Please make sure you have completed this unit's readings before coming to Seminar, especially the article, "The Language Use Inventory for Young Children: A Parent-Report Measure of Pragmatic Language Development for 18-47-month-old children" by O'Neil. Be prepared to answer the following questions:
Notes from O'Neil Article (O'Neil, 2007):
Researchers studying young children's pragmatic development have focused on a wide range of topics and ages. Longitudinal studies that have concentrated on children's earliest gestural and verbal communicative intents have demonstrated that children begin as early as 9 to 10 months of age to use their gestures and vocalizations for such pragmatic functions as requesting, labeling, answering, greeting, and protesting
No standardized test (observational or stand-alone parent report) is currently available that is specifically designed to assess toddlers' and preschool children's (i.e., under age 4 years) pragmatic language competence.
How does screening link to follow up assessments?
The LUImay also…… [Read More]
his study hoped to prove that these implants were in fact, beneficial for the development of language in young hearing impaired babies.
he Dependent variables consisted of the actual four-month-old infants who were being implanted with the device. he infants were then assessed for their language development periodically after their implantation. hey were tested at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 32 months of age.
With the framework that language development occurs as the child gets older, the researchers formulated a model which gave predicted scores according to test analysis. hese scores were then compared to each individual infant's scores.
hese comparisons were analyzed through using a "to-way repeated measures analysis of varience," (Svirsky, 2000). ANOVA provided workable information to formulate a conclusion.
Results showed that the infants all still lagged behind in compared to the development of language seen in normal infants, all…… [Read More]
English Language Learning (Native Speakers)
Implications on reading and writing
Birth -3 mo.
Cries, responds to tone, attentive to special sounds, and begins to vocalize.
eflexive and diverse cries, coos and gurgles.
Verbal play, some consonants, laughing.
Sounds or intensity as opposed to meaning.
Music and talk to child
Double syllables, MAMA, tunefully vocalize
Vocalizes pleasure and pain; initiates speech, reproduces babbles.
Increased sounds and imitation
Very little understanding
Truck red; hungry eat, etc.
Use of words and instructi8ons, jargon and jabber before frequent
Imitates some words, asks questions using intonation, vast improvement in tone and sound.
Stage I morphemes; nomination,
Most language is noun based, finger pointing, usually sentences are 2 words.
Action + Agent, Agent + Object, etc. (Daddy is laughing, I push the truck)
Very imitative stage
Show pictures of nouns and ask questions
2-4 years…… [Read More]
Language skills are fundamental to child social and psychological development, because language provides the means by which children learn about the world and other people. Parents impart language skills cues to their children by teaching coded and decoded messages. Some parental messages are encoded subtly, as with emotional responses. For example, Paulson, Keefe, & Leiferman (2009) found that parental depression impacts the reading habits of parents, which in turn impacts the reading habits of children. Parents who read regularly to their children, but who also solicit a two-way dialogue, promote more advanced reading skills in their children vs. parents who only offer one-sided conversation (Zimmerman, et al., 2009).
Furthermore, language shapes the child's social identity construction and conceptions of reality. The importance of language in social identity construction and reality construction is evident as early as infancy (Hoff, 2012). Identity becomes a salient feature of language development as children…… [Read More]
Language Development in Normal Cases: A Chronological Sequence
In normal cases, “babies and children, irrespective of the country in which they are born, all follow a similar pattern of development” (Tassoni, 2007, p. 44). The broad language development stages highlighted by Tassoni (2007) are the pre-linguistic stage and the linguistic stage. Below, I discuss the chronological sequence of the said stages, as highlighted by Tassoni.
A: Pre-Linguistic Stage
6 Weeks – Cooing
In this stage, pleasure is expressed by way of making cooing sounds.
6 - 9 Months – Babbling (phonemic expansion)
This stage is marked by the making of tuneful sounds by way of blending of consonants and vowels. Examples of sounds made include, but they are not limited to, da, ma, ta.
9 - 10 Months - Babbling (phonemic contraction) and Echolalia (repetition of syllables in words)
At this stage, babies produce a more limited range of sounds.…… [Read More]
These results are quite striking considering that the mothers come from non-professional backgrounds and had no more than 12 years of schooling on average. Another study on low-income mother-child dyads shows that the rate of vocabulary production is also positively influenced by early exposure to diverse words. In particular, children whose mothers consistently used more varied vocabulary had faster and more linear growth in child vocabulary production between 14 and 36 months than children whose mothers consistently used less varied vocabulary (Pan et al., 2005). These findings support the contention that maternal speech quality has powerful benefits in child language acquisition.
A striking feature of the vocabulary development studies recently described is the presence of a loving, supportive environment in which they occur. In other words, the benefits of qualitative and quantitative vocabulary input can be fully realized if they occur in the context of instructive and helpful interaction. For…… [Read More]
Nature-Nurture and Language Development
The development of language in an individual is considered as an antecedent from the cognitive ability that is found to be enacted from the genetic structure which helps in the retention and effective utilization of language in the early stages of life. However, the external stimuli with respect to culture and environment also play an effective role in the language development. Moreover, the application of language development program in the computers and machines has provided the evidence for the co-existence about the phenomena of nature and nurture for the learning capability.
ole of nature in the process of language development
ole of nurture in the process of language development
Computer Generated Speech and nature-nurture debate in human language development
ole of nature in the process of language development
The progressive process of language development provides individuals with a way to communicate and express their thoughts…… [Read More]
Education -- Oral Language Development
Oral language development has the five stages of Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics, and Pragmatics. All five stages are vital to appropriate oral language and reading development. Furthermore, each stage has its own characteristics and methods for supporting proper development in children of varying abilities.
Matrix -- Stages of Oral Language Development
STAGES OF ORAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
1st stage of development; single-syllable sounds that children use to learn pronunciations and form dialect (Net Industries, n.d.; (Tompkins, 2002).
Cooing and babbling (Center for Early Literacy Learning, n.d.),
Speaking and otherwise vocalizing in response to cooing and babbling in order reinforce the cooing and babbling and encourage more vocalization from the infant (Center for Early Literacy Learning, n.d.).
2nd stage of development; simple words are used to form sentences; increasingly uses more complex words and sentences with root words, prefixes, suffixes and…… [Read More]
The ability to learn and recall information when it is needed is essential for virtually every human activity, so it is important to develop a better understanding concerning how young children differ in this capacity compared to older children when formulating interventions to facilitate this process (Silva & Britto, 2013). The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the relevant literature concerning these issues as well as what interventions have been proven effective in improving memory recall in different age cohorts. Finally, the paper provides a summary of the review of the literature and key findings concerning how young children differ from older children in their ability to recall information in the conclusion.
How do young children differ from older children in the ability to recall information?
On the one hand, the world in which very young children live is one of magic and wonder, and countless…… [Read More]
One piece of evidence that suggests there is at least some degree of "hardwiring" of language in the human brain is the fact that very similar mistakes are made in certain grammatical forms and syntax structures by early speakers of any language. There seems to be an innate sense of the way words are supposed to be formed and fit together, and instances that do not follow these expected/innate rules require greater learning and effort to surmount. At the same time, there is evidence that much of language is learned through interaction with parents. This means that maternal depression, which tends to reduce activity overall and can specifically reduce interactions with children, can have a detrimental affect on language development by limiting or reducing the exposure of these children to language use and interaction.
At early stages of development, current research suggests that there is little relationship between the language…… [Read More]
Language and Thinking
Language is the one aspect, which distinguishes human beings from lower species of life (Faccone et al. 2000). Sternberg (1999 as qtd in Faccone et al.) lists its properties as including communication, arbitrary symbolism, regular structure, structure at multiple levels, generation and production and dynamism. Sternberg assumes that language is most likely acquired naturally from the environment where a person is raised as an infant. The stages seem universal. The first is the cooing stage at two to four months. At this initial stage, an infant seems able to produce and possible phonemes or basic speech sounds. An infant's need to distinguish between phonemes of different languages gradually disappears around 8 months. This is when he recognizes the relationship between sound and meaning in his native language. This is how language begins to have importance to him. The findings of Sternberg's study reveal that human beings are…… [Read More]
Language Impairments: Evidence-Based Interventions
Language Impairment Interventions
Evidence-Based Interventions for Pediatric Language Impairments
Evidence-Based Interventions for Pediatric Language Impairments
So strong is the genetic impulse driving language acquisition that all children will learn to speak some form of language (Sousa, 2011, p. 28, 196). This fact suggests that the remaining question confronting children, parents, educators, and society is how well these skills are learned. Problems encountered along the way, however, can sometimes have a significant impact on a child's ability to communicate with others, both now and as adults. The greatest challenges are those faced by children with speech and language disorders. To better understand the language problems confronting otherwise developmentally normal children the recommended interventions, especially from an educator's point-of-view, will be examined and discussed in this research paper.
Neurological Correlates of Language Development
Comprehending how a speech or language disorder in a child could develop and impact their…… [Read More]
Language and children with autism:
Sources of cognitive deficits
Deficits in language development are one of the most commonly-noted, early signs a child may be autistic. Autistic children often fail to meet appropriate developmental milestones in language. High-functioning autistics or individuals with Asperger's Syndrome usually do not show developmental delays in using language, but may communicate in an inappropriate manner. "Autism is diagnosed on the basis of three primary areas of impairment: social functioning, language and communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests or activities...esearch on autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders suggests that the social and communication impairments are unique and specific deficits, that define the autism phenotype" (Tager-Flusberg 2006).
The extent to which social and communicative impairments in autism are interlinked remains hotly debated. It is generally agreed upon and noted by researchers and parents alike that there is a wide spectrum of difference in…… [Read More]
Language and culture are inextricably linked. The ways in which one's culture is directly attributed to language development are well documented in the academic literature, though there seems to be little consensus on the processes involved in language acquisition and the ways that culture is manifested in both socialization and language development. One assertion, however, seems widely accepted; culture is a learned attribute that language helps convey to others. Because people use language to impart cultural beliefs and societal mores, the nexus between language and culture is an important consideration in the field of education and communication, especially concerning the varied pedagogical theories of child development. Much of what has been studied in the field of both communications and education concerning the connection between language and culture is attributed to a ussian born educator named Lev Vygotsky.
Vygotsky believed that children developed and acquired knowledge through the assistance…… [Read More]
Initiating joint attention related to activity in the frontal-cortical system, especially the left hemisphere and responding to joint attention to the parietal lobes. Heimann et al. (2006) found that that deferred imitation and joint attention both influence the development of language and communication skills in infancy. Deferred imitation at nine months was the strongest of the predictors of nonverbal communication at 14 months, but the predictive power increased significantly in situations when deferred imitation and joint attention were used together.
ecently studies have been conducted with other areas of cognitive behavior. For example, de Villiers (2007) has been looking at the association of language and what he calls Theory of Mind. Theory of Mind refers to the folk psychological theory humans use to predict and explain others' behavior on the basis of their internal workings: feelings, intentions, desires, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and point-of-view. In other words, people have to create…… [Read More]
Pinker maintains that evolution follows a branching, rather than linear pattern. Many species develop concurrently, each with their own survival instincts. Humans, and their survival instinct of language, are just one branch of the evolutionary process rather than a pinnacle rung.
Holding the belief that we can, or might someday communicate with animals creates empathy, which leads to humane treatment of animals. A belief that animals cannot communicate with us due to inferiority leads to a sense of dominion over them.
This is also a pattern of belief and behavior that is seen with regard to humans who are perceived to have inferior languages or grammars. They are somehow less human, and therefore less deserving of humane treatment.
Pinker states that it is ridiculous to attempt to teach human language to animals. They are not biologically configured for human speech or sign. They have no need for human language as…… [Read More]
language of Geoffrey Chaucer and its relationship to the development of English
In both literature and language, Geoffrey Chaucer made an important contribution to the development of English. In terms of the development of the English language his works and their popularity are related to the importance of the Midland dialect. This dialect formed part of the Mercian dialect of Old English, which was to assume significance due to the fact that it,
developed into centers of university, economic, and courtly life. East Midland, one of the subdivisions of Midland, had by that time become the speech of the entire metropolitan area of the capital, London, and probably had spread south of the Thames River into Kent and Surrey. "(ibid)
This form of the English language was disseminated and popularized partly by poets in the 14th century -- including Chaucer. In essence the works of Chaucer therefore added to the…… [Read More]
The focus of academics continues to focus on finding a cause and on developing reliable interventions for children suffering from this condition. It is important to begin intervention as early as possible so that incorrect speech patterns do not become ingrained. In addition, it is important to make certain that other learning complications do not develop as a result of SLI.
The research conducted by ice, Wexler, & Cleave (1995) helped to draw attention to SLI as being different from other language deficiencies. Their work helped to identify and define SLI as its own subset of language delay symptoms. This important step led the way for research that explored causality and intervention. SLI is typically associated with deficiencies in verbal skills. However, research into non-verbal skills was also suggested by these and other study results. This avenue will help to further define and distinguish SLI from other language delays.
eferences…… [Read More]
The clearest evidence for genetic effects has come from studies that diagnosed SLI using theoretically motivated measures of underlying cognitive deficits rather than conventional clinical criteria (ishop).
Characteristics of SLI
Delay in starting to talk is evidenced by the first words not appearing until two years of age or later. Immature or deviant production of speech sounds is apparent, especially in preschool children. Use of simplified grammatical structures, such as omission of past tense endings or the auxiliary "is," exist well beyond the age when this is usually mastered. Restricted vocabulary, in both production and comprehension with weak verbal short-term memory, is evidenced in tasks requiring repetition of words or sentences. Difficulties in understanding complex language are apparent, especially when the speaker talks rapidly (ishop).
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) help children with the strategies and exercises that will help them navigate language. They are also the ambassadors of language who…… [Read More]
Intelligence in Infancy
The child shows many signs of normal cognitive behavior. He seems to understand that when he bangs the blocks together that they will make sound and also seems proud of this activity. He also understood that when the blocks fell that something was wrong and said "uh oh." This is a sign of cognitive understanding of what the blocks are supposed to do.
The social and emotional skills are primarily illustrated by the connection and interactions with the child's mother. The child looks completely comfortable around the mother and interacts naturally. The child is able to understand the mothers questions like "where is the banana" and responds appropriately.
The child shows advanced ability to sit and stand as he wishes with minimal balance issues. The child also shows advanced visual and spatial skills that can be illustrated by his ability to work…… [Read More]
Direct Instruction (DI) is a model for teaching that emphasizes well-developed and carefully planned lessons designed around small learning increments and clearly defined and prescribed teaching tasks. It is based on the theory that clear instruction eliminating misinterpretations can greatly improve and accelerate learning (Stockard, n.d.).
Clowes, G. (2001, February 01). "Whole Language" faulted for U.S. reading woes. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from the Heartland Institute: http://www.heartland.org/publications/school%20reform/article/10248/Whole_Language_Faulted_for_US_Reading_Woes.html
Hanson, G. (1999, February 08). Whole language, half an education? Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Find Articles at NET: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_5_15/ai_53744894
Jones, J. (n.d.). Learning to read and whole language ideology. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Parents Raising Educational Standards in Schools: http://my.execpc.com/~presswis/phonics.html
Jones, J. (2004, July 28). What the data really show: Direct instruction really works! Retrieved March 23, 2009, from JeffLindsay.com: http://www.jefflindsay.com/EducData.shtml
Reyhner, D.J. (2008, Dec 13). The reading wars. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Jon Reyhner, Northern Arizona…… [Read More]
Progression and Foundation of Language
Learning of primary language complements skills development; this includes learning about language, as well as learning other subjects in the school curriculum via language. Language learning facilitates general literary skills and allows children to revert to, and strengthen skills and concepts studied through their first language (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).
Curriculum is enriched by language learning. Teachers as well as children find it fun and challenging, and display enthusiasm towards language; this leads to creation of interested learners and the development of positive attitudes towards learning languages, all throughout one's life. A natural link exists between language and other curricular areas, and this enriches the overall teaching-learning experience. Proficiencies, understanding, and information learned through language contribute greatly to literacy and oracy development in children, as well as to better understanding of one's own and others' cultures. Language is also integral to community and…… [Read More]
Early Childhood Development Issues
Module One of Chen's work Early Intervention in Action... presents a number of different aspects of the experience of families raising children who have multiple disabilities. It is quite different to consider these aspects from a clinical or even educational perspective rooted in theory, versus doing so from the perspective of the impact of this situation on one's family. There seems to be a greater amount of difficulty in raising children with multiple disabilities that can challenge a family in numerous ways. Based on the information in this module, it seems almost certain that one of the most exacting is simply modifying one's schedule and accounting for the different people and places that such a child must interact with and go to, respectively, in order to achieve success in life.
Perhaps the most vital facet of this module is the way that it is able to…… [Read More]
A sample of 25 intelligible utterances obtained during an observation in the clinic, in which Jay played and interacted with his mother, provided the basis for the language analysis. The following assessments were conducted: MLU, DSS, Correct/Incorrect Form Analysis, and Type Token atio.
Mean Length of Utterance (MLU). Although oger Brown's five stages of language development differ from the scoring used in the MLU interpretation in this paper, Jay is scores within normal limits in this second version, also. Brown describes a MLU score of 3.0 to 3.75 as Stage IV of language development, which corresponds with an approximate age of 35 to 40 months. Jay has reached 41 months of age at the time of this evaluation, which puts him in Stage V of language development, with corresponding ages of 41 to 46 months. Jay's MLU score is 3.5, which may be interpreted to indicate that Jay is moderately…… [Read More]
What I know about language is that it is essential in life and in learning. We use it to communicate ideas, feelings, needs, and thoughts. Being social creatures, we use language to bond with people, to create bonds of affection, and to create pillars of support for each other and for society as a whole. Language is something that can unite people; but if it is not known, it can also isolate those who do not know it.
How I learned what I know about language has come from my experience as a learner. What I remember learning about learning my native language is a real reticence to actually begin speaking: I was 5 years old before I started actually speaking; I would listen to my two older brothers have conversations and from them I learned both English and Spanish. Since my family and friends mostly spoke in…… [Read More]
Language Policy and Planning
Language planning refers to the efforts that are deliberately undertaken to influence how languages functions, are structured or acquired or the variety of languages in a given country. It is often a government responsibility by non-governmental organizations have also come to be involved in this. Grass-roots organizations and also individuals have been involved in this. The goal of language planning differs depending on the country. However, it generally includes planning, decision making and possible changes which benefit the communications system of the country. Language planning or efforts to improve the communication in a country can also bring about certain social changes such as shift of language, assimilation and therefore provide a motivation which plans the function, structure and acquisition of languages Woolard & Gahng, 1990()
Decision making in language planning
There are four dominant language ideologies which motivate the decisions that are made regarding language planning.…… [Read More]
Language and Language Practices
Language is the written and verbal method by which people communicate with one another. It employs sounds or written designs that are understood by others to create words, phrases, and sentences. Other species have language, as well, but it is not believed to be as complex as the language used by human beings (loomfield, 1914; Deacon, 1998). There are many facets to language, and there are nuances and subtleties that are often overlooked. This is especially true with people who are just learning a language, whether they are children first learning to speak or second-language learners being exposed to a new and different language for the first time. People who study languages are involved in what is called linguistics. They may study a particular language, but more often than not they study multiple languages and the construction of those languages. What they do is very different…… [Read More]
Language & Cognition
The relationship between language and cognition continues to be an area of science that is heavily studied and for which research builds in exciting ways (Aitchison, 2007). New learnings about cognition and language are intimately tied to technological advances as neuropsychologists and others probe the human brain ever more deeply and meaningfully (Aitchison, 2007).
Language and lexicon. Language is understood to be the symbolic representation of human thought (Yule, 2005). Language is the most complex method of human communication, whether written or spoken, in that it uses words in a structured manner and in conventional ways that are understood by those who speak, read, and write a particular language (Yule, 2005). Language can also take the form of nonverbal communication through facial and gestural expressions (Yule, 2005). The concept of lexicon takes two general forms: A dictionary of a particular language, and the vocabulary associated with an…… [Read More]
As Gloria Anzaldua states in "How to Tame a ild Tongue" from Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza, "Chicano Spanish sprang out of Chicanos' need to identify ourselves as a distinct people," (447). Chicano Spanish is a "secret language" of cultural bonding and binding. This is true for the many "forked tongues" that have sprung up in communities of opposition: patios tongues that become crucial to identity formation and preservation (Anzaldua 447). The dominant culture finds "wild tongues" to be inherently frightening, evil, and subversive (Anzaldua 446). The dominant culture does all it can to stamp out, suppress, and "cut out" the wild tongues that threaten social hierarchy and preserve patterns of oppression in non-white, non-Anglo, communities (Anzaldua 446). Suppressing language is a means of oppressing people. Therefore, clinging to language diversity is a political move. hen Anzaldua corrected her teacher's pronunciation of her name, and was sent to the…… [Read More]
It includes morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics (Grammar, n.d.).
Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated; it is the ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning is called pragmatic competence; and an utterance describing pragmatic function is described as metapragmatic (Pragmatics, n.d.).
The ole of Language Processing in Cognitive Psychology
Jean Piaget, the founder of cognitive development, was involved in a debate about the relationships between innate and acquired features of language, at the Centre oyaumont pour une Science de l'Homme, where he had a discussion about his opinion with the linguist Noam Chomsky as well as Hilary Putnam and Stephen Toulmin (McKinney, & Parker, 1999). Piaget discussed that his cognitive constructivism has two main parts: an "ages and stages" component which foretells what children can and cannot understand at different…… [Read More]
These activities help children to learn the difference between contextualized and decontextualized language. "hen we write, read, and have conversations, we often use decontextualized language. This is language that is not tied to the immediate context. It may reflect past events, future events, or fictitious events. For example, decontextualized language is used in everyday dinnertime conversation, when adults tell stories of their childhood, or when children tell about their school day" (Cartwright, 1994).
By definition, reading print is decontextualized language, because children must use their developing mental abilities to represent ideas of things that are not present before their eyes. Thus positive and edifying spoken interactions with parents, teachers, and older children are essential for children to become good readers later in life.
Cartwright, Kelly. (1 Nov 1994). "Reading Development Beings at Birth."
Self-Help. Retrieved 2 Dec 2007 at http://www.self-helpmagazine.com/articles/parenting/literacy.html… [Read More]
Ketch asserts that it is through this natural process that students comprehend and become critical thinkers. Likewise, Pinnell seems to share similar beliefs about natural processes and educators allowing children to explore these processes. The author asserts that
"Concentration on skills draws attention away from the normal and self-reinforcing uses of language, and instruction often unnecessarily makes a natural everyday activity seem foreign and stilted. Language studies suggest that efforts should be redirected to take advantage of nature's most powerful incentive for developing facility with language -- the child's intention to communicate meaning to other people, the use of language for a variety of purposes (Pinnell."
Both of these assertions support the importance of oral language. Ketch encourages this by explaining the importance on conversation is developing critical thinking skills. Likewise Pinnell enforces this by explaining the importance of language use among children.
The purpose of this discussion was…… [Read More]
Consider the fact that the Iroquois are said not to have had a strong word for the singular "I," and that they subsequently developed what was arguably the longest lasting communal representative democracy the world has ever known. The Inuit, whose culture revolves around the arctic world, have dozens of words for snow - this sort of technical knowledge allows quick and accurate transmission of conditions and training in survival.
In Western terms, one remembers that Jesus Christ was said to be "The Word," yet in the original Greek this indicates not only a spoken word but also the Logos - the root term for intellectual reason, for Meaning within context (be that the context of a sentence, a life, a history, or a universe); logos was rational order. The difference between saying that a religious figure is the Word (which at its most profound seem to indicate a kind…… [Read More]
If language is like food, then the ingredients are its words; the cooking process is its grammar; the nutritional value is its semantics. Some sentences are simple staples like rice and beans. Others are primarily aesthetic, finely crafted, and honed over time like a French sauce. Like the ingredients in any dish, the words of a language depend largely on geography. At the same time, we borrow words from other cultures just as we may borrow ingredients from other cuisines. Spanglish is like fusion food. Some cooking processes are rigid, time-consuming, and complex like proper grammar; others are looser and more flexible like everyday speech. There are some dishes you would serve your mother and others that are too spicy for her. Some language is long-winded and without substance; some is meaty; some is so packed with goodness that you return it again and again.
Ascription to the rules of…… [Read More]
Language and Sexuality from a Desire-Based Perspective
Anthropology -- Language & Sexuality
The broader theoretical treatment of the study of sexuality has long been recognized in the fields of linguistic anthropology and sociolinguistics. Historically, sexuality has been discussed in sociocultural studies of language over the long-term. In fact, this work and the research it generated make up the emergent history and the scope of research on language and sexuality. This analytical discourse on the topic of sexuality and language is socially oriented, to be certain, but the it has followed a path of convenience, resulting in piecemeal treatment and an underlying fragmentation of the body of work.
Discussion of the desire-oriented approach to sexuality and language, theorizing the motivation and development of the approach from a poststructuralist position.
Women and men's talk: single/mixed sex; private/public
Gender and politeness
Peer and classroom talk
5. Public and workplace talk…… [Read More]
Language Is Arbitrary
As you are reading these words, you are taking part in one of the wonders of the natural world," begins Steven Pinker's The Language Instinct. (Pinker, 3) In other words, it is a wonder that the human mind is able to create, from need and cognitive structure and instinct, a morphological structure of communication that can change over time from context to context, yet still be understood.
It is a wonder that is both natural yet arbitrary in its construction. For the syntax, or appearance and sound of a particular kind of piece of language is arbitrary, even though the semantics, or relational meaning of the language is not. Should you, the reader, doubt this proposition, consider that one solitary letter can mean the difference between an object being understood, in an English context, as a bat, a cat, or a hat respectively. One letter can be…… [Read More]
The attendant rules for the words may, or may not be carried to the new language. For example, many French words carry their plurals into English, while some more recent additions adopt English rules for pluralization
So we create new words or meanings as needed, and we drop old ones as they become obsolete or lose their usefulness. Another way language changes is by attitude. Cultural influences make certain words taboo, so we develop euphemisms to replace the taboo word. When the euphemism becomes widely known, we change it. One example in English is the word for toilet: water closet->loo->lavatory->ladies' room-> rest room ad infinitum until finally, we stopped thinking of this particular place as taboo in western society, so now we use many of the previous euphemisms as our personal taste dictates, and most people understand us.
Language is so basically part of our culture that culture is probably…… [Read More]
During communication, while highlighting receptive skills learners may require to make verbal or non-verbal responses. For assessment of these receptive skills, learners need to respond to a written or a spoken text. Formal and informal feedback can also be used to provide information about the learners. Different listening materials are utilized by scholars in the course-line of learning; some materials contain all aspects of real spoken language hence they are authentic.
Recorded tapes, poems and songs, are authentic texts that can be used during learning. One of the complete texts that can be used during the learning process is a story. Stories involve emotions, ideas and hopes that shape the human life. A pleasant story is "Getting to the Wedding." [footnoteRef:2] It is a story that involves a boy trying to get home after school so that he can make it to a wedding. After he gets home,…… [Read More]
There is a trend among some colleges and universities recently to cut back or eliminate their humanities major and courses, which includes language arts as well as history and philosophy. This has created a controversy over the importance of these areas of learning. It is not that the decision to include language arts in education is new. Appreciation of such learning stems back to the earliest humans. Among the earliest pieces of prehistoric sculpture is from 30,0000-25,000 BCE. The woman, who had exaggerated female parts, is believed to be a fertility symbol perhaps carried by a male hunter/gatherer as a reminder of his mate back home. Many here have heard of or seen the paintings on the caves in France from 15,000 to 13,000 BCE. Early humans struggled to survive against natural forces, animals, and one another. One of the most essential ways of survival was to pass…… [Read More]
Language's Role In Sustaining Inequality etween The Sexes
Although it is disputed whether language causes sexism or sexism causes certain language, language does play a part in sexism (Wikipedia). Given that the development of society has gone hand in hand with the development of language, it is unlikely that the causation will ever be determined. However, whether language causes sexism or sexism causes certain language, it is clear that language plays a key role in sustaining inequality between the sexes.
At its most basic, language is a system of symbols used by human beings to communicate with each other. However, language is not simply how humans communicate with one another, but also how humans communicate within themselves. Therefore, if language is sexist, then the actions, and even the thoughts, that it describes are sexist (West). For example, words with gender-based connotations imply that the attributes necessary to perform the duties…… [Read More]
Language and Literacy
Jeanne S. Chall was born in Poland on January 1, 1921. She moved to New York at a tender age of seven with her family. Jeanne S. Chall was one of the chief educators and researchers in the field of literacy during the past century. The Harvard Reading/Literacy Lab has recently been renamed in accolade of Dr. Chall.
hat follows is an account of Dr. Chall's life and work. Chall grew up in New York City, taught there, and received her bachelor's degree from City College in 1941. Due to a dearth of teaching posts open during the early 1940's, Chall took an assistantship at Teacher's College, Columbia University, subordinate to Irving Lorge, an intelligence-test researcher. It was there at Teacher's College that Chall first advanced a fascination and liking for educational research.
Chall then went on to seek her master's and doctoral degrees at Ohio State…… [Read More]
Language of Ordinary People
The American evolution could not have been as strong as it was if it were not for one man, Thomas Paine. He was the one who supported and fought for it with all his synergies, combined in the written form of most celebrated and valued book and pamphlet Common Sense and The American Crisis, which turned the tables for revolution and brought a vibrant change in the history of America. Thomas Paine spoke the language of common people through his words. This assisted them in being able to rise up for their individual rights. He believed that ordinary people should defend their liberty and this concept was written strongly in his top works of eighteenth century, which is still remembered and read throughout the America as an inspiring piece of inscription to raise the most necessary revolution to change America. This thesis tends to explain how…… [Read More]
Done, D.J. Crow, T.J. Johnstone, E.C. Sacker, a. (September 1994) Childhood Antecedents of Schizophrenia and Affective Illness: Social Adjustment at ages 7 to 11.BMJ, 309:699-703.
Teacher appraisal using the national child development study was utilized to examine differences between normal individuals and those who exhibit adult psychological disorders. "At the age of 7 children who developed schizophrenia were rated by their teachers as manifesting more social maladjustment than controls (overall score 4.3 (SD 2.4) v 3.1 (2.0); P… [Read More]
Moreover, all psychological problems are based on dysfunctional relationships; therefore, change must occur in the arena of personal connections (the William Glasser Institute, 2010).
g. What is the role of cognitions or thoughts?
According to Glasser, thoughts are just one aspect of "Total Behavior," which includes "acting, thinking, feeling, and physiology" (the William Glasser Institute, 2010). All human behavior is Total Behavior, and all human behavior is chosen. However, acting and thinking are the only two components of behavior a person can directly control. Therefore, a patient must indirectly control their feelings and physiology by directly controlling their thoughts and behaviors (Glasser & Glasser, 2010).
IV. What specific techniques are used in this theory?
Choice theory is based primarily on "Seven Caring Habits" and "Ten Axioms" (the William Glasser Institute, 2010). The Seven Caring Habits are: "supporting, encouraging, listening, accepting, trusting, respecting, and negotiating differences" with creativity (the William Glasser…… [Read More]
Language and Gender
Women's Words elate to Specific Interests
Women Use Adjectives of Approval
Women Use Weak Expletives
The world balks at the idea of gender discrimination, but the fact remains that gender differences are biological and there is no other way to deal with gender issues than to address them openly and seek better understanding.
As far as the linguistic capacity and the nature and cadence of conversations are concerned, women and men have been found to have various differences. Acknowledging these and working with them can allow better communication between the two genders so that the ubiquitous issue of men saying "we can't understand women' and women saying that 'men don't listen' can be alleviated.
esearchers in linguistics and speech patterns have tried to specify particular features that are different in the conversation mannerisms of women and men. Moreover, women talk differently in the company of…… [Read More]
speaking in the target language is the expectation that a proficient speaker will sound like a native speaker. Is this an appropriate or realistic expectation?
Not a long while after the emergence of the subject of second language acquisition (SLA), which most of the scholars think came around the time of initial years of 1970s, there has been a need to develop ways by which to measure the development of the second language, aside from the usage of detailed homogeneous skill tests which were mostly appropriate to fulfill other objectives.
As per Freeman's (2009) information, the first declaration of this need was made by Kenji Hukuta (1976). Kenji Hakuta was concerned in knowing the path of his subject Ugusiu's English language development over a period of time. Besides the aforementioned practitioners, other L1 acquisition scholars had carried out for the pupils learning English as a national language. In the research…… [Read More]
eal-Time Language Change
"The moral of the story is that if we think we observe a change in progress from a to B, we need to provide evidence not just of the existence of B, but also of the prior existence of A" (Britain, 2008:1).
So it is how Britain summarizes his overall findings of an investigation into the origins of a conservative conservational variant in 19th century New Zealand English. It turns out to be the case that the MOUTH diphthong that he was looking into was not really all the present in actual usage as had often been thought. And yet the changes that did not come about did not arise in isolation, which was why they were seen as being movement away from what others would assume to be a standardized language base (Coupland, 2010). Instead, it was more of an example of why it is important…… [Read More]
Many studies show that one should start foreign language studies as soon as possible, and the peak age of learning the second language is said to be on or before the child reaches the age of 10. After the baby is born, and eventually learned his/her native language, it now gradually starts having its full capacity to learn another or new language just by imitating and hearing his/her environment. The earlier he/she hears the accents and sound of another language, there is much more possibility that he/she will develop it. Added to this, if he/she is also given chance to be exposed in the language, and the opportunity to speak it, chances are that he/she will be able to speak it fluently. This way, the child would treat both the mother tongue and the foreign language equally (http://www.snn-rdr.ca/snn/2003apr/bilingual.html,2003).
One high school principal was quoted saying "A child has only one…… [Read More]
There has, in fact, been a great deal of resistance noted in the use of Portuguese as the sole official language throughout much of Brazil; the huge prevalence of indigenous languages still spoken in many regions of the country is one testament to that fact. In addition, there has been a strong reactionary element against perceived outside influences in the linguistic development of the country. Nheemgatu lies right at the crossroads of these issues, and so has occupied a special place in the public consciousness and in the scholarship regarding language development in Brazil specifically, and with colonization generally (Massini-Cagliari 2004). Examinations of the controversy of Nheengatu as it has played out socially and politically in Brazil reveals that the fervor is just as strong in the desire to hold onto the language as a native remnant as it is to abandon the language as a relic of colonization (Massini-Cagliari…… [Read More]
In the development of language skills the learning and implementation of semantic memory is therefore vital to the central aims of language and communication. The flowing quotation outlines the function of semantic memory in relation to language production
Semantic memory is the system that you use to store your knowledge of the world. It is a knowledge base that we all have and much of which we can access quickly and effortlessly. It includes our memory of the meanings of words - the kind of memory that lets us recall not only the names of the world's great capitals, but also social customs, the functions of things, and their colour and odour.
( What are semantic memories?)
3. The stages of language production and semantic memory
As has been discussed above, semantic memory is memory that is shared and common to the language users. It enables the understanding and recognition…… [Read More]
Traditional Methods of Language Teaching
The paper discuses the various traditional methods of language teaching, namely:
Grammar Translation Method
The Audio-lingual Method
The Direct Method
The Silent Way
The Communicative Approach
Cognitive code learning
The Natural Approach
Functional-Notional Approach and The task-based approach
The paper discusses each approach in details and describes its various chief principles and how it helps both teachers and students to teach, understand, learn, and practice all the skills they learn through these approaches.
Grammar Translation Method
This method involves the learner to spend a lot of time in understanding the language structure. Though both listening as well as speaking suffer because of it. However, grammar and vocabulary are being stressed throughout the teaching method.
The grammar translation method has been derived from traditional approaches to the teaching of Latin and Greek in the nineteenth century (Selected Lesson Plans). It was originally used to…… [Read More]
Age and Learning a New Language
hat is the ideal age for a person to be able to learn a new language? hat are the dynamics (besides age) that contribute to SLA? This paper delves into those subjects using scholarly articles as resources.
The Literature on Learning a New Language and Age
"…Early beginners, through their longer exposure to L2, reach the necessary competence levels in their two languages sooner to allow transfer in both directions…" (Djigunovic, 2010).
hy are very young students especially gifted to pick up new languages quickly? The scholarship shows that younger learners "…have no awkwardness or inhibitions with the new language" and don't get too upset when they make mistakes (Cenoz, 2003, p. 77). As to whether or not younger learners "…soak up new languages" simply because the soak up information like a sponge soaks up water, Cenoz has his doubts. Indeed studies show younger…… [Read More]
Thus, lessons can utilize elements learned from understand how the brain naturally learns a language to augment the student's ability to progress more efficiently in learning a second language later on in life. Lessons would produce the environment which calls on the same type of brain functions that were so crucial in language acquisition in early childhood. Thus, teaching can become an extension of pre-existing strategies the students have already used earlier on in their lives without even knowing it. This means lesson plans built on a structure that highlights the importance of language at the phonic level, as this is what the author asserts as the primary vehicle for language acquisition in young children.
Lightbrown & Spada (2006) also provide evidence which would back up Kuhl's claims in the text How Languages Are Learned. In their discussion of early language acquisition, Lightbrown & Spada (2006) explain how the child's…… [Read More]
esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…… [Read More]
Significance of cultural diversity
Theories permit us to determine the world around us coherently and also to act in the world with a reasonable approach. Numerous theories have developed throughout the previous century in western countries that make an effort to clarify how human character evolves, why all of us behave the way we do, what external circumstances encourage us to behave in particular ways, and the way these elements have been connected. A few of these concepts structure their arguments on essential physical as well as social-emotional situations within our very first years of existence; some around the impact involving external influences of our own family members, neighbourhood, as well as culture; a few on the unique learning and also thought procedures; a few on triumphant finalization of precise developmental "activities" at each and every phase throughout lifespan; plus some on the way a healthy-or perhaps unhealthy-sense…… [Read More]
Phonological Processes in Preschool Children's Single-word Productions
The topic and overall purpose of the study by Cohen & Anderson (2011) "Identification of phonological processes in preschool children's single-word productions" was to determine the degree of differentiation in which children acquire single words. In general, in the field of linguistics, there is an accepted rate and pattern by which such words are acquired. The researchers hypothesized that there might be differentiation based upon population subsets, however. To achieve this objective, the study authors compared various phonological processes of speech production that were present in the single-word acquisitions of 94 West of Scotland preschool children with normative data of general language acquisition based upon age (Cohen & Anderson 2011: 481).
The research was critical given that such normative data is used when making interventions to improve children's speech production. Thus, based upon the results this could mean changes in the way children…… [Read More]
The children in Nicaragua did not simply construct a set of signs denoting objects in their environment and rudimentary verbs. ISN is a real language with structure, grammar, and syntax. Since its development in the 1980s, ISN has become complex enough to evolve its own set of slang and idioms. ISN is also classified as the world's newest language.
Moreover, language appears to evolve in and out of social settings. ISN is the product not of one master child who imposed his or her own sign language on peers. Rather, ISN is the product of the collective group of children whose individual input becomes integrated into the language. New signs are incorporated gradually as they become agreed-upon symbols. ISN also has unique linguistic features that may help linguists understand prototypical languages in early human development; variations among different world dialects; or the neurological and sociological components of language generation.… [Read More]
The pogam pimaily suppots the local Chinese communities to maintain younge geneation's heitage backgound, and speading Chinese cultue in the U.S. The classes ae nomally held two to thee hous on weekends with Chinese language lessons and othe taditional cultual and at activities. Most students have high levels of oal poficiency in Chinese, but needed to enhance skills in liteacy. Chinese heitage schools ae mainly suppoted by two goups: the National Council of Associations of Chinese Language Schools (NCACLS) which is founded by Taiwan o Hong Kong immigant and heitage communities, and the Chinese School Association in the United States (CSAUS) that is connected with immigant and heitage communities fom mainland China. Accoding to Scott McGinnis's (2005) compiled statistics, the combined enollment of NCACLS and CSAUS was aound 150,000 in 2003. The numbe of students in the heitage schools is lage than in othe CFL pogams acoss the U.S.
Many…… [Read More]
Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child
Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.
There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…… [Read More]
changing because of advances in technology. How we communicate with each other has changed dramatically with the implementation of powerful and popular social media platforms, like Facebook. Today, both teams and adults spend a surprising amount of time on the social media sites. The question here is whether or not such activities can actually be a positive potential in regards to the growth of literacy and language development.
Social media is a trend that is only continuing to grow. It is used by most adolescents and young adults, who are still rolling in terms of their literacy and reading skills. This current dissertation aims to explore how we use and prevalence of social media can actually assist in developing literacy skills. As teenagers and young adults spend so much time on social media sites like Facebook, they are bombarded with visual and textual material. The current research was aiming to…… [Read More]