Language Development Essays (Examples)

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Development of Language in Children and Adults

Words: 1361 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43859517

The ability to learn and recall information when it is needed is essential for virtually every human activity, so it is important to develop a better understanding concerning how young children differ in this capacity compared to older children when formulating interventions to facilitate this process (Silva & Britto, 2013). The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the relevant literature concerning these issues as well as what interventions have been proven effective in improving memory recall in different age cohorts. Finally, the paper provides a summary of the review of the literature and key findings concerning how young children differ from older children in their ability to recall information in the conclusion.
How do young children differ from older children in the ability to recall information?
On the one hand, the world in which very young children live is one of magic and wonder, and countless…… [Read More]

References

Crestani, A. H., Moraes, A. B. & de Souza, A. P. (2015, January-February). Association analysis between child development risks and children early speech production between 13 and 16 months. Revista CEFAC, 17(1), 169-176.

Howell, E. F. (2011). Understanding and treating dissociative identity disorder: A relational approach. New York: Routledge.

Huey, E. & Swinehart, C. (2015, July 1). Applying imagery to vocabulary instruction. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 41(3), 45-49.

Moeller, M. P. (2000, September). Early intervention and language development in children who are deaf and hard of hearing. Pediatrics, 106(3), 37-41.

Naveh-Benjamin, M. & Cowan, N. (2009, October 1). Age-related differences in immediate serial recall: Dissociating chunk formation and capacity. Memory and Cognition, 35(4), 724-737.

Perez, C. (2015, June 29). U.S. has more Spanish speakers than Spain. New York Post. Retrieved from https://nypost.com/2015/06/29/us-has-more-spanish-speakers-than-spain/.

Silva, T. R. & Britto, D. B. (2014, November-December). Revista CEFAC, 15(6), 1654-1663.


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Language and Literacy Development There

Words: 785 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59692273



One piece of evidence that suggests there is at least some degree of "hardwiring" of language in the human brain is the fact that very similar mistakes are made in certain grammatical forms and syntax structures by early speakers of any language. There seems to be an innate sense of the way words are supposed to be formed and fit together, and instances that do not follow these expected/innate rules require greater learning and effort to surmount. At the same time, there is evidence that much of language is learned through interaction with parents. This means that maternal depression, which tends to reduce activity overall and can specifically reduce interactions with children, can have a detrimental affect on language development by limiting or reducing the exposure of these children to language use and interaction.

At early stages of development, current research suggests that there is little relationship between the language…… [Read More]

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Language and Thinking Language Is the One

Words: 2480 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35708581

Language and Thinking

Language is the one aspect, which distinguishes human beings from lower species of life (Faccone et al. 2000). Sternberg (1999 as qtd in Faccone et al.) lists its properties as including communication, arbitrary symbolism, regular structure, structure at multiple levels, generation and production and dynamism. Sternberg assumes that language is most likely acquired naturally from the environment where a person is raised as an infant. The stages seem universal. The first is the cooing stage at two to four months. At this initial stage, an infant seems able to produce and possible phonemes or basic speech sounds. An infant's need to distinguish between phonemes of different languages gradually disappears around 8 months. This is when he recognizes the relationship between sound and meaning in his native language. This is how language begins to have importance to him. The findings of Sternberg's study reveal that human beings are…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Faccone, Claudia et al. The Effct of Language on Thought. The Psychology 20 Course:

University of Carolina, 2000. Retrieved on November 29, 2013 from http://www.unc.edu/~jdumas/projects/languagethought.htm

Hampton, James. A. Language's Role in Enabling Abstract, Logical Thought.

Commentary/Peter Carruthers. Psychology Department: University of London, 2002.
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Language Disorders Disabilities and Learning

Words: 2040 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98514559

Language Impairments: Evidence-Based Interventions

Language Impairment Interventions

Evidence-Based Interventions for Pediatric Language Impairments

Evidence-Based Interventions for Pediatric Language Impairments

So strong is the genetic impulse driving language acquisition that all children will learn to speak some form of language (Sousa, 2011, p. 28, 196). This fact suggests that the remaining question confronting children, parents, educators, and society is how well these skills are learned. Problems encountered along the way, however, can sometimes have a significant impact on a child's ability to communicate with others, both now and as adults. The greatest challenges are those faced by children with speech and language disorders. To better understand the language problems confronting otherwise developmentally normal children the recommended interventions, especially from an educator's point-of-view, will be examined and discussed in this research paper.

Neurological Correlates of Language Development

Comprehending how a speech or language disorder in a child could develop and impact their…… [Read More]

References

Deniz Can, D., Richards, T., & Kuhl, P.K. (2013). Early gray-matter and white-matter concentration in infancy predict later language skills: A whole brain voxel-based morphometry study. Brain and Language, 124(1), 34-44.

Ratner, N.B. (2013). Why talk with children matters: Clinical implications of infant- and child-directed speech research. Seminars in Speech and Language, 34(4), 203-214.

Schuele, C.M., Spencer, E.J., Barako-Arndt, K., & Guillot, K.M. (2007). Literacy and children with specific language impairment. Seminars in Speech and Language, 28(1), 35-47.

Snowling, M.J. & Hulme, C. (2012). Interventions for children's language and literacy difficulties. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 47(1), 27-34.
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Language Autism Language and Children With Autism

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57801154

Language Autism

Language and children with autism:

Sources of cognitive deficits

Deficits in language development are one of the most commonly-noted, early signs a child may be autistic. Autistic children often fail to meet appropriate developmental milestones in language. High-functioning autistics or individuals with Asperger's Syndrome usually do not show developmental delays in using language, but may communicate in an inappropriate manner. "Autism is diagnosed on the basis of three primary areas of impairment: social functioning, language and communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests or activities...esearch on autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders suggests that the social and communication impairments are unique and specific deficits, that define the autism phenotype" (Tager-Flusberg 2006).

The extent to which social and communicative impairments in autism are interlinked remains hotly debated. It is generally agreed upon and noted by researchers and parents alike that there is a wide spectrum of difference in…… [Read More]

References

ABA therapy. (2011). Bright Tots. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at  http://brighttots.com/aba_therapy.html 

Engaging with the self. (2011). Bio Portfolio. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at  http://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/86890/Engaging-With-The-Self-Mirror-Behaviour-In-Autism-Down-Syndrome-And-Typical.html 

Schoenstadt, Arthur. (2011). Language development in autistic children emedtv.

Retrieved November 1, 2011 at http://autism.emedtv.com/autism/language-development-in-autistic-children.html
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Language and Culture

Words: 979 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2331864

Language and culture are inextricably linked. The ways in which one's culture is directly attributed to language development are well documented in the academic literature, though there seems to be little consensus on the processes involved in language acquisition and the ways that culture is manifested in both socialization and language development. One assertion, however, seems widely accepted; culture is a learned attribute that language helps convey to others. Because people use language to impart cultural beliefs and societal mores, the nexus between language and culture is an important consideration in the field of education and communication, especially concerning the varied pedagogical theories of child development. Much of what has been studied in the field of both communications and education concerning the connection between language and culture is attributed to a ussian born educator named Lev Vygotsky.

Lev Vygotsky

Vygotsky believed that children developed and acquired knowledge through the assistance…… [Read More]

References:

Kyratzis, A. (2005). Language and Culture: Socialization through Personal Story-Telling Practice. Human Development, 48(3), 146-150.

Miller, P.J., Hengst, J. Alexander, K., & Sperry L.L. (2000). Versions of personal storytelling/versions of experience: Genres as tools for creating alternate realities. In K. Rosengren, C. Johnson & P. Harris (eds.), Imagining the impossible: The development of magical, scientific, and religious thinking in contemporary society (pp. 212 -- 246). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Miller, P.J., & Mehler, R. (1994). Personal story-telling, socialization, and self-construction at home and in kindergarten. In A. Haas Dyson & C. Genishi (eds.), The need for story: Cultural diversity in classroom and community. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Vygotsky, L. (1978). Problems of Method (pp. 52-75). In Mind in Society. (Trans. M. Cole). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
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Language and Cognition Is Relatively

Words: 3138 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82941920

Initiating joint attention related to activity in the frontal-cortical system, especially the left hemisphere and responding to joint attention to the parietal lobes. Heimann et al. (2006) found that that deferred imitation and joint attention both influence the development of language and communication skills in infancy. Deferred imitation at nine months was the strongest of the predictors of nonverbal communication at 14 months, but the predictive power increased significantly in situations when deferred imitation and joint attention were used together.

ecently studies have been conducted with other areas of cognitive behavior. For example, de Villiers (2007) has been looking at the association of language and what he calls Theory of Mind. Theory of Mind refers to the folk psychological theory humans use to predict and explain others' behavior on the basis of their internal workings: feelings, intentions, desires, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and point-of-view. In other words, people have to create…… [Read More]

References

Bowerman, M., & Levinson, S. C (2001). Introduction. In M. Bowerman & S.C. Levinson (Eds.), Language acquisition and conceptual development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Delgado, C.E.F., Mundy, P., Crowson, M., Markus, J., & Schwartz, H. (2002). Responding to joint attention and language development: A comparison to target location. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 715-719.

A de Villiers, J. (2007) Interface of language and theory of mind. Lingua 117 1858-1878

Doherty, M.J., 2006. The development of mentalistic gaze understanding. Infant and Child Development 15, 179-186.
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Language Instinct How Are the

Words: 1647 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92591422

Pinker maintains that evolution follows a branching, rather than linear pattern. Many species develop concurrently, each with their own survival instincts. Humans, and their survival instinct of language, are just one branch of the evolutionary process rather than a pinnacle rung.

Holding the belief that we can, or might someday communicate with animals creates empathy, which leads to humane treatment of animals. A belief that animals cannot communicate with us due to inferiority leads to a sense of dominion over them.

This is also a pattern of belief and behavior that is seen with regard to humans who are perceived to have inferior languages or grammars. They are somehow less human, and therefore less deserving of humane treatment.

Pinker states that it is ridiculous to attempt to teach human language to animals. They are not biologically configured for human speech or sign. They have no need for human language as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Pinker, Steven. The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1994.
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Language of Geoffrey Chaucer and Its Relationship

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58300789

language of Geoffrey Chaucer and its relationship to the development of English

In both literature and language, Geoffrey Chaucer made an important contribution to the development of English. In terms of the development of the English language his works and their popularity are related to the importance of the Midland dialect. This dialect formed part of the Mercian dialect of Old English, which was to assume significance due to the fact that it,

developed into centers of university, economic, and courtly life. East Midland, one of the subdivisions of Midland, had by that time become the speech of the entire metropolitan area of the capital, London, and probably had spread south of the Thames River into Kent and Surrey. "(ibid)

This form of the English language was disseminated and popularized partly by poets in the 14th century -- including Chaucer. In essence the works of Chaucer therefore added to the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baugh, Albert C. A History of the English Language. 2nd ed. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1959.

Chaucer, Geoffrey 1340-400) August 15, 2005.

http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Biographies/MainBiographies/C/chaucergeoffrey/2.html

English Language. Encarta. August 16, 2005. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761564210_2/English_Language.html
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Language Impairment Phonological Memory Deficits

Words: 1733 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6488698

The focus of academics continues to focus on finding a cause and on developing reliable interventions for children suffering from this condition. It is important to begin intervention as early as possible so that incorrect speech patterns do not become ingrained. In addition, it is important to make certain that other learning complications do not develop as a result of SLI.

The research conducted by ice, Wexler, & Cleave (1995) helped to draw attention to SLI as being different from other language deficiencies. Their work helped to identify and define SLI as its own subset of language delay symptoms. This important step led the way for research that explored causality and intervention. SLI is typically associated with deficiencies in verbal skills. However, research into non-verbal skills was also suggested by these and other study results. This avenue will help to further define and distinguish SLI from other language delays.

eferences…… [Read More]

References

Bishop, D., Bright, P. & James, C. et al. (2000). Grammatical SLI: a distinct subtype of developmental language impairment? Applied Psycholinguistics. 21-92): 159-181.

O'Brien, E., Zhang, X., & Nishimura, C. et al. (2003). Association of specific language impairment (SLI) to the region of 7q31. American Journal of Human Genetics. 72 (6): 1536-1543.

Rice, M., Wexler, K., & Cleave, P. (1995). Specific Language Impairment as a Period of Extended Optional Infinitive. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. 38: 850-863.

Sajanrimi, N., Suhonen, E., & Kontu, E. (2008). Verbal and non-verbal development in SLI children after early intervention. Early Child Development and Care. 02 May 2008. Abstract.
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Language Impairment Disorder Specific Language

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15198049

The clearest evidence for genetic effects has come from studies that diagnosed SLI using theoretically motivated measures of underlying cognitive deficits rather than conventional clinical criteria (ishop).

Characteristics of SLI

Delay in starting to talk is evidenced by the first words not appearing until two years of age or later. Immature or deviant production of speech sounds is apparent, especially in preschool children. Use of simplified grammatical structures, such as omission of past tense endings or the auxiliary "is," exist well beyond the age when this is usually mastered. Restricted vocabulary, in both production and comprehension with weak verbal short-term memory, is evidenced in tasks requiring repetition of words or sentences. Difficulties in understanding complex language are apparent, especially when the speaker talks rapidly (ishop).

Treatment

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) help children with the strategies and exercises that will help them navigate language. They are also the ambassadors of language who…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bishop, Dorothy. "What Causes Specific Language Impairment in Children." 2006. Institute for Applied Psychometrics. 17 March 2009  http://www.iapsych.com/articles/bishop2006.pdf .

Davidson, Tish, Jill De Villers and Thomson Gale. "Specific Language Impairment." 2006. Healthline.com. 17 March 2009 http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/specific-language-impairment.

Ervin, Margaret. "SLI - What we Know and Why it Matters." n.d. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 17 March 2009 http://www.asha.org/about/publications/leader-online/archives/2001/sli.htm.
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Development of 18-Month-Old Child

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20300054

Developmental Checklist

Intelligence in Infancy

Cognitive:

The child shows many signs of normal cognitive behavior. He seems to understand that when he bangs the blocks together that they will make sound and also seems proud of this activity. He also understood that when the blocks fell that something was wrong and said "uh oh." This is a sign of cognitive understanding of what the blocks are supposed to do.

Social/emotional:

The social and emotional skills are primarily illustrated by the connection and interactions with the child's mother. The child looks completely comfortable around the mother and interacts naturally. The child is able to understand the mothers questions like "where is the banana" and responds appropriately.

Physical:

The child shows advanced ability to sit and stand as he wishes with minimal balance issues. The child also shows advanced visual and spatial skills that can be illustrated by his ability to work…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AllPsych. (N.d.). Psychology 101. Retrieved from AllPsych: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/development.html

CA Dept. Of Educatoin. (N.d.). Cognitive Development Domain. Retrieved from CA Dept. Of Educatoin:  http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/itf09cogdev.asp 

Cherry, K. (N.d.). Communication Milestones. Retrieved from Psychology: http://psychology.about.com/od/early-child-development/a/communication-milestones.htm

Feranld, A., Marchman, V., & Weisleder, A. (2012). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 234-248.
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Language Philosophy Advocates Teaching Children

Words: 1511 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55574837

.., 2004).

Direct Instruction (DI) is a model for teaching that emphasizes well-developed and carefully planned lessons designed around small learning increments and clearly defined and prescribed teaching tasks. It is based on the theory that clear instruction eliminating misinterpretations can greatly improve and accelerate learning (Stockard, n.d.).

ibliography

Clowes, G. (2001, February 01). "Whole Language" faulted for U.S. reading woes. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from the Heartland Institute: http://www.heartland.org/publications/school%20reform/article/10248/Whole_Language_Faulted_for_US_Reading_Woes.html

Hanson, G. (1999, February 08). Whole language, half an education? Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Find Articles at NET: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_5_15/ai_53744894

Jones, J. (n.d.). Learning to read and whole language ideology. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Parents Raising Educational Standards in Schools: http://my.execpc.com/~presswis/phonics.html

Jones, J. (2004, July 28). What the data really show: Direct instruction really works! Retrieved March 23, 2009, from JeffLindsay.com: http://www.jefflindsay.com/EducData.shtml

Reyhner, D.J. (2008, Dec 13). The reading wars. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Jon Reyhner, Northern Arizona…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Clowes, G. (2001, February 01). "Whole Language" faulted for U.S. reading woes. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from the Heartland Institute: http://www.heartland.org/publications/school%20reform/article/10248/Whole_Language_Faulted_for_US_Reading_Woes.html

Hanson, G. (1999, February 08). Whole language, half an education? Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Find Articles at BNET: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_5_15/ai_53744894

Jones, J. (n.d.). Learning to read and whole language ideology. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Parents Raising Educational Standards in Schools: http://my.execpc.com/~presswis/phonics.html

Jones, J. (2004, July 28). What the data really show: Direct instruction really works! Retrieved March 23, 2009, from JeffLindsay.com:  http://www.jefflindsay.com/EducData.shtml
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Language and Literacy Lesion Plan

Words: 2798 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41760761

Progression and Foundation of Language

Concept/topic

Learning of primary language complements skills development; this includes learning about language, as well as learning other subjects in the school curriculum via language. Language learning facilitates general literary skills and allows children to revert to, and strengthen skills and concepts studied through their first language (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).

Curriculum is enriched by language learning. Teachers as well as children find it fun and challenging, and display enthusiasm towards language; this leads to creation of interested learners and the development of positive attitudes towards learning languages, all throughout one's life. A natural link exists between language and other curricular areas, and this enriches the overall teaching-learning experience. Proficiencies, understanding, and information learned through language contribute greatly to literacy and oracy development in children, as well as to better understanding of one's own and others' cultures. Language is also integral to community and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

(n.d.). Anticipatory Set/Hook. Weebly. Retrieved from:  http://ed491.weebly.com/uploads/8/4/6/1/8461140/anticipatorysets.pdf 

(2013). Arizona Early Learning Standards. Arizona Department of Education. Retrieved from:  http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED486135.pdf 

(n.d.). Developing Lessons with Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0136101259.pdf

Huppenthal, J., Stollar, J., & Hrabluk, K. (n.d.). Arizona State Literacy Plan. Arizona Department of Education. Retrieved from:  http://www.azed.gov/standards-practices/files/2012/06/arizona-state-literacy-plan-compiled-doc-9.29.11.pdf .
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Development Issues for Children

Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27090101

Early Childhood Development Issues

Module One of Chen's work Early Intervention in Action... presents a number of different aspects of the experience of families raising children who have multiple disabilities. It is quite different to consider these aspects from a clinical or even educational perspective rooted in theory, versus doing so from the perspective of the impact of this situation on one's family. There seems to be a greater amount of difficulty in raising children with multiple disabilities that can challenge a family in numerous ways. Based on the information in this module, it seems almost certain that one of the most exacting is simply modifying one's schedule and accounting for the different people and places that such a child must interact with and go to, respectively, in order to achieve success in life.

Perhaps the most vital facet of this module is the way that it is able to…… [Read More]

References

Chen, Deborah. (2008). Early Intervention in Action: Working Across Disciplines to Support Infants with Multiple Disabilities and Their Families. Module 1. Retrieved from ***

Chen, Deborah. (2008). Early Intervention in Action: Working Across Disciplines to Support Infants with Multiple Disabilities and Their Families. Module 2. Retrieved from ***

WIDA (2014). THE EARLY YEARS: Dual language learners. www.wida.us Retrieved from ***
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Assessing Expressive Language Samples of ECE Students

Words: 1325 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87858703



A sample of 25 intelligible utterances obtained during an observation in the clinic, in which Jay played and interacted with his mother, provided the basis for the language analysis. The following assessments were conducted: MLU, DSS, Correct/Incorrect Form Analysis, and Type Token atio.

Mean Length of Utterance (MLU). Although oger Brown's five stages of language development differ from the scoring used in the MLU interpretation in this paper, Jay is scores within normal limits in this second version, also. Brown describes a MLU score of 3.0 to 3.75 as Stage IV of language development, which corresponds with an approximate age of 35 to 40 months. Jay has reached 41 months of age at the time of this evaluation, which puts him in Stage V of language development, with corresponding ages of 41 to 46 months. Jay's MLU score is 3.5, which may be interpreted to indicate that Jay is moderately…… [Read More]

References

Rice, M.L., Smolik, F., Perpich, D., Thompson, T., Rytting, N., and Blossom, M. (2010, April). Mean length of utterance levels in 6-month intervals for children 3 to 9 years with and without language impairments. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53(2), 333 -- 349. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0183) PMCID: PMC2849178 NIHMSID: NIHMS120034
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How Best to Learn a Foreign Language

Words: 1155 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11722819

Language Autobiography

What I know about language is that it is essential in life and in learning. We use it to communicate ideas, feelings, needs, and thoughts. Being social creatures, we use language to bond with people, to create bonds of affection, and to create pillars of support for each other and for society as a whole. Language is something that can unite people; but if it is not known, it can also isolate those who do not know it.

How I learned what I know about language has come from my experience as a learner. What I remember learning about learning my native language is a real reticence to actually begin speaking: I was 5 years old before I started actually speaking; I would listen to my two older brothers have conversations and from them I learned both English and Spanish. Since my family and friends mostly spoke in…… [Read More]

References

Adichie, C. (2009). The danger of a single story. TED. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/chimamanda_adichie_the_danger_of_a_single_story

Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing English language learners: Bridges from language proficiency to academic achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Levien, R. [mediathatmatters]. (2009, June 16). Immersion [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I6Y0HAjLKYI

North Clackamas Schools. (2013). SIOP Components and Features. Retrieved from http://www.nclack.k12.or.us/Page/1563
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Language Policy and Planning Language Planning Refers

Words: 1581 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60978398

Language Policy and Planning

Language planning refers to the efforts that are deliberately undertaken to influence how languages functions, are structured or acquired or the variety of languages in a given country. It is often a government responsibility by non-governmental organizations have also come to be involved in this. Grass-roots organizations and also individuals have been involved in this. The goal of language planning differs depending on the country. However, it generally includes planning, decision making and possible changes which benefit the communications system of the country. Language planning or efforts to improve the communication in a country can also bring about certain social changes such as shift of language, assimilation and therefore provide a motivation which plans the function, structure and acquisition of languages Woolard & Gahng, 1990()

Decision making in language planning

There are four dominant language ideologies which motivate the decisions that are made regarding language planning.…… [Read More]

References

Little, M.E.R., & McCarty, T.L. (2006). Language Planning Challenges and Prospects in Native American Communities and Schools. Tempe, AZ: Language Policy Research Unit.

Martin, J.J. (1988). An American Adventure in Bookburning in the Style of 1918. Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles Publisher.

Woolard, K.A., & Gahng, T.-J. (1990). Changing Language Policies and Attitudes in Autonomous Catalonia. Language in Society, 19(3), 311-330.

Wyburn, J., & Hayward, J. (2009). OR and Language Planning: Modelling the Interaction between Unilingual and Bilingual Populations. The Journal of the Operational Research Society, 60(5), 626-636.
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Language and Language Practices Language Is the

Words: 1505 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7740802

Language and Language Practices

Language is the written and verbal method by which people communicate with one another. It employs sounds or written designs that are understood by others to create words, phrases, and sentences. Other species have language, as well, but it is not believed to be as complex as the language used by human beings (loomfield, 1914; Deacon, 1998). There are many facets to language, and there are nuances and subtleties that are often overlooked. This is especially true with people who are just learning a language, whether they are children first learning to speak or second-language learners being exposed to a new and different language for the first time. People who study languages are involved in what is called linguistics. They may study a particular language, but more often than not they study multiple languages and the construction of those languages. What they do is very different…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bloomfield, Leonard. 1914. An introduction to the study of language. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Deacon, Terrence William. 1998. The Symbolic Species: The Co-Evolution of Language and the Brain. New York W.W. Norton & Company.

Kandel, ER; Schwartz, JH; Jessell, TM. 2000. Principles of Neural Science (fourth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Katzner, K. 1999. The Languages of the World. New York: Routledge.
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Language & Cognition the Relationship Between Language

Words: 1294 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40028872

Language & Cognition

The relationship between language and cognition continues to be an area of science that is heavily studied and for which research builds in exciting ways (Aitchison, 2007). New learnings about cognition and language are intimately tied to technological advances as neuropsychologists and others probe the human brain ever more deeply and meaningfully (Aitchison, 2007).

Language and lexicon. Language is understood to be the symbolic representation of human thought (Yule, 2005). Language is the most complex method of human communication, whether written or spoken, in that it uses words in a structured manner and in conventional ways that are understood by those who speak, read, and write a particular language (Yule, 2005). Language can also take the form of nonverbal communication through facial and gestural expressions (Yule, 2005). The concept of lexicon takes two general forms: A dictionary of a particular language, and the vocabulary associated with an…… [Read More]

References

Aitchison, J. (2007) The Articulate Mammal: An Introduction to Psycholinguistics (5 rev edn) London: Routledge.

Bock, J.K. (1982, January). Toward a cognitive psychology of syntax: Information processing contributions to sentence formulation. Psychological Review, 89 (1), 1-47.

Williamson, G. (2009, October 13). Key properties of language. Speech Therapy Information and Services (STIR). Retrieved http://www.speech-therapy-information-and-resources.com/key-properties-of-language.html

Yule, G. (2005) The Study of Language (3 rev edn) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Language as Gloria Anzaldua States in How

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45400028

Language

As Gloria Anzaldua states in "How to Tame a ild Tongue" from Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza, "Chicano Spanish sprang out of Chicanos' need to identify ourselves as a distinct people," (447). Chicano Spanish is a "secret language" of cultural bonding and binding. This is true for the many "forked tongues" that have sprung up in communities of opposition: patios tongues that become crucial to identity formation and preservation (Anzaldua 447). The dominant culture finds "wild tongues" to be inherently frightening, evil, and subversive (Anzaldua 446). The dominant culture does all it can to stamp out, suppress, and "cut out" the wild tongues that threaten social hierarchy and preserve patterns of oppression in non-white, non-Anglo, communities (Anzaldua 446). Suppressing language is a means of oppressing people. Therefore, clinging to language diversity is a political move. hen Anzaldua corrected her teacher's pronunciation of her name, and was sent to the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

All readings from: Augenbraum, Harold and Olmos, Margarite Fernandez. The Latino Reader.. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.

Thomas, Piri. Down these Mean Streets. Vintage, 1997.
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Language Cognitive Psychology Language Is

Words: 1095 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27483814

It includes morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics (Grammar, n.d.).

Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated; it is the ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning is called pragmatic competence; and an utterance describing pragmatic function is described as metapragmatic (Pragmatics, n.d.).

The ole of Language Processing in Cognitive Psychology

Jean Piaget, the founder of cognitive development, was involved in a debate about the relationships between innate and acquired features of language, at the Centre oyaumont pour une Science de l'Homme, where he had a discussion about his opinion with the linguist Noam Chomsky as well as Hilary Putnam and Stephen Toulmin (McKinney, & Parker, 1999). Piaget discussed that his cognitive constructivism has two main parts: an "ages and stages" component which foretells what children can and cannot understand at different…… [Read More]

References

Language. (n.d). Retrieved March 13, 2009, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language.

Lexicon (2001). Retrieved March 13, 2009, from Online Etymology Dictionary:

 http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=lexicon 

Lexicon. (n.d). Retrieved March 13, 2009, from Wikipedia:
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Language Learning One of the

Words: 1055 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78197863

The evidence for the biological basis of language is strong, however; researchers have found that newborn infants thought to be at a stage of development that precluded language abilities have been shown to recognize and express interest in spoken syllabic patterns over randomized syllables, and to retain that recognition over long periods of time (Gervain et al. 2008). The authors of this study conclude that the newborn brain is able to recognize at least the rudiments of language on their very frist encounter with it, which lends a huge amount of credibility to the belief that language is an innate skill possessed by the human brain. It must be noted, however, that infants must have an encounter with language in order to recognize it; that is, their capacity for language learning must by met by a teacher, passive though that teaching may be in the from of adults surrounding the…… [Read More]

References

Christiansen, M. & Chater, N. (2008) "Language as shaped by the brain." Behavorial and brain sciences, no. 31, pp. 489-558.

Corballis, M. (2009). "Mental time travel and the shaping of language." Experimental brain research, no. 192, pp. 553-60

Gervain, J., Macagno, F., Cogoi, S., Pena, M, & Mehler, J. (2008). "The neonate brain detects speech structure." Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, vol. 105, no. 37, pp. 14222-7

Wortham, S. (2008). "Linguistic anthropology of education." Annual review of anthropology, no. 37, pp. 37-51
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Language Growth How Does Language

Words: 320 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60530679

These activities help children to learn the difference between contextualized and decontextualized language. "hen we write, read, and have conversations, we often use decontextualized language. This is language that is not tied to the immediate context. It may reflect past events, future events, or fictitious events. For example, decontextualized language is used in everyday dinnertime conversation, when adults tell stories of their childhood, or when children tell about their school day" (Cartwright, 1994).

By definition, reading print is decontextualized language, because children must use their developing mental abilities to represent ideas of things that are not present before their eyes. Thus positive and edifying spoken interactions with parents, teachers, and older children are essential for children to become good readers later in life.

orks Cited

Cartwright, Kelly. (1 Nov 1994). "Reading Development Beings at Birth."

Self-Help. Retrieved 2 Dec 2007 at http://www.self-helpmagazine.com/articles/parenting/literacy.html… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cartwright, Kelly. (1 Nov 1994). "Reading Development Beings at Birth."

Self-Help. Retrieved 2 Dec 2007 at http://www.self-helpmagazine.com/articles/parenting/literacy.html
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Language and Comprehension Are Both

Words: 1763 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99663052

Ketch asserts that it is through this natural process that students comprehend and become critical thinkers. Likewise, Pinnell seems to share similar beliefs about natural processes and educators allowing children to explore these processes. The author asserts that

"Concentration on skills draws attention away from the normal and self-reinforcing uses of language, and instruction often unnecessarily makes a natural everyday activity seem foreign and stilted. Language studies suggest that efforts should be redirected to take advantage of nature's most powerful incentive for developing facility with language -- the child's intention to communicate meaning to other people, the use of language for a variety of purposes (Pinnell."

Both of these assertions support the importance of oral language. Ketch encourages this by explaining the importance on conversation is developing critical thinking skills. Likewise Pinnell enforces this by explaining the importance of language use among children.

Conclusion

The purpose of this discussion was…… [Read More]

References

Ketch, a (2005). Conversation: The comprehension connection. The Reading Teacher, 59(1) 8-13.

Pinnell, G.S. (1975. Language in primary classrooms. Theory into Practice, 14(5), 318-327.
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Language Is the Perfect Instrument

Words: 4854 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34736050

Consider the fact that the Iroquois are said not to have had a strong word for the singular "I," and that they subsequently developed what was arguably the longest lasting communal representative democracy the world has ever known. The Inuit, whose culture revolves around the arctic world, have dozens of words for snow - this sort of technical knowledge allows quick and accurate transmission of conditions and training in survival.

In Western terms, one remembers that Jesus Christ was said to be "The Word," yet in the original Greek this indicates not only a spoken word but also the Logos - the root term for intellectual reason, for Meaning within context (be that the context of a sentence, a life, a history, or a universe); logos was rational order. The difference between saying that a religious figure is the Word (which at its most profound seem to indicate a kind…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Atkins, J.D.C. (1887). Report of the commissioner of Indian affairs. House Exec. Doc. No. 1, Pt. 5, 50th Cong., 1st Sess. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Boston Language Institute. "TEFL FAQ http://teflcertificate.com/faq.html

Ethnologue. "English http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng

Macha, Freddy. "Tanzanian Independence Day Abroad.  http://www.unclesamofafrica.com/TanzaniaGuardian.htm
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Language Is Fundamentally a Verbal

Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63717607

If language is like food, then the ingredients are its words; the cooking process is its grammar; the nutritional value is its semantics. Some sentences are simple staples like rice and beans. Others are primarily aesthetic, finely crafted, and honed over time like a French sauce. Like the ingredients in any dish, the words of a language depend largely on geography. At the same time, we borrow words from other cultures just as we may borrow ingredients from other cuisines. Spanglish is like fusion food. Some cooking processes are rigid, time-consuming, and complex like proper grammar; others are looser and more flexible like everyday speech. There are some dishes you would serve your mother and others that are too spicy for her. Some language is long-winded and without substance; some is meaty; some is so packed with goodness that you return it again and again.

Ascription to the rules of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kemerling, Garth. "Language and Logic." 27 Oct 2001. Retrieved June 6, 2007 from  http://www.philosophypages.com/lg/e04.htm 

Schutz, Ricardo. "Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition." 20 Aug. 2005. Retrieved June 6, 2007 from
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Language and Sexuality

Words: 991 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4008254

Language and Sexuality from a Desire-Based Perspective

Anthropology -- Language & Sexuality

The broader theoretical treatment of the study of sexuality has long been recognized in the fields of linguistic anthropology and sociolinguistics. Historically, sexuality has been discussed in sociocultural studies of language over the long-term. In fact, this work and the research it generated make up the emergent history and the scope of research on language and sexuality. This analytical discourse on the topic of sexuality and language is socially oriented, to be certain, but the it has followed a path of convenience, resulting in piecemeal treatment and an underlying fragmentation of the body of work.

Discussion of the desire-oriented approach to sexuality and language, theorizing the motivation and development of the approach from a poststructuralist position.

Outline

Sexist language

Women and men's talk: single/mixed sex; private/public

Gender and politeness

Peer and classroom talk

5. Public and workplace talk…… [Read More]

Morrish, L., Morrish, E., and Sauntson, H. (2007, November 15). New perspectives on language and sexual identity. Palgrave Publishing.

Motschenbacher, H. ( 2011, November 11). Language, gender, and sexual identity: Poststructuralist perspectives. John Benjamins Publishing.

Sauntson, H. And Kyratzis, S. (Eds.) (2007). Language, sexualities, & desires: Cross-cultural perspectives. Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Macmillan.
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Language Is Arbitrary as You Are Reading

Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94896095

Language Is Arbitrary

As you are reading these words, you are taking part in one of the wonders of the natural world," begins Steven Pinker's The Language Instinct. (Pinker, 3) In other words, it is a wonder that the human mind is able to create, from need and cognitive structure and instinct, a morphological structure of communication that can change over time from context to context, yet still be understood.

It is a wonder that is both natural yet arbitrary in its construction. For the syntax, or appearance and sound of a particular kind of piece of language is arbitrary, even though the semantics, or relational meaning of the language is not. Should you, the reader, doubt this proposition, consider that one solitary letter can mean the difference between an object being understood, in an English context, as a bat, a cat, or a hat respectively. One letter can be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Frompkin, Victoria. (2002) Introduction to Language. Heinle: Seventh edition.

Pinker, Steven. (2000) The Language Instinct. New York: HarperCollins.
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Language Change the Evolution of

Words: 2281 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23780013

The attendant rules for the words may, or may not be carried to the new language. For example, many French words carry their plurals into English, while some more recent additions adopt English rules for pluralization

So we create new words or meanings as needed, and we drop old ones as they become obsolete or lose their usefulness. Another way language changes is by attitude. Cultural influences make certain words taboo, so we develop euphemisms to replace the taboo word. When the euphemism becomes widely known, we change it. One example in English is the word for toilet: water closet->loo->lavatory->ladies' room-> rest room ad infinitum until finally, we stopped thinking of this particular place as taboo in western society, so now we use many of the previous euphemisms as our personal taste dictates, and most people understand us.

Language is so basically part of our culture that culture is probably…… [Read More]

MacNeil, Robert and McCrum, Robert 1986 "The Story of English" (1986) (mini)

Public Television miniseries.  http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0198245/ 

See Language in Thought and Action, Dr. S.I. Hayakawa, 1935 for more on this topic.
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Language Skills During Communication While Highlighting Receptive

Words: 1335 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90348523

Language Skills

During communication, while highlighting receptive skills learners may require to make verbal or non-verbal responses. For assessment of these receptive skills, learners need to respond to a written or a spoken text. Formal and informal feedback can also be used to provide information about the learners. Different listening materials are utilized by scholars in the course-line of learning; some materials contain all aspects of real spoken language hence they are authentic.

Recorded tapes, poems and songs, are authentic texts that can be used during learning. One of the complete texts that can be used during the learning process is a story. Stories involve emotions, ideas and hopes that shape the human life. A pleasant story is "Getting to the Wedding." [footnoteRef:2] It is a story that involves a boy trying to get home after school so that he can make it to a wedding. After he gets home,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brinda, D. Patterns of the Story Teller. Mumbai: Pearson Education India, 2007.

Frey, O. Teaching and Learning L2 Grammar. London: GRIN Verlag, 2010.

Jack, C.,Hull, J.,Proctor, S. New Interchange;English For International Communication. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Spratt, M.,Pulveres, A., Williams, M. The TKT Course Modules 1,2,and 3. New York: Cambridge University, 2011.
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Language Arts

Words: 1287 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84498426

Language Arts

There is a trend among some colleges and universities recently to cut back or eliminate their humanities major and courses, which includes language arts as well as history and philosophy. This has created a controversy over the importance of these areas of learning. It is not that the decision to include language arts in education is new. Appreciation of such learning stems back to the earliest humans. Among the earliest pieces of prehistoric sculpture is from 30,0000-25,000 BCE. The woman, who had exaggerated female parts, is believed to be a fertility symbol perhaps carried by a male hunter/gatherer as a reminder of his mate back home. Many here have heard of or seen the paintings on the caves in France from 15,000 to 13,000 BCE. Early humans struggled to survive against natural forces, animals, and one another. One of the most essential ways of survival was to pass…… [Read More]

References

Atwell, Nancie. In the Middle: New Understandings About Reading,

Writing, and Learning. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Publishers,

Inc., 1998.

Burke, Jim. The English Teacher's Companion: A Complete Guide to Classroom,
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Language's Role in Sustaining Inequality Between the

Words: 3164 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3658115

Language's Role In Sustaining Inequality etween The Sexes

Although it is disputed whether language causes sexism or sexism causes certain language, language does play a part in sexism (Wikipedia). Given that the development of society has gone hand in hand with the development of language, it is unlikely that the causation will ever be determined. However, whether language causes sexism or sexism causes certain language, it is clear that language plays a key role in sustaining inequality between the sexes.

At its most basic, language is a system of symbols used by human beings to communicate with each other. However, language is not simply how humans communicate with one another, but also how humans communicate within themselves. Therefore, if language is sexist, then the actions, and even the thoughts, that it describes are sexist (West). For example, words with gender-based connotations imply that the attributes necessary to perform the duties…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bartlett, K. (1993) Gender and Law: Theory, Doctrine, and Commentary, New York: Little,

Brown & Company (1993).

Feitz, A. (1999) 'Feminist Scholarship: A Classic Oxymoron?', in Enterstageright.com: Enter

Stage Right.  http://www.enterstageright.com/archive/articles/1099femspeak.htm  accessed on January 5, 2005.
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Language and Literacy

Words: 3722 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60384444

Language and Literacy

Jeanne S. Chall was born in Poland on January 1, 1921. She moved to New York at a tender age of seven with her family. Jeanne S. Chall was one of the chief educators and researchers in the field of literacy during the past century. The Harvard Reading/Literacy Lab has recently been renamed in accolade of Dr. Chall.

hat follows is an account of Dr. Chall's life and work. Chall grew up in New York City, taught there, and received her bachelor's degree from City College in 1941. Due to a dearth of teaching posts open during the early 1940's, Chall took an assistantship at Teacher's College, Columbia University, subordinate to Irving Lorge, an intelligence-test researcher. It was there at Teacher's College that Chall first advanced a fascination and liking for educational research.

Chall then went on to seek her master's and doctoral degrees at Ohio State…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AboutTheAuthor

THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT CHALLENGE: WHAT REALLY WORKS IN THE CLASSROOM?

The Guilford Press, March 2000

http://www.markpaterson.co.uk/hieducat.htm
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Language of Ordinary People Thomas Paine

Words: 1806 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74487215

Language of Ordinary People

The American evolution could not have been as strong as it was if it were not for one man, Thomas Paine. He was the one who supported and fought for it with all his synergies, combined in the written form of most celebrated and valued book and pamphlet Common Sense and The American Crisis, which turned the tables for revolution and brought a vibrant change in the history of America. Thomas Paine spoke the language of common people through his words. This assisted them in being able to rise up for their individual rights. He believed that ordinary people should defend their liberty and this concept was written strongly in his top works of eighteenth century, which is still remembered and read throughout the America as an inspiring piece of inscription to raise the most necessary revolution to change America. This thesis tends to explain how…… [Read More]

References

"Hope for the Wrongly Accused." Voices for Freedom. 1-21, 2011. http://voices4freedom.wordpress.com/2011/12/21/hope-for-the-wrongly-accused / (accessed 7-6, 2012).

Marin., Lucian E. "Free Women from Domestic Violence." Voices for Freedom. 1-16, 2012. http://voices4freedom.wordpress.com/2012/02/16/free-women-from-domestic-violence / (accessed 7-6, 2012).

"Together We Can Change the World." Voices for Freedom. 12-13, 2011. http://voices4freedom.wordpress.com/2011/11/13/toegther-we-can-change-the-world-volunteer / (accessed 7-6, 2012).

Whittier, John Greenleaf. Voices of Freedom. london: BiblioBazaar, 2011.
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Language in Clients With Schizophrenia

Words: 1736 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70660220

"

Done, D.J. Crow, T.J. Johnstone, E.C. Sacker, a. (September 1994) Childhood Antecedents of Schizophrenia and Affective Illness: Social Adjustment at ages 7 to 11.BMJ, 309:699-703.

Teacher appraisal using the national child development study was utilized to examine differences between normal individuals and those who exhibit adult psychological disorders. "At the age of 7 children who developed schizophrenia were rated by their teachers as manifesting more social maladjustment than controls (overall score 4.3 (SD 2.4) v 3.1 (2.0); P… [Read More]

Harrison contends that there is a growing body of data, though as yet inconclusive, with regard to control and repeatability that shows some differences in brain MRI between patients with and without mood disorders. Interestingly the areas of the brain that are shown to be affected in those with mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder are areas of the brain which control language function, not in its source but in its ability to be transmitted by the patient. This could indicate some correlation, in behavioral indices where patients with bipolar disorder report a sense that they cannot think straight or communicate their thoughts effectively. "The neuropathology is postulated to contribute to the pathophysiology and dysfunction of the neural circuits which regulate mood and its associated cognitions, behaviours and somatic symptoms."

Done, D.J. Crow, T.J. Johnstone, E.C. Sacker, a. (September 1994) Childhood Antecedents of Schizophrenia and Affective Illness: Social Adjustment at ages 7 to 11.BMJ, 309:699-703.

Teacher appraisal using the national child development study was utilized to examine differences between normal individuals and those who exhibit adult psychological disorders. "At the age of 7 children who developed schizophrenia were rated by their teachers as manifesting more social maladjustment than controls (overall score 4.3 (SD 2.4) v 3.1 (2.0); P <.01). This was more apparent in the boys (5 (2.6)) than the girls underreactive behaviour. At both ages prepsychotic (affective) children differed little from normal controls. By the age of 11 preneurotic children, particularly the girls, had an increased rating of maladjustment (including overreactions and underreactions)... Abnormalities of social adjustment are detectable in childhood in some people who develop psychotic illness. Sex and the rate of development of different components of the capacity for social interaction are important determinants of the risk of psychosis and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood." The implication of this in terms of language and speech pathology is that there is again a greater connection between childhood social communication disorders and later diagnosis with adult psychotic disorders and this can be seen in language and communication patterns. No differences were distinguished or investigated between types of later psychotic disorders, though schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were included in the study.
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Language of Choice Theory and

Words: 1409 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95037421

Moreover, all psychological problems are based on dysfunctional relationships; therefore, change must occur in the arena of personal connections (the William Glasser Institute, 2010).

g. What is the role of cognitions or thoughts?

According to Glasser, thoughts are just one aspect of "Total Behavior," which includes "acting, thinking, feeling, and physiology" (the William Glasser Institute, 2010). All human behavior is Total Behavior, and all human behavior is chosen. However, acting and thinking are the only two components of behavior a person can directly control. Therefore, a patient must indirectly control their feelings and physiology by directly controlling their thoughts and behaviors (Glasser & Glasser, 2010).

IV. What specific techniques are used in this theory?

Choice theory is based primarily on "Seven Caring Habits" and "Ten Axioms" (the William Glasser Institute, 2010). The Seven Caring Habits are: "supporting, encouraging, listening, accepting, trusting, respecting, and negotiating differences" with creativity (the William Glasser…… [Read More]

References

Erwin, J. (2004). The Classroom of Choice: Giving Students What They Need and Getting What You Want. . Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Glasser, W., & Glasser, C. (2010). The Language of Choice Theory. HarperCollins ebook.

The William Glasser Institute. (2010). Teaching the World Choice Theory. Retrieved 03-04, 2011, from the William Glasser Institute: http://www.wglasser.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=92&Itemid=221
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Language and Gender

Words: 1611 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57119243

Language and Gender

Women's Words elate to Specific Interests

Women Use Adjectives of Approval

Women Use Weak Expletives

Using Tag

The world balks at the idea of gender discrimination, but the fact remains that gender differences are biological and there is no other way to deal with gender issues than to address them openly and seek better understanding.

As far as the linguistic capacity and the nature and cadence of conversations are concerned, women and men have been found to have various differences. Acknowledging these and working with them can allow better communication between the two genders so that the ubiquitous issue of men saying "we can't understand women' and women saying that 'men don't listen' can be alleviated.

esearchers in linguistics and speech patterns have tried to specify particular features that are different in the conversation mannerisms of women and men. Moreover, women talk differently in the company of…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, L.A., & Timm, L.A. 1976. More on Women's -- and Men's -- Expletives. Anthropological Linguistics, 438-449 .

Boe, S.K. 1987. Language as an Expression of Caring in Women . Anthropological Linguistics, 271-285.

Haas, A. 1979. Male and female spoken language differences: Stereotypes and evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 616-626.

Kennedy, L. 2011. IBM Names Virginia Rometty First Female CEO. More Magazine .
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Speaking in the Target Language Is the

Words: 3146 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76841042

speaking in the target language is the expectation that a proficient speaker will sound like a native speaker. Is this an appropriate or realistic expectation?

Not a long while after the emergence of the subject of second language acquisition (SLA), which most of the scholars think came around the time of initial years of 1970s, there has been a need to develop ways by which to measure the development of the second language, aside from the usage of detailed homogeneous skill tests which were mostly appropriate to fulfill other objectives.

As per Freeman's (2009) information, the first declaration of this need was made by Kenji Hukuta (1976). Kenji Hakuta was concerned in knowing the path of his subject Ugusiu's English language development over a period of time. Besides the aforementioned practitioners, other L1 acquisition scholars had carried out for the pupils learning English as a national language. In the research…… [Read More]

References

Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Dornyei, Z. (1998). Do language learners recognize pragmatic violations? Pragmatic vs. grammatical awareness in instructed L2 learning. TESOL Quarterly, 32, 233 -- 259.

Bialystok, E. (1991). Achieving proficiency in a second language: A processing description. In R. Philipson, E. Kellerman, L. Selinker, M. Sharwood Smith, & M. Swain (Eds.), Foreign/second language pedagogy research: A commemorative volume for Claus Faerch (Vol. 64, pp. 63 -- 78). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Bialystok, E. (1993). Symbolic representation and attentional control in pragmatic competence. In G. Kasper & S. Blum-Kulka (Eds.), Interlanguage pragmatics (pp. 43 -- 59). New York: Oxford University Press.

Bouton, L.F. (1988). A cross-cultural study of ability to interpret implicatures in English. World Englishes, 7(2), 183 -- 196.
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Real-Time Language Change The Moral of the

Words: 2729 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71719748

eal-Time Language Change

"The moral of the story is that if we think we observe a change in progress from a to B, we need to provide evidence not just of the existence of B, but also of the prior existence of A" (Britain, 2008:1).

So it is how Britain summarizes his overall findings of an investigation into the origins of a conservative conservational variant in 19th century New Zealand English. It turns out to be the case that the MOUTH diphthong that he was looking into was not really all the present in actual usage as had often been thought. And yet the changes that did not come about did not arise in isolation, which was why they were seen as being movement away from what others would assume to be a standardized language base (Coupland, 2010). Instead, it was more of an example of why it is important…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Auer, P. And Schmidt, J.E. (2009). Language and space: An international handbook of linguistic variation, vol. 1. In Theories and Methods. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Britain, D. (2008). When is a chance not a change?: a case study on the dialect origins of New Zealand English. Department of Language and Linguistics. Essex University. Viewable https://www.essex.ac.uk/linguistics/publications/errl/When_is_a_change_not_a_change_ERRIL.pdf.

Coupland, N. (2010). Language, ideology, media and social change. Performing the Self. SPELL: Swiss Papers in English Language and Literature 24. Ed. Karen Junod and Didier Maillat. Tubingen: Narr.

Fagyal, Z., et al., (2010). Centers and peripheries: Network roles in language change. Lingua, doi:10.1016/j.lingua.2010.02.001.
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Teaching Foreign Language to Infants

Words: 2828 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58652257



Many studies show that one should start foreign language studies as soon as possible, and the peak age of learning the second language is said to be on or before the child reaches the age of 10. After the baby is born, and eventually learned his/her native language, it now gradually starts having its full capacity to learn another or new language just by imitating and hearing his/her environment. The earlier he/she hears the accents and sound of another language, there is much more possibility that he/she will develop it. Added to this, if he/she is also given chance to be exposed in the language, and the opportunity to speak it, chances are that he/she will be able to speak it fluently. This way, the child would treat both the mother tongue and the foreign language equally (http://www.snn-rdr.ca/snn/2003apr/bilingual.html,2003).

One high school principal was quoted saying "A child has only one…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baker, Colin. (1993).Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Bialystok, Ellen. (1991). Language Processing in Bilingual Children. Cambridge University Press.

Bilingual. 2004.WordIQ.com. http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Bilingual

Davis, Laura and Keyser, Janis. Parenting Experts: Bilingual Family Pros and Cons. ParentsPlace.com
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Nheengatu A Not-So Dead Language

Words: 2055 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70925585

There has, in fact, been a great deal of resistance noted in the use of Portuguese as the sole official language throughout much of Brazil; the huge prevalence of indigenous languages still spoken in many regions of the country is one testament to that fact. In addition, there has been a strong reactionary element against perceived outside influences in the linguistic development of the country. Nheemgatu lies right at the crossroads of these issues, and so has occupied a special place in the public consciousness and in the scholarship regarding language development in Brazil specifically, and with colonization generally (Massini-Cagliari 2004). Examinations of the controversy of Nheengatu as it has played out socially and politically in Brazil reveals that the fervor is just as strong in the desire to hold onto the language as a native remnant as it is to abandon the language as a relic of colonization (Massini-Cagliari…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dienst, Stefan. "Portuguese Influence n Kulina." In Aspects of Language Contact: New Theoretical, Methodological and Empirical Findings with Special Focus on Romancisation Processes. Edited by Stolz, Thomas; Bakker, Dik; Salas Palomo, Rosa. New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 2008.

Massini-Cagliari, Gladis. "Language policy in Brazil: monolingualism and linguistic prejudice." Language Policy 3(1), March 204, pp. 3-23.

Rohter, Larry. "Language Born of Colonialism Thrives Again in Amazon." New York Times. August 28, 2005. ProQuest. October 15, 2009.

What is a dead language? (2009).Wise Geek. October 15, 2009.  http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-dead-language.htm
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Semantic Memory and Language Production

Words: 1251 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93859236

In the development of language skills the learning and implementation of semantic memory is therefore vital to the central aims of language and communication. The flowing quotation outlines the function of semantic memory in relation to language production

Semantic memory is the system that you use to store your knowledge of the world. It is a knowledge base that we all have and much of which we can access quickly and effortlessly. It includes our memory of the meanings of words - the kind of memory that lets us recall not only the names of the world's great capitals, but also social customs, the functions of things, and their colour and odour.

( What are semantic memories?)

3. The stages of language production and semantic memory

As has been discussed above, semantic memory is memory that is shared and common to the language users. It enables the understanding and recognition…… [Read More]

References

Learning and Conditioning. Retrieved July 13, 2009, from http://www.scribd.com/doc/11255529/AP-Psychology-Review-Part-3?autodown=pdf

Linguistics. Retrieved July 13, 2009, from http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/3920/?200914>

Semantic Memory. Retrieved July 13, 2009, from http://www.enotes.com/gale-psychology-encyclopedia/semantic-memory

What are semantic memories? Retrieved July 13, 2009, from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/memory/understand/semantic_memories.shtml
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Traditional Methods of Language Teaching

Words: 1884 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86392313

Traditional Methods of Language Teaching

The paper discuses the various traditional methods of language teaching, namely:

Grammar Translation Method

The Audio-lingual Method

The Direct Method

The Silent Way

The Communicative Approach

Cognitive code learning

The Natural Approach

Behaviorist approach

Functional-Notional Approach and The task-based approach

The paper discusses each approach in details and describes its various chief principles and how it helps both teachers and students to teach, understand, learn, and practice all the skills they learn through these approaches.

Grammar Translation Method

This method involves the learner to spend a lot of time in understanding the language structure. Though both listening as well as speaking suffer because of it. However, grammar and vocabulary are being stressed throughout the teaching method.

The grammar translation method has been derived from traditional approaches to the teaching of Latin and Greek in the nineteenth century (Selected Lesson Plans). It was originally used to…… [Read More]

References

Benstein, Patricia. Explaining concepts behind the Silent Way. Wanadoo Communiquer. www.wanadoo.fr

Communicative language teaching. Sil International.

A www.sil.org

Capes - History of Language Teaching 2. Club Internet.
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Age and Learning a New Language What

Words: 775 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 182326

Age and Learning a New Language

hat is the ideal age for a person to be able to learn a new language? hat are the dynamics (besides age) that contribute to SLA? This paper delves into those subjects using scholarly articles as resources.

The Literature on Learning a New Language and Age

"…Early beginners, through their longer exposure to L2, reach the necessary competence levels in their two languages sooner to allow transfer in both directions…" (Djigunovic, 2010).

hy are very young students especially gifted to pick up new languages quickly? The scholarship shows that younger learners "…have no awkwardness or inhibitions with the new language" and don't get too upset when they make mistakes (Cenoz, 2003, p. 77). As to whether or not younger learners "…soak up new languages" simply because the soak up information like a sponge soaks up water, Cenoz has his doubts. Indeed studies show younger…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cenoz, Jasone. (2003). "The Effect of Age on Foreign Language Acquisition in Formal

Contexts. In Age and the Acquisition of English As a Foreign Language, M. Mayo, and M.

Lecumberri, Eds. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Cummins, Jim, and Davison, Chris. (2007). International Handbook of English Language
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Brain Mechanisms in Early Language

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60581008

Thus, lessons can utilize elements learned from understand how the brain naturally learns a language to augment the student's ability to progress more efficiently in learning a second language later on in life. Lessons would produce the environment which calls on the same type of brain functions that were so crucial in language acquisition in early childhood. Thus, teaching can become an extension of pre-existing strategies the students have already used earlier on in their lives without even knowing it. This means lesson plans built on a structure that highlights the importance of language at the phonic level, as this is what the author asserts as the primary vehicle for language acquisition in young children.

Lightbrown & Spada (2006) also provide evidence which would back up Kuhl's claims in the text How Languages Are Learned. In their discussion of early language acquisition, Lightbrown & Spada (2006) explain how the child's…… [Read More]

References

Kuhl, Patricia K. (2010). Brain mechanisms in early language acquisition. Neuron, 67(5), 713-727. Doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.08.038

Lightbrown, Patsy M. & Spada, Nina. (2006). How Languages are Learned. Oxford University Press.
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Children's Development Early Childhood Language

Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89179616

esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…… [Read More]

References

Cooper, Janice L. (2009). Social-emotional development in early childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at  http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_882.html 

This publication explores the factors which influence a child's social development within the preschool years. It gives clear research findings regarding parental and caregiver influences along with social and neighborhood ones as well. It also outlines the potential hazards and issues of a child who develops within a problem area.

Lopes, Marilyn. (1995). Selecting books for children. National Network for Childcare. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at  http://www.nncc.org/Literacy/select.books.html 

This site is a recommendation-based site which takes proven strategies and concepts developed by child psychologists at the University of Massachusetts. As part of the national network for child care, it aims to help parents make appropriate decisions for their children regarding books based on that child's age.
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Theories of Human Development

Words: 2294 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63046726

Human Development

Significance of cultural diversity

Theories permit us to determine the world around us coherently and also to act in the world with a reasonable approach. Numerous theories have developed throughout the previous century in western countries that make an effort to clarify how human character evolves, why all of us behave the way we do, what external circumstances encourage us to behave in particular ways, and the way these elements have been connected. A few of these concepts structure their arguments on essential physical as well as social-emotional situations within our very first years of existence; some around the impact involving external influences of our own family members, neighbourhood, as well as culture; a few on the unique learning and also thought procedures; a few on triumphant finalization of precise developmental "activities" at each and every phase throughout lifespan; plus some on the way a healthy-or perhaps unhealthy-sense…… [Read More]

References

Crandell, T., Crandell, C. And Zanden, J.V. (2011). Human Development. Chapter 2, 10th Ed. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages, p. 1-768 .

Daniels, H., Cole, M., & Wertsch, J.V. (Eds.). (2007). The Cambridge companion to Vygotsky. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Eisenstadt, S.N. (1986). The axial age breakthroughs. In S.N. Eisenstadt (ed.), The origins and diversity of axial age civilizations. New York: State University of New York Press, pp. 1 -- 28.

Huntington, S.P. (1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of the world order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
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Evaluating Children's Speech Development

Words: 554 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71850920

Phonological Processes in Preschool Children's Single-word Productions

The topic and overall purpose of the study by Cohen & Anderson (2011) "Identification of phonological processes in preschool children's single-word productions" was to determine the degree of differentiation in which children acquire single words. In general, in the field of linguistics, there is an accepted rate and pattern by which such words are acquired. The researchers hypothesized that there might be differentiation based upon population subsets, however. To achieve this objective, the study authors compared various phonological processes of speech production that were present in the single-word acquisitions of 94 West of Scotland preschool children with normative data of general language acquisition based upon age (Cohen & Anderson 2011: 481).

The research was critical given that such normative data is used when making interventions to improve children's speech production. Thus, based upon the results this could mean changes in the way children…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, W. & Anderson, C. (2011). Identification of phonological processes in preschool

children's single-word productions. International Journal of Language Communications

Disorders, 46 (4): 481-488.
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Linguistics Nicaraguan Sign Language Idioma

Words: 303 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29185590

The children in Nicaragua did not simply construct a set of signs denoting objects in their environment and rudimentary verbs. ISN is a real language with structure, grammar, and syntax. Since its development in the 1980s, ISN has become complex enough to evolve its own set of slang and idioms. ISN is also classified as the world's newest language.

Moreover, language appears to evolve in and out of social settings. ISN is the product not of one master child who imposed his or her own sign language on peers. Rather, ISN is the product of the collective group of children whose individual input becomes integrated into the language. New signs are incorporated gradually as they become agreed-upon symbols. ISN also has unique linguistic features that may help linguists understand prototypical languages in early human development; variations among different world dialects; or the neurological and sociological components of language generation.… [Read More]

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Chinese as a Foreign Language

Words: 4930 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68701269

The pogam pimaily suppots the local Chinese communities to maintain younge geneation's heitage backgound, and speading Chinese cultue in the U.S. The classes ae nomally held two to thee hous on weekends with Chinese language lessons and othe taditional cultual and at activities. Most students have high levels of oal poficiency in Chinese, but needed to enhance skills in liteacy. Chinese heitage schools ae mainly suppoted by two goups: the National Council of Associations of Chinese Language Schools (NCACLS) which is founded by Taiwan o Hong Kong immigant and heitage communities, and the Chinese School Association in the United States (CSAUS) that is connected with immigant and heitage communities fom mainland China. Accoding to Scott McGinnis's (2005) compiled statistics, the combined enollment of NCACLS and CSAUS was aound 150,000 in 2003. The numbe of students in the heitage schools is lage than in othe CFL pogams acoss the U.S.

Many…… [Read More]

references for the researchers and educators that may lead to some recommendations in developing a better learning environment in future foreign language education. The data collected from the surveys will be treated as confidential by me, and all the collected data will be anonymous. The data will be only applied directly to this study and not in other use, nor is it available for other parties. A letter of consent form will be sent to all participants to be aware to the purpose and the use of this study from the collected data. All collected data will be protected by the researcher during the study.

Instrumentation/Materials

A survey developed by the researcher of this study includes two sections of questions which relate to the foreign language learning. The first part of the questions is based on the participants' background and their children's background relating to their cultural and language background. The second section includes questions about the reason of sending their child to CFL program; what level do they want their child to complete Chinese language learning, and what area do they want their child to apply the language. The participants choose from the options provided that applies to them the best. There are three open ended questions, allowing for free comments. (See appendix a).

Research design

The research is a qualitative research design that investigates the similarities and differences between parental motivations towards CFL learning between diverse ethnicities by using an online survey to explore the two essential questions in this research.
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Gap Early Childhood Intervention and the Development

Words: 6336 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82658447

Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child

Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.

There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bayley, N. (1970) "Development of mental abilities." In P.H. Mussen (ed) Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 1, New York: Wiley.

Bayley, N. (1955) "On the growth of intelligence," American Psychologist, 10, 805, Dec.

Burts, Diane C.; Hart, Craig H.; Charlesworth, Rosalind; DeWolf, D. Michele; Ray, Jeanette; Manuel, Karen; & Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). "Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade." Journal Of Research In Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493-673.

Cooper, J.H. An Early Childhood Special Education Primer. Chapel Hill, NC: Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), 1981.