Labor Unions Essays Examples

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Labor Union Acts the Rights

Words: 1869 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27926544

This was certainly needed as technology has also evolved from time to time and the nature of labor that was being used in the 1920s or so is not the same as is the nature today. This is certainly commendable. Along with the changes in laws, the emphasis on labor and its problems have also been shifted out of the center stage and matters that were directly being dealt with by the Secretaries Office have shifted out. This shows clearly that importance of the problems of labor have now become of a much lower priority and this is also clearly seen in the patterns of development of American business and industry where many production units have transferred their labor problems by shifting them out of United States. The government has also clearly remained out of the ambit of labor laws as no laws are applicable to government laborers. Thus it is clear that the problem of labor, their unions and the need of dealing with them have been treated as a necessary evil and laws have been designed more with control of labor in mind than with providing them a sense of equal contribution to the development of society. In…… [Read More]

Norris-LaGuardia Act" Wikipedia. Retrieved at  2 September, 2005

Taft-Hartley Labor Act" (2001-05) The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. Retrieved at Accessed 2 September, 2005
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Labor Union & the American

Words: 1061 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8617727

Surveys have found that the public find business leaders to be more trustworthy than union leaders and many members of non-union families disapprove of unions. Other factors include the increased trend towards smaller sizes of new factories. Moreover, the American workforce has changed significantly in terms of composition, i.e. age, sex, education and race. Some cyclical phenomenon in the political, social and economic environment in the U.S. has also lead to the decline in union membership. These cyclical explanations for the decline include economic factors like the rising unemployment rates in the U.S., the mounting influence of the Republicans since 1952 in national politics, and the drop in class conflicts in the country. The unions also must take a major portion of blame for failure to deploy significant portions of their budgets for organizing new union activities. (Caplow; Bahr; Chadwick; Modell, 1994); (Goldfield, 1989)

As of 2006, only 12.5% of the current American workforce belongs to labor unions. This has had an adverse effect on the American worker's "right to organize and collectively bargain." Organized labor is the most effective way to curb the influence of corporate powers in the Congress, the most powerful method to force employers to provide…… [Read More]

Bennett, James T; Kaufman, Bruce E. (2002) "The future of private sector unionism in the United States" M.E. Sharpe.

Caplow, Theodore; Bahr, Howard M; Chadwick, Bruce A; Modell, John. (1994) "Recent Social
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Labor Union Democracy

Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92419817

Labor Democracy

Labor Unions a are combination of seemingly contradictory elements. On the one hand, labor unions are conceived of like an army with soldiers of labor winning battles in conflict with management. On the other hand, the membership looks upon them much like the high school debate team where everyone on the team expresses themselves. The leadership of the union many times feels like elected colonial militia officers with dozens or hundreds of soldiers whose loyalty he can not quite completely count upon and who may act like rank amateurs. In this short essay, the author will consider a case study in labor union democracy in the International Longshore and Warehouse Union (ILWU).


In a Politics & Society article, Levi et al. Points out that in Europe, scholars are more concerned about deliberation and membership involvement. Alternately, American scholars focus on procedural democracy and participatory democracy providing a model of the federal government's electoral institutions.

The authors of the ILWU study are not satisfied with procedural democracy however and rely upon the analysis of rank-and-file member participation in order to ensure union leadership accountability to membership. In such situations, scholars find that oligarchy still persists. Participatory democracy also…… [Read More]

Levi, M., Olson, D., Agnone, J., & Kelly, D. (2009). Union democracy reexamined. Politics Society,
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Labor Union Giving an Overview

Words: 3220 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15802917

The procedures, rules and regulations for creating the unions are varying in different parts of the world. Moreover, those labors are not accustomed to the working conditions, rules and regulations and provide less desirable attributes for labor works. Hill (2007) also explained with extensive research statistics for the establishment of union programs in different regions such as Mexico.Despite rules and regulations, the labors are forced to work as salves. They are not given the complete incentives that their job description offers. With this in mind, the labor unions continue to present an idea on its rapid growth so that labors can be given their rights with freedoms. According to Hill (2007), labor unions though provide some solutions for immigrant labors however; effective programs and measures are working towards the change that is needed by these unions (Hill, 2007). The formation of labor unions can be useful to control the illegal immigrations and to address the problem of short supply of workers in many areas such as hospitals, restaurants, hotels etc. However, on the other hand it is also essential that the problems of labor unions in this regard should be addressed seriously.

It is commonly considered that the youth of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Baldwin, R.E. (2002). The Decline of Us Labor Unions and the Role of Trade. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics.

This book depicts the history of labor unions and tells us the circumstances under most of the labor unions declined. It tells us about the role played by labor unions in the past and what were their failures due to which they faced their decline. Besides this, it also relates the labor unions with trade.
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Employee Representation a Labor Union Refers to

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79335944

Employee Representation

A labor union refers to an association of employees that have come together in pursuit of common goals, such as better pay. Labor relations are wider in scope; they refer to the interactions between the labor unions (employees' representatives) and employers - and usually deal with the maintenance of collective bargaining agreements.

Labor relations date way back to the formation of the very first significant unions: the Knights of Labor, the American Federation of Labor (AFL), and the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). The Knights of Labor, however, failed to achieve its objectives due to its large membership. AFL, unlike the other two, initially restricted its membership to skilled tradesmen. However, with the 1935 formation of CIO, which incorporated both skilled and unskilled laborers, conflicts resulted and the two unions later merged.

Question Three

Enacted in 1926 and later on expanded to rope in the airline industry, the Railway Labor Act provided a framework for the resolution of labor disputes in the two industries. It addressed issues of collective bargaining, employee representation, and the administration of contracts. The Wagner Act sought to facilitate the development of labor unions by ensuring that employers did not interfere with the operations…… [Read More]

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Trade Unions a Trade or Labor Union

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56405122

Trade Unions

A trade or labor union is a small committee or organization that consists of workers or laborers within a corporation, which works for the betterment of the organization in terms of securing its employees. Such unions try to achieve pre-set goals such as extended employee hiring when needed, increasing pays and incomes of the workers, providing other fringe benefits to the employees housing, medical, compensations, other allowances and leaves to the workers, proving fair and unbiased working environment in which no one is favored. Such organizations assure workers rights and legislations, bonus and promotion laws, pre-notices before firing and any other such benefits to safeguard the rights of employees as a beneficial part of the organization. Trade union exists in every part of the world and there are specific rules and regulations with respect to the working environment of a country.

For a trade union to be strong and effective, it is important that it attains certain modes of equality, ecological sustainability, and democracy. Equality guarantees sustainability; which is regarded as access to all fair shares of resources which provide a healthy quality of life. There are several such organizations in the world that are aimed for the…… [Read More]

Harcourt, M., & Wood, G.E. (2004). Trade unions and democracy: Strategies and perspectives. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

ILGA Europe. Trade Unions & LGBT Equality. Retrieved on 16/8/2012 from:
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Private Labor Union Enrollment Has

Words: 610 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46919047

They also stand to receive more from collective bargaining arrangements, because they are often negotiating with public officials who have a direct role in allocating funds for projects and salaries, versus the private sector, where wages and demand for labor is highly influenced by consumer demand. Private sector employees also know if that if they bargain too hard, the competitive nature of their organization may be compromised.

In Chapter 2 of the text Local government labor relations: A guide for public administrators entitled "Bargaining unit determination" by Joan E. Pynes and Joan M. Lafferty, the authors detail the nature of collective bargaining agreements. Employees who the LMRA requires to have separate representation (such as professional workers); individuals excluded from the definition of employee (such as children and spouses); employees who do not regularly perform the type of work of the bargaining unit; and employees whose interests are more closely aligned with management (such as supervisors, traditionally defined as workers with the power to hire, demote, and direct or workers who are closely associated with the managers who set labor policy, including secretaries) are all traditionally excluded from collective bargaining (Pynes & Lafferty 15-16; 23).

The laborers involved in collective bargaining…… [Read More]

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Union Management and Organization

Words: 2026 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69783218

Union Management and Organization

Historical and legal framework, which provides the foundations for the American system of labor / management relations

The current system of American labor relations and laws has undergone significant transformation dating back to the Great Depression. During the 1930s, the relationship between employers and employees were purely casual in nature. For instance, no employee was guaranteed of long-term job security. Employees lacked bargaining powers because employment was marked by short-term contract with limited paperwork. After the Great Depression, a legal framework relating to the implicit contracts between employers and employees was established. After the Second World War and up to the 1960s, a comprehensive and enforceable legal relationship between employers and employees had been established. This was a recipe of the current labor relation in the U.S. (Holley, Jennings, & Wolters, 2011).

The 1960s were the turning point of the current labor relations in the U.S. this period is marked by the comprehensive and detailed establishment of government labor policies. These policies were sensitive to the labor market conditions in shaping worker's employment. Prior to this, the Fair Labor Standards Act had to be established in 1938 because the government did have much control of the…… [Read More]

Holley, W.H., Jennings, K. M & Wolters, R.S. (2011). The Labor Relations Process. New York: Cengage Learning

Mathis, R.L., & Jackson, J.H. (2010). Human resource management. Mason, OH:
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Labor Law

Words: 2420 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94748679

Labor Law: Collective Bargaining

It is set out in 29 U.S.C. § 158: U.S. Code -- Section 158: Unfair Labor Practices that unfair labor practices by an employer include the following:

It is an unfair labor practice for an employer to:

(1) interfere with two or more employees acting in unison to protect rights that the Act provides for whether there is the existence of a Union or no existing union;

(2) to dominate or interfere with a labor union being formed or administered;

(3) to discriminate against employees for engaging in a union or union activities or alternatively from refraining from the same;

(4) to discriminate against an employee for the filing of charges with the N.L.R.B. Or to discriminate against an employee for taking part in any N.L.R.B. proceedings; and (5) to refuse to bargain with the union that is the lawful representative of an employee or employees. (29 U.S.C. § 158: U.S. Code -- Section 158: Unfair Labor Practices, Findlaw, 2012)

Historical Development of the N.L.R.A.

The work of William G. Rice, Jr. entitled "The Paradox of Our National Labor Law" writes that the goal of collective bargaining "is to stabilize or govern, the relation between an…… [Read More]

29 U.S.C. § 158: U.S. Code - Section 158: Unfair labor practices (2012) Find Law. Retrieved from:

Goldman, Alvin L. And Corrada, Roberto L. (2011) Labour Law in the U.S.A. Kluwer Law International, 4 Feb 2011.
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Labor and Union Case Study the Objective

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68427642

Labor and Union Case Study

The objective of this work in writing is to conduct a case study on labor and unions and to answer the questions of: (1) Is the grievance process an effective method for resolving workplace disputes? And (2) How would you suggest that unions and employers improve their ability to correctly interpret the collective agreement?

In the case study at focus, several employees have a discussion, which results in an altercation, and two employees are fired as a result. The employees were then advised that they could file a grievance. One of the employees, named Green met in the cafeteria with a representative of the Grievance Committee and related her side of the story and believed that by meeting with the Grievance Committee member that she had filed an official grievance. One week later the other employee, Swallows, was reinstated. When Green inquired about the grievance, she was informed that she had not filed a grievance. When she confronted the committee member she had met with she was informed by that individual that it was not his normal duty to file a grievance. Green held that her rights under the LMRA had been violated and subsequently…… [Read More]

Borrell, Charles A. (2006) How Unions Can Improve Their Success Rate in Labor Arbitration. All Business. Dispute Resolution Journal Feb-Apr 2006. Retrieved from:

Travis, Mark C. (nd) Improving the Grievance Process: Grievance Mediation As An Alternative to Arbitration. Retrieved from:
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Labor Relations What Do You Believe Are

Words: 4099 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64941467

Labor Relations

What do you believe are the benefits to being an employee of a company vs. A contractor? Which would you prefer to be? Why?

The benefits of being an employee include the right to self-organization, to bargain collectively, or form a labor organization (Carrell & Heavrin, 2007). Employees have pre-determined work days and duties under the leadership and direction of the employer and are not required to incur costs or make investments in the work they produce. Typically, only general education and experience is required, with some employers paying for additional training and specializations. All income, Social Security and Medicare taxes that fall under the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) are handled by the employer (Strawson, 2003) For most employees, there are also employer contributions made to pensions and other retirement plans, health and disability insurance for self and family members, and unemployment compensation after a lay off or termination. Worker's compensation is available in the event of a workplace injury and employees have the protection of workplace safety and anti-discrimination laws. There are also federal and state wage and hour laws.

An independent contractor sells professional services to the highest bidder. He or she has the flexibility…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Carrell, M.R., & Heavrin, C. (2007). Labor relations and collective bargaining: Cases, practice, and law (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Fleck, L.M. (2011). Just Caring: Defining a Basic Benefit Package. Journal of Medicine & Philosophy, 36(6), 589-611
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Union Labor Contemporary Voices Routinely

Words: 3659 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59545153

To intimidate striking workers or escort strike breakers, workers who would replace the individuals striking, across picket lines some employers contracted private companies like the Pinkerton Detective Agency.

The United States Department of Labor reports that the Coal Strike of 1902 proved to be a turning point in U.S. policy. On October 3, 1902, to address the strike in the Pennsylvania anthracite coal fields that he perceived to threaten a coal famine, President Theodore Roosevelt resolved to end the strike by setting a precedent for the Federal Government's interventions. After a bitter battle, with President Roosevelt's intervention, both sides of the coal labor dispute agreed to the findings of the Anthracite Coal Strike Commission. As a result, labor and industry accepted that the public possessed overriding rights as well as vital interests. President Roosevelt's voice and negotiation skills returned peace to the coalfields (the Coal Strike of 1902…, 2010).

James Sherk (2008), a policy analyst in the Center for Data Analysis, speaks out against unions in the article, "Do Americans today still need labor unions?." Sherk poses questions regarding whether a worker would want to work for a company that did not reward or promote an employee for extra effort.…… [Read More]

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Labor Negotiating Practices the Issue of Labor

Words: 1715 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34401992

Labor Negotiating Practices

The issue of labor negotiating practices is one of the most important issues that companies must address. This is because the sensitiveness of labor problems is reflected in their legal implications. The battle between employers and employees becomes more and more difficult and requires advanced negotiation skills.

Company's Stance towards Labor Issues

The company that is analyzed in this case is represented by the companies that joined their forces in order to purchase Twinkies and other important brands from Hostess in their attempt to invest in their revival. These companies are represented by Metropoulos and Co. And Apollo Global Management. The potential of these brands has been acknowledged by the two companies that are interested in opening up new production plants. This means that they will hire a large number of employees. However, the issue in this case is that these companies are not interested in allowing employees to develop unions. The company that previously owned Twinkies, Hostess, had difficulties into managing its relationship with the union.

The standoff between the union employees and Hostess Brands was so powerful on several levels that the company's owners decided to sell the business. However, a court of law has…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Feintzeig, R. (2013). New Twinkie Maker Shuns Union Labor. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 20, 2013 from

2. Farrell, J. (2013). Twinkies and Labor Unions: Explaining the Hostess Collapse. Retrieved May 21, 2013 from
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Labor the Department of Labor Is Present

Words: 2901 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7859708


The Department of Labor is present today to promote, foster and develop the welfare of the employees or the labor force in the United States. The labor system focuses on the improvement of the working conditions and the fulfillment of opportunities for more profitable employment. As it would be known, rules and regulations are there to keep things in order. Similarly, the Labor system in the country is guided by laws that guarantee the rights and privileges of the labor force of the country.

The Department of Labor has made laws concerning working conditions, minimum hourly wage, and freedom from employment discrimination, worker's compensation and unemployment insurance. The labor system also aids in job training programs and it helps workers find jobs. Everyone needs a decent source of income and if a person has some sort of skill or talent, they should definitely make use of it.

The basic feature of the labor system is to ensure that jobs are equally spread out through the country. The labor system therefore petitions the government for channeling more of the federal budget towards the production of labor. Therefore, jobs are created either in government offices, through construction or through small business.…… [Read More]

Baron, J.N., Jennings, P.D. & Dobbin, F.R. (1988). Mission control? The development of personnel systems in us industry. American Sociological Review, pp. 497 -- 514.

Bronfenbrenner, K. (1996). Role of union strategies in nlrb certification elections, the. Indus. & Lab. Rel. Rev., 50 p. 195.
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Labor Organizations Discuss the Similarities and Differences

Words: 1361 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5821750

Labor Organizations

Discuss the similarities and differences between at least three labor organizations discussed in Chapter 3.

The Knights of Labor was a standard labor union comprised of individual workers across the nation. They were inclusive in terms, employing both skilled workers in crafts industries as well as unskilled laborers such as coalminers. (Rayback, 1966, p. 168). They had limited political objectives such as the eight-hour workday and the prohibition of child and convict labor. Their broader objectives were social: to improve the image and social status of the working man.

The AFL was not a labor organization, but a federation of affiliated labor unions. (Dubofsky & Foster, 2004, p. 138). The AFL was exclusive, accepting skilled workers in crafts industries and skilled workers in industry. The AFL's goals were economic, they provided financial and political support for affiliated labor unions in contract negotiations with employers. (Dubofsky & Foster, 2004, p. 139). The political objectives they did pursue usually had to do with the nature of labor negotiations.

The IWW was neither a traditional labor union or a federation of labor unions, but a labor union comprised with many members of other labor organizations. (Dubofsky & Foster, 2004, p. 195).…… [Read More]

Chaison, G. (2006). Unions in America.

Foner, P.S. (1997). History of the Labor Movement in the United States, Vol. 4: The Industrial Workers of the World 1905-1917.
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Unions There Are Several Differences

Words: 1030 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6345286

There is a greater emphasis on written decrees or by-laws in union governance. Such rules help to enforce the structure of the union and create a system of governance (Housden, 2010). However, these rules lack consistency and at times lack transparency. For employers, such rules are generally limited and the managers are given significant leeway with respect to achieving their singular goal.

Lastly, the nature of the publicly-traded corporation means that there is more consistency and transparency in governance of employers. The governance principles and structures do not vary significantly from one employer to the next, even if the overall effectiveness of the governance mechanisms does. In unions, governance can vary dramatically. There is far less transparency, and there is often little direct contact between union leadership and the rank-and-file. Union leadership serves the needs of multiple locals, in addition to union head office. The possibility of conflicting objectives between these groups means that governance is less consistent. The lack of securities regulators in union affairs means that there is less transparency in union governance as a whole. Overall, this makes union governance weaker than that of public corporations, and increases the likelihood of fraud or financial malfeasance. That said,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Banks, a. & Metzgar, J. (1989). Participating in management: Union organizing on a new terrain. Labor Research Review. Vol. 1 (14) 1-55.

Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved February 5, 2011 from 
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Labor Dear Interns Congratulations You

Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99158098

The more effective such systems of transport, the easier it is for labor to either to commute to work a fair distance from their home. Cities provide concentrated sources of labor that may not need to commute far distances. Also, the willingness of laborers to leave their home communities and relocate is an important cultural factor to remember, as well as the cost of transportation. Finally, in some areas, gas for cats is quite expensive, while public transportation is fairly cheap, which will affect labor patterns of migration and may be different than one might expect from one's experience in America.


Local attitudes to international companies, towards a diverse workforce, and to employing refugees may vary from country to country.

Labor market:

The diversity of the labor force, whether it is primarily skilled or unskilled, diverse or homogeneous in its ethnic, age, or skill composition will affect what types of laborers are most desirable for employment. What constitutes a high standard of living or acceptable or desirable occupations or employment conditions may also affect supply and demand of certain types of jobs and payment brackets. The availability of unemployment compensation may also play a role.

Labor unions:

One of…… [Read More]

One of the reasons Western Europe has such high minimum wages, unemployment compensation, and employment protection laws are because of its strong, popular trade unions, which may oppose foreign nations that do not compensate their employees equally generously -- Wal-Mart, for example, has had trouble adjusting to the different cultural environment and attitude towards unions in Europe. (Mason, 2006)

For future reference

Mason, Wendy. (2006). "International Management." Reference for Business. Business Encyclopedia. Published by Thomson, Inc. Available 21 Nov 2006 at
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Union Membership Paradox Union Is

Words: 2242 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28920360

(Labor Law: Decline of union membership and power has led to rise in lawsuits)

What happened at the same time was that employers were able to finally step up their opposition to unions, which was something that they had probably wanted to do for a long time, and this was achieved through the methods of legal proceedings as well as political pressurizing and lobbying. Today, unions can no longer protest en masse and show their innate strength and power by threatening strikes and walkouts and staging them, because lawyers of today are well versed and knowledgeable in the ways and means to employ in launching attacks against large firms, like for example, they can take up the cause of retired workers who had been affected by constant and long-term exposure to asbestos in an asbestos manufacturing company, and it would be possible for these lawyers to win hundreds and thousands of dollars in the damages awarded to the retired employee. (Labor Law: Decline of union membership and power has led to rise in lawsuits)

It is well-known that unions have progressed form being a most despised and at times even feared organization of workers to now being largely supported by…… [Read More]

Definition of Union" Retrieved at on 11 March, 2005

Dresang, Joel. (Feb. 12, 2005) "Drop in Union Membership has Labor Officials Worried" Retrieved at Accessed on 11 March, 2005
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Labor Issues Around the World

Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41802451

Many Chinese workers, including children, are forced to work in poor conditions (Ka Wai, 2004). Many workers are working in the town ship and village factories. According to a government report in 1984, the majority of township and village enterprises in China have at least one major problem that causes occupational disease. Many factory workers are working in dangerous conditions, in which poisonous chemicals, dust, and noise are predominant. As a result, many workers suffer from a variety of preventable health conditions.

Companies like Nike and Reebok often subcontract factories in poor countries because they do not have to deal with production. By distancing themselves through subcontracting, benefiting from low production costs without having to take responsibility, they make huge profits.

In Indonesia, United States sportswear company Nike is often at the center of labor concerns (CNN, 2001). Workers at nine Indonesian factories under contract by Nike say they have suffered or have witnessed sexual and verbal abuse. Laborers also reported that they were asked to work "illegal forms of overtime." Many were denied both sick leave and annual leave.

The Global Alliance, an international coalition dedicated to improving the lives of factory workers, interviewed more than 4,000 workers at…… [Read More]

2001). Hazardous forms of Child Labor in Nepal. GEFONT Paper presented in Preparatory Meeting on Developing Asian Network on Hazardous Child Labour

Manila 26-28, 2001. (Retrieved from the Internet at 13, 2003). Informal sector marred by poor working condition. Mercantile Communications. Retrieved from the Internet at
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Union Organizing Campaign I Human Resource Management

Words: 710 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36004894

Union Organizing Campaign

I Human Resource Management college I assignment studying alot unions workplace assignment I .Thanks Written Assignment 2 2-4 pages You hired XYZ a consultant. They facing a union organizing campaign.

Senior Management

The Consultant

The union organizing campaign

All employees should be allowed to join labor unions. The protection of the rights of employees in joining unions is one factor that leads to better establishment of a company. The company has to respect and acknowledge the responsibilities of unions in representing the interests of the employees.

The advantages of joining a union are that, it gives the employees the mandate to act together as a team, so as to improve on the working conditions at their respective places of work. Working in a union free environment denies the workers the chance to raise their grievances about the poor status of their places of work, for fear of being sacked Sharma, 1970.

Unions give employees the right to demand better wages from the employers. The unions put up a pay standard that the employers use to pay their workers. Workers in a unionized environment have an advantage over those in nonunionized environment of receiving paid leave, having better…… [Read More]

Bragger, J.D., Rodriguez-Srednicki, O., Kutcher, E.J., Indovino, L., & Rosner, E. (2005). Work-Family Conflict, Work-Family Culture, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Teachers. Journal of Business and Psychology, 20(2), 303-324.

Brown, S.L. (2000). Union Transitions among Cohabitors: The Significance of Relationship Assessments and Expectations. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62(3), 833-846.