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Last of the Mohicans has been adapted to cinematic versions many times before, which speaks volumes about the enduring popularity of the book. There is something about the novel that continues to attract modern directors and thus we have so far been given four different cinematic versions of the book, the latest being a directorial piece of Michael Mann who has films like Miami Vice to his credit. This version appeared in 1992 and included some big names of Hollywood the most prominent being Daniel Day Lewis who played the role of Hawkeye in the movie.
If you have read the book, then it is extremely easy to detect the numerous differences that exist between the novel and its cinematic version. Inn fact these differences are so obvious and glaring that a reader, who had merely skimmed through the book could also see them clearly. However that doesn't make the…
Herndl, Diane Style and the Sentimental Gaze in The Last of the Mohicans.(Critical Essay) Date: 10/01/2001; Publication: Narrative;
Novak, Ralph, People Weekly; (movie reviews) Date: 10/05/1992;
Alleva, Richard, Movie review, Commonweal; 12/18/1992;
Baym, Nina. Feminism and American Literary History: Essays. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press, 1992.
Last of the Mohicans, James Fenimore Cooper utilizes a historical romance style to tell his story. is apparent through settings, characters and plots. As Cooper is considered by many critics to be the father of the American historical romance, The Last of the Mohicans is surely an example of why this is so. Cooper celebrated the creative spirit of the individual and had a deep appreciation for nature. He was a romantic who enjoyed the mysteriousness and exoticness of the frontier. He favored the use of emotions over reason. Through the use of romantic writing, Cooper is able to captivate the reader and led them on journey through his imaginary world.
The Last of the Mohicans takes place in a historical setting and "showed, he worked best with material from the past (whether his own personal past or this country's) which had been accumulated gradually by curiosity and filtered slowly…
Cooper, James Fenimore. The Last of the Mohicans; A Narrative 1757. Historical Introduction by James Franklin Beard. Text Established, with Explanatory Notes, by James A. Sappenfield and E.N. Feltskog. Albany: State U. Of New York Press: 1983.
Fiedler, Leslie A. Love and Death in the American Novel. New York: Criterion Books: 1966.
Kelly, William P. Plotting America's Past: Fenimore Cooper and the Leatherstocking Tales. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press: 1983.
Pattee, Fred Lewis. "The Historical Romance: Cooper's 'Last of the Mohicans'." The Chautaquan, 21(3), 1900: 287-292.
Last of the Mohicans" by James Fenimore Cooper. The paper will especially focus on the role of women and how they were treated in those days and their contribution in warfare as depicted in The Last of the Mohicans as compared to nowadays.
The Last of the Mohicans
The Last of the Mohicans takes place in the midst of the French-Indian war. It focuses on one battle in a war that lasted for many years. This was the last and most important conflict over French and British possessions in North America. Unlike the earlier wars, which began in Europe and spread to America, this struggle broke out solely in America in 1754, and was not settled until 1763.
This book depicts the battle of Fort William Henry and adds the fictional kidnapping of two sisters Cora and Alice who are also the main female characters of this book. It is…
Cooper, James Fenimore, The Last of the Mohicans . New York: The New American Library, Inc., 1980.
Edwards, Nicole World War II volunteers paved way for today's female troops, Poughkeepsie Journal
Cooper, James Fenimore, The Last of the Mohicans . New York: The New American Library, Inc., 1980.
hey are also supported by a cast of effective minor characters, all working together towards the climax and final scenes of the film. Other elements that the reviewer hails as particularly striking in the film include the striking scenery, and the soundtrack (Nesbit).
he film offers several audiences a wonderful experience. he sound and scenery, for example, together with historical accuracy, provides an atmospheric experience that is highly recommended for a very wide audience. In addition, action is well-supported by romance and tension throughout the film. Particularly striking is the balance between Indian/European conflict and the fact that Indians and Europeans also shared good relations. his was demonstrated during the opening scenes of the film, where an Indian and European family share a meal. In general, the film is well made, and can be appreciated by a variety of audiences.
Nesbit, John. "he Last of the Mohicans: A Lyrical…
The film offers several audiences a wonderful experience. The sound and scenery, for example, together with historical accuracy, provides an atmospheric experience that is highly recommended for a very wide audience. In addition, action is well-supported by romance and tension throughout the film. Particularly striking is the balance between Indian/European conflict and the fact that Indians and Europeans also shared good relations. This was demonstrated during the opening scenes of the film, where an Indian and European family share a meal. In general, the film is well made, and can be appreciated by a variety of audiences.
Nesbit, John. "The Last of the Mohicans: A Lyrical Cooper Adaptation." ToxicUniverse.com, 2001. http://www.toxicuniverse.com/review.php?rid=10000716
6.What Arts aspects were seen in this film?
The design of the various clothing worn by the French army, the British army, the Hurons, and Hawkeye -- as well as the female characters of the film -- showed the differing aesthetic values that these different cultures had.
7.What Technological aspects were seen in this film?
The technology demonstrated in the film was almost entirely militaristic in nature. From the British rocket flare to Hawkeye's gun and some of the more rudimentary weapons used by the Huron, these technologies were a source of power through their ability to inflict pain and death on others more efficiently.
8.What Economic and Social classes were seen in this film?
Both social and economic class, amongst the Europeans and the Native Americans, was also most visible as a military element in the film. General Webb was definitely in a higher position than many of his…
Last of the Mohicans
Duncan's choice of Cora over Alice shows the paradigm of male/female relationships during the time depicted in the novel.
What role does nature play in the novel?
Nature in the novel is essentially regarded from two diverse viewpoints: that of the colonialists and that of the natives. For the colonialists, coming from an industrialized and urbanized setting, nature presents challenges and dangers. Mountains and lakes prove time- and energy consuming as the armies advance in the land. As such, nature is personified, and plays the role of an additional character in the book. It is an almost conscious force, seeking to block progress for the colonists.
The same natural force is an ally to the Native Americans depicted in the book. A fundamental understanding of natural processes give the natives an advantage over the colonists. This also places them in a position to take advantage of…
Amistad and Last of the Mohicans
Amistad is a 1997 historical drama directed by Steven Spielberg that focuses on the resolution of the 1839 landmark case in which a group of illegally obtained African slaves mutinied against their "owners" and took command of the ship on which they were travelling. The film centers on the legal battle surrounding the slaves and focuses especially on determining who owns the slaves captured by a United States ship and if they can be claimed as slaves at all.
In the film, the slaves aboard the ship La Amistad rebel against their captors for a number of reasons, primarily because they want to go home. As the "slaves'" story begins to unfold, it is revealed that many of them had been kidnapped from their homes in Africa by other Africans who were looking to make money by betraying their fellow countrymen. These kidnapped people's…
Fenimore Cooper, Last of the Mohicans
The theme of James Fenimore Cooper's The Last of the Mohicans would seem to be containted not only in the title of the novel, but also in its subtitle: A Narrative of 1757. The two halves of the book's title both point to a historical past, and the indication of tremendous changes that had occurred on the North American continent between the Colonial era of the French and Indian ar depicted in the novel, and in the prosperous bourgeois United States of America in 1826, when the novel was first published. I would like to explore how certain aspects of Fenimore Cooper's narrative illuminate this theme in different ways, and attempt to point to a vanished past -- not necessarily a Paradise Lost, but a version of history that is constructed mythically, to justify the United States by offering a myth of its early…
Fenimore Cooper, James. The Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757. Online: Project Gutenberg. Accessed 11 July 2011 at: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/940/940-h/940-h.htm
Fiedler, Leslie. Love and Death in the American Novel. New York: Dalkey Archive, 2003. Print.
Haberly, David T. "Women and Indians: Last of the Mohicans and the Captivity Tradition." American Quarterly 28.4 (Autumn 1976): 431-44. Print.
Stafford, Fiona J. The Last of the Race: The Growth of a Myth from Milton to Darwin. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994. Print.
Last of the Mohicians
James Fennimore Cooper's The Last of The Mohicans was published in 1826, part of a pentology, but the best known work for contemporary readers. The story takes place in 1757 during the French and Indian War, when France and Great Britain were at odds for dominance of the North American Colonies. During this war, the French made treaties and allied themselves with many Native American tribes to up the balance between the far more numerous British and colonialists. It was written in a popular genre of the time in which historical accuracy came second and numerous inaccuracies in terms of Native culture were simply overlooked, or became part of White popular culture (Peck). Ironically, there is a famous American author who took great pains to deride the material, Mark Twain. Twain found the novel lacking in variety with excessive verbiage, and even suggested that before praising…
Boles, J., ed. A Companion to the American South. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004. Print.
Cooper, J.F. The Last of the Mohicans. New York: MacMillan, 1921. Print.
Franklin, W. The New World of James Fenimore Cooper. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982. Print.
Meacham, J. American Lion. New York: Random House, 2008. Print.
Hawkeye again reminds us that "there is no cross" in his veins, that he is a pureblooded white man.
The book does not segregate itself to the discussion of only Native Americans and the feelings thereof, but also has occasion to discuss the prevailing sentiment in regards to African-Americans as well. As General Monro reveals in Chapter Sixteen, we find that Cora has a "cross" in her blood:
There it was my lot to form a connection with one who in time became my wife and the Mother of Cora. She was the daughter of a gentleman of those isles, by a lady whose misfortune it was, if you will" said the old man proudly, "to be descended, remotely, from that unfortunate class who are so basely enslaved to administer to the wants of a luxurious people." (Cooper 201)
It is perhaps a little difficult to discern but the General…
Cooper, James Fenimore. The Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757. Cleveland, OH: World
Smith, Lindsey Claire. "Cross-Cultural Hybridity in James Fenimore Cooper's the Last of the Mohicans." ATQ (the American Transcendental Quarterly) 20.3 (2006)
Fenimore is responsible for having provided the public with an adventurous history of the old American landscape.
In spite of the fact that James Fenimore Cooper has been born in New Jersey, his father decided to move the whole family to an area around Otsego Lake, near New York, a place where he owned some land. This presented James with the chance of coming across a vast forested territory where Indian tribes roamed free.
James's father had attempted to give the boy a good education, but he had not been enthusiastic his boys academic achieving, as the latter was dismissed from Yale and later resigned from the navy. The reason for his resignation had been that he wanted to spend more time with his wife, Miss Susan De Lancey. Consequent to several divergences he and his wife had over his writing style vs. his capabilities, with the latter mocking him,…
1. Dennis Ian, "The Worthlessness of Duncan Heyward: A Waverley Hero in America," Studies in the Novel 29.1 (1997).
2. Fenimore Cooper James, the Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757 (Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1957)
3. Lamberton Becker May, "Introduction How This Book Came to Be Written," the Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757 (Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1957) 5.
4. Pitcher Edward W., "The Beaver and His Cousin in Cooper's the Last of the Mohicans," ANQ8.2 (1995): 11.
goal of early Americans was to expand out est. Early settlers believed the est housed new opportunities, gold, land, and most of all freedom. However with the expansion came controversy. Native Americans, the people that lived in America before European settlement, were pushed and forced out of their homelands. Little by little Native Americans endured not only racism and ridicule, but also involuntary migrations to new and less fertile areas. Because of the difference in political and social arrangement of Native Americans to American ones, the white settlers went under the assumption that Native Americans were not capable of possessing land. However they were seen as spiritual and in harmony with nature. That is why in literature, Native Americans often became romantic heroes in one light and negative stereotypes in the other. In the 19th century, the literature of the time represented Native Americans based off of perceived racial stereotypes,…
Daniel, Clay. "Cooper's the Last of the Mohicans." The Explicator 56.3 (1998): 126-129. Print.
Kuiper, Kathleen. Native American culture. New York, N.Y.: Britannica Educational Pub./Rosen Educational Services, 2011. Print.
McWilliams, John P. The last of the Mohicans: civil savagery and savage civility. New York: Twayne Publishers; 1995. Print.
Merchant, Peter. "The Last of the Mohicans reconsidered." Children's Literature in Education 24.2 (1993): 85-100. Print.
Spade walking down to examine a murder makes use of shadows as well as high black-white contrast in order to convey drama and suspense. This is commonly referred to as the film noir lighting technique because it conveys a sense of mystery and danger. The lighting highlights the most extreme contours of the character's faces, but none of the moderating details such as texture or color. This makes the facial expressions look much more dramatic than they would under normal lighting.
The costumes are also very typical of the film noir genre. Spade is wearing a black wool overcoat and a fedora and his counterpart from the police station is wearing the same outfit. This is a style of dress associated with detectives, who sometimes had to conceal their identity and not stand out. The overcoat conceals much of the person's figure and could conceal weapons or other objects.
In this respect, it relishes on surprises that you find David Gamut missing in the movie, while Munro dies and Alice commits suicide. Indeed, it makes the reader doubt on whether or not he has skipped some parts in reading the novel. However, once the confusion is solved and the reader is able to let go of any regrets that the screening does not follow the plot of the book entirely, the result is a good script, following a coherent course of actions with well conceived settings. In this particular case, that the historical truth in Cooper's book was no followed accurately by Mann seems to have helped the latter into creating indeed a movie and not a documentary. Without the element of surprise, without the drama, the humor, or the love story, the script would have least resembled a movie.
In fairness, the only possible way to enjoy the…
White European Authors Depicted Native Americans in Fiction
The objective of this study is to examine how white European authors have depicted Native American in Fiction. Examined to inform this study are two specific works in writing and specifically those entitled: "The Last of the Mohicans" and "The Searchers" written by James Fenimore Cooper and John Ford, respectively.
There can be no doubt that the native American Indians are misrepresented in literature written by white European authors as the Indians are portrayed as ignorant, uneducated, ungodly, barbarians and villains. IN the literature of White European authors, the Native American Indians lived a life that was wild, unprincipled and ungodly however, study that has examined the life of the Native American Indians since those earlier works has related an entirely different story of the Native American Indians.
Coleman on Social Construction of Indians in the Cinema
The work of Cynthia-Lou Coleman…
Kellner, Leon (1915) The American Books: A Library of Good Citizenship. Garden City, New York. Doubleday, Page & Company 1915.
Coleman, Cynthia-Lou (nd) Framing Cinematic Indians within the Social Construction of Place. Retrieved from: https://journals.ku.edu/index.php/amerstud/article/viewFile/2963/2922
Ebert, Roger (2001) The Searchers. Retrieved from: http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20011125/REVIEWS08/111250301/1023
Gregor, Theresa Lynn (2010) from Captors to Captives: American Indian Reponses to Popular American Narrative Forms. May 2010. Retrieved from: http://digitallibrary.usc.edu/assetserver/controller/item/etd-Gregor-3488.pdf
In the 1992 adaptation of The Last of the Mohicans, Hawkeye, played by Daniel Day-Lewis is forced to become a leader as he attempts to provide safe passage for Alice and Cora Munro and the daughters of Colonel Edmund Munro, a British officer during the Seven Years' War, and Major Duncan Heyward, who was originally tasked with escorting the sisters to safety.
Two of the theories that can be applied to Hawkeye's leadership and managerial style are the Path-Goal Theory and the Leader-Member Exchange Theory. Moreover, aspects of French and Raven's Five Bases of Power can also be attributed to Hawkeye's successes and failures as a leader. The Path-Goal Theory maintains that followers' satisfaction, motivation, and performance is dependent on a leader's behavior. As such, the leader is forced to adapt to his or her followers' needs with such adaptations and behavioral modifications made with the purpose of fulfilling…
According to Mctiernan (1997), "James Fenimore Cooper's the Spy is interesting precisely because no genre had yet hardened around spying when he wrote it. Cooper relies instead on the conventions of other genres -- primarily, the domestic romance and the historical adventure, which, unlike spy fiction, did not evolve in part to justify the dishonesty and covert manipulation central to espionage" (3).
As noted above, Cooper was also able to draw on the inspiration of an unspoiled American wilderness that few people today can imagine without his help. It is this aspect of Cooper's early works, perhaps, that continue to make them popular today just as they did in his own time. As Ringe (1962) advises, though, this is unfortunate because Cooper matured as a writer over the years and some of his best work was during the last part of his career. "Ironically, Cooper is best known for what…
Becker, May Lamberton. "Introduction" to the Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1957.
Davis, Randall C. (1994). "Fire-Water in the Frontier Romance: James Fenimore Cooper and 'Indian Nature.'" Studies in American Fiction 22(2): 215.
Dekker, George and John P. Williams (Eds.). James Fenimore Cooper: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge, 1997.
Mctiernan, Dave. (1997). "The Novel as 'Neutral Ground': Genre and Ideology in Cooper's 'The Spy." Studies in American Fiction 25(1): 3.
To illustrate these different views, he creates Starry Night over the Rhone. This shows the sense of anticipation that is occurring before the evening begins. As he is depicting, a quit outdoor cafe that is waiting for: the customers to begin arriving and the festivities to commence. To illustrate this sense of anticipation he uses different colors and lighter brush strokes. As there is: yellow, black, blue, tan and gray; to highlight the overall emotions that Van Gogh is feeling (when he reflects on his life in Paris). At the same time, the lighter brush strokes are used to show the changes of time that are taking place, by making the background somewhat blurry. This is important, because it is illustrating how the artist is trying to create that sense of realism and the passage of time, by showing their positive emotions about their past lives. ("Vincent Van Gough," 2011)…
Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette. (2011). Web Museum Paris. Retrieved from: http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/renoir/moulin-galette/
Frans Hals. (2011). ABC Gallery. Retrieved from: http://www.abcgallery.com/H/hals/hals.html
Hudson River School. (2011). Visual Arts. Retrieved from: http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/history-of-art/hudson-river-school-landscape-painting.htm
Jean -- Antione Houdon. (2011). Scholar Resource. Retrieved from: http://www.scholarsresource.com/browse/artist/637
Captain Smith by Pocahontas
Antonio Capellano's sculpture The Preservation of Captain Smith by Pocahontas (1825) is still in the Capitol Rotunda along with other works of the same period such as illiam Penn's Treaty with the Indians and The Landing of the Pilgrims, although they no longer resonate with audiences in the same way as they did in the 19th Century. In the 20th and 21st Centuries, more sophisticated and educated viewers at least would realize that these are all the product of an era of estern expansion and a highly romanticized view of history that is heavily tinged with racism and white nationalism. hen these sculptures were first commissioned by the U.S. government, the early republic was engaged in westward expansion that would result in the destruction, displacement or removal of most Native Americans, a process that most white Americans of the era regarded as necessary and beneficial. All…
Fryd, Vivien Green. "Two Sculptures for the Capitol" in Mary Ann Calo (ed). Critical Issues in American Art: A Book of Readings. Perseus Books, 1998: 93-108.
Scheckel, Susan. The Insistence of the Indian: Race and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century American Culture. Princeton University Press, 1998.
Tilton, Robert S. Pocahontas: The Evolution of an American Narrative. Cambridge University Press, 1994.
This dance was very powerful as it did scare the European people. They did not fully understand the reason behind the dance and the religion, but they were very clear as to what the apocalypse was and they wondered if the Indians were somehow summoning the end of the world. Not soon after this Ghost dance caused such a commotion, an Indian by the name of Handsome Lake who was a leader for the Seneca tribe brought a new message to the Iroquois people. His message was to end the drinking. The Iroquois people had began to drink a lot of alcohol that was often offered to them from the European people during the fur trade. Handsome Lake believed that many of the problems that the Iroquois people faced was related to the alcohol. Many of the Indian people were drunk when they were trying to handle problems of poverty…
Kehoe, Alice Beck. North American Indian Tribes, Chapter 5. 1992 Prentice Hall.
Biolsi, Thomas and Zimmerman, Larry. Indians and Anthropologists, Chapter 9. 1997 Prentice Hall.
Iroquois Website. Retrieved December 19, 2009 from http://www.iroquois.net/.
Male ithout Female
In the classic films of the 1940s and 1950s, filmmakers tended to use very strict representations of gender in their characters. omen could be either virgins or tramps and men could be either heroes or villains. There was very little transgression of the stereotypical boundaries of character. Society as a whole during this period was heavily masculine. Men made up the executives and the politicians and of course the majority of the powerful filmmakers. Consequentially, the perspective of most films and literature of the era was decidedly masculine. Female characters were heavily marginalized and forced into one of the two categories listed above. In two works from the period, The Big Sleep and The Maltese Falcon, the women characters are portrayed as useless or as venomous and evil. Some scholars have speculated that the reason behind such portrayals is the basic male fantasy which is a world…
Ahearn, William. "The Mystery of the Maltese Falcon." 2008. Print.
Chandler, Raymond. The Big Sleep. New York: Vintage, 1992. Print.
"Marlowe, Carmen and Vivian: An Interpretation of The Big Sleep." Word Press. Web. 2012.