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The reality is that the universal grammar theory attempts to lay general structures that can be traced among languages. Therefore, if a constant 'X' is true then 'Y' will be equally true. It puts down how all languages expand when subjected to a given set of fundamental principles. With these principles, universal grammar enables us to try out word order prediction in languages, the phonemes, syntax etc.
Several linguists hold that the universal grammar and its linkage to the other parts of the brain is the machinery that enables children to be fluent in whichever language in their childhood. This is the most critical stage of language learning in the life of human beings. It is also argued under this theory that children have a higher ability to learn second languages in natural settings than adults. Adults however, have a higher ability to consciously learn a second language in artificial…… [Read More]
The environment that language acquisition occurs in, whether it is a first or a second language being acquired, is also hugely influential on the development of that language. It is only in context that a language with inherent ambiguities can be understood at a level of fluency, and if the environment surrounding the language learner does not help to reinforce the rules and/or vocabulary of that language, then language acquisition becomes more difficult (Freeman & Freeman 2004; Wilson 2000). In addition, things as basic and yet fundamental to all types of learning such as anxiety levels and self-confidence can also have huge effects on language learning, especially during second language acquisition (Wilson 2000).
My views generally align with the dominant view in this course, namely that second language acquisition is best facilitated by instilling the linguistic concepts known to assist in first language acquisition into second language learners (Freeman &…… [Read More]
In the final analysis, people have been learning how to acquire language for millennia without the assistance of scientific investigation, but the need for young people to do so quickly in an increasingly multicultural country and globalized marketplace is more important than ever before because they will probably have to learn a second (or third) language at their earliest opportunity.
Birdsong, D. (1999). Second language acquisition and the critical period hypothesis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. This book examines reasons why very young learners might be subject to a critical period for language acquisition.
Costa, A.., Mcilvane, W.J., & Wilkinson, K.M. (2001). Emergent word-object mapping by children: Further studies using the blank comparison technique. The Psychological ecord, 51(3), 343. This study confirmed the usefulness of the blank comparison technique in emergent mapping research and provided the first data set from school-aged children.
Danby, S. (2002). The communicative competence of…… [Read More]
Finally, nativists must concede that culture and native language can shape ideas in the long run. After all, a person's cultural surroundings seem to greatly affect their interpretation of experiences over the course of their life (Bowerman and Choi 475-476). The difference in how much those cultural experiences affect an individual and their language, as well as when such effects happen, is what makes up the entire debate between "nature" and "nurture" in language development.
Behrens, Heike. "Cognitive-conceptual Development and the Acquisition of Grammatical Morphemes: the Development of Time Concepts and Verb Tense." Language Acquisition and Conceptual Development Eds. Melissa Bowerman, and Steven Levinson. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2001. 450-474.
Bowerman, Melissa, and Soonja Choi. "Shaping Meanings for Language: Universal and Language-Specific in the Acquisition of Spatial Semantic Categories." Language Acquisition and Conceptual Development Eds. Melissa Bowerman, and Steven Levinson. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2001. 475-511.…… [Read More]
A good starting point is identifying the factors that influence ELL student performance. According to Mitsutomi & McDonald, these factors include motivation, linguistic and cultural identity, study strategies, tolerance for ambiguity, and sociocultural support.
Although these factors provide a generic indication of the difficulties faced by ELL students, it is also recognized that each student is an individual, and enters the school system under widely varying circumstances and with differing expectations. Notably, the acquisition of English is hardly at all found to be influenced by whether or not the student had studied English as a foreign language in the home country.
These findings have some specific implications for the classroom. In the practical sense, teachers must recognize their own need to become sensitive not only to the language, but also to the culture needs of ELL students. As such, they need to develop a background in foreign languages and culture…… [Read More]
Learning language is not much different from learning other skills, but it can be a highly complex process. For example, if human beings did not communicate using complex systems of language but instead relied on simple nouns and verbs, we would all sound like what we imagine "cave men" sounded like. "Food good," and other simple sentences do not demand mastery of grammar and in theory, such simple languages could be learned by young children easily. However, from the moment they are born, children are exposed to the voices of others, to the sounds and structures of their culture's language systems. Because they are constantly bombarded with language from people and from television, children start to form primitive sentences from an early age. One of the reasons why people who are born deaf often have difficulty speaking is because of their inability to hear and thereby imitate the sounds and…… [Read More]
Linguistics, Language Acquisition, & Pronoun Errors in Children
The acquisition of language is not a seamless process. All humans encounter errors as part of their linguistic development and practice. Humans around the world and across languages encounter similar behavior patterns as they grow into adults and gain linguistic fluency in their native languages. One such repeating phenomenon in English of note is the act of young children to misuse pronouns, using the word "me" when the correct word is "I." There are several ideas regarding how and why many children go through a stage in their linguistic development where they misuse pronouns. This paper will explore and critique the ideas of experts in several field including linguistics and language acquisition. The paper will propose and provide evidence for several factors that contribute to this speech phenomenon. The paper will show that this particular speech act is a result of the…… [Read More]
Language Acquisition" by J. Crawford, covers how people acquire a second language, and some "persistent problems" with how we teach a second language in America today. The author briefly covers a history of language acquisition, and how early omans used "conversational dialogues" to help teach children many other languages, and how that method gradually altered throughout history, to the "grammar-translation approach" we tend to lean toward today. He also mentions some other less common methods that seem to show good results, such as the "direct" method, and the "audiolingual" method. The author also brings up many differing theories of language acquisition, and asks many questions about how students learn and teachers teach a second language. In fact, the author also raises questions about some techniques, and maintains they may be actually preventing children from learning another language, no matter how well thought of or well-executed they are. Clearly, while there…… [Read More]
The language theory
According to Krashen 'communication' is the purpose of a language. Focusing on communicative abilities is just as important. The relevance of 'meaning' is also stressed upon. According to Terrell and Krashen, a language has its very own lexicon. The stress on vocabulary is apparent here and language is seen as a means to 'communicate meanings' as well as 'messages'. 'Acquisition' takes place in case where people understand messages in TL, according to Krashen. Natural Approach consists of 'messages', 'structures' and 'lexical items' in plain view. Production and perception are two lexicons on which clarification of messages and organization is dependent upon. According to Krashen, acquisition is a mere combination of rules of the language by employing language for communication. Linguistic competence is only attained by 'input' which contains structures at 'interlanguage+1' level (i+1). It is obtained by " comprehensible input'.
Learning theory of language
In…… [Read More]
It seems unbelievable how infants go from not knowing anything at all, to knowing how to express themselves in every way they can. They first learn how to tell their parents what they want by either pointing or yelling until they get what it is that they want, to actually putting words together to tell them exactly in the language that parents will understand. The question still arises as to how they learn so quickly. The idea that babies come preprogrammed to learn how to speak has been debated among scholars for ages. It seems to be the most plausible hypothesis since language is learned so early on in life.
The fact that so much brain processes go into the language development stage gives a lot of evidence to how innate language really is. When certain areas of the brain are either damaged, or not fully evolved, language deficiencies present…… [Read More]
Children and Language
Language Acquisition in Children
Language development in children takes a certain, predictable pattern. This pattern, also called "production," has certain important characteristics, seen in many children. First, one will note, that a baby aged 0-2 months will employ vegetative sounds, such as burps, cries and coughs. In this first stage, these sounds will be involuntary, but they nonetheless signify communication. The first real communication is anywhere from 2-3 months, and is exemplified by a baby's cooing sounds. Then, from 4-6 months, a baby will start uttering consonants, such as "g" and "k," but not real syllables. However, in this third stage, a baby will experiment with volume and pitch. Then, from 7-9 months, a baby will start canonical babbling and will start uttering syllables. Lastly, from 8-12 months, a baby will reduplicate its babbling (i.e. gagaga).[footnoteef:1] [1: All the facts above are taken from the source provided…… [Read More]
ilingual First Language Acquisition
ilingual Deficit Hypothesis
Unitary Language System Hypothesis
ilingual Advantage Hypothesis
Differentiated Language System Hypothesis
The MacArthur CDI
Parental Discourse Strategies
It is common knowledge that all over the globe young children seem to effortlessly acquire two or more languages at one time. Yet some uphold the belief that children who are exposed to multiple languages too early (with the dividing line as to what is "too early" being a gray area) may experience developmental language delays and/or confusion. Scientific research has attempted to examine whether young bilinguals can ascertain that they are acquiring two separate and distinct languages early on. (Watson, 1996) We will examine the criteria for measuring early language development, the concepts associated with ascertaining a child's developmental progress, the research supporting the prevailing theories and the…… [Read More]
First, Spanish sounds different from English in terms of vowel sounds, sentence stress, and timing. (Shoebottom, 2007, Spanish). In addition, Spanish speakers can confront grammar problems when learning English, "although Spanish is a much more heavily inflected language than English, there are many aspects of verb grammar that are similar. The major problem for the Spanish learner is that there is no one-to-one correspondence in the use of the tenses. So, for example, a Spanish learner might incorrectly use a simple tense instead of a progressive or a future one." (Shoebottom, 2007, Spanish). Moreover, because these issues reflect basic differences between the two languages, progressive learning in Spanish does not translate to better English ability.
In addition, the fact that English and Spanish share a common base language should make some aspects of English acquisition easier for the Spanish speaker than for the Arabic speaker. In fact, there are several…… [Read More]
Second language proficiency and academic achievement can be challenging to develop simultaneously. Krashen's (2010) work illustrates the various systems of learning, including the learning that takes place subconsciously and the learning that takes place more by rote methods. Likewise, Gottlieb (2006) differentiates between social and academic language proficiency and academic achievement for students. The acquisition of the language entails different cognitive processes than the acquisition of subject-specific knowledge. Educators armed with a more thorough understanding of academic versus language proficiency can better help their students succeed on both levels.
Krashen (2010) points out that each human being learns language in the same way. Individual differences may be important for current scientific paradigms, but for educators, a more universal approach will be far more helpful in creating a classroom environment and pedagogical approach that will be effective. After all, human biology is universal; so, too are the cognitive processes involved in…… [Read More]
The groups were distinguished by those who participated in language acquisition activities employing enhanced reading with word-based activities and those who participated in what the researcher called 'narrow reading,' which occurred without this supplementary instruction. The two groups were asked to retain the same scope of fifty selected vocabulary words. Min would find that those in the former group, denoted as the "RV" group, performed significantly better than those in the "NR" group. In interpretation, Min tells that "the results show that the RV group demonstrated significantly more knowledge about the target vocabulary than the NR group on the acquisition and retention tests. The researcher concludes that reading plus focused vocabulary exercises are more effective and efficient than the narrow reading approach in enhancing target vocabulary acquisition and retention among EFL secondary students." (Min, p. 75)
Min would go on to suggest that the value in this study rests in…… [Read More]
Example of Checklist 1: Video 1: Story Time
Child's Name: Kyla
Date Observed: April 7th 2014
The teacher is reading a story on how to make a pumpkin pie
Please write down at least five eading Behaviors you expect to observe below:
eading Behaviors Observed:
(Please checkmark any behaviors/characteristics observed below)
Demonstrates what the teacher does like "pouring, Kicking"
Expresses herself in complete sentences
Can complete sentences with the teacher
Follows the teachers narration attentively
Can keep track of the story
Example of Anecdotal ecord:
Video 2: Sam eading Books
Purpose of the Observation Identified: Vocabulary level
Date of Observation
April 7th 2014
Name of Child:
Age of Child
From this activity, Sam reads two books about animals. In the first book, although not audible, one can hear him mentioning some animal names like elephant, frog, and crow. As he finishes the first book, he…… [Read More]
Language and Thinking
Language is the one aspect, which distinguishes human beings from lower species of life (Faccone et al. 2000). Sternberg (1999 as qtd in Faccone et al.) lists its properties as including communication, arbitrary symbolism, regular structure, structure at multiple levels, generation and production and dynamism. Sternberg assumes that language is most likely acquired naturally from the environment where a person is raised as an infant. The stages seem universal. The first is the cooing stage at two to four months. At this initial stage, an infant seems able to produce and possible phonemes or basic speech sounds. An infant's need to distinguish between phonemes of different languages gradually disappears around 8 months. This is when he recognizes the relationship between sound and meaning in his native language. This is how language begins to have importance to him. The findings of Sternberg's study reveal that human beings are…… [Read More]
If language is like food, then the ingredients are its words; the cooking process is its grammar; the nutritional value is its semantics. Some sentences are simple staples like rice and beans. Others are primarily aesthetic, finely crafted, and honed over time like a French sauce. Like the ingredients in any dish, the words of a language depend largely on geography. At the same time, we borrow words from other cultures just as we may borrow ingredients from other cuisines. Spanglish is like fusion food. Some cooking processes are rigid, time-consuming, and complex like proper grammar; others are looser and more flexible like everyday speech. There are some dishes you would serve your mother and others that are too spicy for her. Some language is long-winded and without substance; some is meaty; some is so packed with goodness that you return it again and again.
Ascription to the rules of…… [Read More]
Language Impairments: Evidence-Based Interventions
Language Impairment Interventions
Evidence-Based Interventions for Pediatric Language Impairments
Evidence-Based Interventions for Pediatric Language Impairments
So strong is the genetic impulse driving language acquisition that all children will learn to speak some form of language (Sousa, 2011, p. 28, 196). This fact suggests that the remaining question confronting children, parents, educators, and society is how well these skills are learned. Problems encountered along the way, however, can sometimes have a significant impact on a child's ability to communicate with others, both now and as adults. The greatest challenges are those faced by children with speech and language disorders. To better understand the language problems confronting otherwise developmentally normal children the recommended interventions, especially from an educator's point-of-view, will be examined and discussed in this research paper.
Neurological Correlates of Language Development
Comprehending how a speech or language disorder in a child could develop and impact their…… [Read More]
Crawford begins the article by highlighting problems associated with second language instruction in American classrooms. According to the statistics cited most approaches used in these classrooms are inadequate to provide students with the necessary skills to communicate in the target language outside of the classroom. The reason for this is a lack of focus on communication skills, combined with an inflated focus on form rather than function. Despite efforts to improve upon this by methods such as the total immersion approach and the audiolingual method, results are still shown to be poor. Chomsky, Krashen and Cummins's theories are shown to have revolutionized language acquisition theories, and thus also language teaching methods. Furthermore Crawford shows that a child's inherent feelings about his or her own culture, and consequently about the culture represented by the target language, have a significant impact upon second language learning. It is then suggested that…… [Read More]
Further, it is in this stage that instructors have the ability to widen the instruction significantly to incorporate many activities that allow students to practice their new knowledge in a variety of different ways and with focus on a variety of different subject matters.
In viewing the basic theoretical and practical-use background of the Natural Approach of Language Teaching and Learning, one can understand that basic functions that allow students the ability to hone new skills in a non-threatening environment. However, despite significant praise in the teaching community regarding the success of the Natural Approach, the method's critics still exist. Due to this, it is crucial to understand the advantages as well as the disadvantages that exist when the Natural Approach is employed in a language learning environment, especially in dealing with English as a second language.
Advantages and Disadvantages
In beginning to understand the overall value of the Natural…… [Read More]
Language and culture are inextricably linked. The ways in which one's culture is directly attributed to language development are well documented in the academic literature, though there seems to be little consensus on the processes involved in language acquisition and the ways that culture is manifested in both socialization and language development. One assertion, however, seems widely accepted; culture is a learned attribute that language helps convey to others. Because people use language to impart cultural beliefs and societal mores, the nexus between language and culture is an important consideration in the field of education and communication, especially concerning the varied pedagogical theories of child development. Much of what has been studied in the field of both communications and education concerning the connection between language and culture is attributed to a ussian born educator named Lev Vygotsky.
Vygotsky believed that children developed and acquired knowledge through the assistance…… [Read More]
This greatly assists Google in assessing the worth of any firm and therefore decides about its possible acquisition (if acquisition will be held then it also determines the price which should be offered for the acquisition).
Estimating the worth of a firm can have many factors, some of which are the size of its customer market, the overall growth rate and growth potential of the firm, the competitors facing the firm, any other sort of potential investors which may involve in acquisition and the overall market potential of the target firm.
Although all of these tools and techniques are used by many other internet search engines but Google has a much more complex and advanced system, it is not perfect but has given Google the edge over its competitors time and time again.
Chevron is one of the biggest oil companies in the world, previously it has made many…… [Read More]
Done, D.J. Crow, T.J. Johnstone, E.C. Sacker, a. (September 1994) Childhood Antecedents of Schizophrenia and Affective Illness: Social Adjustment at ages 7 to 11.BMJ, 309:699-703.
Teacher appraisal using the national child development study was utilized to examine differences between normal individuals and those who exhibit adult psychological disorders. "At the age of 7 children who developed schizophrenia were rated by their teachers as manifesting more social maladjustment than controls (overall score 4.3 (SD 2.4) v 3.1 (2.0); P… [Read More]
The percentage of days a student was absent was the strongest negative predictor, however, of poor reading performance. Class size was another important factor in influencing reading achievement, especially amongst ESL students in the elementary grades. Individualized instruction to suit the student's needs was important but specific teacher qualifications had no statistically significant effects.
Early exposure to the written word, being read to as a child, and coming from a stable, reading-friendly environment, as well as participating in preschool and Head Start or other early socialization programs can contribute to reading success later in life. However, although the teacher cannot control all of the factors that help a student learn to read, some factors, such as fostering a positive peer environment and providing individualized instruction, are within the teacher's ability to control.
New Insights into School and Classroom Factors Affecting Student Achievement." (Aug 2003). Research Brief: Public Policy…… [Read More]
Initiating joint attention related to activity in the frontal-cortical system, especially the left hemisphere and responding to joint attention to the parietal lobes. Heimann et al. (2006) found that that deferred imitation and joint attention both influence the development of language and communication skills in infancy. Deferred imitation at nine months was the strongest of the predictors of nonverbal communication at 14 months, but the predictive power increased significantly in situations when deferred imitation and joint attention were used together.
ecently studies have been conducted with other areas of cognitive behavior. For example, de Villiers (2007) has been looking at the association of language and what he calls Theory of Mind. Theory of Mind refers to the folk psychological theory humans use to predict and explain others' behavior on the basis of their internal workings: feelings, intentions, desires, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and point-of-view. In other words, people have to create…… [Read More]
Reardless or whther the second language learner is a child or an adult there must be a concerted effort put for the to understand the cultural context of the second language. This responsibility lies with instructors and students. The instructor has te responsibility to teach certain cultural nuances ad habits and the learner has the responsibility of having an open mind so that the culture can be acquired. Failure to do so make it extremely difficult for an individual to acquire a second language. The impact of second language acquisition is that it serves as a conduit between the first culture and the language of the second culture. Once cultural context is understood the individual understands how to use the language and how to understand pothers when they use the language. This ability to communicate is often an aspect of language acquisition that is difficult to understand because the rules…… [Read More]
Progression and Foundation of Language
Learning of primary language complements skills development; this includes learning about language, as well as learning other subjects in the school curriculum via language. Language learning facilitates general literary skills and allows children to revert to, and strengthen skills and concepts studied through their first language (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).
Curriculum is enriched by language learning. Teachers as well as children find it fun and challenging, and display enthusiasm towards language; this leads to creation of interested learners and the development of positive attitudes towards learning languages, all throughout one's life. A natural link exists between language and other curricular areas, and this enriches the overall teaching-learning experience. Proficiencies, understanding, and information learned through language contribute greatly to literacy and oracy development in children, as well as to better understanding of one's own and others' cultures. Language is also integral to community and…… [Read More]
What I know about language is that it is essential in life and in learning. We use it to communicate ideas, feelings, needs, and thoughts. Being social creatures, we use language to bond with people, to create bonds of affection, and to create pillars of support for each other and for society as a whole. Language is something that can unite people; but if it is not known, it can also isolate those who do not know it.
How I learned what I know about language has come from my experience as a learner. What I remember learning about learning my native language is a real reticence to actually begin speaking: I was 5 years old before I started actually speaking; I would listen to my two older brothers have conversations and from them I learned both English and Spanish. Since my family and friends mostly spoke in…… [Read More]
Language Policy and Planning
Language planning refers to the efforts that are deliberately undertaken to influence how languages functions, are structured or acquired or the variety of languages in a given country. It is often a government responsibility by non-governmental organizations have also come to be involved in this. Grass-roots organizations and also individuals have been involved in this. The goal of language planning differs depending on the country. However, it generally includes planning, decision making and possible changes which benefit the communications system of the country. Language planning or efforts to improve the communication in a country can also bring about certain social changes such as shift of language, assimilation and therefore provide a motivation which plans the function, structure and acquisition of languages Woolard & Gahng, 1990()
Decision making in language planning
There are four dominant language ideologies which motivate the decisions that are made regarding language planning.…… [Read More]
One piece of evidence that suggests there is at least some degree of "hardwiring" of language in the human brain is the fact that very similar mistakes are made in certain grammatical forms and syntax structures by early speakers of any language. There seems to be an innate sense of the way words are supposed to be formed and fit together, and instances that do not follow these expected/innate rules require greater learning and effort to surmount. At the same time, there is evidence that much of language is learned through interaction with parents. This means that maternal depression, which tends to reduce activity overall and can specifically reduce interactions with children, can have a detrimental affect on language development by limiting or reducing the exposure of these children to language use and interaction.
At early stages of development, current research suggests that there is little relationship between the language…… [Read More]
Language Is Arbitrary
As you are reading these words, you are taking part in one of the wonders of the natural world," begins Steven Pinker's The Language Instinct. (Pinker, 3) In other words, it is a wonder that the human mind is able to create, from need and cognitive structure and instinct, a morphological structure of communication that can change over time from context to context, yet still be understood.
It is a wonder that is both natural yet arbitrary in its construction. For the syntax, or appearance and sound of a particular kind of piece of language is arbitrary, even though the semantics, or relational meaning of the language is not. Should you, the reader, doubt this proposition, consider that one solitary letter can mean the difference between an object being understood, in an English context, as a bat, a cat, or a hat respectively. One letter can be…… [Read More]
Acquisition Law on the Motorways
According to the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), the sales transaction of a $60,000 Corvette automobile is a valid agreement to contract based on the material term of the bargained for exchange, with definite terms of recovery where not fulfilled by both parties. Definition of the contract as 'formal' is assumed here, yet other negotiable instruments and letters of credit may be involved where the Buyer stipulates inclusion of a third party lender in support of payment on the contract to the Offeror in full. The unknown factor related to the third party terms and enforceability is included as mention, rather than rule due to omission.
The UCC stresses bilateral agreement over unilateral promise, delineated by "manner of acceptance," in that it states that "the bargain of the parties in fact as found in their language or by implication from other circumstances including course of dealing…… [Read More]
speaking in the target language is the expectation that a proficient speaker will sound like a native speaker. Is this an appropriate or realistic expectation?
Not a long while after the emergence of the subject of second language acquisition (SLA), which most of the scholars think came around the time of initial years of 1970s, there has been a need to develop ways by which to measure the development of the second language, aside from the usage of detailed homogeneous skill tests which were mostly appropriate to fulfill other objectives.
As per Freeman's (2009) information, the first declaration of this need was made by Kenji Hukuta (1976). Kenji Hakuta was concerned in knowing the path of his subject Ugusiu's English language development over a period of time. Besides the aforementioned practitioners, other L1 acquisition scholars had carried out for the pupils learning English as a national language. In the research…… [Read More]
eal-Time Language Change
"The moral of the story is that if we think we observe a change in progress from a to B, we need to provide evidence not just of the existence of B, but also of the prior existence of A" (Britain, 2008:1).
So it is how Britain summarizes his overall findings of an investigation into the origins of a conservative conservational variant in 19th century New Zealand English. It turns out to be the case that the MOUTH diphthong that he was looking into was not really all the present in actual usage as had often been thought. And yet the changes that did not come about did not arise in isolation, which was why they were seen as being movement away from what others would assume to be a standardized language base (Coupland, 2010). Instead, it was more of an example of why it is important…… [Read More]
Thus, lessons can utilize elements learned from understand how the brain naturally learns a language to augment the student's ability to progress more efficiently in learning a second language later on in life. Lessons would produce the environment which calls on the same type of brain functions that were so crucial in language acquisition in early childhood. Thus, teaching can become an extension of pre-existing strategies the students have already used earlier on in their lives without even knowing it. This means lesson plans built on a structure that highlights the importance of language at the phonic level, as this is what the author asserts as the primary vehicle for language acquisition in young children.
Lightbrown & Spada (2006) also provide evidence which would back up Kuhl's claims in the text How Languages Are Learned. In their discussion of early language acquisition, Lightbrown & Spada (2006) explain how the child's…… [Read More]
With insertion, sounds are added to words that are not apparent in spelling or slow pronunciation (Scramm, 2001). This can provide confusion to learners of a new language since the way they are instructed to pronounce certain words do not correspond to how they perceive the words visually. A couple of examples of insertion in the English language are words like "hamster," which is usually pronounced "hamster," or "month," which is usually pronounced with an exaggerated "t" sound - "mon-t-th" (Scramm, 2001).
The final category of phonological rules is deletion. This type of rule deals with processes of pronunciation in which sounds are left out, or deleted (Scramm, 2001). With the process of deletion, confusion may arise when the pronunciation of a word diverges from the way it is spelled and becomes very similar to the pronunciation of another word with completely different meaning. An example of this is the…… [Read More]
Foreign Language Education in High School
The world has about 6,000 different languages, give or take a few. Linguists predict that at least half of those may have disappeared by the year 2050, which means languages are becoming extinct at twice the rate of endangered animals and four times the rate of endangered birds. Predictions are that a dozen languages may dominate the world of the future at best. (Ostler, 2002) For Americans, that's probably a good thing, since we are seemingly genetically engineered to maintain an appalling ignorance of other languages, and have narrowed down the choices we offer our young people to approximately one, Spanish, viewed by many to be the easiest foreign language to learn. It has been described in various places as having an 'impoverished vocabulary,' which means less work for Dick and Jane. The American education system so far is doing nothing to reverse the…… [Read More]
In the development of language skills the learning and implementation of semantic memory is therefore vital to the central aims of language and communication. The flowing quotation outlines the function of semantic memory in relation to language production
Semantic memory is the system that you use to store your knowledge of the world. It is a knowledge base that we all have and much of which we can access quickly and effortlessly. It includes our memory of the meanings of words - the kind of memory that lets us recall not only the names of the world's great capitals, but also social customs, the functions of things, and their colour and odour.
( What are semantic memories?)
3. The stages of language production and semantic memory
As has been discussed above, semantic memory is memory that is shared and common to the language users. It enables the understanding and recognition…… [Read More]
Also, student's vocabulary and formality of speech can and will differ in different social contexts, from school to home to the playground, as indeed does all human speech, as even teachers adopt a greater degree of formality speaking to the principal, to students, and also in their own homes.
hy teach standard speech at all? hat to do when certain patterns of speech, such as Black English, have different grammatical variations than standard written English? One approach is to stress contextual aspects of speech in education. (Chaika, 1994, p.299) It cannot be denied that job applicants and people are validated and valued differently, depending on how their speech coheres to Standard ritten English. Even dialect speakers are evaluated on a valuation gradient, as speakers with certain desirable accents, like a British accent for example, might be esteemed more than speakers with a traditionally Black or Spanish accent, unfairly. (Chaika, 1994,…… [Read More]
Age and Learning a New Language
hat is the ideal age for a person to be able to learn a new language? hat are the dynamics (besides age) that contribute to SLA? This paper delves into those subjects using scholarly articles as resources.
The Literature on Learning a New Language and Age
"…Early beginners, through their longer exposure to L2, reach the necessary competence levels in their two languages sooner to allow transfer in both directions…" (Djigunovic, 2010).
hy are very young students especially gifted to pick up new languages quickly? The scholarship shows that younger learners "…have no awkwardness or inhibitions with the new language" and don't get too upset when they make mistakes (Cenoz, 2003, p. 77). As to whether or not younger learners "…soak up new languages" simply because the soak up information like a sponge soaks up water, Cenoz has his doubts. Indeed studies show younger…… [Read More]
Also different cultures and different regions have their own peculiar requirements. For example, a method that works well in United States of America may not work that well in a country like Malaysia. "With regard to lexical ambiguity, the rich inflectional morphology of Italian makes it relatively easy to distinguish between nouns, verbs, and other grammatical classes. In contrast, the sparse grammatical morphology of English means that nouns, verbs, and other word classes often sound alike and must be disambiguated by context (the comb vs. To comb), or by prosodic cues (to record vs. The record)" (Bates, Devescovi & Wulfeck, 2001).
So the differences are stark. In Chinese context application of morphology becomes more difficult. In countries like Malaysia where different languages are spoken the application of just the method of morphology can not simply work In some countries where English is taught as a second language morphology is used…… [Read More]
Finite and Non-Finite English Verbs
Verbs do much of the semantic labor in a language -- their use allows us to mean things that cannot be conveyed by mere nouns and adjectives. In our study of syntax, we can identify several important classes of verbs by their behavior and use, and the way in which they interact with negation: finite and non-finite verbs. These verb classes allow us to do a variety of things: distinguish perfect (i.e. finished) and imperfect (not yet complete) actions without the cumbersome use of case markers, use verbs as the core of an independent sentence (finite verbs only), and form the base for clauses that employ auxiliary verbs (nonfinite verb-based clauses). The acquisition of finite and non-finite verbs in English is interesting to many scholars (Theakston, Lieven, & Tomasello, 2003). These forms also respond to negation in distinctive ways compared to other verbs. Below, I…… [Read More]
The only part of the human body that can really be said to be devoted to speech in a way totally unique to humans is the brain. There are language centers in the human brain that researchers have yet to find any analogs for in other animals. This supports Noam Chomsky's assertion that language did not simply evolve from animal calls. There are, it is true, all of the biological mechanisms required for speech in many other animals, but language is capable of much more than simply making sounds or even communicating. Language can imagine the future, and express ideas that do not necessarily pertain to the current situation. The difference between the language of humans and the communication abilities of animals, as it is not physically based, must be neurologically based, and research both into human and animal brains and a careful examination of language supports this theory.
Chomsky,…… [Read More]
These different perspectives were based upon their language learning experiences from the past, their language proficiency, their current academic needs, and also their future career choices. To bridge the gap, the teachers engaged in dialogue with the students to determine the best ways to engage the students individually (Pazaver, and Wang 35).
In a study in the International Journal of English Studies, the authors used ELT materials in order build of a reliable instrument to help in the potential for the promotion of implicit and explicit components in ESL learning by students. The found that implicitness and explicitness were promoted equally by the ESL teaching units in three different textbooks (Criado Sanchez, Sanchez Perez, and Cantos Gomez 129). In an article in the journal of Applied Linguistics, .W. Schmidt analyzes issues that impact upon explicit learning modalities. He concludes that subliminal language learning is impossible. Also, he notes that it…… [Read More]
The pogam pimaily suppots the local Chinese communities to maintain younge geneation's heitage backgound, and speading Chinese cultue in the U.S. The classes ae nomally held two to thee hous on weekends with Chinese language lessons and othe taditional cultual and at activities. Most students have high levels of oal poficiency in Chinese, but needed to enhance skills in liteacy. Chinese heitage schools ae mainly suppoted by two goups: the National Council of Associations of Chinese Language Schools (NCACLS) which is founded by Taiwan o Hong Kong immigant and heitage communities, and the Chinese School Association in the United States (CSAUS) that is connected with immigant and heitage communities fom mainland China. Accoding to Scott McGinnis's (2005) compiled statistics, the combined enollment of NCACLS and CSAUS was aound 150,000 in 2003. The numbe of students in the heitage schools is lage than in othe CFL pogams acoss the U.S.
Many…… [Read More]
Vocabulary Acquisition in ESOL Students
English as foreign/second language (EFL/ESL) classrooms widely neglected the area of vocabulary, until lately. Grammar lessons are founded on a collection of rules having coherent structure, expected to be remembered or followed by students. However, the same doesn't hold true when it comes to vocabulary (Jeff, 2010). In the past few years, this area of English learning has gained importance as a necessary component to be learned by ESL students. It is believed by many to be just as crucial as reading, speaking, writing, and listening (Jeff, 2010). Work of different researchers state that knowledge of vocabulary aids language use, which in turn helps expand vocabulary knowledge, while knowledge about the world leads to increased language use and vocabulary knowledge (p. 6). The above contextualized outlook towards vocabulary learning will aid students in expanding their vocabulary by means of authentic communication (Jeff, 2010).
Of all…… [Read More]
Learning Problems vs Language Problems
The objective of this study is to examine how learning problems and language problems are related. Specifically considered will be the fact that when students who are learning English as their second language and who are experiencing academic or behavioral difficulties that the teacher and the school's problem-solving teams must examine whether these problems are related to learning a new language or whether the problems may be due to cognitive delays or developmental delay or disability.
The work of Fisher ( nd) entitled "Assessing English Language Learners for a Learning Disability or Language Issue" states that English language learners all "with learning disabilities...too often...fall through the cracks." (p.13) The reason stated for this is that these learners are often considered to be "slow English learners, or they may be in a school district that does not have enough resources to test them in their L1…… [Read More]
life are in many ways the most exciting, as the newborn develops rapidly into a toddler. Changes in sensorimotor skills, in sheer physical growth, in behavior and brain development, language acquisition, and spiritual formation all comprise some of the key components of life during the first two years. Some of these changes are more noticeable than others. The ones to be most aware of include the following:
Body Changes (Biosocial Development)
Motor Skills Changes (Biosocial Development)
Sensorimotor Changes (Cognitive Development)
Language and Communications Changes (Cognitive Development)
Emotional Changes (Psychosocial Development)
These five are the most crucial areas in the baby's first two years of life because of how these changes will impact biological, psychological, and social development later in life. Many of these changes are plainly visible to the parents. For example, the physical size and body of the child will rapidly change over the two years. Likewise, the baby's…… [Read More]
Memory and Language
Semantic memory is part of a larger division of memory known as declarative memory which refers to items in memory that can be consciously retrieved or recalled such as factual information, memories of events, and other types of knowledge (Tulving, 1972). Semantic memory is the memory of meanings and concept-based knowledge that can be consciously recollected such as facts about the world, word meanings, and other related information, whereas the other component of declarative memory, episodic memory, refers to the memory of biographical and event-related information (Tulving, 1972). Semantic memory functions as a storehouse of knowledge that can be consciously retrieved and applied when needed in specific situations and comprises a large amount of what we learn about the world and out relations in it (Tulving, 1972). Semantic memories are language based.
Human language is a different form of communication that used by other species of animals.…… [Read More]
Although seemingly impossible, bias was reduced according to the article: "Safeguards against bias on the part of the parent, the experimenter and the assistant were stringent to ensure that these individuals did not influence infants' HT's."
The authors believed that HTs by 6-month-old infants were significant data points to base a study upon. While I personally disagree with the methods of this research, the importance of this study does not appear to be lost. The age at which children do appear to be learning is very important but this article does not provide a significant argument to support this in this particular study. The conclusions of the study are muddled and incomplete as well, as not clear result was communicated. Ultimately the authors' concluded that "infants demonstrate a capacity to learn simply by being exposed to language during the first half year of life, before the time that they have…… [Read More]
Power and Language
The concept of power has been examined closely by many philosophers throughout human history. These philosophers have different ideas of what power is, but they all, in some way, believe that the concept of language is central to power. In On Violence, Hannah Arendt quotes several such definitions. She says that power may be "making others act as I choose," "to command and be obeyed," or "the instinct of domination" (36-7). All of these definitions have some basis in the reality of the concept, but the two philosophers who will be the focus of this essay, Arendt and Nietzsche, disagree with this basic premise and attempt to quantify power in different terms. They also make the case of the centrality of language to power. In other words, that there is a language to power, and the creation of power, that needs to be understood before the…… [Read More]
Language Development in Young Children
Early Childhood and Literacy
Language is a physical link of a child to his outside world. Language acquisition is essential for a child's social, physical and cognitive development. It plays a vital role in developing an individual who would be able to express himself adequately to his family, friends and the world around him. A vast majority of the children can develop linguistic skills effortlessly, whereas some have difficulty in developing these essential skills. They are slow to learn a language and eventually struggle with academic and literacy skills throughout their educational career. The first few years of a child's life are important and critical for their performance.
This project examines the issues related to language development in first two years of a child's life. It also discusses the importance of the language and the role linguistics play in preparing a child for his academic…… [Read More]
Traditional Methods of Language Teaching
The paper discuses the various traditional methods of language teaching, namely:
Grammar Translation Method
The Audio-lingual Method
The Direct Method
The Silent Way
The Communicative Approach
Cognitive code learning
The Natural Approach
Functional-Notional Approach and The task-based approach
The paper discusses each approach in details and describes its various chief principles and how it helps both teachers and students to teach, understand, learn, and practice all the skills they learn through these approaches.
Grammar Translation Method
This method involves the learner to spend a lot of time in understanding the language structure. Though both listening as well as speaking suffer because of it. However, grammar and vocabulary are being stressed throughout the teaching method.
The grammar translation method has been derived from traditional approaches to the teaching of Latin and Greek in the nineteenth century (Selected Lesson Plans). It was originally used to…… [Read More]
feature of language and why?
The most important key feature of any language is grammar. Grammar provides structure and meaning to sounds. Without a grammatical framework, it is unclear if a word is referring to a noun or an adjective; an adverb or a verb. Even a computer language must have a grammatical construction to be read and to be comprehensible. Many words between different languages sound very similar (such as Latin and Portuguese, for example) but without grammatical rules the distinctions in use between those sounds is unclear. Grammar also is part of the social 'situation' of a language. For a language to be effective, it cannot exist in a vacuum. "No commonly-spoken language is fixed. All languages change over time. What we call 'grammar' is simply a reflection of a language at a particular time" (What is grammar, 2014, English Club). Over time certain grammatical rules may become…… [Read More]
Many studies show that one should start foreign language studies as soon as possible, and the peak age of learning the second language is said to be on or before the child reaches the age of 10. After the baby is born, and eventually learned his/her native language, it now gradually starts having its full capacity to learn another or new language just by imitating and hearing his/her environment. The earlier he/she hears the accents and sound of another language, there is much more possibility that he/she will develop it. Added to this, if he/she is also given chance to be exposed in the language, and the opportunity to speak it, chances are that he/she will be able to speak it fluently. This way, the child would treat both the mother tongue and the foreign language equally (http://www.snn-rdr.ca/snn/2003apr/bilingual.html,2003).
One high school principal was quoted saying "A child has only one…… [Read More]
vocabulary we have does more than communicate our knowledge. It shapes what we can know. Evaluate this claim with reference to different areas of knowledge.
esponse Question: Does vocabulary limit what we can know or limit what we can express?
The sentiment, "the vocabulary we have does more than communicate our knowledge. It shapes what we can know" expresses only a partial truth. The vocabulary we have only shapes what we can express or communicate to others, but real wisdom and discovery, as encountered in various areas of knowledge, can transcend vocabulary. This is most immediate in the area of knowledge encompasses by the arts. Literature, music, art and poetry can often express the inexpressible, aptly conveying it to the spectator and imparting wisdom to that spectator. The spectator may be fully aware of this, and fully cognizant that he has been touched, but unable to express through words just…… [Read More]
Learning a language: Gaining fluency in a language to be free
The acquisition of language is never a culturally neutral process. When someone learns his or her first or even a second language, that individual also acquires a status in the eyes of the world, based upon how that language is perceived. The race of the speaker, his or her perceived level of education, gender, and race all interact with the stereotypes that exist in the gazer's mind. In Christine Marin's essay "Spanish Lessons," Marin chronicles how her unsteadiness in Spanish did not initially bother her, given the fact that she grew up in a society that prized whiteness. Gradually, as she grew older and her attitude towards her heritage changed, her lack of fluency in her native tongue became a burden. Similarly, Malcolm X was forced to grapple with his complex relationship with the English language. On one hand,…… [Read More]
Fastpack has an impressive, solid position on the uritanian courier market. The company does not necessarily need to be acquired by TNT. In my opinion, Fastpack would have more to gain if it were not acquired by TNT. Fastpack has a market share base on the international market that the company can further exploit and expand, leading to overall growth for the company, both locally and internationally.
TNT however, needs to acquire Fastpack. As mentioned above, it is quite difficult for foreign companies to enter the uritanian courier market. The best way of succeeding would be to acquire a well-known local company. Therefore, it might be a better solution for both companies, and especially for Fastpack, to decide upon a merger between the two companies rather than on an acquisition of Fastpack by TNT.
Initial Valuation of the Company Acquired by TNT
Objective: the purpose of the acquisition of Fastpack…… [Read More]
Yiddish as a first language in Ultra-Orthodox Jewish communities, compared to the use of local vernacular (for example, Hebrew in Israeli-ased Jews, or English in London and New York-ased Jews): in Hasidic Jews, the use of Yiddish is widespread, whereas in other Jewish groups, the local vernacular is more common.
This paper discusses the reasons behind these differences, and looks at the functions that Yiddish serves in these Hasidic Jew communities. The paper also looks at the effects of outside pressures has on the use of Yiddish, and on issues of identity in general.
The paper also looks at the religious issues related to the use of Yiddish, and at heritage issues in general. The paper also looks in detail at the use of Yiddish as a cultural isolating mechanism, as a way to create barriers between Hasidic Jews and non-Hasidic Jews, and also Hasidic Jews and non-Jews (gentiles).
The…… [Read More]