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Labor and Union Studies in Washington and Oregon State
Words: 3095 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79832287
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Labor and Union Studies in ashington and Oregon States

The United States labor movement has its roots in the complex trappings of the industrial revolution. Laborers were just starting to come to the United States from foreign countries because they had learned that there were many jobs available for even the most unskilled worker. People were also moving from rural areas in America to the cities in an attempt ti have a better life also without the uncertainties that governed farm profits. The growth in many industries was a result of new technologies that allowed people to purchase items that had previously been made by hand far cheaper because the products could now be mass produced in the factories. The problem was that the owners of these factories did not care how the workers were treated because there were many more begging to have a low-paying job in a factory…

Works Cited

Bloom, Nick, Toby Kretschmer, and John van Reenen. Work-Life Balance, Management Practices and Productivity. London: London School Of Economics -- Center for Economic Performance, 2006. Print.

Brundage, Michael. "Working at Microsoft." qbrundage. Web.

Bureau of Labor Statistics. "Union Membership in Oregon -- 2010." United States Department of Labor (2010). Web.

Grant, Michel, and Jean Harvey. "Unions and Productivity: Convergence or Divergence in Perspectives." International Studies of Management & Organization 22.4 (1992): 93-98. Print.

Labor Negotiating Practices the Issue of Labor
Words: 1715 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34401992
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Labor Negotiating Practices

The issue of labor negotiating practices is one of the most important issues that companies must address. This is because the sensitiveness of labor problems is reflected in their legal implications. The battle between employers and employees becomes more and more difficult and requires advanced negotiation skills.

Company's Stance towards Labor Issues

The company that is analyzed in this case is represented by the companies that joined their forces in order to purchase Twinkies and other important brands from Hostess in their attempt to invest in their revival. These companies are represented by Metropoulos and Co. And Apollo Global Management. The potential of these brands has been acknowledged by the two companies that are interested in opening up new production plants. This means that they will hire a large number of employees. However, the issue in this case is that these companies are not interested in allowing…

Reference list:

1. Feintzeig, R. (2013). New Twinkie Maker Shuns Union Labor. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 20, 2013 from .

2. Farrell, J. (2013). Twinkies and Labor Unions: Explaining the Hostess Collapse. Retrieved May 21, 2013 from

Labor and Union Case Study the Objective
Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 68427642
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Labor and Union Case Study

The objective of this work in writing is to conduct a case study on labor and unions and to answer the questions of: (1) Is the grievance process an effective method for resolving workplace disputes? And (2) How would you suggest that unions and employers improve their ability to correctly interpret the collective agreement?

In the case study at focus, several employees have a discussion, which results in an altercation, and two employees are fired as a result. The employees were then advised that they could file a grievance. One of the employees, named Green met in the cafeteria with a representative of the Grievance Committee and related her side of the story and believed that by meeting with the Grievance Committee member that she had filed an official grievance. One week later the other employee, Swallows, was reinstated. When Green inquired about the grievance,…


Borrell, Charles A. (2006) How Unions Can Improve Their Success Rate in Labor Arbitration. All Business. Dispute Resolution Journal Feb-Apr 2006. Retrieved from: 

Travis, Mark C. (nd) Improving the Grievance Process: Grievance Mediation As An Alternative to Arbitration. Retrieved from:

Labor GDP and Firm Labor Is an
Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11063611
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Labor, GDP and Firm

Labor is an important factor of production for all firms. The most recent unemployment rate is estimated at 9% (January 2011). Economists have identified three types of unemployment. Which type would affect your firm? Explain.

The three types of unemployment include: structural, changes in technology and shifts in tastes. Structural is when there is a lack of demand for workers with particular skill sets. Changes in technology, takes place when innovations and scientific breakthroughs are leading to a shift in the way businesses are operating. This is the point when there is a decrease in the total number of employees working for a particular firm. Shifts in taste are occurring when consumers want to purchase a particular product or service based on the underlying amounts of popularity. During times when there is a change in tastes, is the point that sales will decrease and those employees…


US Consumer Confidence Plunges to Recessionary Levels. Telegraph. Retrieved from: 

US Unemployment Rate Forecast. (2011). Forecasts. org. Retrieved from: 

Moffat, M. (2011). What are the Three Types of Unemployment. About. Retrieved from:

Labor Econ the Theory of
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48080519
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he intersection determines the amount of investment in education / productivity factors by all individuals and institutions.

he major criticisms to the Neoclassical model come from the assumption competition holds, namely that individuals act to maximize profit in all scenarios; factor mobility is unlimited; marginal returns to labor don't increase with wage rates, and other simplifications which rarely hold true in the workforce. Nor are all workers the same to the firm (discrimination), and workers' productivity and labor supply decisions change at different wage levels. hen we have to consider frictional unemployment; information asymmetry; product substitution; any number of real constraints that complicate the pure "Marginal Demand for Labor" theory (Kaufman & Hotchkiss, 2000, p. 31).

he main counter to the Neoclassicals arose in the early-mid-20th century Institutional school after Veblen, Commons and Mitchell, ironically at the University of Wisconsin 1920-30. Institutionalist focus on real evidence counters the Neoclassical theory…

The main counter to the Neoclassicals arose in the early-mid-20th century Institutional school after Veblen, Commons and Mitchell, ironically at the University of Wisconsin 1920-30. Institutionalist focus on real evidence counters the Neoclassical theory where institution effects went ignored (New School n.d.). The more sociological approach recognizes 'market failures' of discrimination, collective bargaining and incorporation. Evidence surrounds us today in the form of monopolistic energy provision, embedded in every price on every shelf including wages, for example. One criticism on an Institutional line would be the persistence of poverty. If poverty is unwanted, either we allow poverty to persist, it is necessary for Neoclassical models to hold, or the model is flawed. The Institutional thread leads eventually via the London School to the modern "Post-Keynesian," "Behavioral," "Environmental," and other heterodox schools.

Comparing share of population to share of workforce for groups with a particular characteristic reveals discrimination if a group is underrepresented in a firm or industry. or, we identify where a category is overrepresented in the total labor market relative to other workers. If productivity is the same between groups, lower wages must be explained somehow. The heterodox perspective recognizes potential effects within the market, and before workers apply for a job. Some workers are less competitive than others before they apply, education being a common reason, which depends on access outside the workplace. Market discrimination enters the realm of individual aversion to classes of workers by the employer or other workers, usually over ethnicity, religion or gender, but any reason can provide empirical evidence if wage differentials persist.

Prejudice is real, and it results in lower wages for minorities (Kaufman & Hotchkiss 2000, p. 469). In the aggregate, equally

Labor Issues Around the World
Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41802451
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Many Chinese workers, including children, are forced to work in poor conditions (Ka Wai, 2004). Many workers are working in the town ship and village factories. According to a government report in 1984, the majority of township and village enterprises in China have at least one major problem that causes occupational disease. Many factory workers are working in dangerous conditions, in which poisonous chemicals, dust, and noise are predominant. As a result, many workers suffer from a variety of preventable health conditions.

Companies like Nike and eebok often subcontract factories in poor countries because they do not have to deal with production. By distancing themselves through subcontracting, benefiting from low production costs without having to take responsibility, they make huge profits.

In Indonesia, United States sportswear company Nike is often at the center of labor concerns (CNN, 2001). Workers at nine Indonesian factories under contract by Nike say they have…


2001). Hazardous forms of Child Labor in Nepal. GEFONT Paper presented in Preparatory Meeting on Developing Asian Network on Hazardous Child Labour

Manila 26-28, 2001. (Retrieved from the Internet at .(March 13, 2003). Informal sector marred by poor working condition. Mercantile Communications. Retrieved from the Internet at (February 22, 2001). Abuse rife at Nike's Indonesia plants. Retrieved from the Internet at .

Ellis, Becky. (2000). Globalisation, Sweatshops and Indonesian Women Workers. Retrieved from the Internet at .

Labor Economic
Words: 3173 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99131376
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Labor Economics

Labor is a commodity that needs to be purchased for business activity. In the uncivilized world of the past labor could be exploited to the extreme, but in modern times trade union movement, increased public consciousness, health, safety and environmental regulations and labor regulations have meant that the near slavery condition of the past are totally unacceptable.

Nevertheless, labor remains a commodity requiring efficient, humane and cost effective management to increase profitability and balance human rights and investors' interests. This effort has resulted in labor economics developing as a branch of microeconomics. This paper reviews labor economics and its importance in the modern day economic and business activities.




Important Components of Labor Economics

Labor Supply and Demand

Quality of Labor (Investments in Human Capital)


Non-Wage Labor Costs

Wage Differentials

Workers Mobility

Pay & Productivity

8. Economics of Discrimination

9. Social Accountability

10. Trade Unions…


1. What is Labor Economics-Economics 150 Course Outline, Retrieved from Internet on 12 Oct 2005, 'What%20is%20Labor%20EconomicsEconomics%20150%20Course%20Outline'

2. Engels, F., Introduction to Karl Marx's Wage Labor and Capitol, Retrieved from Internet on 12 October 2005, 

3. Labor Economics, Retrieved from Internet on 12 Oct 2005, 

4. From Encyclopedia Wikipedia, Retrieved from Internet on 12 Oct 2005,

Port Productivity the Various Changes
Words: 1602 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71120547
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One of the first pioneer's in this activity was the Australian company Mcllwrath McEacharn of Melbourne. They began by offering to ship cargo in containers on a door to door basis from the Eastern States to ports in Western Australia using three ton Seatainers. (Taming the Australian Stevedoring Industry: who really runs the show?)

In 1969 two more container ships were added to their fleet. This move of using containers to move cargo on ships and on a door to door basis threw open the flood gates to increase the through put of ports and was very soon embraced by almost all other shippers in the movement of cargo around the world. This increased movement of goods by sea and in containers saw a sea of change in the way goods were handled at the ports by the use of bigger and better cranes and efforts at increasing their efficiency…


De, Prabir; Park, Ro-Kyung. "An Alternative Approach to Efficiency Measurement of Seaports" Maritime Economics & Logistics, 2004, 6, (53-69). Retrieved at Accessed on 19 January 2005

Fletcher, Tony. "Taming the Australian Stevedoring Industry: who really runs the show?" Retrieved at Accessed on 19 January 2005

Leschine, T. M; Dowd, T.J. "Container terminal productivity: A perspective"

Retrieved at . Accessed on 19 January 2005

Emotional Labor Implications on a Call Centre
Words: 3259 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72146890
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Emotional Labor

Implications on a Call Centre

During the last two decades Contact or call centers have emerged as the answer to cost effectiveness for all sort of businesses that require back end customer services (Boreham et al., 2007). These call centers hailing from different countries are very similar with respect to markets, offered services, structure of the organization and type of workforce. This industry has flourished very quickly but usually these call centers are about ten to twelve years old hence still in infancy. Despite the similarities that exist across the globe in standards, processes and customers; are these call centers actually catering to the emotional side of this work.

Being a repetitive task with only a set of responses most of the time with no creativity and innovation in the services process added with long hours and no formal education on the subject, do these call centers affect…


Ashforth, B.E., & Humphery, R.H. (1993). Emotional Labor in Service Roles: The influence of Identity. The Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 88-115.

Blau, P. (1989) Exchange and Power in Social Life, New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

Chu, K.H. -L. (2002) The Effects on Emotional Labor on Employee Work Outcomes. Unpublished Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.

Hochschild, A.R. (1983) The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Los Angeles, California, United States of America; University of California Press.

Labor Policies
Words: 2462 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85384672
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labor policies of the former Soviet Union and how they contributed to the downfall of the Soviet Union. The writer explores the labor policies that were in force at the time and explains their contribution to the eventual downfall. There were ten sources used to complete this paper.

It was one of the more historic moments in recent world history. As the world watched in awe, the Soviet Union began to dismantle itself so that it could rebuild from the ground up. After many decades of communist regime, the government was taken apart from the inside out, the entire nation brought itself to the ground and the process to rebuild began. For years it had been accepted as a superpower and those who lived there felt that the United States was its only rival.

American residents had been raised to fear the Soviet Union and believe that they were the…


On the Development of the Productive Forces  and the Class Relations in the Soviet Union by Elisabeth Wagner

Understanding political change in post-Soviet societies: A further commentary on Finifter and Mickiewicz. (response to Ada W. Finifter, American Political Science Review, vol. 90, p. 138, March 1996)

Arthur H. Reisinger, William M. Hesli, Vicki L.

Furtado, Charles F. 1994. "Nationalism and Foreign Policy in Ukraine." Political Science Quarterly 109:81-104.

Labor and Employment Law
Words: 1948 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 38374886
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decision will need to be made about the future of each one. Each decision will be supported with an analysis of the situation using the relevant legal framework. In general, companies are allowed to terminate employees if the termination is part of a downsizing, which in this case it is. Naturally, however, the issue of severance will be raised, and must be taken into consideration for each of the employees in question. The format will be a discussion of each individual employee, his or her situation, but then the final decision about who to terminate and how will be conducted at the end of the report. The microbrewery is probably a qualified company, with at least 15 employees, or this discussion would not be taking place.

Employee #1 -- Mike illiams. illiams is a member of a protected group, being Asian. His performance has been above the median, which gives…

Works Cited:

Department of Labor. (2012). Employee rights under the National Labor Relations Act. U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved April 21, 2013 from

Labor Relations Law
Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89720181
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National Labor elations Act of 1935, and discuss how it protects employees.

The National Labor elations Act

The conventional union law, which constitutes much of labor law, concentrates on workers and worker rights collectively. One may distinguish this from employment legislation which deals largely with matters pertaining to individual workers' rights. Of the many rules and legislations that constitute labor law, the most important would be the 1935 NLA (National Labor elations Act), codified at 29 U.S.C. § 151-169. This piece of legislation aims at serving U.S. national interests with respect to labor relations in the nation. As one may observe in times of extensive labor strikes, tense employer-workforce relations can swiftly have serious, nationwide negative impacts. Well-defined policies with regard to management and labor foster the nation's best interests of maintaining maximum economic production. Peace in the manufacturing sector is critical to a successfully operating economy. Thus, the Act…


(n.d.). HR and Employment Law Hot Topics Index. National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) - HR Topics for human resources. Retrieved September 19, 2016, from 

(n.d.). LII / Legal Information Institute. National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) - Wex Legal Dictionary / Encyclopedia - LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved September 19, 2016, from

Labor Unrest
Words: 921 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68353912
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Business Management

Suggestions for Business Conflict Resolution:


It is apparent from your letter that the Winters Company is facing significant trouble brought about by the inexperience of the new and ambitious junior Winters. While he may be next in line to operate the company, and trusted by Winters Sr., his lack of experience in managing and motivating the floor of his fathers company could result in prolonged disruption of the company's productivity. As a result, in the best case scenario, the company could slowly recover by replacing the warring workers. However, this seems unlikely, as Winters Sr. will be hesitant to let go workers who have formed the backbone of the company for many years. In the worst case scenario, however, the company's loss in efficiency, combined with increasing competition it he marketplace could force the company onto a track that would stall the company's profitability, and ultimately cause…

U S Labor Force Labor Supply
Words: 356 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90141430
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This is reflected in the fact that over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have only increased by 1.8%. Additionally, union membership has declined. The BLS reports that the union membership rate -- the percent of wage and salary workers who were members of a union -- was 11.9%, down from 12.3% a year earlier. In 1983, the first year for which comparable union data are available, the union membership rate was 20.1%, and there were 17.7 million union workers. Union jobs typically are higher paying jobs. According to the BLS, union members had median usual weekly earnings of $917, while those who were not represented by unions had median weekly earnings of $717. One reason for the decline in union membership is the decline in public sector employment, especially in education.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Employment situation summary. etrieved from



U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Employment situation summary. Retrieved from .

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Union membership annual news release. Retrieved from .

Multifactor Productivity The Basic Concept Is That
Words: 1172 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37756910
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multifactor productivity. The basic concept is that MFP calculates output over all inputs. In the example given, the inputs are labor and capital. The MFP formula is used to measure the change in productivity that results from specific changes in the production process. In addition, the importance of firms studying productivity changes is explained. Firms need to understand the implications of changing different inputs, in order that they may seek the path of profit maximization. Sensitivity analysis to different changes can help with that process. In addition, the MFP concept is useful for firms seeking to maximize other variables besides profit. The same principles behind MFP can be applied broadly in business to ensure that the best decisions are being made and that productivity is being maximized.

The basic principle is that MFP is based on the outputs per a combination of labor and capital (Jaxworks, 2010). This is in…

Works Cited:

Banker, R., Datar, S. & Kaplan, R. (no date) Productivity measurement and management accounting. Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Finance. Retrieved November 6, 2011 from 

CliffNotes. (2011). Profit maximization. Cliff Notes. Retrieved November 6, 2011 from,articleId-9769.html 

Jaxworks. (2010). Multifactor productivity. Retrieved November 6, 2011 from

Lane Report. (2011). Multifactor productivity rose in 14% of detailed manufacturing industries studied in 2009. The Lane Report. Retrieved November 6, 2011 from

Benefits Role and Criticisms of Labor Unions
Words: 3319 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16689905
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Role of Labor Unions in Industrial Relations

In their definition, labor unions have always been known as organizations that have always aimed at getting their members both financial and non-financial benefits. The role of labor unions is however bigger than that and they have been known to aid in helping employers improve the productivity and discipline of their workers. Labor unions respond to issues differently. This is explained by the differences in industrial relations contexts and also policies of different states as well as strategies of the various employers around the country.

Employees come together to form a labor union to achieve a common goal. Labor unions have several goals. Some of the goals include agitating for higher retirement benefits as well as other benefits for its members. They also seek to increase the number of workers assigned for specific job tasks. They ensure that employees work under good and…


Baglioni, G. And C. Crouch (eds.) (1990) European Industrial Relations. The Challenge of Flexibility (London: Sage).

Barrow, C. (2013). Industrial Relations Law. New York: Routledge.

Blanpain, R. (2007). Decentralizing Industrial Relations and the Role of Labor Unions and Employee Representatives. New York: Kluwer Law International.

Blanpain, R., & Baker, J. (2010).Comparative Labor Law and Industrial Relations in Industrialized Market Economies. New York: Kluwer Law International.

Employee Involvement and Workplace Productivity
Words: 1682 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6769762
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Lastly, Cummings and Worley (2007) surmise that employee involvement can also "improve capabilities of employees thus enabling them to perform better" (p. 353). The authors give the example that when organizations wish to increase their employee participation in decision making, this strategy must be accompanied by skill training in communication and group problem solving (p. 353).

All three of these facets improve employee satisfaction and well-being, due to an improved work environment and a more rewarding job. In a cyclical nature, improved productivity also increases satisfaction, especially when there are greater rewards associated with this increased productivity. Improved employee satisfaction, that's a result of employee involvement strategies and increased productivity, can have a secondary impact on the organization. This high level of employee satisfaction can further positively affect productivity by attracting the best employees and help ensure the retention of these valuable organizational resources (Cummings and Worley, 2007, p.…


Cummings, T.G., & Worley, C.G. (2007). Organization Development and Change (8th ed.). s.l.: Academic Internet Publ.

Rosso, a. (Oct 2010). "Awakening corporate soul." Collector, 76(3). p. 18-20.

The influence of employee involvement on productivity: A review of research -- June 2000. (22 Jun 2006). Retrieved December 6, 2010, from

Wolf, E. & Zwick, T. (Apr 2008). "Reassessing the productivity impact of employee involvement and financial incentives." Schmalenbach Business Review, 60(2). o. 160-181.

Union Labor Contemporary Voices Routinely
Words: 3659 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 59545153
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To intimidate striking workers or escort strike breakers, workers who would replace the individuals striking, across picket lines some employers contracted private companies like the Pinkerton Detective Agency.

The United States Department of Labor reports that the Coal Strike of 1902 proved to be a turning point in U.S. policy. On October 3, 1902, to address the strike in the Pennsylvania anthracite coal fields that he perceived to threaten a coal famine, President Theodore oosevelt resolved to end the strike by setting a precedent for the Federal Government's interventions. After a bitter battle, with President oosevelt's intervention, both sides of the coal labor dispute agreed to the findings of the Anthracite Coal Strike Commission. As a result, labor and industry accepted that the public possessed overriding rights as well as vital interests. President oosevelt's voice and negotiation skills returned peace to the coalfields (the Coal Strike of 1902…, 2010).



A Brief History of the Labor Movement. (2006). NPR. Retrieved March 8, 2010 from 

Florida State Union. (2009). Retrieved March 8, 2010 from 

Greenhouse, S. (2010). Most U.S. union members are working for the government, new datashows. The New York Times. Retrieved March 8, 2010 from 

History at the Department of Labor. (2010). United States Department of Labor.

Productiveness of Labor
Words: 1465 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59341293
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Surplus Value

The part of the working day that is required only to produce the value paid by the capitalist that is equal to the labor-power has been considered as being the constant magnitude by the Marxian economists, provided the current conditions of production and at a particular stage of economic develop is a specific time period. Beyond that particular period of time, the necessary labor-time, the laborer can work up to any number of hours. For example, the worker might be working for 2,3,4,6 and so on hours in a day. It is important to note here that the length of a single working day and the rate of surplus value are dependent on the value of the prolongation of total working hours in a day. Even though the necessary labor-time is considered to be constant in this matter, it is seen that the total working hours in a…

Long-Term Productivity in Business Workers and Machinery
Words: 4500 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75261973
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Long-Term Productivity in Business orkers and Machinery

Productivity is important to every kind of business. This does not mean that every possible bit of work has to be squeezed out of every single worker until they drop into an exhausted heap on the assembly line. Indeed, this would certainly not be productive because having to replace on a continual basis workers who quit from being exhausted - not to mention having to settle disability suits - is hardly the goal of any business.

Productivity means getting the most out of one's machines and workers on a long-term basis. Sometimes this means that everyone has to put in overtime. Sometimes this means that people need to spend an afternoon staring out the window and thinking up new ideas. It all depends upon the business involved and the stage of a project that business and that worker is at.

Something that every…

Works Cited

Ackoff, Russell & Patrick Rivett. A Manager's Guide to Operations Research. New York: John Wiley, 1963.

Anton, C. And Anton. D. ISO 9000: 2000 Survival Guide. San Francisco: AEM Consulting Group, 2000.

Brunsson, N. And Jacobsson, B. A World of Standards. Oxford: Oxford University, 2000.

Buffa, Elwood. Operations Management. New York: John Wiley, 1976.

Economics Productivity and Unemployment Given
Words: 317 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94866142
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The likely effects of increasing productivity on equilibrium GDP will be an increase in the sum total of the Gross Domestic Product. Improving technology and subsequently reducing output costs as a result is likely to decrease the risk of inflation in the short run, just as during the 1970s, increasing the input costs of oil resulted in increased inflation. However, if the economy continues to overheat, as producers produce more goods, employ more workers, and workers spend more of their salaries on more and more goods, inflation may be a concern in the long-term. This is especially true, given the currently high levels of unemployment, which means many people are unemployed and many workers have not gotten raises recently, thus they may spend a great deal if prices go down in the short run and their…

Fair Labor Standards Act
Words: 7038 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35805820
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Human esources: Fair Labor Standards Act

An Examination of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 and Its Implications for American Workers Today

Although most Americans take for granted the wide range of social programs that are in place for their protection, many of these initiatives are fairly recent in origin, but one that has been around for quite some time is the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. The legislation established a minimum standard wage and a maximum work week of 40 hours in industries that were engaged in interstate commerce. The implications of the Act were profound, and today, in what has become a classic pattern over the years, calls for increases to the federal minimum wage are followed by impassioned cries from industry leaders that such an initiative will do more to harm business than it will to help minimum-wage workers. ather than routinely bankrupt America's businesses,…


An overview of the Fair Labor Standards Act. (2005). U.S. Office of Personnel Management.

Retrieved May 12, 2005 from .

Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Cocheo, S. (2004). Banks Must Labor to Comply with New Overtime Rules; Fair Labor

Weber and Marx on Labor in the
Words: 2981 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67220502
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eber and Marx on Labor

In the 19th century, leading social theorists such as Karl Marx and Max eber believed that because its many inherent contradictions, the capitalist system would inevitably fall into a decline.

More than a century later, however, the capitalist system is far from dead. Rather, it appears to be further entrenched, encircling the world in the stranglehold of globalization.

Despite the continued growth of capitalism, however, this paper argues that both Marx and eber's writings remain relevant to explaining many aspects of advanced industrial capitalism. In this paper, the Marx and eber's writings on estranged labor are explored in detail, to examine if the labor theories both men used to analyze capitalism and the plight of workers in the 19th century can also be applied to 21st century capitalism.

The first part of this paper discusses Marx's theory of estranged labor, as written in The Economic…

Works Cited

Alarcon-Gonzales, Diana and Terry McKinley, "The adverse effects of structural adjustments on working women in Mexico" Latin American Perspectives, 26, 3, May 1999, 103-117. Available from Proquest Database.

A ore, Tom, ed. A Dictionary of Marxist Thought. Second Edition. London: Basil Blackwell, 1991.

Coser, Louis. Masters of Sociological Thought. New York: Harcourt Brace Janovich, 1977.

Lee, Matthew T. And Ermann, David. "Pinto madness as a flawed landmark narrative: an organization of and network analysis." Social Problems, Feb 1999 v46 i1 p30(1). Proquest Database.

Employee Productivity as a Function
Words: 812 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 51477320
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Adopting the program that enables employees to work from home by accessing their work pc is an innovative and inexpensive method to boost productivity by having employees leave work early or at their leisure to attend to personal matters. The best application is to have the employee on salary to effectively enable this form of work-life flexibility.

Dual career couples at different stages does pose an issue due to the burgeoning family rearing responsibilities and professional induced stress disorders. If the woman is a senior with 10 or more years of experience and the man is less experienced the problems associated are not as severe as if the man were working more due to experience than the woman. A man that works over 50 hours a week will create additional stress in managing the family on the woman. This in turn will lower her productivity at work and potentially create…


Park, Y. "The Second Paycheck to Keep Up with the Joneses: Relative Income Concerns and Labor Market Decisions of Married Women. " Eastern Economic Journal 36.2 (2010): 255-276. ABI/INFORM Global, ProQuest. Web. 12 Dec. 2010.

Papanek, H. "Men, Women, and Work: Reflections on the Two-Person Career" the American Journal of Sociology Vol. 78, No. 4, Changing Women in a Changing Society (Jan., 1973), pp. 852-872 (article consists of 21 pages) Published by: The University of Chicago Press Stable URL:

Understanding the History and the Roles of the Labor Department
Words: 2198 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3975939
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United States Department of Labor

Department of Labor is a Cabinet branch of government. Its role is to secure occupational safety, wage considerations, and other working conditions of the American workers. The department sets out plans for how the workers and other wage earners in the country are treated. The body was first formed in the year 1884. It was given the mandate and power to manage the workforce by the Congress. It was during a special meeting of the U.S. Congress that the decision to come up with this body was passed. Once started, the body began collecting economic data two years later and has since been using the data to produce economic policies regarding the welfare of the workers in America. The other issues that this body deals with include making up the rules to be played by the workers in a country. Every state has a department…


Arnesen, E. (2007). Encyclopedia of U.S. Labor and Working-class History, Volume 1. Taylor & Francis

Arnesen, E., Greene, J., & Laurie, B. (1998). Labor Histories: Class, Politics, and the Working Class Experience. University of Illinois Press

Bayou Lawn and Landscaping Services v. Secretary of Labor. From 

Casil A.S. (2005). The Department of Labor. The Rosen Publishing Group

Organized Labor in U S Commercial
Words: 3198 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 67577375
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43 in 2009. Yet current airframe and power plant mechanics are inclined to move to the computer and automotive sector for better work environment. Analysts advised the creation and use of informational recruiting tools to attract these potential workers. in-house training programs on long-term career growth and a sense of commitment to the company would be one form. Another could be employee-retention programs on leadership, technical, and management training courses. Other tools and strategies could be flexi-time, relocation benefits and an improved work environment. Recent mergers and consolidations within the industry are meant to retain employees and serve a wide range of customers. The technology-driven industry requires mechanics with the necessary technological competence in order to provide the wide range of services required by customers. A resourceful information management system could integrate e-business tools and advanced technology into standard business practices. This integration would bring about more efficient and cost-effective…


Airguide Online (2006). North America. Airline News: Pyramid Media Group, Inc.

Retrieved on December 28, 2008 at;col1 

Air Safety Week (2008). Controllers declare "staffing emergency" in Atlanta,

Chicago, New York and Southern California. Access Intelligence, LLC: Gale, Cengage

Emotional Labor the Concept of
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The emotional health of the patients is viewed to be important for their health. For nurses this is viewed to be part of the job. The emotional stress comes due to their attempt to benefit the patients. Yet there are differences in the quality of work at different times, and they have to maintain a cool outlook throughout. Sometimes there are interactions with angry, hostile or uncooperative patients and this causes them more problems. (Emotional vs. Physical Labor: The demand of using emotions as a job duty) Thus it can be said that interaction with other men or women lead to this emotional stress and it seems that it cannot be avoided.


Castro, a.B. Emotional vs. Physical Labor: The demand of using emotions as a job duty. American Journal of Nursing. March, 2004; Vol: 104, No: 03. etrieved at Accessed on 22 May, 2005

Clinical Empathy as Emotional…


Castro, a.B. Emotional vs. Physical Labor: The demand of using emotions as a job duty. American Journal of Nursing. March, 2004; Vol: 104, No: 03. Retrieved at . Accessed on 22 May, 2005

Clinical Empathy as Emotional Labor in the Patient-Physician Relationship. JAMA. 2005; No: 293; pp: 1100-1106. Retrieved at  on 22 May, 2005

Emotional Labor Stresses Employees. January 7, 2000. Retrieved at . Accessed on 22 May, 2005

Emotional Labor: Why Women May Have to Work Harder to Get to the Top at Law Firms. Spirituality & Health: The Soul/Body Connection. January/February 2005. Retrieved at . Accessed on 22 May, 2005

Cleveland Orchestra Workers' Strike Labor
Words: 2729 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18934515
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This amount of leverage is rare in more standardized industries where management can break pickets with contract labor.

We see them affecting public opinion through their press releases and media control, which portrays management as derisive. This attempts to pinch off donations, which is a battle of attrition that will hurt the musicians in the end, but they are willing to sacrifice this in order to win the race to the bottom they portray management has gamed them into. We see the musicians trying to build goodwill by donating ten performances a year, which is a direct pay issue analogous to taking work home in other industries, but which makes them appear reasonable and eager to work. Promising to reschedule missed concerts follows this type of P strategy.

5. Without actually attending meetings at the table or on the shop floor, we have to speculate about many of the obstacles…


Horowitz, J. (23 Jan. 2010). Looking Beyond the Cleveland Strike. The Unanswered Question,

Arts Journal. Retrieved from

Rathbun, J. (17 Jan. 2010). Strike Statement. Cleveland Orchestra Musicians Archive for 2010.

Retrieved from

International Labor Organization History and Feasibility of
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International Labor Organization: History And Feasibility of Standards

When it comes to the promotion of social justice and the enhancement of labor rights, the relevance of the International Labor Organization (ILO) cannot be overstated.

This text will concern itself with the history of this crucial organization and the feasibility of international labor standards. Further, the paper will address not only the advantages but also the disadvantages of standards.

The ILO describes itself as "the international organization responsible for drawing up and overseeing international labor standards" (ILO, 2012). On its Website, the ILO clearly defines its history from the time it was formed/created to its earlier days and recent times. Formed in 1919, the ILO was originally "part of the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War 1" (ILO, 2012). According to the organization, a number of considerations at the time led to its formation. These considerations were largely of a…


Budd, J.W. (2004). Employment with a Human Face: Balancing Efficiency, Equity, and Voice. New York: Cornell University Press.

McElrath, R.G. (Ed.). (2003). Monitoring International Labor Standards: Summary of Domestic Forums. Washington, DC: National Academic Press.

The International Labor Organization -- ILO (2012). International Labor Organization: Promoting Jobs, Protecting People. Retrieved July 19, 2012, from the International Labor Organization website: -- en/index.htm

Wage and Benefit Determination Individuals Supply Labor
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Wage and Benefit Determination

Individuals supply labor to the market at a price called the wage rate of labor. How much labor an individual supplies is related to his level of non-labor income, and cost benefits determination of time spent at leisure, vs. work.

A union can raise the wages of those who continue to be employed in a competitive labor market at the expense of the level of employment. So if the competitive equilibrium is at E0 and the wage is w0 employment is q0. If a union enters this market and sets a wage of W1, a new equilibrium will be established, e1. The supply curve has become w1xs0. At the new wage, W1, there will be q1q2 workers who would like to work but whom the industry will not hire. Employment will be q1. The decrease in employment due to wage increase is q1q2

Minimum wage is…

Work Although European Productivity Levels
Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43902054
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The United States would be better off shifting its labor policies and practices towards those extant in Europe. Some practices that would seem to decrease worker output may in the long run lead to increased productivity. For example, longer vacation times, mandatory paid vacation time, restrictions on overtime, and shorter work weeks would reduce burnout and stress significantly. Similarly, labor laws should empower workers to a greater degree to offer more job satisfaction. orkers who are secure in their jobs are more likely to view their careers as long-term investments in their personal success and performance and are therefore more likely to perform better in the long run. America generally creates its economic and social policies for short-term gains rather than long-term objectives. The results may look good on paper but in reality, Americans suffer from a range of health and quality of life problems that are not as common…

Works Cited

Cette, Gilbert. "Are Productivity Levels Higher in Some European Countries than in the United States?" IDEAS. Retrieved April 16, 2009 from 

The Conference Board. "European Union Shows Productivity Gains, But U.S. Continues To Lead." Retrieved April 17, 2009 from 

The Economist Intelligence Unit. "The Economist Intelligence Unit's Quality of Life Index." 2005. Retrieved April 17, 2009 from

Does Profit Sharing Increase Productivity
Words: 3531 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7250869
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profit sharing. The writer examines the history of the concept and whether or not profit sharing improves productivity. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.

The economic slump in America the last few years has been counter productive for employee morale. The workers who have faced lay offs, pay reductions and removal of overtime are having a hard time finding a reason to work hard and stay focused on productivity. When the slump is over, and the economy picks up as it historically does, there will be more jobs than workers and this will present a whole new problem with productivity. egardless of the circumstances businesses nation wide are looking for ways to increase the productivity that is being put out by their employees. One of the methods being used to do this is profit sharing. Profit sharing is something that companies offer across the nation. The way…


Cohn, Theodore, and Roy A. Lindberg (1984). Practical Personnel Policies for Small Business. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.

Deshpande, Satish P., and Damodar Y. Golhar (1994). "HRM Practices in Large and Small Manufacturing Firms: A Comparative Study," Journal of Small Business Management (April), 49-55.

Employment Management Association (1994). National Cost Per Hire Survey. Raleigh, N.C.: Employment Management Association mez-Mej'a, Luis R., David B. Balkin, and Robert L. Cardy (1995). Managing Human Resources. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.

Granovetter, Mark (1984). "Small is Bountiful: Labor Markets and Establishment Size," American Sociological Review 49, 323-334.

Social Networking: Using Social Media and Networking to Address Productivity Issues

Using Social Media and Networking to Address Productivity Issues: Social Networking

Walmart is the world's largest retailer, and the world's largest company by revenues. Its success over the years draws largely from its mission of providing everyday low prices to enable consumer live better. Despite its inherent success, however, Walmart faces serious problems in regard to unfair labor practices and customer satisfaction in product offerings. This text demonstrates how social media and social networking technologies could be used to address these problems.

Using Social Media and Networking to Address Productivity Issues: A Case Study of Walmart

Walmart is the world's largest retailer, and the largest company by revenues. Starting off with Sam Walton's idea of offering everyday low prices in the 1960s, the company grew to become one of the world's most valuable brands, operating in over 27 countries,…


Adler, N. & Gundersen, A. (2008). International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson Learning Inc.

Brunn, S. D. (2006). Walmart World: The World's Biggest Corporation in the Global Economy. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Ferrell, O. C., Fraedrich, J. & Ferrell, J. (2009). Business Ethics 2009 Update: Ethical Decision-Making and Cases (7th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

Gandolfi, F. & Stratch, P. (2009). Retail Internalization: Gaining Insights from the Walmart Experience in South Korea. Review of International Comparative Management, 10(1), 187-199.

Improving Teamwork Productivity and Labor
Words: 413 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50017588
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5 Why's Root Cause Analysis

1. Why won't workers share their floor secrets with management?

Because management does not respect them, and holds all the power in the relationship.

2. Why does management not respect the employees?

Because management holds all the power in the relationship and does not need to respect the employees

3. Why does management hold all the power in the relationship?

Because the organization is structured hierarchically

4. Why is the organization structured hierarchically?

Because the company has been around since 1903 and change is difficult.

5. Why is change difficult?

Because it entails radical transformations in organizational culture

Root Cause: Management is afraid of making radical transformations in organizational culture that would encourage participation and collaboration.

Future/Desired State:

Tangible Benefits: Measurable outcomes (increased productivity on the floor = more pumps produced at lower cost to the company; increased sales; greater share of the market)


Reducing Operational Costs Focus on Labor Expenses Burn Care Unit
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Burn-Care Unit: Reducing Operational Costs- Focus on Labor Expenses

1.0. Executive Summary

To remain relevant in the long-term, the Burn-Care Unit ought to adopt either of these two strategies, or combine both in a hybrid mix: reduce costs or boost the current level of revenues while keeping the current cost levels constant. The most viable strategy for an organization of this nature would be to rein in costs via the adoption of an effective cost minimization strategy or approach. It is important to note, from the onset, that being a reputable burn-care facility at the national level, there is need for the Burn-Care Unit to maintain the integrity of its processes as well as its operational efficiency, even as it seeks to minimize costs. For this reason, the relevance of embracing the most viable course of action towards the minimization of operational costs cannot be overstated. Reducing operational expenses, and…

Economics When Labor Demand Increases
Words: 527 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 33626348
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Transfer payments include welfare ($5) and UI ($2). Thus, net taxes are 12-7 = $5.

A c) Total planned investment is the new capital stock, so the increase in capital stock, plus depreciation. In this example new capital stock = 103-100 + 7 = $10.

A d) Real GDP = (C + I + G) / (1 + r) = (50+10+5) / (1.06) = 61.32 e) Total savings = Disposable income - consumption. Disposable income = GDP - Net Tax. Thus, DI = 65-5 = 60. Total savings = 60-50 = 10 f) Total leakages = Net taxes + Savings = 5 + 10 = 15 g) Total injections = I + G = 10 + 5 = 15

8-5) if the capital stock decreases, workers will be less efficient, which will reduce the production function. However, companies will adjust be reducing demand for labor. This will increase worker productivity.…

Management Action and Productivity Businesses in Developed
Words: 2475 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 22553671
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Management Action and Productivity

usinesses in developed countries tend to think of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a characteristic that is centered in their own businesses or, failing that, situated in the industries of wealthier nations. The CSR movement is substantively skewed in the direction of the developed world where the motivation for adopting a CSR initiative is driven more by altruism -- or "enlightened self-interest" (Vogel 2006: 18) -- than profit margins. It is unusual to find a perspective that considers CSR from the perspective of a sourcing company. In the centrically-oriented corporate arena of the developed world, CSR is seen as originating with the company that establishes a supply chain with a multinational company -- not the other way around. In order to manage and control ethical issues arising from doing business with overseas markets, many corporations rely on a social compliance model (PricewaterhouseCoopers 2007).

The social compliance…


Buying your way into trouble? The challenge of responsible supply chain management. 2004. Insight Investment, HBOS. London, UK: Acona Investment Consulting. Retrieved 

Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. 2008. Business Research Methods, 10th Ed. Edition, McGraw-Hill.

Environics International 3rd Annual CSR Monitor. 2002. (In November of 2003, Environics became GlobeScan Incorporated. [Press release] Retrieved 

Eslenshade, J. 2004. Monitoring Sweatshops: Workers, Consumers, & the Global Apparel Industry. Temple University Press.

Influence of Style of Management on Productivity and Efficiency Within the Organization
Words: 2875 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77839043
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Management on Productivity and Efficiency Within the Organization

Shaunna Cook

Craig McCoy

Applied esearch Project



In all organizations, the managers and the employees play an important role. In the present day, organizations experience and go through rapid technological changes, continuously, decreasing product life cycles, globalization, international global economic setting and also the extensive accessibility to information. As a result, in order for these organizations to continue surviving and being relevant in the market, style of management becomes a significant element in the success of the organization. The role of a manager as a leader within an organization can result in different styles of management. The different styles selected by the managers have an influence on the behavioral patterns within the organization, which in turn impacts the morale and motivation of the employee. As an overall effect, the managerial style influences the level of satisfaction…


Agbim, K. (2013). The Impact of Organizational Structure and Leadership Styles on Innovation. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 6(6), 56-63. Retrieved March 9, 2016, from 

Dorgan, S. J., Dowdy, J. J., & Rippin, T. M. (2006). The link between management and productivity. The McKinsey Quarterly.

Fry. (2003). Towards a Theory of Spiritual Leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 693-727.

Karimi, F., Hosseinzadeh, D., & Azizi, G. (2011). Relationship between Management Style and Productivity of Employees in Islamic Azad University-Islamshahr Unit. World Applied Sciences Journal, 12(10), 1685-1690.

Looking Into Impacts of International Labour Mobility on Australia
Words: 1143 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14102742
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International Labour Mobility on Australia

Migration of international individuals across various countries is becoming very common these days, which is imposing many global issues, such as social, cultural and economical, in both the sending and receiving states. The main agenda of migration is to reunite the family, help labour market, develop the nation and strengthen economy. Of all the people moving to Australia, 68% consists of skilled people whereas 32% are migrated through family visa streams. The number of people who migrate and their trends change from time to time, from smaller migration programmes mostly consisting of families in 1993-94 to large scale programme with an increased number of skilled people in 2013-14 (Migration programme statistics, n.d.). This paper explains the latest developments in international labour movement in Australia.

Trends of Australia's International Labour Mobility

The skilled visa stream was introduced for the individuals who have specific skills, education and…


Australia's Migration Trends 2013-14 (2014). [Online]. Accessed April 21, 2016, available at:

Bastia, T., 2013. Migration and inequality, Vol. 100. Routledge.

Johnson, D. and Turner, C., 2010. International Business: Themes and issues in the modern global economy. Routledge.

Migration programme statistics. (n.d.). [Online]. Accessed April 21, 2016, available at

Accounting A I Using Direct Labour Hours
Words: 1350 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 101465
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a) i) Using direct labour hours as the cost driver for the overhead costs, the following table presents the net profit calculation for each line of motorcycle:

Vroom plc

Total Profit


Direct labour









less DL

less Materials

Gross Profit

Less Overhead

Net Profit

Activity-based costing is designed to allocate overhead costs based on the resources that each activity consumes (The Economist, 2009). The key to activity-based costing is that the cost drivers are assigned differently, and in a manner that should better reflect actual resource usage than a cost driver that may be picked almost at random (Investopedia, 2013). Using ABC, the following are the net profit calculations for the three different products at Vroom.

Vroom plc

Total Profit
















Purchase orders






The Economist. (2009). Activity-based costing. The Economist. Retrieved November 12, 2013 from 

Investopedia. (2013). Activity-based costing. Investopedia. Retrieved November 12, 2013 from

Indiana Department of Labor
Words: 577 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43092399
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Divisions of This Department

Quality, Metrics and Statistics Division


Wage and Hour Division

List three things from each of the three divisions you learned from exploring the website

Quality, Metrics and Statistics Division

The Quality, Metrics and Statistics division reports on performance management within the state. They report of occupational illness, injury and fatalities within the state. They utilize six sigma related projects which reduces the amount of injury or illness dramatically within the workplace.

Workplace fatalities have steadily declined from 1992 which was the first year that statistics were collected. Fatalities have fallen from a high of 195 per year in 1994 to 127 fatalities per year in 2014.

Over the past three years, Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting related deaths has increased by nearly 40% from 16 in 2011 to 27 in 2014.


The Indiana Occupational Safety and Health Administration's primary responsibility is to help…

Removing Smoking in the Workplace Increases Productivity
Words: 2301 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 91781793
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emoving Smoking in the Workplace Increases Productivity

The purpose of this proposed study is to determine if removing smoking from the workplace has increased workplace productivity. The writer will explore the question by using a survey study method. The participants will include workers across the nation in varying levels of work and careers. The proposed study is designed to measure whether or not there is an increase in productivity since employers began refusing to allow smoking in the workplace environment. There are several factors involved in the study including a look at five previously published studies regarding smokers and their habits. In addition the writer explores some of the different concerns for productivity that have been studied throughout the years with regards to smokers including secondhand smoke damage, absenteeism and dollars lost. This proposal suggests the direct question of affect on productivity from the time workplaces began to ban smoking…


Robert A. Logan; Daniel R. Longo, Rethinking Anti-Smoking Media Campaigns: Two Generations of Research and Issues for the Next. Vol. 25, Journal of Health Care Finance, 06-01-1999, pp 77-90.

Gonz-z; M.L. Ballester Calabuig., Tuberculosis Related to Labor Activity in an Area of Valencia, Spain. Vol. 62 no, Journal of Environmental Health, 07-01-1999.

Greene, Robert E.; Williams, Phillip L., Indoor air quality investigation protocols.. Vol. 59, Journal of Environmental Health, 10-01-1996, pp 6(9).

Dardis, Rachel; Keane, Thomas, Risk-benefit analysis of cigarette smoking: public policy implications.. Vol. 29, Journal of Consumer Affairs, 12-01-1995, pp 351(17).

Marketing Equilibrating Process in Labor
Words: 745 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41546292
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Whether equilibrium is characterized by market clearing or not depends on which equilibrating forces are free to operate in the labor market in question. In the standard labor market models, three fundamental equilibrating forces are postulated. irst, firms are free to hire as many or as few workers as they want depending on wages and other conditions of employment. Second, workers are free within limits to move from one market to another or into and out of the workforce depending on wages and other conditions of employment. And third, the wage paid is free to rise or fall depending on supply and demand conditions. When all three of these equilibrating forces are free to move, the labor market is expected to clear in equilibrium. Wages and employment will therefore reflect supply and demand conditions.

Beyond these barriers to equilibration, which are ubiquitous, there are also settings in which one of…

Finally, a fundamental aspect of labor market economics is that labor markets do not operate in isolation. Wages and employment levels in one geographic area, occupation, or skill group are determined not just by conditions in that labor market but by conditions in other labor markets as well.

Abowd, John M., Francis Kramarz and David N. Margolis. (1999). "High Wage Workers and high Wage Firms." Econometrica, 67(2): p. 251-334.

Bontemps, Christian, Jean-Marc Robin and Gerard J. van den Berg. (1999). "An Empirical Equilibrium Job Search Model with Search on the Job and Heterogeneous Workers and Firms." International Economic Review, 40(4): p. 1039-1074.

Work Disability in Small Firms Chapter II
Words: 3770 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Chapter Paper #: 26039394
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Work Disability in Small Firms Chapter II

Work disabled ChII Lit Review

Review of Literature Demonstrates Information Gap and Identifies Methods

This chapter justifies the problem statement and research questions, and locates the results among existing research. Copious data and analysis describes pronounced unemployment for potential workers with disabilities and lower income where workers with disabilities are employed, compared to the general U.S. workforce, extensive policy intervention notwithstanding. Fewer studies focus on workers or potential workers with disabilities in the Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, Georgia metropolitan statistical area, and even at the national level, very few juried reports describe productivity and job satisfaction for workers with disabilities in firms smaller than fifteen employees. Firms with fewer than fifteen employees are exempt from compliance with Title I of the ADA, but stimulating employment for workers with disabilities in these firms may improve economic self-sufficiency for this historically disadvantaged population. Conversely, if productivity and…

Policy disincentives probably affect productivity, satisfaction and employment.

Where consensus agrees is around a strong disincentive to work if medical costs covered by Medicaid exceed the level of income qualifying them for SSDI reimbursement. As numerous experts, administrators and disability employment program consumers testified to the 111th U.S. Congress in 2009 (U.S. Congress, 2011), once an individual earns more than a threshold that qualifies them for Medicaid coverage, they have to pay their medical costs out of pocket, and if those costs are more than the new earnings plus the SSDI transfer income, then the result is negative earnings plus often considerable effort and expense getting to work along with the labor of work itself. The result, not surprisingly, is often that potential workers with disability live off $674 per month income support in order not to lose Medicaid eligibility by earning more than qualifies them for federal health care coverage, i.e. $940 in one month (C. Bates-Harris, qtd. In U.S. Congress, 2011, p. 23-25), if total earnings become less or negative covering medical costs out of pocket, especially given exclusion from insurance for the pre-existing condition that justified Medicaid coverage in the first place before the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). PPACA made such exclusion illegal, but the results are still too new for empirical analysis as yet. The perverse incentive generated by high-enough out-of-pocket medical costs meant that a potential worker with disability had to go from earning little enough to qualify for Medicaid, to enough that they could cover those costs out of pocket and also the foregone monthly income transfer. This might often mean many thousands of dollars per year or month if disability required ongoing medical attention, a situation experts often call the "Cash Cliff" (Tremblay, Porter, Smith and Weathers, 2011, p. 19) due to the abrupt income threshold.

Extensive testimony to Congress (2011) described problems within SSDI programs themselves. Income verification requirements where employment was successfully accomplished, for example, resulted in overpayment and then reversal of awarded transfers that left workers with obligations to reimburse SSDI for in one case $115,000 where a worker with psychiatric disability had benefits retroactively revoked for the prior six years, for "sporadically, very occasionally exceeding the substantial gainful activity level by small amounts, due to his disability, and there is no dispute that he reported his work attempts" (Landry, Anderson, Lacava and Bronstein, qtd. In 111th Congress, 2011, p. 88). Another was overpaid $60,000; another over $56,000; none of these individuals have worked since, which their program administrators attributed to their

Growth Rate Slow Model 1992 Is an
Words: 2590 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79942475
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Growth ate

Slow model (1992) is an economic tool used to analyze a country economic growth. The principal conclusion of Slow model is that the accumulation of capital could not only account for the growth rate per person. To address the central question of economic growth, it is critical to move beyond the Slow model. Mankiw et al. (1992) incorporate economic tools such as FDI growth rate, trade, inequality, institutional quality and other core variables such as labor and capital to analyze the growth rate across countries,.

Objective of this paper is to use the core economic variables and non-core economic variables to investigate their potential impacts on the United States growth rates.

Overview of the United States Growth ates

The United States is the largest and most powerful economy in the world. Presently, the U.S. has the highest level of output with the country GDP valued more than U.S.$14…


Andrew, W. (2007). The link between institutional quality and economic growth: evidence from a panel of countries. Master's Thesis.

Country Watch (2012).United States Economic Overview. CountryWatch, Inc.

Freckleton, M. Wright, A. & Craigwell, R.(2012). Economic growth, foreign direct investment and corruption in developed and developing countries. Journal of Economic Studies. 39 ( 6):639 -- 652.

Kornecki, L. & Borodulin, V.(2011). Foreign Direct Investment Stock Contributes to Economic Growth in the U.S. Economy. Department of Economics, Finance, and Information System.

Management Relationships Between Motivation and Economics
Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77491607
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Apple is a huge company with a rewards program for companies to buy and give gifts to their employees and potential business partners. But Apple doesn't just provide benefits for other employees, they also have a host of benefits for their own employees. Some of which make working for Apple a rewarding experience. Some of the benefits are traditional, like a 401 (k) Plan with company match, others are unique like a Cafe that features a host of organic and local ingredients. This essay is meant to discuss the benefits along with the possible implications of such benefits that companies like Apple generate from giving back to their employees.

As discussed in the textbook, Understanding Organizational Behavior, employees are the heart of a company and business should opt to encourage and retain quality employees for as long as possible. Chapter 1 starts with a brief discussion into the importance of…


Jensen, J. (2011). Can worksite nutritional interventions improve productivity and firm profitability? A literature review. Perspectives in Public Health, 131(4), 184-192. Doi: 10.1177/1757913911408263

Nelson, D., & Quick, J. (2005). Understanding organizational behavior. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-Western.

Norsworthy, J., & Zabala, C. (1990). WORKER ATTITUDES AND THE COST OF PRODUCTION: HYPOTHESIS TESTS IN AN EQUILIBRIUM MODEL. Economic Inquiry, 28(1), 57-78. doi:10.1111/j.1465-7295.1990.tb00803.x

Neoclassical Model Four Uncaged Tigers
Words: 5182 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 88730794
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) I will etun to the stengths and limitations of gowth accounting as a tool to use to assess the economic development of these nations below.

Gowth Accounting

Gowth accounting is an economic method designed to measue the elative and absolute contibutions of diffeent factos to economic gowth and development. Developed by Robet Solow in 1957, this methodological appoach disaggegates o decomposes the diffeent elements of economic gowth. The most impotant assumption of this method is that the goss output of an economy can be analyzed into inceases in the ange of factos (pimaily inceases in labo and in capital) and which cannot be accounted fo by discenible changes in the utilization of these factos.

Anothe way of explaining Solow's model is this: The unexplained pat of gowth in an economy's GDP is best undestood as a simple incease in poductivity, with poductivity being defined in common-sense tems as achieving…


For example, when I examine the data that Sarel (1996) finds inconclusive (he writes that the labor and capital accumulation vs. total factor productivity debate remains inconclusive") I find to be entirely conclusive -- in the direction of an exogenous model that is based on an assessment of factor accumulation rather than a reliance on a significant element of technological innovation as prompted by government incentive and intervention. But Sarel is impelled to ask what might have been the effect of governmental intervention and to investigate how these may have interacted with initial conditions that obtained. Taking into account only those factors that lie outside of governmental influence simply does not make sense to him (or other non-neoclassical economists), even when the picture is in fact complete. Sarel (1996) concludes:

The study does not offer clear and conclusive results nor does it make clear policy recommendations. Its main judgment is that, from a positive point-of-view, a promising avenue for the explanation of growth performance is the examination of initial conditions. Nevertheless, from a normative point-of-view, it is far from clear what specific policies governments should pursue, beyond the standard set of policies aimed at getting the basics right.

I find it fascinating that Sarel should be impelled to try to divine -- like someone seeking water with a forked stick -- the (beneficial) effects of governmental influence in the Four Tigers as necessary to understand how these nations might have accomplished the level of growth that they have.

In other words, Sarel sees the hand of the national governments even when there is no good factual evidence for this. This does not mean that his scholarship should be considered in any way to be dishonest. Rather, I am simply using his work (which raises important questions) as a demonstration of the ways in which initial assumptions and beliefs about the nature of markets (and about human nature) affect how we read economic indices.

Intermediate Goods as the Name
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As such, the amount repaid to the lender does not accurately reflect adjustments in its purchasing power. To compensate, nominal interest rates float; they change with inflation rates. Real interest rates, on the other hand, do factor in inflation rates. With this type of return rate, the borrower experiences an increase in purchasing power.

9. Cyclical unemployment arises out of a nation's reduction in productivity; it occurs when an economy produces less. Logically, this type of unemployment explodes during recessions and falls during times of recovery and/or prosperity; it follows the business cycle. Structural unemployment refers to a decreased demand of workers; it may be due to increased automation, outdated skills, or geographical incongruencies. Frictional unemployment occurs when workers are in between jobs; it is by nature temporary unemployment and reflects ordinary transitions in the labor market.

11. There exists a close relationship between technological change and the growth rate…

Future Outlook of the US Economy
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future evolution of the American economy is closely related not only to the 1990-2000 period, that covered one of the most prolific economic expansion in history, but also the subsequent turn of events brought about by the first ush administration. I am obviously referring here to the economic recession brought about by the tragic events of September 11 and by the economic cycles following the economic boom of the 90s, to the fiscal policy adopted by the American administration that relied heavily on debt and large fiscal deficits and to the monetary policy involving a reduction to minimum levels (1%) of the interest rate, so as to encourage a rebound of the economic processes.

The beginning of the 90s brought about a new president, ill Clinton, for whom the campaign slogan "it's the economy, stupid" became an actual concept. President Clinton would become the equivalent of the 90s growth and…


1. The U.S. economy: a brief history. On the Internet at

2. Jorgenson, Dale; Ho, Mun S.; Stiroh, Kevin. Projecting Productivity Growth: Lessons from the U.S. Growth Resurgence. November 2002. On the Internet at 

3. Productivity Trends in the U.S. And Europe. May 2003

4. Pearce, David. At long last the future really is now.

Jobless Recovery
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Jobless Recovery


Why Jobless Recovery?

The economic slowdown, according to the National ureau of Economic Research (NER), that the United States experienced in 2001 transpired for eight months between March and November (ernanke, 2003). Many Americans witnessed a modest decline in the economy, which, however, also started to pick up moderately after eight months.

Despite of the moderate performance of the economy in recovering from the period of recession, the labor market showed a very slow improvement. This is the reason why the economists describe the recovery following the March-November economic downturn a "jobless recovery." Other sectors of the economy are starting to improve and are making progress while many Americans remained jobless. There has been a weak labor market during the period when the economy is resuming growth.

Five Possible Explanations for the Slow Recovery of Labor (From ernanke's speech)

ernanke, in his speech, mentioned several possible explanations…


Bernanke, Ben. The Jobless Recovery.

The Federal Reserve Board. 07 Dec 2003. 

Wessel, David. Productivity Gains: Never Bad, Even for American Workers. 07 Dec 2003.,%20July-Dec/2003-08-21,%20Productivity%20Gains%20 -- %20Never%20Bad,%20Even%20for%20American%20Workers.PDF

Offered to Explain Aspects of
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Fundamentally, hygiene factors are required to make sure a worker is not dissatisfied. Motivation factors are desired to motivate a worker to higher performance. Herzberg also further classified peoples actions and how and why they do them, for instance, if one performs a work related action because they have to then that is ranked as movement, but if one performs a work related action because they want to then that is ranked as motivation (Scheid, 2010).

The principles of Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene theory have been applied to a wide variety of factors influencing worker satisfaction. These factors comprise: working circumstances, quality of supervision, salary, status, security, company, job, company policies and interpersonal associations (Two Factor Theory -- Herzberg, Frederick, 2011). In the application of Motivation-Hygiene theory to this study of employee attendance and satisfaction, the factor that will be looked at is that of onsite childcare programs.

Utilizing this theory in…


Child Care & Parent Productivity: Making the Business Case. (2004). Retrieved from 

Employee Survey Use & Design. (2011). Retrieved from

Evans, Joel R. And Mathur, Anil. (2005). The value of online surveys. Retrieved from

Russell, Matthew. (2007). Strengths and Weaknesses of Research Designs. Retrieved from

Macroeconomic Issues That Determine the
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Both saving on a microeconomic sense and saving on a macroeconomic sense entail taking he long-term view into perspective for it means surrendering immediate gratification for achieving long-term goals, sometimes -- as in the microeconomic context -- for individuals not rated to us and for the greater good as well as for generations to come.

As Keynesian model shows, the nation can benefit more by placing its focus on domestic activities than on borrowing from foreign countries. By producing government bonds that have high interest rates and, subsequently, by encouraging citizens to invest in the nation's benefit, the nation only helps itself by providing more technology and more opportunity that opens up more room for employment and hence opportunity to slip out of its recession when times are difficult economically. Capital and labor are the basic inputs for goods and services, and the resources for capital and labor comes from…


GAO. National Saving, 2001 

Romer, D. (2011) Advanced macroeconomics (3rd ed.), McGraw Hill: U.K.

Nominal Interest rate (I)

Economics Is the U S Really Recovering Faster
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Is the U.S. really recovering faster than the EEC and Japan-Asian trading partners?

The economic climate improved for all during the second half of 2003. owever, the U.S. recorded a more accelerated upturn during this period that many attribute to extensive tax cuts. Expansion in private consumption has been dramatic and business spending has also increased recently.

Japan's economy grew for a seventh quarter in Q3, 2003 the longest expansionary phase since 1997. Real growth came in at +.6% q/q, double the forecast. The economy expanded by 2.7%. In 2003, driven by exports and private capital investment. owever, deflation is set to continue, albeit at a lower pace, and the general government deficit is expected to exceed 7% of GDP for the next two years.

The performance of the Western European economy was weaker. After a prolonged phase of stagnation, signs of a gradual economic recovery became visible in…

Historically, GDP has increased in wealthy countries through productivity increases. Conversely, countries with a low productivity increase are among the poorest in the world.

Productivity differentials are the main cause of dispersion of per-capita income. Higher productivity first impacts profits. These profits are the basic source of increases in real wages and living standards. If production costs are not greater than increase in productivity, unit cost of production will be lower, opening the possibility for price decreases that will increase international competitiveness. Productivity growth is also an anti-inflationary force in that it offsets increases in nominal wages.

As evidence of the importance of productivity, researchers have estimated that about one-half of the productivity growth over the 1959-98 period was due to increases in the quantity of capital. The other half was due to increases in labor quality and improvements in efficiency.

UK Decline How Many Times
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Carrabine, Lee and South 193)

Industrial/Infrastructural Decline

As has been said before, the UK no longer makes anything, builds anything or sells anything tangible. The decline in industrial production has resulted in an overall decline in employment of industrial workers, who have not been aided by a failing system to transition to other work.

Some would say that the changes occurring in the UK, at this time with the increased importance of service industry work and intelligence rather than physical labor employment is a natural byproduct of globalization and an evolutionary product of the next phase as a "developed" nation.

They evidence this by observing that all developed nations are leaning in this direction. Yet, the transition has not and will not be easy, whether it is normal or not, a point which remains to be proven.


ith the education system in the UK in serious need of reform…

Works Cited


2002 Economic Report of the President Differences
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2002 Economic Report of the President

Differences in Structural TFP

The President's Economic Report (the "Report") claims that "structural labor productivity growth and TFP ("Total Factor Productivity") growth remained strong through 2001. This growth argues that the New Economy remains alive and well." See the Report, at 60-61.

The structural TFP growth differed between the time periods of 1973-1995 and 1995-2001. ("TFP growth" is defined as "the increase in aggregate output over and above that due to increases in capital or labor inputs." Ibid.)

There are several reasons for this difference.

First, investments in information technologies added 0.60% to the increase in structural productivity growth after 1995.

Second, "the rate of growth of TFP in computer-producing industries" rose ("as evidenced by the rapid decline in computer prices.")

Finally, the change "captures the extent to which technological change and other business and workplace improvements outside the computer-producing industries have boosted productivity…

Classical Model the New Classical
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Therefore, this model is focusing on how an increase in labor productivity will lead to involuntary unemployment. The below chart is highlighting how this is occurring. (Fazzari)

The Radical Keynesian model thinks that output increases from higher levels of productivity. This is because demand is constrained and firms have to see an improvement in sales. However, they do not think that falling prices will restore full demand. This is because these declines will help them believe that prices will fall even further in the future (which restrains spending). This causes bankruptcies to increase and it is eroding the wealth of borrowers. These issues are forcing aggregate demand to remain the same instead of shifting outward. (Fazzari)

Since wages and prices are flat, they do not help to improve unemployment or output. This is from aggregate demand remaining the sluggish (which is making wages and price adjustments stagnant). In the future,…

Works Cited

Fazzari, Steven. "A Penny Saved May Not Be a Penny Earned." Post Keynesian Workshop. Kansas City, KS. Jun. 2004.

Fazzari, Steven. "Aggregate Demand and Firm Behavior." Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 20.4 (1998): 527 -- 560. Print.

Education Principles of Economics China's
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Most economists feel that if China's currency were allowed to trade freely, it would be a whole lot more. No one can know for sure how much more, but leading economists put it in a range of 10 to 40% higher value than it is now (Davidson 2006),

By keeping the Yuan artificially low in value, China is effectively giving the U.S. consumer a discount on all Chinese exports. By doing this they are discounting their own exports. This is good for many U.S. consumers because it allows them to buy cheaper clothes and electronics along with many other items. But on the other had it is bad for U.S. manufacturers who can't compete with low Chinese prices in the end. Some U.S. manufacturers have adapted by buying many component parts at a lower cost from China. The ability of a manufacturer to adapt depends on the company and the…


Amadeo, Kimberly. 2009. "China Economy." Available at: 

Borjas, George J. And Ramey, Valerie a. 2000. "Market Responses to Interindustry Wage

Differentials." Available at:

Stickley Furniture Case Study
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Stickley Furniture Page |

Case Study- Stickley Furniture

Case Study-Stickley Furniture

Operations Management Best Practices

type of production processing at stickley furniture

Production process of the stickley production proceeds by converting inputs into marketable outputs. The two main components involved during the process are transforming resources and transformed resources. The transforming resources are the agents that carry out the transformation process like building, machinery, computers and people. The transformed resources are the main inventory or raw material used during the transformation process to be converted into finished marketable goods. In successful production process series of processes are done into different levels and at each level value is added by the manufacturer to have optimum customer satisfaction and premium market presence. The value addition is not limited to just material and production but it is expanded to the distribution strategy, marketing strategy, packaging and convenience provided to the customer in product…


Anonymous, (2009) RFID Gains Ground on Barcode Systems, The Bangkok Post,


Byrne, Patrick M. (2004, September). RFID: Not just for Wal-Mart anymore. Logistics Management (2002) Vol. 43, Iss. 9; p. 31 (2 pages)

Holweg, Matthias (2007). "The genealogy of lean production." Journal of Operations Management 25 (2)

Human Resource Management Impacts on Organizations
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HRM -- HR -- Impacts on Organizations

hat are the best strategies for Human Relations Management (HRM) and Human Relations professionals (HRPs) to improve the performance of their employees? There are several important strategies that relate to that question, and they are reviewed in this paper.

The impact of Human Resource Management (HRM) on organizations is the subject of a peer-reviewed article in the International Journal of Human Resource Management (Dyer, et al., 1995). Dyer poses the questions at the outset as to whether several human resource strategies -- called "internally consistent bundles of human resource practices" -- actually make a contribution to organizational effectiveness. "Maybe" they do, Dyer responds to his own question. The background he alludes to shows that: a) in terms of labor productivity, bundles do show more effectiveness than single HR components; b) not all bundles are equally helpful, but some "configuration" of bundles do lower…

Works Cited

Bernadin, H.J., and Russell, J.E.A. (1998). Strategies for improving competitiveness: Quality,

Productivity, and Quality of Work Life. In Human Resource Management: An Experiential

Approach (2nd ed., pp. 334-365). Boston: Irwin McGraw Hill.

Caldwell, Cam, Truong, Do X, Linh, Pham T., and Tuan, Anh. (2010). Strategic Human