic.com/articles/19288/twinkies-and-labor-unions-explaining-the-hostess-collapse.
As organizations become larger in both scope and scale, the need for both management and leadership compounds. Many organization problems today, correlate heavily to a lack of true management. Aspects such as fraud, high employee turnover, product recalls, and strikes, all have origins with management. To better combat many of these negative influences, companies must hire, attract and retain talented management. In order to do so, many companies use the administrative management theory of management. This theory emphasizes the use of planned procedures, job specialization, and merit pay to help facilitate business objectives. I believe this theory to be the most useful in regards to managing an organization. For one, specialization of labor helps increase operational efficiencies with a business. In addition, planned procedures allow both employees and management to have clearly defined goals and job expectations. Finally pay based on merit provides incentive for employee and management to…
1) Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries The Dark Side of Leadership - Business Strategy Review 14(3), Autumn Page 26 (2003).
2) Stroh, L.K., Northcraft, G.B., & Neale, M.A. (2002). Organizational behavior: A management challenge. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
3) Paul C. Dinsmore et al. (2005) The right projects done right! John Wiley and Sons, 2005. ISBN 0-7879-7113-8. p.35-42
4) Lewis R. Ireland (2006) Project Management. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. ISBN 0-07-147160-X p.110- 116
Should the outcomes perform well against the goals, then the performance appraisal process must undergo a re-evaluation. Theories about the underperformance of key outcomes can be matched against feedback from the appraisers and the employees. From that point, a course of action can be developed that will alter the appraisal process to better align it with its objectives. The final step in the control mechanism is the adjustment process. The new ideas must be incorporated into the existing appraisal system. These new ideas must then be tested to determine if they have been as effective as intended, or if they have even moved the outcomes further from the objectives. At this point, the manager is engaged in a feedback loop that exists to continuously improve the performance appraisal process.
Performance appraisals are often conducted poorly, and this has led to considerable criticism of the tool. There are three fundamental…
Heskett, Jim (2006). What's to be Done About Performance Reviews? Harvard Business School. Retrieved November 26, 2008 at http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/5563.html
No author. (2008). Performance Reviews. Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved November 26, 2008 at http://www.cmu.edu/hr/hr_services/performance/reviews.html
Culbert, Samuel a. (2008) Get Rid of the Performance Review! MIT Sloan Management Review. Retrieved November 26, 2008 at http://sloanreview.mit.edu/wsj/insight/hr/2008/10/20/
No author. (2004) Performance Appraisal Handbook. United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved November 26, 2008 at http://www.doi.gov/hrm/guidance/370dm430hndbk.pdf
The World ank model centers on a five-person team called the Performance Advisory Service or PAS (Yandrick 1995). PAS trains supervisors to analyze work performance and personality problems. The supervisor first determines if a skill deficiency is involved or there are personal and environmental factors. He does this by reviewing the employee's records in search of troubled behavioral patterns; consulting with work team leaders, colleagues and support staff in investigating possible problems within the organization; and/or directly exploring the employee's work performance and conduct.
In the last option, the supervisor may ask or remind the employee about the consequence of poor performance; if he or she is being rewarded for poor or nonperformance; if performance matters to him or her; if there are health or stress factors conducing to his or her poor or low-level performance; or if there are external stimuli behind it. Armed now with the different angles…
Brown, J. (1992). How Would You Handle These Prickly Management Problems? Medical Laboratory Observer: Nelson Publishing. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3230/is_n11_v24/ai_13806643
Business Wire. (1999) a.M. Best Company Says Technology Can Solve Insurance Management Problems. Gale Group 2000. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3MKT/is_n78_v97/ai_56542486
Day, CM. (1987). Three Diagnostic Clues to Management Problems. Medical Laboratory Observer: Nelson Publishing. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3230/is_v19/ai_5118836
Heisler, DL. (1989). The Wrong Response to Today's Problems. American Metal Market. Reed Business Information. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3MKT/is_n78_v97/ai_7565287
This was certainly needed as technology has also evolved from time to time and the nature of labor that was being used in the 1920s or so is not the same as is the nature today. This is certainly commendable. Along with the changes in laws, the emphasis on labor and its problems have also been shifted out of the center stage and matters that were directly being dealt with by the Secretaries Office have shifted out. This shows clearly that importance of the problems of labor have now become of a much lower priority and this is also clearly seen in the patterns of development of American business and industry where many production units have transferred their labor problems by shifting them out of United States. The government has also clearly remained out of the ambit of labor laws as no laws are applicable to government laborers. Thus it…
Norris-LaGuardia Act" Wikipedia. Retrieved at http://www.answers.com/topic/norris-laguardia-actAccessed 2 September, 2005
Taft-Hartley Labor Act" (2001-05) The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. Retrieved at http://www.bartleby.com/65/ta/TaftHart.html . Accessed 2 September, 2005
The NLRB: The Wagner Act of 1935" United States National Labor Relations Board.
Retrieved at http://www.stfrancis.edu/ba/ghkickul/stuwebs/btopics/works/wagner.htm . Accessed 2 September, 2005
Labor and Union Case Study
The objective of this work in writing is to conduct a case study on labor and unions and to answer the questions of: (1) Is the grievance process an effective method for resolving workplace disputes? And (2) How would you suggest that unions and employers improve their ability to correctly interpret the collective agreement?
In the case study at focus, several employees have a discussion, which results in an altercation, and two employees are fired as a result. The employees were then advised that they could file a grievance. One of the employees, named Green met in the cafeteria with a representative of the Grievance Committee and related her side of the story and believed that by meeting with the Grievance Committee member that she had filed an official grievance. One week later the other employee, Swallows, was reinstated. When Green inquired about the grievance,…
Borrell, Charles A. (2006) How Unions Can Improve Their Success Rate in Labor Arbitration. All Business. Dispute Resolution Journal Feb-Apr 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/workforce-management-hiring-recruiting/4081239-1.html
Travis, Mark C. (nd) Improving the Grievance Process: Grievance Mediation As An Alternative to Arbitration. Retrieved from: http://www.adrspecialists.com/docs/IMPROVING%20THE%20GRIEVANCE%20PROCESS%20-%20Grievance%20Mediation%20(IIRHRC).pdf
Labor Relations in Public Sector
Collective bargaining in the public sector organizations will be quite different from that of the private sector organizations. The factors that drive the collective bargaining process in the private sector might not be present in the public sector. Private sector organizations are more concerned on the profit maximization philosophy whereas the public sector firms are more focused on serving general public therefore their priorities would be totally different and management approaches to collective bargaining would also be different. Moreover, private sector firms project for long-term budget forecasting, whereas in the public sector it is managed through third party legislature depending on the voters. These create challenges for the public sector to formulate a policy document that looks after the labor relations.
The Public Employees Fair Employment Act, commonly known as the Taylor Law, is a labor relations ruling policy document that covers public employees in…
Managing Expatriate Employees Employment Law
Expatriate' could be defined as someone who has left his own country in order to find employment in another country. (Definitions of 'Expatriate on the Web) Expatriate employees in China are diverse and the numbers of employees are vast. For example, the city of Hong Kong, which became free and independent of British rule in 1997, turned into a Special Administrative egion of China. On account of this, the city started to follow two diverse policies of administration and this allowed it autonomy from China, and this in turn resulted in Hong Kong being able to retain control over her schools and also her legal systems, while enjoying a free market economy. This very factor has attracted investors from all over the world to China, American numbering almost 1,100, and American residents in China numbering almost 50,000. (Hong Kong City Guide)
Hong Kong having the…
Author Unknown. (May 15, 2003) "Demand for Expatriates in China remains high" Retrieved at http://www.hewittasia.com/hewitt/ap/resource/articleindex/articles/article_05_15_03.htm
Falkoff, Rebecca. "Hong Kong City Guide" Retrieved at http://workabroad.monster.com/print/?article=/articles/hongkongguide/Index.asp
Glossary: Women Artists of the Americas" Retrieved at http://www.getty.edu/artsednet/resources/Maps/Women/glossary.html
Gross, Ames; McDonald, Timothy. (Spring 1998) "Meeting Diverse Staffing Needs in China" GROing Connexions. Retrieved at http://www.pacificbridge.com/pdf/pub_china_1998_diverse.pdf
The open and free market economies proved successful from a management perspective, and government supported the primacy of the profit motive.
The consequences of these fluctuations has been a system that favors management in the United States. Labor unions have been systematically ridiculed socially, lumped together with communism and therefore derided by the American public. Similarly, labor unions have lost their political clout to a certain degree, and management has secured political power over laborers. Wages have remained deplorably low, so low that income disparity in the United States resembles that of Third World nations. Income disparity in the United States is the steepest of any other industrialized nation. Countries with strong labor laws such as the nations of northern Europe tend to be more egalitarian societies with fewer class distinctions and less of a wealth gap. The American model allows unbridled business growth at the expense of social justice.…
Freeman, R. (1996). Solving the new inequality. Boston Review. Retrieved April 13, 2007 at http://bostonreview.net/BR21.6/freeman.html
Labor is a commodity that needs to be purchased for business activity. In the uncivilized world of the past labor could be exploited to the extreme, but in modern times trade union movement, increased public consciousness, health, safety and environmental regulations and labor regulations have meant that the near slavery condition of the past are totally unacceptable.
Nevertheless, labor remains a commodity requiring efficient, humane and cost effective management to increase profitability and balance human rights and investors' interests. This effort has resulted in labor economics developing as a branch of microeconomics. This paper reviews labor economics and its importance in the modern day economic and business activities.
Important Components of Labor Economics
Labor Supply and Demand
Quality of Labor (Investments in Human Capital)
Non-Wage Labor Costs
Pay & Productivity
8. Economics of Discrimination
9. Social Accountability
10. Trade Unions…
1. What is Labor Economics-Economics 150 Course Outline, Retrieved from Internet on 12 Oct 2005, http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~dackerma/labsyllabus.pdf#search= 'What%20is%20Labor%20EconomicsEconomics%20150%20Course%20Outline'
2. Engels, F., Introduction to Karl Marx's Wage Labor and Capitol, Retrieved from Internet on 12 October 2005, http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1847/wage-labour/Ch04.htm
3. Labor Economics, Retrieved from Internet on 12 Oct 2005, http://www.oswego.edu/~economic/eco350/chap2.htm
4. From Encyclopedia Wikipedia, Retrieved from Internet on 12 Oct 2005, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labor_%28economics%29
Another 110 individuals would be necessary in administrative positions; 120 people in the cleaning crews and the rest of 150 should occupy diverse positions.
4.2. ecruitment, selection and hiring
Once the event coordinator has identified the staffing need, he moves on to recruiting and selecting the individuals to occupy the available positions. ecruitment and selection is generically "concerned with any means available to meet the needs of the firm for certain skills and behaviors" (Armstrong, 2000, p.201). What these processes generally do it to attract prospective employees and determine which of the candidates are best suited for the available positions. It is imperative that the processes of recruitment and selection be efficient, effective and fair (ACAS). As the best candidates are identified, the human resource manager, after an understanding with the executives, makes an employment offer to the individual. This employment offer will not only include the specification of the…
Acuff, J., Wood, W., 2004, The relationship edge in business: connecting with customers and colleagues when it counts, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471477125
Armstrong, M., 2000, Strategic human resource management: a guide to action, 2nd Edition, Kogan Page Publishers, ISBN 0749433310
Arthur, D., 2001, The employee recruitment and retention handbook, AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn, ISBN 0814405525
Bohlander, G.W., Snell, S., 2007, Managing human resources, 14th Edition, Cengage Learning, ISBN 0324314639
As in the model of Likert, progressively the concern for people increases as we move down the line from 'Exploitative authoritarian' to 'Benevolent authoritarian' to 'Consultative' to finally 'Participative', similarly in the Blake's Managerial Grid the mapping of high concern for people and low concern for production is seen as the score comes to be 1,9. On the other hand a close comparison of G2 stage of the Vroom-Yetton model and the Participative management of Likert model it is seen that both of them bear similarities. In G2 stage of Vroom-Yetton model, the leader shares the crisis and difficulties with the subordinates of his group and based on a consensus all the parties build and evaluate alternatives and try to arrive at a consensus on a solution.
oughly the same idea is conveyed in the Participative model of Likert wherein the management looks forward to build groups of employees who…
Conger, Jay a; Kanungo, Rabindra N. (1988) "Charismatic Leadership: The Elusive Factor in Organizational Effectiveness." Jossey-Bass Publishers. Retrieved at http://www.coastwiseconsulting.com/Charismatic%20Leadership%20-%20OCRed.pdf . Accessed on 10 February, 2005 del Val, Manuela Pardo; Rodr'guez, Sonia Das'; "Participative management and organizational culture." Retrieved at http://www.sses.com/public/events/euram/complete_tracks/managing_cultures_identities/pardo-del-val_perez_rodriguez.pdf . Accessed on 10 February, 2005
Inman, Mark Lee. (01 Jun 2000) "The relevance of traditional management theories to the 21st Century" Retrieved at http://www.accaglobal.com/publications/studentaccountant/32495Accessed on 10 February, 2005
Leadership Model and Theories" Retrieved at http://www.cda-acd.forces.gc.ca/CFLI/engraph/research/pdf/12.pdf. Accessed on 10 February, 2005
Likert's leadership styles" Retrieved at http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/likert_style.htm . Accessed on 10 February, 2005
Managing Diversity and Equal Opportunity
With the turn of the 21st century, a dramatic increase is being witnessed in the international flow of labor with repercussion for domestic labor supply and management. The native, racial and emigre mixture of the employees is predominantly important for the workplace. The importance of this domestic cultural multiplicity in the labor force, highlighted by worldwide influences and necessities, has lately encouraged the researchers to focus on the companies' and managers' response to diversity, be it of any form (Watson, Spoonley, & Fitzgerald, 2009).
If the workforce of the present times is compared with the one that was found 20 years ago, it will be easy to observe that there are "more white women, people of color, disabled persons, new and recent immigrants, gays and lesbians, and intergenerational mixes (i.e., baby boomers, Generation Xers, and Generation Nexters)" (iccucci, 2002) today. This situation has given birth…
Hemphills, H., & Hayne, R. (1997). Discrimination, Harassment, and the Failure of Diversity Training: What to Do Now. Westport, CT: Quorum Book. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/23366693/discrimination-harassment-and-the-failure-of-diversity
King, A.S. (1995, December). Capacity for Empathy: Confronting Discrimination in Managing Multicultural WorkForce Diversity. Business Communication Quarterly, 58(4), 46+. Retrieved December 14, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-18023663/capacity-for-empathy-confronting-discrimination-in
Ollapally, A., & Bhatnagar, J. The Holistic Approach to Diversity Management: HR Implications. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 44(3), 454+. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-210224380/the-holistic-approach-to-diversity-management-hr
Riccucci, N.M. (2002). Managing Diversity in Public Sector Workforces. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Retrieved December 14, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/100875091/managing-diversity-in-public-sector-workforces
Management esponsibility and Accountability
Define Accountability and esponsibility
The positions assumed by workers imply a responsibility to complete particular functions associated with those positions. A number of studies have described the term responsibility, when employed in company affairs, as referring to an area of obligation or perhaps duty designated to an individual because of the dynamics of the individual's position, function, or perhaps job. esponsibility might therefore be viewed as being a package of commitments associated with employment or operation. Narrowly outlined, role explains employment classification, which, subsequently, includes, although is not necessarily limited to, functionality (Pimpa, 2010).
Accountability is actually a notion with numerous meanings. It is almost always utilized synonymously through the use of these ideas as responsibility, answerability, as well as administration. However what specifically can this idea imply? Within the most literal meaning, the term accountability indicates simply the "ability" or perhaps the "possibility" that a…
Ackerman, J. (2004). Co-Governance for accountability: Beyond exit and voice, World Development, 32 (3), pp.447-463.
Bazerman, M.H., & Banaji, M.R. (2004). The social psychology of ordinary ethical failures. Social Justice Research, 17(2), 111 -- 115.
Clegg, S., Kornberger, M., & Rhodes, C. (2007). Business ethics as practice. British Journal of Management, 17, 1 -- 16.
Fisscher, O., Nijhof, A., & Steensma, H. (2003). Dynamics in responsible behavior. In search of mechanisms for coping with responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 44(2 -- 3), 209 -- 224.
Historical records show that people always organized themselves in order to work together towards a common objective and they coordinated their efforts to achieve this objective (Accel-Team 2004). It was not until the latter part of the 19th century that the concept of scientific management entered history during the Industrial evolution, but management skills existed long before the 19th century. Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, ancient Chinese erected the Great Wall of China, the Mesopotamians irrigated their lands and walled their cities and the omans of old put up their roads, aqueducts and notably Hadrian's Wall not without established and superb management standards of their leaders (Accel-Team) and massive obedience and coordination among the followers. The pyramids of Egypt, wonders of the world, each measure 75,600 square feet at the base, 480 feet high and consists of more than two million blocks of stone, each weighing 2.5 tons.…
1. Accel-Team. (2004). Developments from Ancient History. Accel-Team.com. http://www.accel-team/scientific
2. Allen, G. (1998). Management History. Supervision. http://allie.dcccd.edu.mgnmt1374
3. Geocities. (2004). Human Behavior. http://www.geocities.com/the sydication/hr.html
4. McNamara, C. (1999). Very Brief History of Management Theories. http://www.mapnp.org/library/mgmnt/history.htm
Some or all such authority may be in fact unlimited. This is when a committee can counterbalance authority and diffuse power within an organization since effectively only a small faction is making important decisions. The best use of committees is to have limited power to make decisions but have unlimited power to make recommendations on how things should be done.
2. Identify the initial issue that should always be thoroughly addressed when the establishment of a committee is recommended.
The initial issue that should be addressed is that of making sure that those on the committee are the people capable of carrying out the agenda of the committee and that the committee will have limited power to make organizational decisions.
3. In what ways may committees be said to dilute the recognition and diffuse the blame or responsibility? Where, based on your personal experience, have you seen one of these…
Baker, L. 2002. "Managed care, medical technology, and the well-being of society," viewed 21
February 2011, < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12055455 >
Carlson, Gail. 2009. "Managed Care Understanding Our Changing Health Care System," viewed
21 February 2011,
(Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce)
Agencies are required to develop a good understanding of their individual strengths and weaknesses so as to plan their programs to their best advantage. An agency acquires this information by evaluating the views of the employees on diversity issues. Analysis of the trends and projections of the workforce in determination of the skills gaps and necessitates and devising successive planning strategies are crucial moves for agency strategic and business planning. Such efforts facilitate the managers with the required facts so as to be aware of the assignment of resources and the making the necessary planning for the future work of the organization and the points of concentration of their energy to produce a high performance organization. (Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce)
The successful managers understand the necessary skills for producing a successful diverse workforce. Firstly they should be aware of the discrimination and…
Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce" (25 June 2000) Retrieved at http://www.opm.gov/Diversity/diversity-3.htm . Accessed on 15 January, 2005
Creating a Diverse Workforce" Retrieved from Retrieved at http://www.businessweek.com/adsections/diversity/diversework.htm . Accessed on 15 January, 2005
Recruiting and Managing a Diverse Workforce" Retrieved at http://www.vault.com/nr/newsmain.jsp?nr_page=3&ch_id=402&article_id=19018&cat_id=1102Accessed on 15 January, 2005
Green, Kelli A; L. pez, Mayra; Wysocki, Allen; Kepner, Karl. "Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges, and the Required Managerial Tools" University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved at http://www.minoritygraduate.com/feature27.asp. Accessed on 15 January, 2005
There is a major difference in launching any new initiative where adoption is key to its success relative to introducing one where compliance can be demanded. B Management, by not informing employees of the change, is in effect saying through their actions that compliance is demanded or they will lose their jobs. The sobering fact of 13,000 people let go or nearly 25% of the workforce is a force in the B culture that implies compliance is critical if one is to stay employed. The swipe card is introduced by management through a compliance-driven strategy with none of the business benefits defined that are relevant to those most affected. Consequently, it fails as a program and serves as the volatile catalyst of a wildcat strike.
The lessons learned include the following. First, B Management needed to be more transformational as a leadership team, less authoritarian and transactional. Transformational leadership seeks…
Assume that you have been retained as a change consultant by BA management to advise them on how to avoid such a situation in the future. What lessons emerge from each perspective and what recommendations would you draw from each in constructing your advice to BA management?
BA Management first needs to realize that this type of program, which affects thousands of employees and their lives, must be launched to maximize adoption, not compliance. There is a major difference in launching any new initiative where adoption is key to its success relative to introducing one where compliance can be demanded. BA Management, by not informing employees of the change, is in effect saying through their actions that compliance is demanded or they will lose their jobs. The sobering fact of 13,000 people let go or nearly 25% of the workforce is a force in the BA culture that implies compliance is critical if one is to stay employed. The swipe card is introduced by management through a compliance-driven strategy with none of the business benefits defined that are relevant to those most affected. Consequently, it fails as a program and serves as the volatile catalyst of a wildcat strike.
The lessons learned include the following. First, BA Management needed to be more transformational as a leadership team, less authoritarian and transactional. Transformational leadership seeks to create trust by being authentic, transparent and showing how the vision of change is relevant to the better performance of an enterprise (Nussbaumer, Merkley, 2010). BA Management failed to deliver a transformational vision for the program or even consider the people it would affect the most. Second, BA Management could have explained in detail why the swipe program would be essential for the airline to stay competitive, and designed it to provide employees with more flexibility and freedom to interchange schedules. If Southwest Airlines can do this with a regional operation, surely BA has the ability to do the same. The lack of vision and explanation of benefits to the employees, and
g. In U.K.), organizations are tempted to use positive discrimination for corresponding to contemporary requirements. This implies hiring disadvantaged applicants regardless of their professional competency. For instance, last year, UK's Gloucestershire Police and Avon and Somerset police confessed to have rejected white men for hiring women and ethnic minorities in order to meet Government requirements (http://www.workplacelaw.net/display.php?resource_id=8292&keywords).This is an extremely negative phenomenon as it succeeds in increasing the gap among different groups. Therefore, when encouraging such a strategy, authorities should pinpoint the rationale behind it and should organize conferences and workshops debating this issue.
Piturro, Marlene. 2007. Recruiting and Managing a Diverse Workforce. http://www.vault.com/nr/newsmain.jsp?nr_page=3&ch_id=402&article_id=19018&listelement=3&cat_id=1102 (Accessed March 8, 2007).
Price Eboni, Gozu Aysegul, Kern David, Powe Neil, Wand Gary, Golden Sherita, and Cooper Lisa. 2005. The Role of Cultural Diversity Climate in Recruitment, Promotion, and Retention of Faculty in Academic Medicine. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1490155#N0x914e898.0x9306d20 (Accessed March 8, 2007).
usinesses doubt the benefits of…
Piturro, Marlene. 2007. Recruiting and Managing a Diverse Workforce. http://www.vault.com/nr/newsmain.jsp?nr_page=3&ch_id=402&article_id=19018&listelement=3&cat_id=1102 (Accessed March 8, 2007).
Price Eboni, Gozu Aysegul, Kern David, Powe Neil, Wand Gary, Golden Sherita, and Cooper Lisa. 2005. The Role of Cultural Diversity Climate in Recruitment, Promotion, and Retention of Faculty in Academic Medicine. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1490155#N0x914e898.0x9306d20 (Accessed March 8, 2007).
Businesses doubt the benefits of an ethnically diverse workforce. 2007. http://www.workplacelaw.net/display.php?resource_id=8292&keywords (Accessed March 8, 2007).
Cendant embraces diversity as a corporate way of life: Company aims to achieve a workforce that reflects its customers and markets. 2003. Human Resource Management International Digest 11: 12-15.
When all the needs or expectations of the stakeholders are met, the business will continue to thrive.
Core Human esource Functions
Involuntary turnover is rampant among employees of high talent. These employees form then crucial asset that determine the overall success of the organization. Involuntary turnover occurs due to issues such as frequent absences, premature termination of contracts, sexual harassment or by the mere fact that an employee becomes overqualified for a particular job. Supposing I were a top H manager in my firm I would hire people who are qualified to fill any vacant positions taking keen attention to exclude overqualified persons so as top avoid the occurrence of involuntary turnover in the future (Taylor, 2005).
Additionally, I would introduce strategies that seek to retain employees in the organization. One of the strategies would be to introduce teambuilding activities such as retreats and workshops. I would also ensure that…
Svensson, G., & Wood, G. (2003). The dynamics of business ethics: a function of time and culture -- cases and models. Management Decision, 41(4), p350.
Taylor, S. (2005). People resourcing. London: Chartered Inst. Of Personnel and Development.
Undercover Boss is a great show for illustrating core management concepts. A season five episode features the CEO of the Larry H. Miller Company, owner of the Utah Jazz along with eighty other concerns. This episode features issues related to occupational health and safety, customer service and marketing. In the episode about Modell's Sporting Goods, a family-owned business that has been around since 1889, issues related to logistics, wages, and social justice come to the fore. In the first season episode featuring the CEO and president of 7-11, issues related to management and corporate structure, customer service, and quality assurance are brought to light. These three episodes can all be used to better understand textbook concepts, from the particular skills managers need to succeed to ethics and social responsibility. Of these three episodes, the most engaging was the one about Modell's because of the way the owner came to…
Schermerhorn, J.R. (2012). Exploring Management. 3rd edition.
Undercover Boss Utah Jazz: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f_Tc3qCOj68&feature=youtu.be
Undercover Boss Modell's: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8jadl9usH3s&feature=youtu.be
Undercover Boss 7-11:
One of the strengths of this article is the fact that the author provides several different ways to successfully expand one's companies across international borders. His case studies, which pertain to companies such as IM, Procter & Gamble, TCS and other reputed organizations explain the various factors that influenced which particular strategy or strategies was necessary for these companies to succeed. In that sense, he has effectively produced a blueprint for success that other organizations in similar industries to those discussed in the article can follow.
As such, it is difficult to argue with the Ghemawat's claim that AAA Triangle is required for international expansion, since he offers so many real life examples that follow this model. That is why it is all the more interesting to note the degree of difficulty the author states is involved in attempting to utilize all three strategies simultaneously. It appears that this limitation…
Ghemawat, Pankaj. "Managing Differences: The Central Challenge of Global Strategy." Harvard Business Review, (2007): 1-14.
Managing Employment elationships
The relationships between labour and management can be contentious or amicable, depending on the industry and the leadership involved. When these stakeholders reach loggerheads over disagreements about wages, benefits or working conditions, productivity is diminished, jobs can be lost and national productivity inevitably suffers. To determine what can be done, this paper provides an analysis and explanation concerning the roles of two key stakeholders involved in managing the employment relationship within a UK context, the Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service and trade unions. A discussion concerning some of the key challenges that these stakeholders experience in managing employment relations is followed an examination of how the different roles of these stakeholders may impact on employment relations within different UK employing organisations. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
According to the editors…
Barling, J & Kelloway, EK 1999, February-May, 'Changing Employment Relations: What Can
Unions Do?,' Canadian Psychology, vol. 39, no. 1/2, p. 124.
'Benefits of employer and employee co-operation' 2013, The Times 100. [online] available:
Managing Across Cultures
Internationalization of the economy has influenced companies to operate their business globally. The global operation has impact managers with several challenges. Market, product, and production plans must be coordinated on a worldwide basis. The global operation necessitates organization structure to balance centralized home-office control with adequate local autonomy. As companies have started their business operation on the international front, the number of their employees has increased. Increase in the employee's abroad management is faced with new global challenges. The three broad international business management challenges were identified by the management gurus as follows (obert, Kossek & Ozeki, 1998):
a) Deployment: To get the right skills where it is required in an organization regardless of the geographical location.
b) Knowledge and creativity distribution: Spreading the knowledge and practices throughout the organization regardless of where they have actually originated.
c) Talent identification and development on global basis: To identify…
Drucker, P. (1988) The Coming of the New Organization. Harvard Business Review issue
Fadel, J. & Petti, M (1997). International HR policy basics.
Global workforce issue April 1997, pp. 29-30
Maintaining professionalism, when communicating the physical security, ensures its adoption by the stakeholders. In addition, providing a cost estimate for the whole process makes the management team understand the need for the adoption of the physical security in the business/organization (Chapter 7 of Broder, & Tucker, 2011).
Cost benefit/benefit analysis enables the business to assess the risks and advantages associated with the security option. This entails evaluating the efficiency of the security program with the perceived operational costs and implications on organizational performance. This ensures proper development of security design for ensuring effective management operations management. Some of the risk management options that ensure physical security include the development of effective policies, procedures, hardware, and labor that promote utilization of security programs. ecovery can be achieved by ensuring developing the desired hardware that stores data related to operations management in the organization. Evaluating the effectiveness of a security program is…
Chapter 5 of Broder, JF. & Tucker, G. (2011). Risk Analysis and the Security Survey. Upper Saddle River,
Chapter 7 of Broder, JF. & Tucker, G. (2011). Risk Analysis and the Security Survey. Upper Saddle River,
Managing the Cultural Values and Emotions of Employees
This essay is intended to explain the reasons that determine the use of employees' values management by certain companies and their effects. I consider that this method is not recommended as a strategy for improving the performance standards of employees in such companies. Certain contexts have revealed the fact that managing employees' cultural values and emotions can produce benefits, but this does not recommend the large use of this technique. The Corporate Culture section provides the arguments of several specialists in the field that explain the relationship between corporate culture, employees' values, and their performance. The Benefits of Managing the Cultural Values of Employees section addresses some of the benefits that can be observed in certain situations. The Managing Employees' Values and their Effects section addresses the reduced level of efficiency and other effects that such strategies have on the motivational standards…
5. Parker, M. (2000). Organizational Culture and Identity. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
6. Peters, T. & Waterman, R. (1982). In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best-Run Companies. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
7. Willmott, H. (1993). Strength is Ignorance, Slavery is Freedom: Managing Culture in Modern Organizations. Journal of Management Studies. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
Management of Technology in Developing Countries Such as Iran
Technology management arrangements of developing countries vary from those of first world ones. The requirement for skill in these states is not growing from within, but somewhat cropping up from new wares imported from first world countries. Technological growth in addition does not consequence from inner data and research, but resulting upon the technology transmission from abroad. In these environments, technology management by customary way is barely effective. These are troubles facing the Islamic epublic of Iran these days and as a consequence organizations controlling the technology management endure non-compliance, then technological development does not trail an accurate trend (obertson, 2002).
Lack of distinctive management, vagueness of technological precedence's, misunderstanding of policy-making roles and inter-organization implementation and management, tremendous government involvement in all fields and lack of specialist manpower are amongst the vital troubles of the topic (Sveiby et. al 2001).…
(1.) Abou-Zeid, E.S. "A Knowledge Management Reference Model." Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(5), 2002. pp. 486-499.
(2.) Bender S. And Fish A. "The Transfer of Knowledge and the Retention of Expertise: The Continuing Need for Global Assignments." Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(2), 2008. pp. 125-135.
(3.) Beveren, V.J. "A Model of Knowledge Acquisition that Refocuses Knowledge Management." Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(1), 2002. pp. 18-22.
(4.) Bhatt, G. "Organizing Knowledge in the Knowledge Development Cycle." Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(1), 2009. pp. 15-26.
In simple terms, the plant has been inefficient for most of its past, mainly because some of its technologies are still obsolete and need to be change. However, if one decides to change the machinery, then it is most likely that the budget will be surpassed and that there will be problems with the union, considering the fact that there will be a surplus of worker and that these will probably be laid off.
As such, it seems that, in order to solve a problem, one may expect troubles in the case of the other two. The case with the press is eloquent in this case. This had broken down because its shafts had never been changed since 1979, however, solutions in this case will bring additional trouble with the union and the budget, as we shall see further below.
6. 1) the operational changes implemented will probably have, in…
Where, the benchmarks will show if the system is helping or hindering the company from achieving its objectives. This is significant, because when it is used in conjunction with flexibility, you can be able to effectively adapt to changes in the markets. With flexibility providing the necessary ingredients to implement such changes, while the use of benchmarks will identify when a management system is becoming unproductive. (Ireland, 2008, pp. 33 -- 39)
The use of knowledge management is when an organization is collecting and analyzing the total amounts of knowledge at their disposal. This would include analyzing all available: resources, employee / managerial skills and documents. This is significant, because it provides a way for an organization to quickly collect and analyze a wide variety of information. At which point, managers can be able to effectively place the different resources and personnel of the company, in those areas where they…
Symptoms of a Dysfunctional Organization. (2005). Retrieved July 9, 2010 from Copper Comm website: http://www.coopercomm.com/dysfnorg.htm
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Flamholtz, E. (1998). Case Studies in Changing the Game. Changing the Game. (pp.81 -- 90). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Ireland, D. (2008). Promoting Integrity and Ethical Behavior. Understanding Business Strategy. (pp. 33 -- 39). Mason, OH: South Western.
Diversity is a fact of American and International business and is a broader, more complex issue than one might initially believe. A universally vital element of global commerce, Diversity has spawned an abundance of theorists, journals and specialists, some of whom are encountered in this composition. Addressing the remarkable breadth and complexity of Diversity, this essay reviews: the nature of Diversity; legally protected classes within the United States; aspects of Diversity that fall outside the scope of U.S. legal protections; the benefits of Diversity for employers; the differences/challenges presented by Diversity for employers; general business adjustments/accommodations for Diversity; and suggested specific business adjustments/accommodations for Diversity. Though this work cannot exhaustively address all aspects of Diversity, it is meant to give a good overview of modern businesses' Diversity issues and possible solutions.
Nature of Diversity:
"Diversity" involves legally protected classes of people but also involves other classes of…
Akbari, H. (2008). Education business professionals for year 2010 and beyond: Six critical management themes and skills to emphasize. International Business & Economics Research Journal, 7(7), 57-62.
Comperatore, E., & Nerone, F. (2008). Coping with different generations in the workplace. Journal of Business & Economic Research, 6(6), 15-30.
Domina, C.S. (2011). Our strength is in our Diversity: Fact or fancy? Journal of Diversity Management, 6(1), 1-9.
Figiel, V.L., & Kummel Sasser, M.A. (2010). Factors contributing to employee decisions to ignore Diversity policies. Journal of Diversity Management, 5(4), 11-17.
Managing Professionals in Virtual Environment
As technology has evolved, the reality of virtual organizations has begun to take hold in a variety of industries. It is now commonplace for employees to work, at least in part, from offsite. Telecommuting is a reality that has allowed companies to reduce costs, become more competitive, and facilitate happier more productive employees. Virtual employees, or "telework is one of the most radical departures from standard working conditions in the suite of flexible work practices now gaining widespread acceptance." (Daniels, Lamond, & Standen, 2001)
Managing Professionals in Virtual Environment
As technology has evolved, the reality of virtual organizations has begun to take hold in a variety of industries. It is now commonplace for employees to work, at least in part, from offsite. Telecommuting is a reality that has allowed companies to reduce costs, become more competitive, and facilitate happier more productive employees. Virtual employees, or…
Allert, J.L. (2001, Mar.). You're hired, now go home. Training & Development, 55(3). Retrieved May 30, 2004, from Academic Search Premier database.
Broadfoot, K.J. (2001, Aug.). When the cat's away, do the mice play? Management Communication Quarterly, 15(1). Retrieved May 30, 2004, from ProQuest database.
Cascio, W.F. (2000, Aug.). Managing a virtual workplace. Academy of Management Executive, 14(3). Retrieved May 30, 2004, from Business Source Premier database.
Conner, D.S. (2003, Mar.) Social comparison in virtual work environments: An examination of contemporary referent selection. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 76(1). Retrieved May 30, 2004, from Academic Search Premier database.
What needs to first be improved upon is the lack of ownership on the part of the unionized workers, yet even more systemic is the challenge that Perrier management has in how workers are accustomed to prosperity in an era of economic downturn. Gaining consensus with unions during a contraction of their business cycles is going to be difficult. What needs to first happen is that the Perrier and Nestle' management teams needs to first focus on being transparent and honest about the need to change, and taking pay cuts, reductions in bonuses and in generals being the champions of the needed change first (Brown, Cregan, 2008). This will help to increase their credibility with the union workers, and also show they are willing to make sacrifices they are calling on others to do as well. Second, Perrier and Nestle' management must focus on creating measures of progress that equally…
Michelle Brown, Christina Cregan. (2008). Organizational change cynicism: The role of employee involvement. Human Resource Management, 47(4), 667.
Retrieved January 22, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1598548371).
Christina Passariello (2004, March 17). Nestle's Dispute With Perrier Could Be Coming to a Boil Soon. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. 1. Retrieved January 22, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 580630441).
Labor and Union Studies in ashington and Oregon States
The United States labor movement has its roots in the complex trappings of the industrial revolution. Laborers were just starting to come to the United States from foreign countries because they had learned that there were many jobs available for even the most unskilled worker. People were also moving from rural areas in America to the cities in an attempt ti have a better life also without the uncertainties that governed farm profits. The growth in many industries was a result of new technologies that allowed people to purchase items that had previously been made by hand far cheaper because the products could now be mass produced in the factories. The problem was that the owners of these factories did not care how the workers were treated because there were many more begging to have a low-paying job in a factory…
Bloom, Nick, Toby Kretschmer, and John van Reenen. Work-Life Balance, Management Practices and Productivity. London: London School Of Economics -- Center for Economic Performance, 2006. Print.
Brundage, Michael. "Working at Microsoft." qbrundage. Web.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. "Union Membership in Oregon -- 2010." United States Department of Labor (2010). Web.
Grant, Michel, and Jean Harvey. "Unions and Productivity: Convergence or Divergence in Perspectives." International Studies of Management & Organization 22.4 (1992): 93-98. Print.
Goodyear which effectively denied employees the right to sue for wage discrimination after the passing of 180 days that "Justice Ruth ader Ginsberg was so incensed she read her scathing dissent aloud from the bench. She defended Lilly Ledbetter's right to sue her employer, Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Inc. For pay discrimination on the basis of sex, giving a not-so-gentle reminder of the realities of the American workplace." (Steiger, 2007) Specifically written by Justice Ginsburg is that as follows:
worker knows immediately if she is denied a promotion or transfer, if she is fired or refused employment. And promotions, transfers, hirings, and firings are generally public events, known to co-workers. When an employer makes a decision of such open and definitive character, an employee can immediately seek out an explanation and evaluate it for pretext. Compensation disparities, in contrast, are often hidden from sight." (Steiger, 2007)
Steiger reports that…
Abrams, Jim (2009) House Approves Bill to Fight Wage Discrimination. Yahoo News. 9 Jan 2009. Online available at http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090109/ap_on_go_co/pay_equity
Barko, N. (2000. June 19). The Other Gender Gap. (Online) Available http://www.prospect.org/archives/V11-15/barko-n.html .
Bland, T.S. (1999, July). Equal Pay Enforcement Heats Up. HR Magazine, p. 138-145.
Bland, T.S., Nail, T.N., Knox, D.P. (2000, May). OFCCP, White House push comparable worth. HR News, p. 22-24.
The more effective such systems of transport, the easier it is for labor to either to commute to work a fair distance from their home. Cities provide concentrated sources of labor that may not need to commute far distances. Also, the willingness of laborers to leave their home communities and relocate is an important cultural factor to remember, as well as the cost of transportation. Finally, in some areas, gas for cats is quite expensive, while public transportation is fairly cheap, which will affect labor patterns of migration and may be different than one might expect from one's experience in America.
Local attitudes to international companies, towards a diverse workforce, and to employing refugees may vary from country to country.
The diversity of the labor force, whether it is primarily skilled or unskilled, diverse or homogeneous in its ethnic, age, or skill composition will affect what types…
Reference for Business. Business Encyclopedia. Published by Thomson, Inc. Available 21 Nov 2006 at http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Gr-Int/International-Management.html
Managing People -- Wal-Mart
Summary of the Company and Facts
Wal-Mart is among many multi-national retail businesses that are well-known. It runs chains of large discount department stores and warehouses all over the world though it's an American multinational retailer corporation. It is also the biggest private employer in the world, to employ such a big number of workers can be very challenging and hence the employee relationship with the management requires thorough evaluation. With corporations such as Wal-Mart always chasing to grow higher and getting better returns come with the temptations to go really wrong in many ways. Wal-Mart does a lot right; it has expanded its productivity by being more efficient and leaner when compared to many companies. Shoppers accrue a lot of benefits from the expansion of Wal-Mart. Like all this retail businesses the employees in Wal-Mart are given low wages, they work on part-time conditions…
Ludensky, A. (2008).Wal-mart's Labor problem. Retrieved November 23, 2012 from http://campusprogress.org/articles/wal-marts_labor_problem
Cherry, K. (2009).Hierarchy of needs. Retrieved November 23, 2012 from http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/hierarchyneeds.htm
Unlimited marketing. (2012). Walmart Workers For Change.Retrieved November 23, 2012 from http://www.walmartworkersforchange.org/2012/08/walmart-works-to-empower-women/
DE-DE Group LLC (2012). Wal-Mart Workers on Strike. Retrieved November 23, 2012 from https://www.thunderclap.it/projects/653-walmart-workers-on-strike
The Department of Labor is present today to promote, foster and develop the welfare of the employees or the labor force in the United States. The labor system focuses on the improvement of the working conditions and the fulfillment of opportunities for more profitable employment. As it would be known, rules and regulations are there to keep things in order. Similarly, the Labor system in the country is guided by laws that guarantee the rights and privileges of the labor force of the country.
The Department of Labor has made laws concerning working conditions, minimum hourly wage, and freedom from employment discrimination, worker's compensation and unemployment insurance. The labor system also aids in job training programs and it helps workers find jobs. Everyone needs a decent source of income and if a person has some sort of skill or talent, they should definitely make use of it.
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Management Style of Brian Driscoll
The blame for the demise of Hostess has been squarely put at the union's feet and their contracts. After conducting a close examination on the company, I have realized that free labor would have led to the death of Hostess; the striking employees only enhanced the inevitable. In this situation, people on the right track have pointed fingers at greedy unions. However, we must acknowledge that the two sides must reach a realistic agreement in a collective bargaining setting. Unions reflect the demands and wishes of employees and are natural to engage in negotiations in order for their demands to be fulfilled. Companies must communicate accurate company data with the union and companies should provide clear answers when they cannot meet the demands of employees. A positive relationship with workforce cannot be built by asking employees to give significant amounts of benefits back and pay…
Grossbauer, S. (2010). Managing foodservice operations: a systems approach for healthcare and institutions. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co
Longenecker, J.G. (2006). Small business management: An entrepreneurial emphasis. Mason,
Stout, R. (2008). Under the Andes. Auckland: Floating Press.
America is a competitive place and many of the economic and social systems in place reflect this quality. Economically, capitalism and all of its market specific rules apply to the many working people in this nation as well. The purpose of this essay is to describe how labor unions are affecting these economic processes and how they can contribute to the greater conversation revolving around the economy and employment issues. This essay will describe a union election from the standpoint of a campaign manager of union candidate to express my personal feelings and strengths towards this analysis. The second part of this essay will address the GMFC case study and explain my actions with a philosophy on employee relations.
Corporations appear to have much of the political power in the country today as far as labor realations are concerned. Labor unions are dwindling in power every year as…
Griswold, D. (2010). Unions, Protectionism and U.S. Competitiveness. Cato Journal, 30 (1), Winter 2010. Retrieved from http://www.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/serials/files/cato - journal/2010/1/cj30n1-10.pdf
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The change in the world structure population and the trend of migration of people from developing to developed countries raises critical issues that no company can ignore. Demographic changes are already influencing human resource and other departments of companies across major cities of developed nations like Japan, United States and German (Florian Kohlbacher, 2010). Demographic, therefore can be defined as the study of composition of social entity in terms of its members attributes which includes such factors such as gender, age, ethnicity, occupation, seniority, salary level and marital status (Kirton. Greene 2011).
However, during times of global economic and financial crisis, many companies usually deal with issues that seem to be more urgent, but with demographic change the issue is more complex, for example German's companies doing business in Japan need to face the challenges of demographic change in Japan population if they want to be successful in…
Resources in Latin America,
An Agenda for International Leaders book third edition
(2010). A Demographic Analysis -- Part II: Recruitment and Retention Issues
In the P & C. Insurance Industry In Canada
Constantinos, Fotakis (2010). DEMOGRAPHIC AGEING, EMPLOYMENT GROWTH
There are two things that concern the new facility in Walkerton and that need to be addressed. The first relates to the equipment and machines in use within the plant. As we have seen, one third of the equipment is obsolete and up to 50% will have to be renewed. However, clear steps have already been taken in this direction. The company is committed to transferring new product lines into Canada and the local government has a favorable tax treatment on the purchase of equipment. In this sense, the problem of obsoleteness may be successfully solved.
An even more serious problem, however, relates to the employees. As we have seen, and this is perhaps the best description which accounts for the current situation within the plant, the working environment reminds us of high school, only with adults. It is clear that, in order for the plant to become efficient…
Management Account in the Public Sector and Management Accounting in the Private Sector: A Comparative Review
The late 20th and early 21st centuries have brought increasing change to almost every country in the world, Australia included. Globalism describes, in fact, the increasing unification of the world through economic means (reduction of trade barriers, support of international trade, and mitigation of export and import quotas). They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies. Additionally, the idea of globalism and international trade has changed the way Australian's view public and private businesses and the opportunities afforded them because of investment,…
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Financial Accounting Standards Board 2012, Convergence with the International Accounting Standards Board, viewed May 2012, http://www.fasb.org/international/convergence_iasb.shtml .
Funnell, W & Cooper, K 1998, Public Sector Accounting and Accountability in Australia, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
ubstance Abuse Testing - the substance abuse testing policy for the construction industry that are union workers in British Columbia allows for: (1) pre-access testing prior to entering a job site; (2) voluntary testing; (3) post-accident testing; (4) reasonable suspicion testing; (5) return-to-work testing; and (6) testing following a probationary status. (eale, 2008) However, pre-employment and random testing for substances is considered unacceptable in British Columbia. (Harassment - the law in British Columbia makes it a violation of an employer to allow or contribute to sexual harassment of an employee in the workplace. Ministry of Attorney General, British Columbia, 2008)
Employment Contracts and Restrict Covenants - Restrictive covenants make the provision for several limitations: (1) Employee may be prohibited from working for business competition for a period of time after they leave their employment:; (2) territorial limits may restrict the employee from joining competition within defined a defined territory; (3)…
Substance Abuse Testing - the substance abuse testing policy for the construction industry that are union workers in British Columbia allows for: (1) pre-access testing prior to entering a job site; (2) voluntary testing; (3) post-accident testing; (4) reasonable suspicion testing; (5) return-to-work testing; and (6) testing following a probationary status. (Seale, 2008) However, pre-employment and random testing for substances is considered unacceptable in British Columbia. (Harassment - the law in British Columbia makes it a violation of an employer to allow or contribute to sexual harassment of an employee in the workplace. Ministry of Attorney General, British Columbia, 2008)
Employment Contracts and Restrict Covenants - Restrictive covenants make the provision for several limitations: (1) Employee may be prohibited from working for business competition for a period of time after they leave their employment:; (2) territorial limits may restrict the employee from joining competition within defined a defined territory; (3) Other restrictive covenants have to do with intellectual property of the employer. Restrictive covenants may be contractual in nature and always are exceptional in nature. Ministry of Attorney General, British Columbia, 2008)
Workplace Health, Safety and Standards - Workplace safety standards are set out in B.C. Reg. 312/2003, effective October 29, 2003, and amended by B.C. Reg. 243/2006, effective January 1, 2007. These regulations call for safely constructed and maintained workplace environments. (B.C. Reg 258/2009, effective January 1, 2009)
Review relevant background information.
During this step you are collecting information about what types of special skills may be required. For example, does the job have you obtaining some kind of license or permit? At the same time you would look at the financials of the business and industries they are in.
Select representative positions.
This is when you are sampling the different job openings in the field and are studying what the majority of employers are looking for.
Analyze the job
During this step you are conducting your initial canalization to: determine the abilities and skill sets for the position. This is based on looking at news of the company and trying to gain insights as to what the work environment is like.
Verify the analysis
During this step you are determining if the analysis that was conducted was correct. This will help to ensure that any kind conclusions…
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Bahiri, M. (2011). Mandated Benefits. About.com. Retrieved from: http://healthinsurance.about.com/od/reform/a/mandated_benefits_overview.htm
This differentiation refers to the management and administration of the agricultural resources of the kingdom. This in turn involved an organized network of royal foundations. (Wilkinson 116) the second area of administrative concern was the processing of government revenue and "…its redistribution to the various state operations…" (Wilkinson 116) Wilkinson in his book also deals extensively with managements issues in relation to the Egyptian treasury. (Wilkinson 125)
In understanding the background to management in ancient Egypt one has to continually take into account the wide range of concerns and activities that required ordered control and administration. As Erman states in his work Life in Ancient Egypt (1894), "The enormous properties belonging to the temples required of course complicated machinery for their administration & #8230;certain members of the priestly college were deputed to manage the affairs of the treasury, the commissariat and the correspondence…" (Erman 303)
Taking into account the above…
Employees blamed management for the perceived lack of opportunities created by new employees, while management blamed employees for the lack of customer orders filled. This conflict seems to have reached a deadlock, as feelings are so volatile that effective communication is all but impossible. However, by considering some basic elements of communication, both management and employees can return to their previous level of effectiveness, and the Words Unlimited can become effective again.
Resolution and Recommendations
According to harland, the above situation is an example of conflict being suppressed. Nobody is willing to admit to making mistakes, with both management and employees blaming each other for the company's current situation. Communication is marked by resentment and blame, without any sector of the company attempting to understand the points of the other. This suppresses the creativity and intercultural effectiveness that were previous hallmarks of the company.
In order to remedy this, communication…
Johanssen, Rob. Tips for Effective Workplace Communication. 2006, Sept 5. http://searchwarp.com/swa94412.htm
Kwintessential Ltd. Intercultural Communication in the Global Workplace. 2008. http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/cultural-services/articles/intercultural-communiction-global-workplace.html
Sharland, Alan. Workplace Communication and Conflict. 2008. http://www.communicationandconflict.com/workplace.html
Management: Organizational Behavior
American workers have been brought up in a society that emphasizes individuality, thus it will be difficult for them to readily accept the notion that group-based rewards are as beneficial as individual ones. Though Americans are used to the 'team' work concept, many still prefer receiving individual recognition for their achievements. This is due in part to the emphasis on individual achievement and competition evidenced in many organizations.
Job rotation is an effective tool for allowing employees to sample other jobs and cross train. It not only provides variety but enables an employee to gain new skills and learn about the functioning of an organization as a whole. Job enrichment is equally important, allowing employees to add more interesting and challenging roles and skills to their present job. This may entail increasing job functions or responsibilities. Job rotation is more likely to result in a cross trained…
The qualities tested by the Myes-Biggs ae also those that often cause clashes between employees, such extovesion vs. intovesion, thinking vs. feeling, judging vs. peceiving, and the tendency to expeiencing the wold though sensing vs. intuition. Taking the test helps someone who is quiet and feels fulfilled woking behind a compute undestand why he o she might see the wold diffeently than someone who is a 'people peson.'
It should be stessed that while pesonality types may be elatively constant thoughout an individual's life, all types must still espond to vaious extenal stessos at times: an intovet will still likely shout 'fie' and sping to action when needed in an emegency, despite a pefeence fo being etiing and eflective. An extovet can lock the doo to study a long and detailed epot on which he o she must make a pesentation. But the question is pefeence: an indicato of "you…
reference: an indicator of "your true preference may be the level of stress or enjoyment in a situation. Where your preferences coincide with the demands of the situation, you may find it quite enjoyable. An extrovert may find it frustrating or stressful if required to work in an introvert style, but enjoyable or energizing if required to work in an extrovert style, and vice versa for an introvert" (Working out, 2010, Team Technology, p.2). At time, managers of teams may need to press members out of their comfort zones to accomplish certain goals and objectives and at other times playing to different team members' strengths may be optimal. Regardless, team member's self-awareness and awareness that not everyone is 'like them' in terms of the way they see the world can optimize team productivity by minimizing conflict and maximizing the use of team member's different skills.
Working out your Myers-Briggs type. (2010). Team Technology. Retrieved February 19, 2010 at http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/tt/t-articl/myers-briggs-1.htm
Managing Human Resources
In order to complete this evaluation and to determine the degree to which the human resource helps in addressing the hospital's mission and objectives, one should first start with a brief enumeration of these. The hospital proposes to offer the best possible services to its patients, which means that many of the objectives of the human resource department are directed towards this mission. These include recruiting and retaining the very best employees that the organization can afford and creating a proper environment for the employees' success and their development in time. Among other operational goals, the hospital proposes to maximize employee retention and develop training programs that will help in the evolution of the human resource.
The analysis will show that the organization has only partially fulfilled its objectives on the human resource side. Some of the worrying aspects include the fact that employees seem to commit…
1. Jensen, Jerry. 1997. Employee Evaluation. The Grantsmanship Center. On the Internet at http://www.tgci.com/magazine/Employee%20Evaluation.pdf . Last retrieved on February 3, 2012
2. Delpo, Amy. How to Conduct Employee Evaluations. On the Internet at http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/employee-evaluations-how-to-conduct-29547.html . Last retrieved on February 3, 2012
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What steps does Ritz-Carlton take to control the quality of its service?
To control the quality of service, Ritz-Carlton pursues the goal of being the best in the industry, providing its customers with well-trained and certified workers, and offering more than the usual services offered by other businesses in the same industry.
Ritz-Carlton implements different management programs to allow improvements and excellence in their services. Among the factors in Ritz-Carlton's management programs are participatory leadership, thorough information gathering, coordinated planning and execution, and a trained workforce. With all these, it can be deducted that the hotel's management is working towards the achievement of its goal - true excellence in service.
Aside from the management programs that Ritz-Carlton takes to control its quality of service, it also provides focus on the skills and capabilities of its employees. The hotel sees to it that its employees are empowered to respond to…
Innovation in its simplest form can be termed as something new or newly introduced into the market. Innovation in the business field is quite necessary since it forms the backbone of a company's growth and that of the economy as a whole. Innovation is the success of every business and must be managed effectively and efficiently (Limerick, 2002).
The ever changing technology and instant global communication have made it easier for companies to find answers to some problems they encounter and more so come up with innovations to improve on the current ones. Companies are also faced with pressures arising from global competition and by this; most of them are seeking the need to manage their innovations. Companies are nowadays attracting and managing innovations by having rewards or prizes for individuals within the company who manages to come up with brilliant and innovative concepts. This will give the…
AFUAH, A. 2003. Innovation Management: Strategies, Implementation, and Profits, New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press.
ALEXY, O. & REITZIG, M. 2012. Managing the business risks of open innovation. McKinsey Quarterly, 17-21.
BROWN & HELEN 2008. Knowledge and innovation: a comparative study of the U.S.A., the UK, and Japan London Routledge.
DANNEELS, E. 2002. The Dynamics of Product Innovation and Firm Competences. Strategic Management Journal, 23, 1095-1121.
It is important that managers of virtual employees understand their employees' circumstances, in addition to working to make sure that employees know the expectations of the company. This leads to the third problem -- keeping virtual employees in the loop. Just as it may be difficult to contact virtual employees from time to time, it may be difficult for virtual employees to feel as if they are kept in the loop with what the company is doing, goals, and new expectations.
In order to solve these problems, it is apparent that communication among businesses and virtual employees must be improved. Businesses should make an attempt to do this through mandating certain "check-in" times with their virtual employees, in addition to appointing a specific member of management to deal with these employees. By following these suggestions, businesses will find it much easier to manage the one of the benefits of the…
All of the employees on an airplane, for example, could form themselves into a vertical bargaining unit if they chose, the unit including stewards and stewardesses, as well as pilots. Similarly, in a school, teachers, janitors, and office staff could all form a vertical unit. In contrast a horizontal bargaining unit unites all those who perform similar work. The fact that the pilots at Spirit Airlines belong to a pilots union that includes pilots from other airlines means that they constitute a horizontal bargaining unit. As well, teachers in the Chico school could form a horizontal bargaining unit if they joined with other teachers at different schools, and even in different districts. Members of a bargaining unit agree to work together because they share common interests and goals. Bargaining units appear either as elements of unions or as workers uniting for a common purpose. An entire union is also frequently…
"Arbitration panel rules in Favor of Spirit Airlines pilots in days-off conflict." Airline Industry Information, 18 March 2009. URL: http://www.allbusiness.com/labor-employment/labor-relations-labor/11818635-1.html .
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Epstein, Richard a. "Epstein: Mandatory Labor Arbitration." Washington Times. 24 March, 2009. URL: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2009/mar/24/mandatory-labor-arbitration/ .