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ecycling Concrete v. Placing it in a Landfill: A Comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions
As one of the most abundantly used resources in the world -- second only to water, according to some measures -- determining what to do with concrete once it is no longer needed in its original application is a major issue. Most of the time, waste concrete is not structurally flawed or degraded, but the building or structure it was used in is simply no longer needed or is being rebuilt and so the concrete must be torn down while there is still a great deal of usefulness in it. ecycling the concrete thus seems like a very good idea, and to be sure recycling concrete can lead to a major reduction in the raw materials needed around the globe each year for a variety of concrete construction projects. A great deal of energy is…… [Read More]
Landfills and Landfill Gas:
Land-filling is one of the most popular and widely used method of disposing different types of waste materials, more specifically Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), in many countries. In order to fulfill the federal regulations, the landfills are designed and operated in an efficient way and are located in such areas which are away from the residential areas. It is essential to carefully monitor this whole process, as this method of disposing waste results in the generation of landfill gas (Chalvatzaki & Lazaridis, 2010).
Landfill gas is a mixture of different gases, which include methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, ammonia, oxygen, sulfides, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and many other. In terms of volume, 45% to 60% methane and 40% to 60% carbon dioxide is presented in the landfill gas. Landfill gas is produced as a result of three processes which takes place when the waste material is disposed into…… [Read More]
20. In determining these ratios, the government must use Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) for governments, and have its financial statements audited by an independent certified public accountant." (EPA). However, governments who are in default on general obligation bonds or that has any oustanding bonds below a certain rating are ineligible. Operators can also receive corporate guarantees from a guarantor, but that guarantor has to be either a parent corporation or principal shareholder of the operator. Furthermore, the guarantor has to meet the conditions of the corporate financial test. MSW operators may also be guaranteed by local governments, as long as those local governments meet the local government test. Individual states can also approve assurance mechanisms, if those states are authorized to implement the MSWLF criteria. Finally, states can assume legal responsibility for a MSWLF's after-care, whether by absolute assumption of that responsibility, or by merely assurring that the funds…… [Read More]
hereas conventional, compacted clay barriers are designed to prevent the infiltration of water into the waste below the cover, evapotranspiration takes a decidedly different approach. The cover technique actually uses to its advantage the high water storage capacity of fine grained soils to retain water in the soil above the waste and refuse. The water is "stored" in that layer until it is released back into the atmosphere either through evaporation from the soil or transpiration from the native vegetation that is planted on the surface (EPA 2). One of the only limitations of the evapotranspiration cover is its inability to function adequately outside of arid and semi-arid environments. Only there can the refuse be covered in a reasonable amount of soil with a storage capacity great enough to manage and store the water that will enter the soil at the landfill site. In humid climates, or ones with higher…… [Read More]
Landfill for Disposing Hazardous Material
esistance of the public to siting a waste management facility
While citizens are thankful for convenient existing locations for dumping garbage, recyclables, and yard waste, it may be rather hard to gain their acceptance with regard to waste management facility sites (Walker, 2012).
Community planning in relation to waste management facility
Land-use planning for a community seldom takes into consideration waste management site locations in its community design. In view of the progressively increasing diversion of waste to composting and recycling, facilities will have to be located in easily accessible places that however, do not conflict with neighboring land uses (Walker, 2012).
The second point stated above requires more consideration and detailed planning and implementation to reassure the local residents of concerns arising out of waste management facilities.
Convincing residents that minimal risk is posed to groundwater supply
People residing near a selected landfill…… [Read More]
Canadian trash being trucked in to Michigan landfills for disposal. Specifically, it will discuss how can we stop the Canadian trash from filling up our Michigan landfills for an audience who feels the Michigan waste disposal companies are justified in accepting trash from Canada and other states in Michigan landfills. Canadian trash (and trash from other states) is a major problem facing our landfills today, and we must find a way to create new ways of dealing with waste, while finding new areas for landfill before our current landfills load up.
Canadian Trash in Michigan Land Fills
Did you know that "National figures indicate that for each person, an average of 4.3 pounds of solid waste is generated daily? For Michigan, this translates to approximately 20,000 tons a day or 7.1 million tons a year" (Harrison 1). If that sounds like quite a bit of trash to dispose of effectively…… [Read More]
Linear systems are constructed with layers of natural materials with low permeability. Leachate collection system is designed to remove liquid that is found in the liners. Waste is placed above the collection leachate system in layers.
Modern landfills are now built in locations which protect environment and human health as well as having structural integrity. There is restriction of the construction of modern landfills in floodplains, wetland or fault areas (epa, 2010). Once the modern landfills reach the height which is permitted it is closed down an engineered in such a way that it prevents the infiltration of water through the installation of a cap low in permeability which is same as the linear system. On top of the low-permeability barrier there is a granular drainage layer that diverts water from the top of the landfill. There is a protection cover at the filter blanket's top as well as top…… [Read More]
This method makes effective use of ability of metals to float on surfaces of leachates on their own. Due to the high proven efficiency of this method, it is widely used for removal of heavy metals such as iron and humic acid from leachates in many parts of the world.
emoval of Plastic from Municipal Waste
Plastic is a non-biodegradable waste that has low recycling margin. Unfortunately, plastic is widely used in everyday products is heavily present in the municipal waste. The environmental threat posed by the presence of plastic in municipal waste is another major issue. Major plastic types that are commonly found in UK municipal waste include PET, high density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, low density polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and other plastics such as melamine. Major source of these types of plastic are fizzy drink bottles, bottles of detergents and washing liquids, plastic plates cups and spoons, bin bags,…… [Read More]
The same thing with our super-modern companies and school: although they have found sophisticated ways to conceal their garbage from people's eyes, the garbage still exists and is contaminating to the atmosphere. As is known, despite their tremendous care taken to avoid lethal gas emission, the landfill may still produce emission of methane gas that is produced by the decaying waste material and modern garbage, concealed thoguh it is by our institutions, produces the same results.
Recycling is still our only option. It has a superior effect on reducing lethal emissions since it reduces the amount of energy used by the industry most of which produces fossil fuels like gasoline, diesel and coals that transform themselves into carbon dioxide, methane, and other toxic greenhouse effects. In this way, recycling acts as preventative rather than as implementation after matter (Morris, 1996). Incinerators and landfills used in recycling projects also produce reduced…… [Read More]
The waste group contains 3 items:
AS1 -- Storing of Recyclable Household aste and Non-recyclable aste
AS2 -- Building Location aste Management
AS3 -- Composting
Household Recycling facilities
here the following recycling
services are given:
• 3 internal storage bins for recyclable waste with -- min total capacity of 60 ltr
-- no individual bin smaller than 15 ltr
-- all of the bins in a devoted position that is accessible to disabled people
here full recycling facilities
• 3 internal storage bins with -- min total capacity of 30 ltr
-- no individual bin smaller
than 7 ltr
-- all bins in a dedicated position that is accessible to disabled people
• a Local Authority collection scheme for recyclable materials covering at least three streams of waste with sufficient space for…… [Read More]
2.6. Sources Consulted
The list of the works assessed throughout the research of this topic is revealed in the eferences section at the end of the report. As a final statement however, it has to be recognized that the previous lines only make up for the proposal and the actual research will be more comprehensive and will even include more sources, as required by the development of the research operations.
Arabe, K.C., Green Packaging is Growing, Thomas Net, http://news.thomasnet.com/IMT/archives/2002/10/green_packaging.html last accessed on September 22, 2009
Dyer, D., Dalzell, F., Olegario, ., ising Tide: Lessons from 165 Years of Brand Building at Procter & Gamble, Harvard Business Press, 2004
Freeze, a.., the Environmental Pendulum: A Quest for the Truth about Toxic Chemicals, Human Health, and Environmental Protection, University of California Press, 2000
Jedlicka, W., Packaging Sustainability: Tools, Systems and Strategies for Innovative Package Design, John Wiley and Sons, 2008
Going…… [Read More]
ecycling, educing, eusing
The items I identified as being recyclable during the week under consideration include: plastic bottles, steel cans, and paper cups. The total population of the community/subdivision currently stands at 2,000 people. This effectively means that if every member of the community in which I live recycles an exact amount of trash as I did for only 7 days, my area would be able to recycle 34,000 (17*2000) plastic bottles, 36,000 (18*2000) steel cans, and 28,000 (14*2000) paper cups. Assuming that each year has a total of 52 weeks, this means that the community would save 1,768,000 (34,000*52) plastic bottles, 1,872,000 (36,000*52) steel cans, and 1,456,000 (28,000*52) paper cups per annum.
In my opinion, my community does not recycle enough. This is particularly the case given that the recycling program in place is not as efficient as it ought to be. There are various ways through which the…… [Read More]
Management 4 course book written Chuck William scenario assignment provided professor. Decision Making Case Assignment #2 - What Would You Do? Management Decision Making Case #2 Interface, Inc.
Interface, Inc. -- Implementing Sustainability
Which level of social responsibility best describes the company's current operations?
At present, the company is operating on a totally unsustainable model -- it generates waste in the production of the carpets it sells and the carpet materials are non-recyclable and simply fill up landfills. The company's business is "turning petrochemicals into textiles" which means using petroleum "which took millions of years to make, [and] is irreplaceable" and turning it into carpet which will not decompose and yet which is usually discarded within ten years (Fishman 1998). The factories which produce the carpets also generate pollutants.
Q2. What environmental vision do you communicate to your task force? In other words, what social responsiveness strategy will you adopt…… [Read More]
Recycling in Apartments
Date Here (Day, Month, Year)
Providing Better Facilities for Recycling to Apartment Dwellers
Recycling is highly beneficial to the natural environment as it plays a vital role in preserving natural resources. Recycling caters with the benefit of reducing the amount of material entering landfills. Moreover, recycling can save money for building owner. It costs less to recycle discards than to throw them away (Rankin, 11). The process of making new products from raw materials costs a great deal in comparison to making them through recycled products. This paper highlights the challenges encountered by people living in apartments or multi-family building in terms of recycling materials. It also explains the current practices in this regard and recommends prospects solutions for improving recycling facilities for apartment dwellers.
Recycling Challenges Faced by Apartment Dwellers
The physical structure, environment and management of multi-family complexes give birth to varying systems and approaches…… [Read More]
With this information, people can make informed decisions regarding the water they consume. Which additives are healthful? Which are not? These are examples of only some of the questions responsible consumers should have when choosing their water. Regarding the use of plastics, the solution is simple. By simply changing their habits from plastic water bottles to stainless steel or any of the other alternatives, not only is the consumer choosing something that supports of the well-being of the planet, but also supports the well-being of themselves.
This is merely one solution of many meant to work towards a more sustainable lifestyle across the globe. That the consumption of water increased so quickly, all over the world, signifies the impact of advertising on consumer choices. This can be a reason for hope, since just as quickly the use of stainless steel water bottles and clean water can be brought into individual…… [Read More]
solid waste management in impoverished areas versus affluent areas by examining the social, economic, ethical, and political reasons for placement of landfills and other waste removal facilities in poorer neighborhoods. By exploring the background of specific social movements, the first section of the assignment will seek to explore why the government placed landfills in certain locations versus others. The essay will also seek to examine what caused the social movements. As well as why the issue evolved from placement of landfills in poorer neighborhoods to placement of landfills in minority-majority poorer neighborhoods.
The next section will seek to analyze which candidates would be best for a nonprofit. Candidate one is a business-savvy employee wishing to change things by dismissing all the older employees and hiring new ones. Candidate two is a college graduate with experience in the field. By looking at the various perspectives of public administration theory, this section…… [Read More]
The WITE initiative was a collaborative approach that drew upon industry, state, local governments as well as the EPA's isk eduction Engineering Laboratory with the overall goal of developing more effective pollution prevention technologies that could assist the electronics manufacturing industry in developing a "crade to grave" approach to managing these products (appaport, 1999).
Besides these earlier efforts, in more recent years, increasingly rigorous laws and regulations have been implemented by the EPA with the goal of minimizing the impact of electronics and electrical device waste on the environment have began to make a major difference in recovering these toxic substances before they ever have a chance to become waste. For instance, pursuant to the above-mentioned esource Conservation and ecovery Act, it is now illegal for companies in the United States to simply discard hazardous waste, including electronics and electrical devices, in normal trash receptacles (The importance of recycling computers,…… [Read More]
Less need for more landfill space reduces the cost and resources needed to secure new landfill space. "Composting also extends municipal landfill life by diverting organic materials from landfills and provides a less costly alternative to conventional methods of remediating… contaminated soil." (EPA, 2008)
It is evident that the advantages and benefits of composting are quite substantial, and arguably outweigh the disadvantages or issues involved with the process. Nevertheless, the previously discussed issues can be impeding to achieving the full benefits of composting, and thereby need to be dealt with suitably. For a government intending to implement a mandatory composting regulation, it would be necessary for them to also ensure that all residents within the region are properly educated on the procedure. Also, the government would need to make appropriate arrangements for residents living in apartments, business owners who are not in charge of their building's waste management, and…… [Read More]
5 billion pounds is up 2.3% from December 2006. Angier lists all the plastic-based materials around her desk at the Times and in her personal life, including her computer keyboard, credit card, telephones, her motorcycle helmet, luggage, earrings, for starters. Plastics also pad mattresses, "elasticize our comfort-fit jeans, suture our wounds, plug our dental cavities, encapsulate our pills, replace our lost limbs, lighten our cars and jets" and much more (Angier).
The city of San Francisco banned "traditional plastic bags" in November 2007, according to an article in the San Francisco Chronicle (Buchanan, 2007). "People are used to getting free bags and thinking there is no real consequence to them," said Jack Macy, recycling coordinator for San Francisco's Department of the Environment. "But there is a cost," Macy went on. Part of the cost to city of San Francisco -- where about 180 million plastic bags were handed out annually…… [Read More]
turned into other products. Generally, this includes various types of cardboard and paper products. Not all waste paper is created equal, and there are three different categories of paper that are recycled in order to create more paper products. These categories are mill broke, pre-consumer waste, and post-consumer waste (Waite 2013).
When paper is manufactured, there are ends, pieces, and scraps that are removed from it in the mill (Best & Kneip 2011). These are the mill broke pieces of waste paper that can be recycled. They are generally taken straight from the paper mill to the recycling plant. If the plant has its own recycling area, these mill broke pieces are simply recycled internally and reused in the continued paper production (Best & Kneip 2011). Most plants have these types of recycling facilities, but they may not all offer that option. For plants that do not have their…… [Read More]
Hydraulic Conductivity, How it Is Measured and hy it Is Important for Transient Storage
The hydraulic conductivity of soil is related to its texture. The rate is generally higher in coarser soils, but it is also influenced by structure and can be profoundly influenced by soil management operations and the exchangeable cation status (Richards 1956). The quality of irrigation water is an important consideration when determining irrigation feasibility and permanence alternatives. Rather than hazards to irrigation agriculture from the soluble constituents of irrigation water, the main problems appear to be the accumulation of soluble salts and exchangeable sodium in soil. In this regard, the salinity of irrigation water has a direct impact on such factors as crop selection, the appropriate method of application of the water, as well as the leaching required to effectively manage salt accumulations in the soil, all of which are factors subject to constraints imposed by…… [Read More]
In a report on recent research in this area, Hickman (2008) states that, "Although the public recycle newspapers and bottles, only one eighth of clothes are recycled through charity shops
About 70 per cent goes straight to landfill or incineration" (Hickman). This is telling example, of the way that Fast Fashion can affect the environment.
The fact that these fashions are relatively cheap means that they are more easily discarded that would be the case with more expensive garments. Furthermore, the finding that almost all discarded Fast Fashion is not ecologically processed in an environmentally friendly way is a central factor that will be explored in detail.
The same study by Hickman referred to above contributes to the overall picture of the potentially negative outcomes of Fast Fashion in countries like the United Kingdom. " aste volumes from the sector are high and growing in the UK with the advent…… [Read More]
Test Results: "Total Cost Accounting course and Test" located at http://teexcit.tamu.edu/tca / (Total Cost Accounting online course and test).
Bakshi, B.R., Landers, .F., Singh, S., Merugula, L.A., Mishchenko, O., and Fiskel, J. (2012, November 2). Accounting for ecosystem services in life cycle assessment by co-LCA: Advances in methodology and software. Paper to be presented at the Annual Conference of the 11th Global Congress of Process Safety on April 2015 in Austin, Texas.
The authors explain the role of ecosystem goods and services in the support of economic activities, and the relation of the use of ecosystem goods and services to sustainability. The variety of ecosystem goods and services is broad, however, most sustainability methods have not considered their contribution well. Consider that these are all ecosystem goods or services that play a role in sustainability: 1) The provisioning of water, food, and biomass; 2) the regulation of pests…… [Read More]
There are other solutions that manufacturers are working on to handle this. Cloth diapers may be used in conjunction with a fully disposable, flushable diaper liner that can be sent down the toilet to limit landfill waste. This may be a good alternative and a compromise between the government regulations and an ease of use for parents for their children. This may be a reason that cloth diapers are better, but on the other hand the diapers would still need to be washed, thus using fresh water to clean them. Fresh water in the future may also be a limited resource so this solution also has its own issues. Time will tell for which solution proves to be the most economical.
Turley, a. (2011, Oct 11). A Polymer Plug for Vessels. Retrieved from http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2011/October/11101102.asp
Soil Moist, (2012, Mar 3). Retrieved from http://www.soilmoist.com/products/soil-moist.php.
Richard, M.G., (2011, May 24). Mushrooms…… [Read More]
The apparent garbage crisis of overflowing landfills would help develop urban landscapes for the future city.
Establish an overlay district of employment to encourage high-income employment in strategic locations
I would like to see the city where health systems are integrated and sharing one regional headquarter.
The leaders must facilitate development programs that generate high-income jobs.
I must address my quest for an economically vital and people-friendly future city. The apparent garbage crisis of overflowing landfills would help develop urban landscapes for the future city. There are various ways in which trash could be transformed into treasure. Based on my understanding of the Clearwater's challenges and opportunities, coupled with the current economic conditions, I believe the below strategies will translate Clearwater into a new city of my desire.
Establish an overlay district of employment to encourage high-income employment in strategic locations: the future city will be a…… [Read More]
Disposable batteries have transformed the way that we live and the types of activities that we do. The purpose of this discussion is to provide the reader with a natural history of disposable batteries from the time the raw materials are extracted from the earth to the time they are recycled or in a land fill. We will seek to explain the environmental impact that batteries have along the path of creation, use, and disposal. This paper will also discuss the Peripheral impact, of batteries including: how they are shipped, how much fuel is used, and how much pollution is created. Finally we will discuss the social impact of batteries and facts about the societies that make, use, and dispose of batteries.
Natural History of Disposable Batteries
The concept of batteries was first discovered between 1780-1786 by Luigi Galvani. Galvani found that connecting iron and brass created an electrical current.…… [Read More]
A salary survey of and statistical analysis of similar municipalities with similar budgets, and services per capita is ideal to determine the market value for sanitation labor services. This is to indicate that Toronto does not have adequate analytical human capital present to properly analyze the entire nature of this environmental economic disaster.
Summary and Conclusion
The unsanitary and unhealthy environmental impact rendered from discontinued municipal sanitation services for a metropolis the size of Toronto is a common problem. Throughout the world, there are cities and urban centers with no landfill space and that lack a comprehensive sanitation pickup and removal system. Toronto is not alone in facing fiscal constraints against the operating budget but still must weigh the cost against the benefits of renewing "grandfathered" contracts from old administrations. If the city allows itself to be crippled by the demands of a powerful union then the constituency will be…… [Read More]
" (fom Wold envionmental news, Intenet edition)
Besides developing flexible legislation that will distibute the functions of ecycling between manufactues and municipal sevices thee has to be a definite and developed pogam that would specialize on the optimal and the most exhaust utilization of electonic waste, eduction of e-waste landfills and incineation. Recycling pogam should not be limited to the ecycling of CRT monitos, as thei ownes ae moe likely to bing the whole obsolete compute system to the ecycling, not just compute monitos.
The benefit of integal pogam of ecycling is that it allows using a vaiety of mateials used in the electonics manufactuing like pecious metals, semi-pecious metals, and some electonic items in the euse.
The most impotant pat of the e-waste management is seach of the most appopiate and qualified patnes in the technical o pactical pat of the poblem solution. This poblem is of the essential…… [Read More]
The role of the leader is to inspire vision, demonstrate confidence and set examples for the group to follow. Our leader will need to create a positive environment to energize our group towards achieving our objectives. To reach common consensuses, our leader will be given the power of final say after the group has deliberated and debated on an issue. To reach our goal, we will be very careful when choosing a leader. We will choose a leader based on several qualities that our leader must possess and these qualities will include:
Ability to convince other people efficiently and effectively
ased on the strategies that we will use to select our leader, it is envisaged that our leader will assist the group to reach a better decision.
While our leader is to assist the group to reach a better decision…… [Read More]
Domestic Waste Production
The production and disposal of waste has a dramatic environmental impact. There are three main sectors of waste generation in the UK, including commercial and industrial, construction and demolition, and local authority collected or municipal waste (including household waste) (1). Household waste generation in the UK has decreased in recent years, while recycling behaviors have increased (1). Behaviors and drivers associated with waste generation among households are explored in the following discussion.
There are many sources from which waste can arise, including households, business, construction, agriculture, mining, and sewage (4). Strategies for dealing with these various types of waste can be conceptualized in a hierarchy that indicateds which methods of waste management should be considered given the environmental impact of each type of waste (4). This framework entails waste prevention through reducing use resources, then the reusing of products, and finally recycling of materials (4). This framework…… [Read More]
Transform Unsustainable Organization Into Sustainable One
Land and water management
Energy, carbon and transport management
Supply chain management
Waste, pollution, recycling management
Sustainability performance indicators
Long-term sustainability vision
The final report is prepared in conjunction with the ANW Construction Ltd. The report prepared to demonstrate the level of sustainability is effective in highlighting the key features that the business has implemented in its operations. The following sections are focused to the differences that a sustainable organization can have in comparison with the unsustainable business. The recommendations are made based on the academic and professional literature. The notable areas for sustainability in a business are addressed as land, water management, energy, carbon, transport management, supply chain management, waste, pollution, and recycling management. Furthermore the report also provides insight on the sustainability performance indicators, social sustainability, and long-term sustainability vision for businesses.
According to Bell, and Morse (2008)…… [Read More]
Green building, a term also known as green construction or sustainable building refers to a structure and the use of processes that are environmentally responsible and also efficient when it comes to resources throughout the life cycle of the building process; from siting to the design, construction, the operation, its maintenance, renovations that are made and demolition. Therefore a green building design involves the finding of a balance between building a home and the sustainable environment. It requires a lot of cooperation of the design team, engineers, architects and the client throughout the stages of the project. The practice of green building has expanded and complements the classical building concerns of utility, economy, comfort and durability. Sustainable development refers to the ability of achieving a continuing economy prosperity while at the same time protecting the natural systems within the planet and providing a high quality of life for people (Katz,…… [Read More]
Waste & Energy
Waste products and fossil fuel usage are in part byproducts of our civilization and in part they are drivers of our civilization. Disposing of waste and managing fossil fuels present tremendous challenges to our society. We know that climate change is going to have a significant effect on the world, so that the world 100 years from now is quite different from the world today. We know that our waste cannot simply be thrown out, or it will pollute our environment. This presentation will outline specific examples to illustrate the problem.
I want you to take out your phone. It's probably already out. When will you be replacing that phone? Within the next year or two, maybe three if it's a new one. What's in a phone and where does it go? Electronics are a major category of waste, and a massive environmental challenge. Batteries are a…… [Read More]
With the depletion of the ozone, there results global warming and also the ultraviolet rays affect the skin and eyes.
There is money in recycling waste. Within BC, homes, hospitals and many other institutions there are bound to be some items that are left to lie without use for years. These might just one day end up in the dumpsites. Cell phones, ink cartridges, broken refrigerators, broken down cars etc. could earn one money if taken for recycling (Midwest Fiber, 2009).
ecycling also creates jobs. There are many stages through which an aluminum can will go through. From collection from the recycle bins in BC, the driver, the carriers, the off loaders, the recycle plant operators, etc. all benefit from the recycling process. So as the environment will be conserved, there will be no loss of jobs at the same time.
ecycling also helps in building a strong economy. When…… [Read More]
Furthermore, both statutory and tort law at the time were ill-equipped with regard to provision of environmental safeguards and taking care of the fall-out of an environmental crisis . In fact, at the time that Hoover Chemical Corporation was dumping toxins into the canal, there was no law with regard to the disposal or dumping of chemicals; thus, Hoover was acting within its purview since at all times it either had the owner's permission to dump or it was the owner of the property itself. Consequently, in order to avoid this problem in the future, legislation was passed regulating the dumping of hazardous waste. Furthermore, environmental laws were passed such as CECLA (Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liablity Act, aka Superfund) that held polluters accountable or the damages they caused. Additionally, in the realm of civil tort law, in 1994, a Federal District court ruled that Hooker had been negligent…… [Read More]
In other words, the facilities that are available will be laid out in the best possible pattern and fashion so as to maximize efficiency and convenience for people who use the services (Handler & Mirchandani, 1979). There is obviously no way to put all of the facilities into the same space, and some of them take up more land than others, but there is no reason that urban planning officials, city leaders, and companies that want to build in a particular area cannot work together to meet everyone's needs. Often they want to accomplish this, but they simply are not sure what the best way to go about it would be.
Consider, as an example, a network model of an urbanized area, shown on the following pages and reproduced from Larson & Odoni, 1997-1999 http://web.mit.edu/urban_or_book/www/book/chapter6/6.5.2.html.
All of the nodes (a through H) indicate points at which service demands are being…… [Read More]
This approach has been regarded as one of the best and safest approaches. Despite this, there is widespread concern about proper radioactive waste management. (National esearch Council (U.S.), 1)
According to a 1976 EDA report, the nine facilities for radioactive waste disposal have been referred to as significant health hazards. Leaks and spills at such facilities are not very uncommon. In fact, the radioactive waste storage facility at ichland has reported around 18 leaks in a period of 20 years discharging approximately 430,000 gallons of radioactive wastes, shows the enormity of the situation. Leaks have also been reported in Kentucky, New York State, and in Tennessee. (Gyorgy, 130) it has been reported that the U.S. generates radioactive PCB wastes at a rate greater than 5 million tons annually. Moreover, the U.S. has more than 200 million tons of uranium mill tailings in which 85% of its original radioactivity still persists.…… [Read More]
This would require the full support of government and state authorities to punish those who break the rules. For instance, officers should patrol the forests and severely fine the tourists who leave trash in the nature. Also, a radical change should come from the multinationals, which should respect stricter environment protection rules and should pay drastically when breaking these rules. The first point in this direction would be achieved once the population has an environment education and would then punish and ban the organizations which break these rules. With a damaged reputation and customers refusing to purchase their products, the corporations would have to reconsider their actions. Then, the second direction would appeal to the good will of the people and would state that the good deeds relative to the natural habitats are a social duty of each and every one of us. Therefore, if these two courses of action…… [Read More]
finance and financial entrepreneurship. The basis of the article is on a discussion that was held on this subject among four leading lights of financial entrepreneurship in the United States - Michael Milken, Lewis Ranieri, Richard Sandor and Myron Scholes. These people are famous in their own right and have had a sizeable role in financial entrepreneurship in the U.S. over the last 20 years. We have first discussed their achievements to get a clear idea about their personal achievements. This would certainly give a clear idea of what is possible in the U.S. today. They are of course interesting characters and one has to remember that the ideal entrepreneur of the 21st century cannot be thought of as an updated version of Henry Ford. After the discussion of the people, the meeting and the discussions held there are summarized. ased on the total information collected, we have come to…… [Read More]
1948?" It will inform the reader of important events that occurred in the world in 1948. For America and the world, 1948 was a year in transition. World War II had ended, but there was still war in the world. America was entering into an era of prosperity, and families were engaging in the "baby boom." 1948 was a banner year for many improvements and innovations that would prove to be important in the years ahead.
War and Peace
It would seem that 1948 would be a year of peace, and that the world would be at peace after the horrors of World War II, but that is not the case. The State of Israel became reality in May 1948, and the day after it was created, the neighboring Arab nations of Egypt, Transjordan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia declared war on the fledgling nation. First created as Palestine…… [Read More]
Waste and Energy Presentation
The first waste product is organic food waste. This ends up in landfills, and there are a number of negative outcomes. Food waste releases methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. Landfills are 20% of all methane emissions in the United States. Further, organic food waste is material that could be composted, but usually is not, representing a lost opportunity to create valuable compost for growing food. In addition, prior to making its way to the landfill, food waste is often stored in back alleys and in garbage cans, where it attracts rodents and other vermin (EPA, 2015).
Nuclear waste is a by-product of nuclear energy production. Nuclear waste comes in a number of categories, but it generally must be treated before it is deposited, and usually it must be turned to glass, stored in ceramics and then buried deep in the earth. Nuclear wastes have a long…… [Read More]
Economical and Ethical Issues in Recycling
There is a general agreement that the U.S. should be undertaking more recycling, with only 34.3% of current waste recycled. The rate is increasing, and while there have been legislative moves, it may be argued that the ethical awareness and economic factors have had a greater impact. The research proposal argues that the dualistic approach to recycling seen in the anthropocentric model can be used to show how and why the take up has been restrained, as there is a need for economic motivations to support the practice. These are now occurring, but there is still room for improvement. By undertaking quantitative research with businesses and consumers the paper proposes the gathering of information that can be statistically analysed to identify the most efficient policy approaches to improve recycling.
The level of waste generated in increasing; it is estimated that in…… [Read More]
As Snider, Hill and Martin (2013) note, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is what truly connects companies to the “larger society” (p. 175). CSR is one of the most important aspects of a company’s brand and image in today’s 21st century marketplace: consumers want to know what the companies they patronize are doing to make the world a better place—and companies have to respond with policies and practices that support and reflect the values and ideals of the communities they serve in order to stay competitive. This paper will discuss the Kroger Company’s CSR statement along with its mission and vision statements to show what it is doing to connect with its communities in the U.S.
The Kroger Co’s CSR statement focuses on sustainability through achieving zero waste and zero hunger: “We’re on a mission to end hunger in the communities we call home and eliminate waste across our…… [Read More]
The local community will know that the library and the campus in general support local businesses and local efforts. They have an excellent opportunity to build community support and rapport through purchasing locally as a part of the sustainability plan.
The campus library has many reasons to commit to sustainable building design. Aside from the apparent environmental reasons, the long-term benefits to their financial well-being and contribution to the community also make this an excellent project for the library. Sustainable building design demonstrates excellent community leadership for the library. People come to the library in search of knowledge and enlightenment. esponsible building design promotes the overall goals of the library as an example of what can be achieved and as a community resource.
Sustainable building creates sustainable communities. It only takes a single act to create the need for future buildings to follow sustainable principles. This will spread…… [Read More]
Cross-functional team dynamics require leaders who can be transformational in their ability to communicate compelling missions, goals and objectives for the teams, not just managing by action item lists and project plans (Santa, Ferrer, Bretherton, Hyland, 2010).
The best cross-functional teams then have a level of passionate intensity about them; they see the much greater result they are attempting to accomplish as worth the sacrifices they need to attain them (Feng, Jiang, Fan, Fu, 2010). Nowhere is this more prevalent than in the area of new product development and introduction (NPDI), especially in high tech manufacturing where product lifecycles are so rapid (Boks, Stevels, 2007). In the leading high tech companies including Cisco, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and others, sustainability engineering, product development engineering, packaging, repackaging and remanufacturing all have their experts on cross-functional teams to share their expertise and insight to make sustainability initiatives accomplishable through better use of internal knowledge…… [Read More]
Pieces must first be cut down to the sizes and specifications listed on the plans you have selected, and shaped into the various different parts for both the siding and the interior of the submarine. This shaping and cutting can require some heavy-duty laser and cutting-edge equipment -- again, keep those friends close, unless you happen to have enough funds to acquire several dozen different pieces of heavy machinery. The heavy equipment needs continue with the next step, which is joining the individual pieces called for in the design through heavy-duty welding, utilizing electric arcs. A watertight craft able to withstand the pressures of deep-sea dives is of course essential to your happiness in your new sub, so make sure those welds are complete.
Once the craft is built, you will need some fissionable material -- enriched uranium is most typically used -- to power the vessel (and, if you're…… [Read More]
I intend to cover the practices in an objective manner, neither idealizing nor criticizing them. Many of India's religious practices are thousands of years old, offering ample opportunity for journalistic inquiry beyond what we provide in a pithy piece about the fire-walking children. We intend to interview the parents of the students, the teachers, and also community religious leaders or scholars.
3. "Drowning in a Sea of Garbage" -- an in-depth piece about garbage in India
A New York Times piece by Akash Kapur entitled "Drowning in a Sea of Garbage" details the hazards of a specific land fill near Pondicherry. Pondicherry is close to Chennai and therefore should be simple to travel there during the week our crew spends in India. Because we do not have time or resources for a full investigative report, I simply want to offer our readers a snapshot of what is going on both…… [Read More]
Energy prices went up again in 2008. Drillers created 29,000 jobs for the people. And State and local governments offered $240 million worth of taxes (Sapien 2009). And modern technology was there to realize the dream.
When asked about the initiative's threat to human health, the DEP at first assured all sectors that TDS were not generally considered a major risk. In 2008 alone, at least 4,000 new oil and gas wells were drilled. The frenzy sidestepped the greater and graver responsibility of disposal of huge wastewater. The new oil and gas wells produce approximately 9 million gallons of wastewater a day in Pennsylvania alone. This volume was expected to increase to at least 19 million this year. This volume is greater than that what all of the State's waterways combined can safely absorb, DEP itself says. ut in the wake of continued complaints and apprehensions, it advised consumers to…… [Read More]
This practically also pays big dividends for manufacturers as they continue to strive to keep their Energy STA Compliance ratings on products, leading to lower costs for power supply, electrical system integration and less product wear due to more efficient use of energy. Studies also indicate that Energy STA compliance, when designed in as part of the DfE initiatives in a PLM system, can have an exceptionally high accumulative impact as well (Preston, 2001).
Integrating DfE into PLM frameworks then not only alleviates the unnecessary and often high costs of noncompliance to federal and global mandates, this integration has also been shown to reduce the net amount of new product components necessary, further creating higher levels of reliability in products over time (Mascle, Zhao, 2008).
There are many additional benefits to integrating DfE product development practices into the broader PLM frameworks manufacturers use for designing, launching, managing and discontinuing products.…… [Read More]
Some conventional building design, construction and maintenance practices create conditions that are capable of causing illness in healthy individuals or exacerbating illness in already sensitized individuals (Small, 2009). There are several factors that contribute to the overall health of a building. These include: cleanliness, thermal comfort, ventilation and air quality, lighting, noise, outside awareness and furniture (Hubbard, ice and Beamish, 2008).
The Bond received many acknowledgements in regards to its design. It received 34 awards along with massive media coverage making the return on its investment far greater than any expectations that had existed. A key change that resulted from The Bond project was the positioning of Lend Lease to take on the role of industry leader to promote development of green buildings across Australia. The sector for office buildings in Australia has its own set of unique criteria. Most office buildings are not owned by its occupants. The majority…… [Read More]
Additionally, the water intake near Chelsea may be used, at times, to supplement New York City's water supply, during times of drought. The Town of Waterford and the Town of Halfmoon both get their muncipal water supply from the Upper Hudson iver ("Hudson iver PCBs," 2008).
GE's Involvement in the Build Up of PCBs in the Hudson iver
From 1947 to 1977, the General Electric Company discharged as much as 1.3 million pounds of PCBs into the Hudson iver, polluting 197 miles of the river and creating America's largest Superfund site. Two of GE's facilities, one at Hudson Falls and one at Fort Edward are reported to be the source of the pollution. As Angelo (2009) notes, PCBs were used as high-temperature insulators in the manufacturing process of transformers and capacitors, at the GE facilities. Even today, more than three decades later, PCBs still leak into the river from GE's…… [Read More]
An additional negative aspect can occur when a seemingly green product really isn't, in the long run.
As an example, one of the most successful 'green' vehicles is the Toyota Prius. The hybrid Prius has become the status symbol for all of those wishing to flaunt their environmental conscience. However, the vehicle isn't nearly as eco-friendly as the Green Marketing campaigns lead consumers to believe. The nickel metal hydride battery the Prius uses is the primary culprit. The nickel is mined in Sudbury, Ontario, smelted nearby, shipped to ales to be refined, then sent to China to be processed into nickel foam. From there, it goes to Japan to become a battery, before it's placed into a car and shipped to its final destination, like the U.S. The global transportation of the manufacture of the battery uses a lot of fossil fuel. Goodwin cites CN Marketing as noting the combined…… [Read More]
By attempting to suppress debate about the subject, Monsanto created and subsequently reinforced the notion that BGH is a harmful substance. Eventually, the company was forced to exit the business, because of the damage they did to the product's reputation.
There are times when good ethics demands that a new product innovation be dropped, and this was likely one of those times. By pursuing profit instead, Monsanto has put the health of many Americans at risk and called even more attention to their unethical practices.
Financial information from MSN Moneycentral. Retrieved February 3, 2009 at http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/invsub/results/statemnt.aspx?Symbol=MON
Monsanto 2008 Annual Report. (2008). Retrieved February 3, 2009 at http://www.monsanto.com/investors/financial_reports/annual_report/2008/default.asp
No author. (2008). Monsanto Receives Top Award from Leading Legal Publication. Monsanto Corporation. Retrieved February 3, 2009 at http://monsanto.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=43&item=660
No author. (2008). Monsanto Human Rights Policy. Monsanto Corporation. Retrieved February 3, 2009 at http://www.monsanto.com/pdf/responsibility/human_rights_policy.pdf
Klotter, Jule. (2002). Monsanto PCB Legacy. Townsend…… [Read More]
However, the city was not exactly celebrating.
The ig Dig project was not completed without controversy. It resulted in criminal arrests, as well as charges for escalating costs, leaks, poor execution and use of substandard materials (Wikipedia, 2008). In May 2006, six executives of echtel/Parsons rinckerhoff, including its general manager, were arrested and charged with fraud.
Over 200 complaints were filed by the state of Massachusetts as a result of leaks, cost overruns, quality concerns, and safety violations. In July 2006, a ig Dig I-90 tunnel a large plate of concrete from the tunnel ceiling fell on a car, with one death, a woman crushed to death. A major investigation resulted, and closure of part of the ig Dig for a while.
Despite these controversial issues, the project was hailed as an engineering marvel, especially due to the challenge of building among subway tunnels and steam pipes while the city…… [Read More]
When a company such as Wal-Mart goes green, it is because they see a profit in it, and customers are demanding it, and that is the case with the fashion industry, as well.
In conclusion, the fashion industry is becoming much more eco-friendly largely because of consumer demand. People are becoming increasingly aware of just what goes into the products they consume, and they are demanding new products that use less energy to produce and use eco-friendly fibers and fabrics, as well. The public is becoming much more aware of environmental issues such as global warming and climate change, and it seems that the demand for eco-friendly products, including fashions will continue to rise. Smart fashion designers and companies will jump on this growing trend. They need to take the earth and its survival into consideration, but even more than that, they need to continue to fill consumer's shelves to…… [Read More]
The name of Horace Mann is still known today, the first Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, as he tried to make a practical education available to all, including recent immigrants, which he argued would be an important part of their socialization into the national culture (Browne, 2003, p.3).
Boston suffered a great deal during the Great Depression. "ith the outbreak of ar II, factories were retooled for the war effort, and people went back to work on the production lines. Again Boston was a major arms manufacturer during wartime" (Banner 2008). And because of the new importance of science and technology, its considerable intellectual capital proved a great source of profit, and continues to, to this day. Today, Boston has become a leader in the computer and other technology-dominated industries. Financial and service industries are also strong. Fenway Park, the Museum of Fine Arts, and the Freedom Trail…… [Read More]
Natural overburden includes silty clay, silty peat, and silty sand (CH2MHILL, p. 3-2). Overburden is generally thin, averaging 3 meters in most areas, but can go up to 9 meters at times (CH2MHILL, p. 3-2). Native soils primarily reside in areas of low topography.
This topography allows for constant movement and shifting of overburden. Rainy seasons create excessive water flows, which travel down slopes to the low-lying areas and into the waterways. These areas of low topography are of particular concern, as they tend to accumulate deposits of contaminants.
Groundwater and surface water in the area are altered by man-made structures placed by the mining company. ater travels through the area by means of the overburden and the bedrock. In the area of the main mine, water flows primarily through bedrock (CH2MHILL, p. 3-2).Groundwater flows in a generally southeasterly direction. ater flows towards the major waterways such as the Moira…… [Read More]
This growth rate will be influenced by several factors: droughts; stringent EPA regulations on waste and potable water; growing public awareness; and "upcoming replacements of current wastewater systems."
Industry News. "Don't Throw Out the Bathwater." Pollution Engineering 38.4 (2006): 8-8.
Marshall, Jessica. "From Coffee Cup to Compost." New Scientist. 193.2598 (2007): 9-9.
Reilly, Michael. "Recycled plastic to get clean bill of health." Scientist. 194.2603 (2007): 58-58.
Schussler, Stefan. "Recycling Fluorescent Bulbs Now Cool." Canada.com. (2007). Retrieved December 5, 2007, at http://www.canada.com.
ashington Post. "Paper or Plastic?" Arts & Living. Retrieved December 5, 2007, at http://www.washingtonpost.com.
Zlomek, Erin. "Dysart field trip a lesson in recycling." The Arizona Republic. (2007). Retrieved December 5, 2007, at http://azcentral.com.
ONE: Introduction recycling isn't new; corporate America is now pushing "green" but there needs to be public information so citizens become more well-informed
TO: Literature review a) Both paper and plastic are hard…… [Read More]
Some companies, perhaps sensing a business opportunity, have tried to use the green textile movement to their advantage. DuPont and other chemical companies have targeted a potentially hopeful resource for the future in the form of enzymes, which can be very effective in fiber preparation, pre-treatment and value-added finishing as catalysts. Because enzymes work "even under mild conditions and do not require the high energy input often associated with chemical processes," they offer a more ecologically friendly way to treat fabrics than harsh formaldehyde or chlorine ("Textiles and leather," Industrial Sustainability, 2007).
It may sound paradoxical that enzymatic chemicals can make the industry more sustainable. Another paradox of the industry is that natural fibers such as cotton and hemp may not be as eco-friendly as one might expect. For example, in the United States, about a third of a pound of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are required for the process…… [Read More]
9% of the turtles" -- and "plastics" dominated the debris found (Katsanevakis, p. 75). The list of plastic trash found in those turtles is too long to include in this research.
Seabirds (especially pelicans, gannets and gulls) often fall prey to "monofilament line"; albatrosses, petrels, penguins and grebes are not found entangled in plastic fishing line or other plastic debris as often as pelicans and gulls (Katsanevakis, 2008, p. 69). hat is particularly insidious about plastic is when it is ingested by marine animals is releases "toxic chemicals" due to the chemical additives that are added to the plastic during the manufacturing process. Once in the abdomen of the animal the toxic materials can block the digestive tract and block "gastric enzyme ingestion, diminished feeding stimulus, nutrient dilution, reduced growth rates, lowered steroid hormone levels, delayed ovulation and reproductive failure," Katsanevakis asserts (p. 71).
There is lethal danger for small…… [Read More]