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a.) Labor unions play an integral role in the facilitation of labor relations. Labor unions are entities which are comprised of various working class people who are typically not managers. Unions may be codified according to a particular specialty related to a job skill, or by industry. They are organizations that collect dues from their members -- which is typically a finite percentage from the pay checks of the latter -- which the unions then use to procure collective bargaining and labor relations rights for the employees. Oftentimes, labor unions bargain directly with upper management staff within organizations and in industries to try to procure basic rights for their employees. This bargaining process and many of the rights the union leaders are attempting to procure are typically referred to as labor relations.
Labor relations is a term for the process by which upper level management attempts to effect…
Armstrong, D. (2014). Jake Rosenfeld explores the sharp decline of union membership, influence. www.washington.edu. Retrieved from http://www.washington.edu/news/2014/02/12/jake-rosenfeld-explores-the-sharp-decline-of-union-membership-influence/
Perrucci, R., Wysong, Earl. (2008). The New Class Society: Goodbye American Dream? New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.
Sinclair, U. (1906). The Jungle. New York: Bantam Books.
In relation to union power and collective bargaining, the merging of unions is conventionally deemed to increase their power of collective bargaining. However, this is not the case as the merging of union into larger unions only increases their collective bargaining power on a national scale (Moody, 2009). This has influenced larger unions such as the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations to delve in politics owing to the nationalist outlook and representation.
However, this does not address the core course of labor unions of offering collective bargaining for their workers. This is in the sense that larger unions do not have the capability of collectively bargaining to the needs of smaller workers. For instance, it is difficult for a large union to offer collectively bargaining for the needs of a small portion of its member who do not form a significant portion of its members. This…
Moody, K. (2009). The Direction of Union Mergers in the United States: The Rise of Conglomerate Unionism. British Journal of Industrial Relations. Vol. 47 Issue 4, p676-
Labor unions are communities of workers who have come together with the purpose of fighting for their rights as a unit. These respective workers typically want fair conditions, to work with persons of integrity, and want to have a peaceful relationship with their employers, as the latter have to act in agreement with a set of requirements in order for this relationship to be possible. With the National Labor Relations Act being into place, unions are practically encouraged to function and organizations are thus left with no alternative but to cooperate in order to be able to have access to the human resource.
Employees want to be effectively represented when dealing with the companies that hire them and this is facilitated by them becoming union members. Unionized labor is in many cases the key to improving working environments for employees, but it can also reflect negatively on organizations when considering…
Brooks, G.W., Estreicher, S., Katz, H.C., Kaufman, B.E. (2001). The internal governance and organizational effectiveness of labor unions: essays in honor of George Brooks. Kluwer Law International.
Dessler, G. (2009). Fundamentals of human resource management: content, competencies, and applications. Pearson Education, Limited.
Yates, M. (2009). Why Unions Matter. Monthly Review Press.
In this sense the percentage of unionization in the workforce can be a more important factor than simply membership alone.
The Ashenfelter and Johnson (1969) model spells out three crucial parties to the strike negotiations: firms, workers, and union representatives. It is assumed that the major considerations for union leaders are "(1) the survival and growth of the union as an institution, and (2) the personal political survival of the leaders (Finley, 2010)." The motivations of the union leaders can be vastly different. Some way focus on the future and strength of the union while others may have their own political ambitions. However, when you consider the union on a whole, the high the percentage of the membership then the more likely the union is to be committed to achieving some goal whether it be better benefits, higher wages, safer conditions, better schedules or other issues that serve as the…
Finley, G. (2010). Strike lengths: Correcting for prestrike announcements and the ration of bargaining size to firm strength. . Journal of Labor Relations, 307-321.
These are organizations with membership drawn from the labor force of a particular economy and charged with the responsibility of representing the interests of its members in labor management issues within the work environment. Labor unions can also be specific thereby representing workers employed in various in specific trades and occupations such as communications workers for instance journalists, health care professionals including nurses and doctors, stage and theatrical employees including actors, and employees in the hospitality industry that include chefs, waiters among others. Labor unions are hierarchically organized stating with the international union, which is the highest level of the organization; this is then followed at a lower level by district councils found in the United States in every state. These council's jurisdictions cover areas such as towns and cities. It is important to note that union locals represent workers at their individual work areas.
Bin Daud, Z., Yahya, K.K., Mohd, F., & Mohd Noor, W.S. (2011). The Influence of Heads of Department Personalities on the Selection Handling Styles. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science .
Byrnes, J. (2012). Labor Management Conflict. Retrieved February 17, 2013, from www.AggressionManagement.com.
Hirschman, A.O. (1970). Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms,
Organizations, and States. . Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Labor unions are associations of workers for the purpose of improving the economic status and working conditions of the employees through collective bargaining with employers (Union pp). The two general types of unions are the horizontal, or craft, union, which is composed of members who are skilled in a particular craft, such as the International Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, and the vertical, or industrial, union, which includes workers in the same industry of industries, regardless of skills, such as the United Automobile, Aerospace, and Agricultural Implement orkers of America (Union pp). And a company union is an employer-controlled union that has no affiliation with other outside labor organizations (Union pp).
Essentially, labor unions are the product of the Industrial Revolution, although there were associations of journeymen under the medieval system of guilds (Union pp). After the French Revolution, there were fear of uprisings by the working classes…
Benseddik, Fouad. Labor Unions, Democratic Change and Development.
Retrieved September 09, 2005 from:
Butkiewicz, Jerry. (2005 August). Labor Leader Newsletter. Retrieved September
From this perspective, right-to-work laws are passed in states in which public opinion is anti- union and the labor movement is politically ineffective; in such states, employees are less attracted to unions, and it is this public opinion climate, rather than the legislation itself, that harms union growth (Abraham & Voost 2000).
The National Right to ork Legal Defense Foundation; Bureau of National Affairs (2002), reports that New Jersey does not have right-to-work laws as shown in the graph in Table 1 below, comparing this state with two of its Middle Atlantic neighbors.
Middle Atlantic States and Right-to-ork Laws
Right to ork (Yes/No)
Union in Private Sector
Table 1. Comparison of Middle Atlantic States' Right-to-ork Laws. Source: Middle Atlantic Right to ork States National Right to ork Legal Defense Foundation; Bureau of National Affairs, 2002.
Similarities between Conflict Theorists and Functional Theorists in the…
Abraham, Steven E. And Paula B. Voost. (2000). Right-to-Work Laws: New Evidence from the Stock Market. Southern Economic Journal, 67(2):345.
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
A ore, Tom and Robert Nisbet (Eds.). A History of Sociological Analysis. New York: Basic Books, 1978.
Labor Unions in America: A response to Hard ork by Rick Fantasia and Kim Voss.
According to the authors, why have labor unions struggled in the U.S. How does their explanation resonate with major contemporary perspectives in the field of social movements? hat do the authors have to say in regard to the possibilities and limits of labor union revitalization in the U.S. How does their view resonate with the major contemporary perspectives in the field of social movements?
One of the first problems labor unions have experienced during their various efforts at organizing in America over the past century or so of American history, is the perception that unions are foreign entities and constructions, rather than American-grown products. hy this should rankle America so, a nation of immigrants, founded upon foreign concepts and cultures, seems curious. But according to the authors of Hard ork, Rick Fantasia and Kim Voss,…
Fantasia, Rick, and Voss, Kim. Hard Work. Berkley: University of California Press, 2004.
Since their inception as trade unions in the late 18th Century, collective labor alliances have grown in numbers, power and influence . Despite the many uncertain times of recession, depression, joblessness and cost-cutting throughout the last century, the labor movement has helped to stabilize the lives and futures of many blue-collar American families. This is especially true in the case of public sector workers. Previous to the unionization of labor in this occupational arena, employee were at the mercy of the government. That is, they had very little bargaining power when it came to their own job positions. However, with the advent of labor unions, this demographic was able to collectively bargain and fight for what they want and deserve. Thus, by ensuring steady incomes, safe working conditions and competitive benefits for members, labor unions have helped this quintessential population of workers to survive. It is clear that…
"Empire State Building." 2010. http://www.constructioncompany.com/historic-construction-projects/empire-state-building / (accessed October 13, 2011).
Feiden, Douglas. "World Trade Center Project Won't Be Finished Until 36 Years After 9/11." April 2009. http://www.nydailynews.com/news/2009/04/16/2009-04-16_world_trade_center_project_wont_be_finished_until_36_years_after_911__pa.html (accessed October 13, 2011).
Hannan, Michael T., and John Freeman. "The Ecology of Organizational Founding: American Labor Unions, 1836-1985." American Journal of Sociology 92, no. 4 (January 1987): 910-943.
This strike was also characterized by violence. The management of the company brought numerous strikebreakers. But this was not sufficient, because the union undoubtedly won the dispute. This success determined the AA to organize another strike in 1889 because the management of the company and the union were unable to agree on the conditions of the collective contract. The AA followed a strategy similar to the previous successful strike (U.S. History, 2010).
Therefore, the strikers associated themselves with several groups of immigrants. In addition to this, the strikers benefitted from the support of the people in the town, same as in the case of other strikes. The company tried again to introduce strikebreakers to counteract the action. Even so, the union won this dispute also. However, the management of the company convinced the union to agree with certain wage reductions. The AA managed to improve its position within the company…
1. Homestead Steel Strike (1999). Gale Encyclopedia. Retrieved February 7, 2011 from http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3406400422.html .
2. Goldner, C. (1997). The Homestead Strike. American Culture Studies. Retrieved February 7, 2011 from http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/acs/1890s/carnegie/strike.html .
3. Homestead Strike (2010). U.S. History. Retrieved February 7, 2011 from http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h769.html .
The internal split amongst major union movements, however, has not helped. Both major groups have essentially the same goals, but clearly differ on the best ways to achieve those goals. Critics contend, however, that the movement needs solidarity in the face of declining relevance. The split, despite the ideological differences, also had a personal component to it, and this weakness at the top levels of union leadership inhibits their ability to enact change.
Another issue for the future of the union movement is that of globalization. In response to the globalization of economies, the notion of globalizing labor has gained currency. Traditionally, labor movements have been national, due to strong differences in national legislative environments. The only two nations with any serious degree of cross-border union integration were the U.S. And Canada. Recently, the United Steel orkers joined forces with the United Kingdom's largest union, Unite, to former a union…
Parks, James. (2008). Trumka: Don't Let Opponents Divide Us by Race in 2008 Elections. AFL-CIO. Retrieved July 4, 2008 at http://blog.aflcio.org/2008/07/03/trumka-dont-let-opponents-divide-us-by-race-in-2008-election
Sewell, Dan. (2007). Labor Unions Fight for Relevance as U.S. Industry Restructures. USA Today. Retrieved July 4, 2008 at http://www.usatoday.com/money/workplace/2007-03-24-unions_N.htm
No author. (2006). Generation Y: The Millenials. Bureau of Labor & Statistics. Retrieved at http://www.nasrecruitment.com/talenttips/NASinsights/GenerationY.pdf
No author. (2008). Why You Need a Union. AFL-CIO. Retrieved July 4, 2008 at http://www.aflcio.org/joinaunion/why/
In ancient times, most labor work was done by slaves or serfs who were mercilessly exploited by their masters. Even non-slave workers were treated poorly and had little power to change their condition. It was only in the Middle Ages, that some merchant guilds and craft guilds began to appear in Europe that functioned as associations of trades-people. After the Industrial Revolution, workers began to organize themselves into organizations called Unions in order to improve their working conditions. Such Unions are now recognized by law in most countries as legitimate organizations that have the right to collectively bargain with the employers and also strike to pursue their demands. In this paper I shall discuss why workers unionize, and explain some of the pros and cons while taking a pro-union stance.
It goes without saying that the balance of power between the employers is always heavily tilted…
How & Why People Join Unions?" American Federation of Labor - Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) Website. 2004. July 15, 2004. http://www.aflcio.org/aboutunions/joinunions/
The Labor Union Movement in America" Economics: Sector 4, Labor. Social Studies Help Center. 2002. July 15, 2004. http://www.socialstudieshelp.com/Eco_Unionization.htm
Reuther, Water P. "Labor Unions in the United States." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003.
Union 101." American Federation of Labor - Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) Website. 2004. July 15, 2004.
Furthermore these employers normally operate in third-world countries, where the cheapest possible labor is available as a result of the high demand for employment. These employers normally thrive in the import/export industry, where very high profits are to be made from goods produced at very low labor costs. The employment situation is normally short-term, and laborer turnover is high. These are not elements that affect the profit of the employer.
Higher standards employers thrive in terms of human relations and long-term quality contracts with their workers. These employees, by the quality of their work, increase the profit of the company and remain with the company as a result of incentives such as working conditions, wages and status. Thus, whereas profit is not as high initially, the employer-employee relationship grows to become increasingly profitable. This situation usually occurs locally in companies providing services rather than goods. The quality of service is…
However, they are not as relevant as they used to be primarily due to the fact that they no longer represent the majority of U.S. workers that they formerly represented. In 1970 "400,000 workers stayed off the job for 10 weeks" (Golway, 2007, p. 8) in a United Autoworkers strike against General Motors (G.M.). Golway compares that number and the length of the strike against G.M. with a one-day strike that recently occurred against the same automaker.
This time there were only 73,000 workers left to walk the picket lines. It was a reminder of how the great American job has disappeared" (Golway, 2007, p. 8). ith the disappearance of those jobs the relevance of the unions has changed somewhat. Now the unions are more likely to concentrate on matters such as arbitration, grievance handling and using their political muscle to elect or re-elect candidates who are likely to address…
Chaison, G., (2007) Airline negotiations and the new concessionary bargaining, Journal of Labor Research, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 642-657
Golway, T., the plight of G.M., America, Vol. 197, No 11, p. 8
Klein, a., Hoff, D.J. (2007) Unions assail teacher ideas in NCLB draft, Education Week, Vol. 27, No 4, p. 20
Taras, D., (2007) Public policy: Choice, influence, evaluation, Journal of Labor Research, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 567-72
Discuss your opinion regarding whether unions are still relevant and necessary in today's work environment. What other means might be used to ensure the "employee voice" in the workplace? Use a reference.
Labor unions are still viable, at least in certain situations, because a single employee going up against an employer is usually not going to go well for the employer. However, labor unions are fighting relevancy for a couple of reasons. First, so much (if not all) of what leads to a unionized employee getting raises or promotions is driven by tenure…and only tenure. That may sound good on paper and many people assail what comes from a meritocracy sort of situation. However, merit-based raises are entirely legal, are widely used and have a proper place because someone who has five years of service should NOT get a job automatically over someone with four years of service…
Huffington Post,. (2015). Ex-McDonald's CEO: Striking Fast Food Workers' Demands Are A Job Killer. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 21 March 2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/08/21/mcdonalds-minimum-wage_n_3790745.html
Koba, M. (2013). Have Twinkies Killed the Union Movement?. CNBC. Retrieved 21 March 2015, from http://www.cnbc.com/id/100678728
Mullins, B. (2012). Political Spending by Unions Far Exceeds Direct Donations. WSJ. Retrieved 21 March 2015, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304782404577488584031850026
Pryne, E. (2011). Boeing to fight NLRB complaint on 787 South Carolina plant. The Seattle Times. Retrieved 21 March 2015, from http://www.seattletimes.com/business/boeing-to-fight-nlrb-complaint-on-787-south-carolina-plant/
Labor Unions Outline
Intro: The history of Unions is one that is filled with periods of fervent increases in membership followed by periods of declining membership. Currently the unions are in a period of extended decline, but there are ways to counteract this decline.
History of Unions
Unions begin with medieval trade guilds.
Trade guilds were designed to benefit the Masters.
Industrialization in the 1800's
Craftsmen used monopoly of knowledge to have a strong bargaining position.
Knights of Labor.
1880's first organization of workers in America to include non-craftsmen.
Knights of Labor expand membership and then rapid decline.
Knights appear connected to May Day anarchist bombing.
American Federation of Labor (AFL).
Originally only a group of skilled tradesmen.
Growth was slow at first, until WWI.
E. World War I.
Unions and government work together, membership expands during the war.
F. Post War Period (Roaring 20's).
Businesses fight back against unions,…
The benefits that labor unions accrue to their members are well-known, in terms of offering better bargaining power for work terms and conditions. The relationship between unions and business, however, has often been characterized as adversarial in nature. Yet, there are benefits that unions can offer to the companies that employ them.
The first of these benefits is that there can be efficiency in collective bargaining, versus bargaining which each union member independently. The workforce is more united as well, when things like salaries are transparent. If each member of the workforce bargained independently there could be disparity between workers, creating friction. Collective bargaining also provides businesses with a defense against the appearance of discrimination in the workplace, something that can be valuable for avoiding lawsuits, legitimate or otherwise.
Unions also play a policing function within their memberships. This can include ensuring that members are adequately trained for…
Deery, S., Erwin, P. & Iverson, R. (1999). Industrial relations culture, attendance behaviour and the role of trade unions. British Journal of Industrial Relations. Vol. 37 (4) 533-558.
Prevost, A., Rao, R., & Williams, M. (2012). Labor unions as shareholder activists: Champions or detractors? Financial Review. Vol. 47 (2) 327-349.
Bargaining units are groups of employees who have come together to spearhead their agenda. These movements are meant to champion the interests of the employees. Many organizations have their employees organized in such groups. As seen in Starbucks Company, their employees have organized themselves in such groups. The main agendas being championed are to do with salaries, working conditions, and retirement benefits. The organization is fit to have three levels of bargaining units. The first bargaining unit is for the low-level workers. These workers perform the lowest tasks in the company. They should be grouped together because they have similar interests and face the same problems (Palokangas, 2010). Some of the serious challenges relate to workplace conditions and salaries. The salaries of most of the low-level employees are low. Ideally, they have to consider championing for increments. At Starbucks, the low-class employees usually have meetings to…
Drucker, P. (2012). The Practice of Management. New York: Harper & Row
Palokangas, T. (2010). Labor Unions, Public Policy, and Economic Growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Declining Unions and Worker entiment
In 2013, a startling recognition was went relatively unnoticed in the news: the American workforce share that was unionized reached a low that had not been seen in 97 years (Lui, 2013). The number of workers who belong to a union is a mere 11.3% of the labor force -- and is still shrinking (Ahlquist, 2012). The public sector, where unionization seemed to have found a solid fit, dropped from a peak of 35% of the labor force in 1950s to an abysmal low of 6.6% (Lui, 2013). Yet, despite the clarion call activated by these grim statistics, Americans seem blase about the decline of unions, taking the position, as Lui (2013) argues that it doesn't really impact them unless they are (or were) union members. The decline of membership in private sector unions in the United tates dropped from 34% for men…
Seniority systems are not required by law, but they are a prominent factor in collective bargaining processes. Indeed, "Strict formal seniority systems are commonplace in virtually all unionized organizations, but they are rare among nonunion employers" (Carrell & Heavrin, 2013). Regardless of whether a workplace is unionized or not, seniority is likely to play an important role in major personnel decisions (Carrell & Heavrin, 2013).
Preparing for Negotiations
Two important steps in the process of preparing for first round pre-negotiations with the union are to: 1) Review the previous negotiations, and 2) review the experience under the last contract. These two steps are basic to consideration of a renewal of even the most elementary type of agreement (Hartman & Bennett-Alexander, 2012). Basically, the idea is to consider what was previously agreed to -- and what the history or rationale for those agreements might have been -- and to consider how the procedural, operational, and final outcomes were experienced under the terms of the past agreement (Greenhouse, 2014). If the person doing the review was not a party at the table, the minutes or notes of those previous negotiation can serve as a mechanism for filling in the gaps. The objective would be to consider the arguments of both sides of the negotiation in order to anticipate any emerging or resilient sticking points (Carrell & Heavrin, 2013). The review should include any "side agreements" or oral commitments that were later recorded, particularly if these were not part of the original contract. It may be helpful to structure an indexed contract review and to develop a negotiating strategy book. A key matter is to
Skills - Labor Unions
Labor Unions: The End, or Just the Beginning?
The history of labor unions has been a rollercoaster of alternating growth and decline. Commencing with reactions to the pre-union "Dark Ages" of Industrialization, unionization has enjoyed periods of enormous growth and suffered periods of devastating counteractions, marked by notable movements, strikes, and legislation. Currently undergoing a period of weakened influence, unions are now forced to face the challenges of a global economy, retaining current strengths and regaining vitality by addressing competing non-union and foreign influences in order to provide them with future success.
The basic point of a union is to ensure fair treatment for its members when it comes to their workplace conditions (Bell, 1999; Cook, 1992). Even though that is one of their more noble goals, unions have been literally plagued with all types of problems during their history, since not every person agrees with…
Baldwin, C.Y. (1983). Productivity and Labor Unions: An application of the theory of self-enforcing contracts. Journal of Business, 56(2), 155-185.
Bell, S. (1999, April 1). Union strategy, member orientation and union effectiveness: an exploratory analysis. Labour & Industry.
Chan, J. (2011, March 14). Rethinking the unions in a global economy. Retrieved on January 31, 2012 from MoneyEconomics Web site: http://www.moneyeconomics.com/Commentaries/Rethinking-the-Unions-in-a-Global-Economy
Cook, H.A. (1992). The Most Difficult Revolution: Women and Trade Unions. New York: McGraw-Hill
This was certainly needed as technology has also evolved from time to time and the nature of labor that was being used in the 1920s or so is not the same as is the nature today. This is certainly commendable. Along with the changes in laws, the emphasis on labor and its problems have also been shifted out of the center stage and matters that were directly being dealt with by the Secretaries Office have shifted out. This shows clearly that importance of the problems of labor have now become of a much lower priority and this is also clearly seen in the patterns of development of American business and industry where many production units have transferred their labor problems by shifting them out of United States. The government has also clearly remained out of the ambit of labor laws as no laws are applicable to government laborers. Thus it…
Norris-LaGuardia Act" Wikipedia. Retrieved at http://www.answers.com/topic/norris-laguardia-actAccessed 2 September, 2005
Taft-Hartley Labor Act" (2001-05) The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. Retrieved at http://www.bartleby.com/65/ta/TaftHart.html . Accessed 2 September, 2005
The NLRB: The Wagner Act of 1935" United States National Labor Relations Board.
Retrieved at http://www.stfrancis.edu/ba/ghkickul/stuwebs/btopics/works/wagner.htm . Accessed 2 September, 2005
Surveys have found that the public find business leaders to be more trustworthy than union leaders and many members of non-union families disapprove of unions. Other factors include the increased trend towards smaller sizes of new factories. Moreover, the American workforce has changed significantly in terms of composition, i.e. age, sex, education and race. Some cyclical phenomenon in the political, social and economic environment in the U.S. has also lead to the decline in union membership. These cyclical explanations for the decline include economic factors like the rising unemployment rates in the U.S., the mounting influence of the epublicans since 1952 in national politics, and the drop in class conflicts in the country. The unions also must take a major portion of blame for failure to deploy significant portions of their budgets for organizing new union activities. (Caplow; Bahr; Chadwick; Modell, 1994); (Goldfield, 1989)
As of 2006, only 12.5% of…
Bennett, James T; Kaufman, Bruce E. (2002) "The future of private sector unionism in the United States" M.E. Sharpe.
Caplow, Theodore; Bahr, Howard M; Chadwick, Bruce A; Modell, John. (1994) "Recent Social
Trends in the United States, 1960-1990" McGill-Queen's University Press.
Farber, Henry. S; Krueger, Alan. B. (1992) "Union Membership in the United States: The
Labor Unions a are combination of seemingly contradictory elements. On the one hand, labor unions are conceived of like an army with soldiers of labor winning battles in conflict with management. On the other hand, the membership looks upon them much like the high school debate team where everyone on the team expresses themselves. The leadership of the union many times feels like elected colonial militia officers with dozens or hundreds of soldiers whose loyalty he can not quite completely count upon and who may act like rank amateurs. In this short essay, the author will consider a case study in labor union democracy in the International Longshore and Warehouse Union (ILWU).
In a Politics & Society article, Levi et al. Points out that in Europe, scholars are more concerned about deliberation and membership involvement. Alternately, American scholars focus on procedural democracy and participatory democracy providing a…
Levi, M., Olson, D., Agnone, J., & Kelly, D. (2009). Union democracy reexamined. Politics Society,
American History after 1865: Labor Unions
As technology and the Industrial Revolution advanced following the end of the Civil War, more and more factories opened and more and more workers of all ages were being hired to fill the demanding schedules that factory owners required. Various industries—such as the meat packing industry of the 1900s (memorialized by Upton Sinclair in The Jungle)—were notorious for unsafe working environments. There were no child labor laws in effect nor any wage laws. Workers were often expected to put in long workdays, which led to overwork and an increase in workplace accidents (Schultz, 2018). From 1865 to 1940, the development of labor unions was generally a positive force leading to economic stability and the implementation of necessary laws that made businesses safer and promoted job growth.
By 1871, workplace conditions in factories were already terrible. Whitaker (1871) showed as much in his treatise “The…
The procedures, rules and regulations for creating the unions are varying in different parts of the world. Moreover, those labors are not accustomed to the working conditions, rules and regulations and provide less desirable attributes for labor works. Hill (2007) also explained with extensive research statistics for the establishment of union programs in different regions such as Mexico.Despite rules and regulations, the labors are forced to work as salves. They are not given the complete incentives that their job description offers. With this in mind, the labor unions continue to present an idea on its rapid growth so that labors can be given their rights with freedoms. According to Hill (2007), labor unions though provide some solutions for immigrant labors however; effective programs and measures are working towards the change that is needed by these unions (Hill, 2007). The formation of labor unions can be useful to control the illegal…
Baldwin, R.E. (2002). The Decline of Us Labor Unions and the Role of Trade. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics.
This book depicts the history of labor unions and tells us the circumstances under most of the labor unions declined. It tells us about the role played by labor unions in the past and what were their failures due to which they faced their decline. Besides this, it also relates the labor unions with trade.
Compa, L. (1993). Labor Rights and Labor Standards in International Trade. Law and Policy in International Business, 165-191.
Compa, in this article describes the problems that labor faces in many companies and how due to these problems many of the members of these unions leave their team. This article tells that it is imperative that labor unions should not involve in each and every matter of the company but should only involve in such matters where they think it is suitable.
Role of Labor Unions in Industrial Relations
In their definition, labor unions have always been known as organizations that have always aimed at getting their members both financial and non-financial benefits. The role of labor unions is however bigger than that and they have been known to aid in helping employers improve the productivity and discipline of their workers. Labor unions respond to issues differently. This is explained by the differences in industrial relations contexts and also policies of different states as well as strategies of the various employers around the country.
Employees come together to form a labor union to achieve a common goal. Labor unions have several goals. Some of the goals include agitating for higher retirement benefits as well as other benefits for its members. They also seek to increase the number of workers assigned for specific job tasks. They ensure that employees work under good and…
Baglioni, G. And C. Crouch (eds.) (1990) European Industrial Relations. The Challenge of Flexibility (London: Sage).
Barrow, C. (2013). Industrial Relations Law. New York: Routledge.
Blanpain, R. (2007). Decentralizing Industrial Relations and the Role of Labor Unions and Employee Representatives. New York: Kluwer Law International.
Blanpain, R., & Baker, J. (2010).Comparative Labor Law and Industrial Relations in Industrialized Market Economies. New York: Kluwer Law International.
A labor union refers to an association of employees that have come together in pursuit of common goals, such as better pay. Labor relations are wider in scope; they refer to the interactions between the labor unions (employees' representatives) and employers - and usually deal with the maintenance of collective bargaining agreements.
Labor relations date way back to the formation of the very first significant unions: the Knights of Labor, the American Federation of Labor (AFL), and the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). The Knights of Labor, however, failed to achieve its objectives due to its large membership. AFL, unlike the other two, initially restricted its membership to skilled tradesmen. However, with the 1935 formation of CIO, which incorporated both skilled and unskilled laborers, conflicts resulted and the two unions later merged.
Enacted in 1926 and later on expanded to rope in the airline industry, the…
Each side (labor union and managers) have preconceived notions about each other. Labor union leaders feel that managers are political and do not get the whole negotiating process because they are cheap. Managers feel that labor union representatives not nothing about the management process and that they know nothing about the big picture (pg. 278). In order for labor negotiations to be successful and for both sides to feel like at least most of their needs have been met, labor unions and managers need to set aside any preconceived notions and try not to be judgemental.
Membership in labor unions has decreased from 32.5% of the working population in the private section in the 1950's to about 13% in 2009. The public sector has not seen such a drastic decrease, but overall this means that the number of labor negotiations has also decreased (Kersie and Cutcher-Gershenfeld, 2009). While this may…
Berman, E.M., Bowman, J.S., West, J.P., & Wart, M.V. (2002). Unions and the Government: Protectors, Partners and Punishers. Human Resource Management in Public Service: Paradoxes, Processes, and Problems (Second Edition ed., pp. 275-303). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Fonstad, N.O., McKersie, R.K., and Eaton, S.C. (2004). Interest-based negotiations in a transformed labor-management setting. Negotiation Journal, 20(1), 5-11.
McKersie, R. And Cutcher-Gershenfeld, J. (2009). Labor-management relations: Understanding and practicing effective negotiations. Negotiation Journal, 25(4), 499-514.
The completed form would then be processed and sent automatically to an organizer at a union chosen by the interested individual.
This particular website has made it as simple as possible for individuals and entities interested in joining a union. The sponsor of the website most likely figures that the easier it is to join, the more people will be enticed in to doing so. This is especially important since union memberships, as a percentage of the overall working force, has been dropping steadily since the early 1990's. According to the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, since 1995 the percentage of union employees compared to overall payroll employees has dropped from 14.9% to 12%.
A drop of almost three percentages points over one decade is a huge decline, and most likely has the unions scrambling to figure out what to do in order to entice a reversal…
How to Join a Union (2007) AFL-CIO, http://www.aflcio.org/joinaunion/how/ , Accessed April 12, 2007
New Internationalist (2001) What did the Unions Ever do for Us?, http://www.newint.org/issue341/unions.htm , Accessed April 12, 2007
precedent that other cases have created, it does appear that the election results should be deemed invalid. While these results may have truly represented what the employees wanted, it seems more likely that they were gently encouraged to vote against the union. Because they wanted to keep their jobs and did not want to anger their supervisor, they voted the way that supervisor clearly wanted them to. Some of the employees would have likely voted that way anyway, but it is not possible to tell what percentage of them would have made that choice if they would not have had any influence from the supervisor. It is usually not a secret why a company does not want its employees voting for a union. Labor unions are focused on the best interests of the employees and are, as such, often at odds with the management of companies. By suggesting that the…
An increase in employee-management teamwork and communication likewise reduced the need for labor union representation. Labor unions, thus, no longer play the critical role they once did in labor-management relations (Encyclopedia of Small usiness, Maxwell).
A New Global Labor Federation
Representatives from trade unions throughout the world organized a new global labor federation to insure that workers' rights are not overlooked in economic globalization (Associated Press, 2006). The new body, the International Trade Union Confederation, replaced the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. It would adapt itself to the fresh challenges to the rights of unionized workers. It would also take bolder steps against forced and child labor. Appointed head of the new federation was Guy Ryder, who assured everyone that "the strong tradition of solidarity" would continue. He emphasized the importance of trade union unity in the international level in insuring effective representation of workers rights and interests in…
Associated Press (2006). Delegates launch global labor union. Deseret News: Deseret
News Publishing Company. Retrieved on June 8, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4188/is_20061102/ai_n16831637/?tag=content;col1
Encyclopedia of Small Business (2002). Labor unions. CBS Interactive, Inc. Retrieved
on June 8, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qx5201/is_2002/ai_n19121346/?tag=content;col1
Outsourcing Jobs and Labor Laws
Outsourcing Jobs to Foreign Countries Without Fair Labor Laws
government currently does not prohibit companies from outsourcing jobs to foreign countries that do not have unions and/or fair labor laws. Whether this practice is acceptable or should be stopped is worthy of consideration. There are two main reasons for researching this topic. First, the cost to outsource to foreign countries is often much less than the cost to pay employees in the United States to do the same work (Baldwin, 2006; Dine, 2007). That means that the profit for the company can be larger, and the amount customers have to pay for the products can be lower, which benefits both the customers and the company (Panitch & Swartz, 2003). Second, not all countries have the same types of labor laws, and some countries have no unions and few labor laws at all (Schifferes, 2004). This…
Aneesh, A. (2009). Global labor: Algocratic modes of organization. Sociological Theory 27:4.
Buchholz, T.G. (2004). Bringing the jobs home: How the left created the outsourcing crisis - and how we can fix it. New York: Sentinel.
Krugman, P., Obtsfeld, M., & Melitz, M. (2012) East Asia: Success and crisis, in International Economics: Theory and Policy. NY: Addison-Wesley.
Part III -- Persuasive Paper: Possible Disadvantages and Answers
THE INTENATIONAL BOTHEHOOD OF THE TEAMSTES
Administration and membership of the Teamsters Union and its Organization
The Teamsters Union refers to one of the biggest labor unions across the world. It contributes significantly to the revenues realized by the U.S. The union has a unique structure that facilitates the effective running and management of organizational activities. The president leads the union who plays the responsibility of overseeing all the organizational activities and making decisions that influence the performance of the union and its ability to provide its services to its global consumers. The general secretary, international vice presidents, and international trustees play the responsibility of providing the required support to the president and implementation of the planned organizational activities (DeLancey, 2003). The Teamsters employ the use of top-down organizational structure to ensure effective communication and creation of order in the execution of organizational activities. The top-down organizational structure ensures…
DeLancey M. (2003).100 years of Teamsters history: a strong legacy, a powerful future. United States: DeLancey.
Jacobs, J.B., & Cooperman, K.T. (2011). Breaking the devil's pact the battle to free the Teamsters from the mob. New York: New York University Press.
Search Results. (n.d.). Teamsters. Retrieved August 19, 2014, from
Labor and Union Studies in ashington and Oregon States
The United States labor movement has its roots in the complex trappings of the industrial revolution. Laborers were just starting to come to the United States from foreign countries because they had learned that there were many jobs available for even the most unskilled worker. People were also moving from rural areas in America to the cities in an attempt ti have a better life also without the uncertainties that governed farm profits. The growth in many industries was a result of new technologies that allowed people to purchase items that had previously been made by hand far cheaper because the products could now be mass produced in the factories. The problem was that the owners of these factories did not care how the workers were treated because there were many more begging to have a low-paying job in a factory…
Bloom, Nick, Toby Kretschmer, and John van Reenen. Work-Life Balance, Management Practices and Productivity. London: London School Of Economics -- Center for Economic Performance, 2006. Print.
Brundage, Michael. "Working at Microsoft." qbrundage. Web.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. "Union Membership in Oregon -- 2010." United States Department of Labor (2010). Web.
Grant, Michel, and Jean Harvey. "Unions and Productivity: Convergence or Divergence in Perspectives." International Studies of Management & Organization 22.4 (1992): 93-98. Print.
Labor and Union Case Study
The objective of this work in writing is to conduct a case study on labor and unions and to answer the questions of: (1) Is the grievance process an effective method for resolving workplace disputes? And (2) How would you suggest that unions and employers improve their ability to correctly interpret the collective agreement?
In the case study at focus, several employees have a discussion, which results in an altercation, and two employees are fired as a result. The employees were then advised that they could file a grievance. One of the employees, named Green met in the cafeteria with a representative of the Grievance Committee and related her side of the story and believed that by meeting with the Grievance Committee member that she had filed an official grievance. One week later the other employee, Swallows, was reinstated. When Green inquired about the grievance,…
Borrell, Charles A. (2006) How Unions Can Improve Their Success Rate in Labor Arbitration. All Business. Dispute Resolution Journal Feb-Apr 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/workforce-management-hiring-recruiting/4081239-1.html
Travis, Mark C. (nd) Improving the Grievance Process: Grievance Mediation As An Alternative to Arbitration. Retrieved from: http://www.adrspecialists.com/docs/IMPROVING%20THE%20GRIEVANCE%20PROCESS%20-%20Grievance%20Mediation%20(IIRHRC).pdf
To intimidate striking workers or escort strike breakers, workers who would replace the individuals striking, across picket lines some employers contracted private companies like the Pinkerton Detective Agency.
The United States Department of Labor reports that the Coal Strike of 1902 proved to be a turning point in U.S. policy. On October 3, 1902, to address the strike in the Pennsylvania anthracite coal fields that he perceived to threaten a coal famine, President Theodore oosevelt resolved to end the strike by setting a precedent for the Federal Government's interventions. After a bitter battle, with President oosevelt's intervention, both sides of the coal labor dispute agreed to the findings of the Anthracite Coal Strike Commission. As a result, labor and industry accepted that the public possessed overriding rights as well as vital interests. President oosevelt's voice and negotiation skills returned peace to the coalfields (the Coal Strike of 1902…, 2010).
A Brief History of the Labor Movement. (2006). NPR. Retrieved March 8, 2010 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5758863
Florida State Union. (2009). Unions.org. Retrieved March 8, 2010 from http://www.unions.org/home/umap9-.htm
Greenhouse, S. (2010). Most U.S. union members are working for the government, new datashows. The New York Times. Retrieved March 8, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/23/business/23labor.html
History at the Department of Labor. (2010). United States Department of Labor.
The Department of Labor is present today to promote, foster and develop the welfare of the employees or the labor force in the United States. The labor system focuses on the improvement of the working conditions and the fulfillment of opportunities for more profitable employment. As it would be known, rules and regulations are there to keep things in order. Similarly, the Labor system in the country is guided by laws that guarantee the rights and privileges of the labor force of the country.
The Department of Labor has made laws concerning working conditions, minimum hourly wage, and freedom from employment discrimination, worker's compensation and unemployment insurance. The labor system also aids in job training programs and it helps workers find jobs. Everyone needs a decent source of income and if a person has some sort of skill or talent, they should definitely make use of it.
Baron, J.N., Jennings, P.D. & Dobbin, F.R. (1988). Mission control? The development of personnel systems in us industry. American Sociological Review, pp. 497 -- 514.
Bronfenbrenner, K. (1996). Role of union strategies in nlrb certification elections, the. Indus. & Lab. Rel. Rev., 50 p. 195.
Democratizing the Global Economy: Empowering Workers, Building Democracy, Achieving Shared Prosperity. (2005). [e-book] Available through: AFL-CIO http://www.aflcio.org/content/download/6904/74567/file/res_6.pdf [Accessed: 21 Feb 2014].
Lindsey, A. (1964). The pullman strike. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.
Labor Negotiating Practices
The issue of labor negotiating practices is one of the most important issues that companies must address. This is because the sensitiveness of labor problems is reflected in their legal implications. The battle between employers and employees becomes more and more difficult and requires advanced negotiation skills.
Company's Stance towards Labor Issues
The company that is analyzed in this case is represented by the companies that joined their forces in order to purchase Twinkies and other important brands from Hostess in their attempt to invest in their revival. These companies are represented by Metropoulos and Co. And Apollo Global Management. The potential of these brands has been acknowledged by the two companies that are interested in opening up new production plants. This means that they will hire a large number of employees. However, the issue in this case is that these companies are not interested in allowing…
1. Feintzeig, R. (2013). New Twinkie Maker Shuns Union Labor. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 20, 2013 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324474004578443062380660262.html .
2. Farrell, J. (2013). Twinkies and Labor Unions: Explaining the Hostess Collapse. Retrieved May 21, 2013 from http://www.policymic.com/articles/19288/twinkies-and-labor-unions-explaining-the-hostess-collapse.
Discuss the similarities and differences between at least three labor organizations discussed in Chapter 3.
The Knights of Labor was a standard labor union comprised of individual workers across the nation. They were inclusive in terms, employing both skilled workers in crafts industries as well as unskilled laborers such as coalminers. (Rayback, 1966, p. 168). They had limited political objectives such as the eight-hour workday and the prohibition of child and convict labor. Their broader objectives were social: to improve the image and social status of the working man.
The AFL was not a labor organization, but a federation of affiliated labor unions. (Dubofsky & Foster, 2004, p. 138). The AFL was exclusive, accepting skilled workers in crafts industries and skilled workers in industry. The AFL's goals were economic, they provided financial and political support for affiliated labor unions in contract negotiations with employers. (Dubofsky & Foster, 2004,…
Chaison, G. (2006). Unions in America.
Foner, P.S. (1997). History of the Labor Movement in the United States, Vol. 4: The Industrial Workers of the World 1905-1917.
Rayback, J.G. (1966). A History of American Labor.
Dubofsky, M. & Foster, R. (2004). Labor in America: A History.
There is a greater emphasis on written decrees or by-laws in union governance. Such rules help to enforce the structure of the union and create a system of governance (Housden, 2010). However, these rules lack consistency and at times lack transparency. For employers, such rules are generally limited and the managers are given significant leeway with respect to achieving their singular goal.
Lastly, the nature of the publicly-traded corporation means that there is more consistency and transparency in governance of employers. The governance principles and structures do not vary significantly from one employer to the next, even if the overall effectiveness of the governance mechanisms does. In unions, governance can vary dramatically. There is far less transparency, and there is often little direct contact between union leadership and the rank-and-file. Union leadership serves the needs of multiple locals, in addition to union head office. The possibility of conflicting objectives between…
Banks, a. & Metzgar, J. (1989). Participating in management: Union organizing on a new terrain. Labor Research Review. Vol. 1 (14) 1-55.
Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved February 5, 2011 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Housden, C. (2010). Union governance finally cleaned up with passing of bylaws. Scan Online. Retrieved February 5, 2011 from http://scan.lusu.co.uk/news/2010/11/17/union-governance-fi-nally-cleaned-up-with-passing-of-bylaws/
The more effective such systems of transport, the easier it is for labor to either to commute to work a fair distance from their home. Cities provide concentrated sources of labor that may not need to commute far distances. Also, the willingness of laborers to leave their home communities and relocate is an important cultural factor to remember, as well as the cost of transportation. Finally, in some areas, gas for cats is quite expensive, while public transportation is fairly cheap, which will affect labor patterns of migration and may be different than one might expect from one's experience in America.
Local attitudes to international companies, towards a diverse workforce, and to employing refugees may vary from country to country.
The diversity of the labor force, whether it is primarily skilled or unskilled, diverse or homogeneous in its ethnic, age, or skill composition will affect what types…
Reference for Business. Business Encyclopedia. Published by Thomson, Inc. Available 21 Nov 2006 at http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Gr-Int/International-Management.html
(Labor Law: Decline of union membership and power has led to rise in lawsuits)
What happened at the same time was that employers were able to finally step up their opposition to unions, which was something that they had probably wanted to do for a long time, and this was achieved through the methods of legal proceedings as well as political pressurizing and lobbying. Today, unions can no longer protest en masse and show their innate strength and power by threatening strikes and walkouts and staging them, because lawyers of today are well versed and knowledgeable in the ways and means to employ in launching attacks against large firms, like for example, they can take up the cause of retired workers who had been affected by constant and long-term exposure to asbestos in an asbestos manufacturing company, and it would be possible for these lawyers to win hundreds and thousands…
Definition of Union" Retrieved at http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&lr=&oi=defmore&q=define:unionAccessed on 11 March, 2005
Dresang, Joel. (Feb. 12, 2005) "Drop in Union Membership has Labor Officials Worried" Retrieved at http://www.jsonline.com/bym/news/feb05/301017.asp . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Joyce, Frank. (22 February, 2005) "Fate of the Union" Retrieved at http://www.alternet.org/story/21312/ . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Shachtman, Max. "The Fight for Socialism: The Principles and Program of the Workers Party" Retrieved at http://www.marxists.org/archive/shachtma/works/ffs06.htm . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
America is a competitive place and many of the economic and social systems in place reflect this quality. Economically, capitalism and all of its market specific rules apply to the many working people in this nation as well. The purpose of this essay is to describe how labor unions are affecting these economic processes and how they can contribute to the greater conversation revolving around the economy and employment issues. This essay will describe a union election from the standpoint of a campaign manager of union candidate to express my personal feelings and strengths towards this analysis. The second part of this essay will address the GMFC case study and explain my actions with a philosophy on employee relations.
Corporations appear to have much of the political power in the country today as far as labor realations are concerned. Labor unions are dwindling in power every year as…
Griswold, D. (2010). Unions, Protectionism and U.S. Competitiveness. Cato Journal, 30 (1), Winter 2010. Retrieved from http://www.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/serials/files/cato - journal/2010/1/cj30n1-10.pdf
US Department of Labor. Unions and Union Members. Viewed 2 Aug 2013. Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/compliance/topics/unions-elections.htm
US Department of Labor. Conducting Local Union Officer Elections. Viewed 2 Aug 2013. Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/olms/regs/compliance/localelec/localelec.htm
Many Chinese workers, including children, are forced to work in poor conditions (Ka Wai, 2004). Many workers are working in the town ship and village factories. According to a government report in 1984, the majority of township and village enterprises in China have at least one major problem that causes occupational disease. Many factory workers are working in dangerous conditions, in which poisonous chemicals, dust, and noise are predominant. As a result, many workers suffer from a variety of preventable health conditions.
Companies like Nike and eebok often subcontract factories in poor countries because they do not have to deal with production. By distancing themselves through subcontracting, benefiting from low production costs without having to take responsibility, they make huge profits.
In Indonesia, United States sportswear company Nike is often at the center of labor concerns (CNN, 2001). Workers at nine Indonesian factories under contract by Nike say they have…
2001). Hazardous forms of Child Labor in Nepal. GEFONT Paper presented in Preparatory Meeting on Developing Asian Network on Hazardous Child Labour
Manila 26-28, 2001. (Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.gefont.org/views/2001/child_labour.htm .(March 13, 2003). Informal sector marred by poor working condition. Mercantile Communications. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.nepalnews.com.np/contents/englishdaily/trn/2003/mar/mar13/local1.htm.
CNN.com. (February 22, 2001). Abuse rife at Nike's Indonesia plants. Retrieved from the Internet at http://archives.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/asiapcf/southeast/02/22/indonesia.slaveshop/ .
Ellis, Becky. (2000). Globalisation, Sweatshops and Indonesian Women Workers. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.angelfire.com/pr/red/feminism/globalisation_ss_indo_women.htm .
Union Organizing Campaign
I Human esource Management college I assignment studying alot unions workplace assignment I .Thanks Written Assignment 2 2-4 pages You hired XYZ a consultant. They facing a union organizing campaign.
The union organizing campaign
All employees should be allowed to join labor unions. The protection of the rights of employees in joining unions is one factor that leads to better establishment of a company. The company has to respect and acknowledge the responsibilities of unions in representing the interests of the employees.
The advantages of joining a union are that, it gives the employees the mandate to act together as a team, so as to improve on the working conditions at their respective places of work. Working in a union free environment denies the workers the chance to raise their grievances about the poor status of their places of work, for fear of…
Bragger, J.D., Rodriguez-Srednicki, O., Kutcher, E.J., Indovino, L., & Rosner, E. (2005). Work-Family Conflict, Work-Family Culture, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Teachers. Journal of Business and Psychology, 20(2), 303-324.
Brown, S.L. (2000). Union Transitions among Cohabitors: The Significance of Relationship Assessments and Expectations. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62(3), 833-846.
Burchielli, R. (2006). The Purpose of Trade Union Values: An Analysis of the ACTU Statement of Values. Journal of Business Ethics, 68(2), 133-142.
Lam, H., & Harcourt, M. (2007). A New Approach to Resolving the Right-to-Work Ethical Dilemma. Journal of Business Ethics, 73(3), 231-243.
But when it just recently occurred in 2004 at a store in Jonquiere, British Columbia, the reader must appreciate that a real battle had been won. The original efforts of that particular store for example had the local labor Commission reject certification by a margin of 74 to 65. When the union announced that it won the coveted certification at Quebec, it was quite a blow to the retailer. The Quebec Labour elations Commission issued the order certifying the United Food and Commercial Workers Union (UFCW) as the bargaining agent of employees in Wal-Mart's store in Jonquiere. As noted, the reason a victory of this magnitude is huge is because of the policies and tactics used by Wal-Mart. The retailer works diligently to prevent its workforce from engaging in any collective action and they have consistently shown that they are willing to cross the line to guarantee their position.
Baek, Seung Wook. (2000.) "The Changing Trade Unions in China." Journal of Contemporary Asia: March.
Budd, John W. (1994). "The Effect of Multinational Institutions on Strike Activity in Canada." Industrial and Labor Relations Review.
Corbett, Brian (2002). "Southern hospitality." Ward's Auto World, August.
Delsohn, Gary. (1997.) "UPS Strike May Revive American Labor Movement." Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News: Sept.
Various suggestions have been made as to how to correct for these losses, such as job retraining for more technical jobs.
As more and more union jobs are outsourced to foreign workers, more union workers in the United States are unemployed, with little recourse except to retrain and to target another type of work. hen they do so, they may not be as eager to join a union given that being a union member did not protect them the last time.
More and more companies are altering business relations and work relations today by outsourcing to foreign climes, in effect exporting jobs, as has been charged. Theoretically, though, this should be accompanied by different kinds of jobs in the United States, with the promise of higher tech jobs, more computer-oriented work, and higher salaries as a result. Observers see something else happening, however, as more and more manufacturing jobs are…
Burn, Timothy. "Unions Halt Decline in Membership." The Washington Times (20 Jan 2000), 1.
Freeman, Richard and Arthur Ticknor. "Wal-Mart Is Not a Business, it's an Economic Disease." Executive Intelligence Review (14 Nov 2003). July 31, 2007. http://www.larouchepub.com/other/2003/3044wal-mart.html .
Goldman, Abigail and Nancy Cleeland. "An Empire Built on Bargains Remakes the Working World." Los Angeles Times (23 Nov 2003). July 31, 2007. http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-walmart23nov23,1,2729555.story?coll=la-home-business .
Union Members in 2006." News: United Stats Department of Labor (25 Jan 2007). July 31, 2007. http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/union2.pdf .
The open and free market economies proved successful from a management perspective, and government supported the primacy of the profit motive.
The consequences of these fluctuations has been a system that favors management in the United States. Labor unions have been systematically ridiculed socially, lumped together with communism and therefore derided by the American public. Similarly, labor unions have lost their political clout to a certain degree, and management has secured political power over laborers. Wages have remained deplorably low, so low that income disparity in the United States resembles that of Third World nations. Income disparity in the United States is the steepest of any other industrialized nation. Countries with strong labor laws such as the nations of northern Europe tend to be more egalitarian societies with fewer class distinctions and less of a wealth gap. The American model allows unbridled business growth at the expense of social justice.…
Freeman, R. (1996). Solving the new inequality. Boston Review. Retrieved April 13, 2007 at http://bostonreview.net/BR21.6/freeman.html
But the sad fact is that most of these people will not meet this future, and will likely spend much of their lives working for different companies, all looking to get the most out of their employees for the least amount of pay and benefits.
Certainly people need to feel like their work is important and like they have a place and are making a positive difference in their community. But many of the jobs that people have currently have no promise of future employment, and the pride and energy that the workers give in the hopes of attaining a better life for themselves and their families will be met with silence from their employers. The American Dream is all but dead, and social class has more to do with where a person will end up in life more than any other deciding factor of potential in a person's life.…
Kovacic, Kristin. "Proud to Work for the University." What We Hold in Common: An Introduction to Working-Class Studies. By Zandy, Janet. New York: The Feminist Press at the City University of New York. 2001. pp 12-16.
Mantsios, Gregory. "Class in America: Myths and Realities." Rereading America. Eds.
Colombo, Gary; Cullen, Robert; and Lisle, Bonnie. Boston: Bedford St. Publishers. 2000. pp 162-163.
Labor is a commodity that needs to be purchased for business activity. In the uncivilized world of the past labor could be exploited to the extreme, but in modern times trade union movement, increased public consciousness, health, safety and environmental regulations and labor regulations have meant that the near slavery condition of the past are totally unacceptable.
Nevertheless, labor remains a commodity requiring efficient, humane and cost effective management to increase profitability and balance human rights and investors' interests. This effort has resulted in labor economics developing as a branch of microeconomics. This paper reviews labor economics and its importance in the modern day economic and business activities.
Important Components of Labor Economics
Labor Supply and Demand
Quality of Labor (Investments in Human Capital)
Non-Wage Labor Costs
Pay & Productivity
8. Economics of Discrimination
9. Social Accountability
10. Trade Unions…
1. What is Labor Economics-Economics 150 Course Outline, Retrieved from Internet on 12 Oct 2005, http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~dackerma/labsyllabus.pdf#search= 'What%20is%20Labor%20EconomicsEconomics%20150%20Course%20Outline'
2. Engels, F., Introduction to Karl Marx's Wage Labor and Capitol, Retrieved from Internet on 12 October 2005, http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1847/wage-labour/Ch04.htm
3. Labor Economics, Retrieved from Internet on 12 Oct 2005, http://www.oswego.edu/~economic/eco350/chap2.htm
4. From Encyclopedia Wikipedia, Retrieved from Internet on 12 Oct 2005, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labor_%28economics%29
The Great ailroad Strike of 1877 was the nations' first major rail strike and witnessed the first general strikes in the country's history. The strikes and the violence it brought about temporarily paralyzed the country's commerce and led governors in ten states to mobilize sixty thousand militia members to reopen rail traffic. The strike would be broken within a few weeks, but it also helped set the stage for later violence in the 1880's and 1890's, including the Haymarket Square bombing in Chicago in 1886, the Homestead Steel Strike near Pittsburgh in 1892, and the Pullman Strike in 1894 (1877: The Great ailroad Strike, 2006).
There have been many protests in American history against corporations, industrialists, bankers, Wall Street and the economic devastation their unregulated activities including the 19th-century labor movement that featured thousands of strikes and protests. The current protest that can be compared to that of the Great…
1877: The Great Railroad Strike. (2006). Retrieved from http://libcom.org/history/articles/us -rail-strikes-1877
Hogarty, R.A. (2001). Leon Abbett's New Jersey: the emergence of the modern governor.
Philadelphia, PA: American Philosophical Society.
Mullen, S. (2011). The Strikes of 1877 & 1886: Historic Precedents For Occupy Wall Street.
Unions give lots of credit to workers who have seniority because unions are known for their wiliness to repay loyalty, for one thing. If a worker has been in a union for a lengthy period of time that shows dedication to the union and the company; and also it shows respect for the union leadership. According to journalist Gregory Hamel, gaining seniority in a union takes a long time, so workers may be "reluctant to quit their jobs because doing so might erase their seniority" (Hamel, 2012). A new hire in a union will receive a certain base pay rate, and a worker who has been in the union for five years would also receive that base pay rate "plus an additional amount based upon years of service" (Hamel, p. 1). Union workers with seniority may get more vacation time, and in the event of a layoff, new…
Hamel, G. (2012).How Is Seniority Important to a Union? Demand Media. Retrieved April
16, 2015, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com .
HR Council. (2011). Keeping the Right People / Performance Management. Retrieved April 16, 2015, from http://hrcouncil.ca .
Magloff, L. (2012). Compressed Working Seek Vs. Flextime. Demand Media. Retrieved April 16, 2015, from
Unions in America today
The document outlines the pros and cons of unions in America. It takes into consideration how unions improve the working environments for workers. The paper considers the power of unions on law makers, collective bargaining and other advantages. The cons include decline in competitive advantage for American companies, low productivity and motivation and many others.
In any organization, unions act as binding agreements between employees and management. In this case, a group of persons are responsible for conducting negotiations with the management for the purpose of enhancing the welfare of workers. Unions originate from the period of American depression when workers faced various work challenges including low remuneration, and unfavorable working conditions. The purpose of this essay is to explore the pros and cons of unions in America in the current times.
Unions improve the working conditions and welfare of workers
One of the positive…
Bennett, J.T., & Kaufman, B.E. (2002). The future of private sector unionism in the United
States. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe.
Pride, W.M., Hughes, R.J., & Kapoor, J.R. (2012). Business. Mason, OH: South-Western
Labor When it's Flat on its Back," by Thomas Geoghegan.
Specifically, it will discuss whether I agree or disagree with Geoghegan's question and title of his book.
THE LABO MOVEMENT
Geoghegan is a labor lawyer who has a dim view of the modern American labor movement. He believes it is past its prime and usefulness, and will eventually dwindle away, dying a lingering and painful death, and leaving millions of Americans unrepresented in its wake. He believes this will occur if total labor union membership falls below 10% in the United States. "U.S. manufacturing has gone down the drain, and with it, it seems, the entire labor movement. Just 16% of the workforce now , down from 20-25% ten years ago. Maybe it will drop to 12. Once it drops to 10, it might as well keep dropping to zero" (Geoghegan 3).
Unfortunately, the author's predictions seem to be coming…
Author not available. "An Interview With Labor Lawyer and Author Tom Geoghegan." All Things Considered (NPR). 25 Oct. 1995.
Editors. "U.S. Union Membership." The Labor Research Association. 2002. 6 Dec. 2002. http://www.lraonline.org/charts.php?id=29
Geoghegan, Thomas. Which Side are You on? Trying to be for Labor When it's Flat on its Back. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1991.
Lowery, James. "Do We Need Labor Unions in America?" Resources for Labor Union Organizing (RLUO). 2001. 6 Dec. 2002. http://union-organizing.com/edit.html
External factors that have adversely impacted labor's ability to remain organized include social and political changes in the United States. During the 1960s, labor had the opportunity to join with the Civil ights movement in fulfilling core goals such as the prevention of labor exploitation. Instead, the political turmoil of the 1960s left labor without strong enough leadership. Moreover, "unlike European union movements, American organized labor has avoided the formation of a political party and has remained within the framework of the two-party system," ("The Labor Union"). This may indeed be the most significant factor preventing productive labor union organization: the lack of interest in a labor-based political party. The Democratic Party usually champions labor issues but not with sufficient enthusiasm or clout. To increase their chances for future success, unions need to do the following: reach out to minorities and women; reach out to workers in skilled as well…
"The Labor Union." History.com. Retrieved 10 Feb 2010 from http://www.history.com/content/laborday/labor-history/the-labor-union
Silverman, J. (nd). How labor unions work. How Stuff Works. Retrieved 10 Feb 2010 from http://money.howstuffworks.com/labor-union.htm
This new generation of activists on college campuses nationwide has inspirited students to talk about their concerns about workers rights. This effort was also conducted largely through e-mail campaigns over the Internet. Some graduate students have already formed their own unions.
Appealing to Right-To-Work States
Arizona, famously known as a right-to-work state, is emerging as a new stomping ground for labor unions. Organized labor is making one of its largest efforts in state history to recruit new members and increase its political clout (Graham and Pitzl).
The effort cuts across a broad swath of industries that includes iron workers, painters, grocery-store workers, and state government employees.
Two unions kicked off their combined effort to organize state government workers, citing low pay and the need to have a voice on working conditions.
Union groups are leading the drive to establish a minimum wage in Arizona. "Arizona's labor unions have never been…
Asher, Herbert, Eric Heberlig and Randall Ripley. American labor unions in the electoral arena. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001.
Boone, Louis and David Kurtz. Contemporary Business. Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press, 1999.
Edwards, Richard. Rights at Work: Employment Relations in the Post-Union Era. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1994.
Graham, Chad and Mary Jo Pitzl. "Ariz.'s growth attracts unions." 20 Aug 2006. azcentral.com. 6 May 2009 .
As well when the same individuals were polled responses given stating that they believed that unions would become weaker in the future totaled 53%. It is certain that should unions fail to exist that individuals in today's work and labor forces would certainly receive less compensation, less vacation and leave time, less fringe benefits and that they would receive much less in the way of pension from the company following retirement.
Recommendations for Future Research
Arising from this brief review are recommendations for further research for the purpose of examining why it is that labor and worker unions are likely to become weaker in the future than they are presently.
Mishel, Lawrence and Walters, Matthew (2003) How Unions Help All Workers. Economic Policy Institute. 26 Aug 2003. Online available at: http://www.epi.org/publications/entry/briefingpapers_bp143/
Grabelsky, Jeff (2004) uilding and Construction Trades Unions: Are They uilt to Win? ILR Collection 2004. Online available…
Mishel, Lawrence and Walters, Matthew (2003) How Unions Help All Workers. Economic Policy Institute. 26 Aug 2003. Online available at: http://www.epi.org/publications/entry/briefingpapers_bp143/
Grabelsky, Jeff (2004) Building and Construction Trades Unions: Are They Built to Win? ILR Collection 2004. Online available at: http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1057&context=articles
Majorities Say They Agree That Labor Unions Are Necessary to Protect the Working Person, but Plurality Believe Unions Will Become Weaker in the Future (2010) Public Agenda Organization. 1 Mar 2010. Online available at: http://www.publicagenda.org/charts/three-quarters-americans-say-they-agree-view-labor-unions-are-necessary-protect-workers-half-say
Sirolli, Carmen J. Sr. (nd) Bargaining Units vs. Management: Are Police Unions Necessary? Online available at: http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/Content/Florida-Criminal-Justice-Executive-Institute/Docs/sirolli-carmen-final-paper-(1).aspx
labor racketeering "Big Four," including specific examples. 2. Discuss illegal drugs present day major sources profit organized groups estern Hemisphere.
Labor racketeering occurs when a body manipulates a labor movement by making use of unlawful, aggressive, or deceitful with the purpose of achieving personal benefits. Organized crime groups are often inclined to get actively involved in such activities as a result of the diverse ways in which they can gain control over businesses and industries. Racketeering can lead to workers being denied a series of rights and experiencing economic problems. Labor racketeering has seen significant progress during recent years and criminals have adapted to a constantly changing environment by coming up with strategies to maintain their influence.
The Labor Department directed a great deal of resources toward investigating alongside of the "big four" unions. The International Brotherhood of Teamsters, the Laborers International Union, the Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders…
Abadinsky, H. "Organized Crime, 10th ed." (Cengage Learning)
roles would suit you best and why?
Of all the listed roles, I think that monitoring union election outcomes would suit my personality best. This role requires a strong sense of ethics and impartiality. ather than being an advocate for a single candidate this role requires the monitor to ensure that everyone is playing by the rules regardless of his or her position. If elections are not perceived as fair, people will lose confidence in the process. Also, free and fair elections are more likely to ensure that support is retained for the union, even in the face of declining union membership. Some unions have had a history of questionable ethics and bias, and continuing to uphold high standards ensures that people still believe in the value of labor unions and the fact that labor unions genuinely represent their interests. I tend to prefer not to be engaged in conflict…
Union authorization cards. (2012). SHRM. Retrieved from:
However, the statistics listed on the AFL-CIO website about "Health Care Facts" are sobering. 47 million people, including 8.7 million children have no health coverage at all. Health care premiums were $1,320 on average in 2001, but skyrocketed to $3,266 in 2007. According to the graphic "Exploding Health Care Costs are Devastating orking Families," every 30 seconds in the United States someone files for a bankruptcy that is related to medical care, and other than the pharmaceutical and health insurance companies, even employers are being "crippled" by health care costs. This means lower wages for workers, as employers pass the increased expense onto workers, and hire fewer workers because of the cost of healthcare. Ultimately it is heartening to read that the AFL-CIO is mobilizing behind the move to put healthcare at the top of the national agenda, even if it has not devised the perfect solution to insure that…
Health Care Facts." AFL-CIO. 13 Mar 2008. http://www.aflcio.org/issues/healthcare/facts.cfm
Join the Fight for Health Care." AFL-CIO. 13 Mar 2008. http://www.unionvoice.org/campaign/1_million_petition/?qp_source=hc%5fjobseconomy
Parks, James. "International Women's Day: Women Still Trail Men in Pay After 100
Years." 7 May 2008. AFL-CIO. 13 Mar 2008. http://blog.aflcio.org/2008/03/07/international-womens-day-women-still-trail-men-in-pay-after-100-years