514 results for “Law Enforcement Ethics”.
Police officers need to understand that there exists a balance between security and the individual's freedom (Banks, 2009). Officers are also susceptible to corruption, and therefore need to understand that the causes of corruption are often identified and combated through an understanding of and respect for the justice system that is currently in place. Police officers also need to be trained properly, with a foundation in the same concepts and ideas that most Americans hold dear- that all people are created equal and deserve the right to fair and honest treatment. Only through proper training where officers can learn to see "others" as the same as them, and where these "others" become human and relatable, can a culturally sensitive and effective law enforcement body be created.
Baker, T. (2006). Police Ethics: Crisis in Law Enforcement (2nd Ed.). Springfield, IL:
Charles C. Thomas. Pp. 116.
Banks, Cyndi. (2009). Criminal Justice…
Baker, T. (2006). Police Ethics: Crisis in Law Enforcement (2nd Ed.). Springfield, IL:
Charles C. Thomas. Pp. 116.
Banks, Cyndi. (2009). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks,
CA: Sage Publications.
Law Enforcement Code of Ethics" is deliberately written to be vague. The reason for this is obvious. There are plenty of practices employed by law enforcement on a daily basis that are widespread and are not actually illegal, but that would not be considered ethical even under the most sloppily-enunciated and lax ethical code. Everyone in law enforcement knows this fact, as does every defense attorney; pretty much everyone in prison knows it too. If such practices, however, could be shown to violate the actual code of ethics that law enforcement is expected to abide by, however, then it would be demonstrable that law enforcement officers know they are behaving unethically and seemingly do not suffer the slightest qualm about doing so. Instead, when the code of ethics is kept vague, law enforcement officers will merely do their best to abide by the law, or avoid getting caught when they…
Deception has been utilized as one of the most valuable tools in investigative processes by law enforcement officers. This tool has been utilized in the criminal justice field for more than a century because of the view that its useful in helping investigative officers in uncovering the truth. As a result, investigative officers commonly utilize deception to conduct investigations, interrogations and in the testimonial process to help uncover the truth relating to the case/issue being investigated. However, the use of deception by investigating officers during investigation, interrogation and in the testimonial process has generated significant ethical concerns. Actually, this practice has generated two juxtaposing ethical behaviors that are characterized with significant ethical concerns in the criminal justice field. Investigative officers are encouraged and allowed to use deception and lie when carrying out investigations and interrogations in order to uncover the truth and eventually seek justice. This paper examines the ethics…
Ethics in Law Enforcement
Ethics are what almost anyone would define as a person's determination between what is good or bad, or more accurately what is right or wrong. Although many of these attitudes can be a product of parenting or other factors in one's maturing environment, ethical decisions could also be a product of environmental factors that are outside of the control of individuals. It is difficult to determine where a person's ethical code, but some professions demand an ethic that is not needed elsewhere.
One such profession is law enforcement. Officers of the law are called upon to "stand in "harm's way" not so much against enemies with bullets, but against enemies skilled in every form of trickery, deceit, feigned ignorance, and deception" (Stevens, 2005). Because of the environment that they must exist in, police officers are constantly deciding whether to make the right decision or take the…
Gilmartin, K.M., & Harris, J.J. (1998). Law enforcement ethics: The continuum of compromise. Retrieved November 24, 2010 from http://emotionalsurvival.com/law_enforcement_ethics.htm
Russell, B. (1910). Determinism and morals. From The Elements of Ethics. Retrieved November 26, 2010 from http://fair-use.org/bertrand-russell/the-elements-of- ethics/section-iv
Sanford, DH (2010). Indeterminism: Causation and conditionals, ethics and history of philosophy, primer on determinism. Retrieved November 24, 2010 from http://science.jrank.org/pages/22033/indeterminism.html#ixzz16cFBtAvu
Stevens, M. (2005). Police deviance and ethics. Retrieved November 24, 2010 from http://faculty.ncwc.edu/mstevens/205/205lect11.htm
Ethics in Law Enforcement
"Sometimes [police officers] may, and sometimes may not, lie when conducting custodial interrogations. Investigative and interrogatory lying are each justified on utilitarian crime control grounds. Police are never supposed to lie as witnesses in the courtroom, although they may lie for utilitarian reasons similar to those permitting deception & #8230;" (Skolnick, et al., 1992)
Is it ethical for law enforcement officers to use deception during the interrogation process? It appears that when officers are attempting to extract a confession from a suspect, deception is, in many cases, commonly applied strategy. Does a code of ethics conflict with the way in which law enforcement conducts its interviews and interrogations? hat do the courts say about deceptive interrogation tactics? These issues will be reviewed in this paper.
Deception in the Interrogation Room
Is it ethical to lie to obtain the truth? No. Do the ends justify the means?…
Braswell, Michael C. (2011). Justice, Crime, and Ethics. Maryland Heights, MO: Elsevier.
Leo, Richard A. (2009). Police Interrogation and American Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
McMullen, Patrick M. (2005). Questioning the Questions: The Impermissibility of Police
Deception in Interrogations of Juveniles. Northwestern University Law Review, 99(2),
While it is a felony to flee the scene of an accident, a police office is ethically bound to report the issue if he himself is in such an accident. The same is with drunken and disorderly behavior or destruction of property. In "Choirboys" the police officers would congregate in a park after hours to engage in drunkenness, disorderly behavior and sexual orgies with women. And this park was supposed to be out of bounds and closed to the public after hours.
The introduction in this essay already alluded to the "blue wall of silence" that accompanies every police organization. This is an exclusive fraternity and officers are required to look after and out for each other. In fact, beat cops see themselves as removed from the detective squad, whom they refer to as suits. Certainly, most police hate the Internal affairs squad, though they were once beat cops…
BusinessWeek. (2004). Who will Fastow Implicate.
Retrieved April 22, 2008, at http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/jan2004/nf20040115_1433_db035.htm
Gilmartin, K.M., & Harris, J.J. (1998). Law Enforement Ethics: The Continuum of Compromise. Police Chief Magazine
Retrieved April 22, 2008, at http://www.rcmp-learning.org/docs/ecdd1222.htm
These gratuitous cookies are simply a show of appreciation to the police force in general and enhance the job satisfaction factor for officers.
On the other hand, the Code of Ethics states that "Officers will refuse to accept any gifts, presents, subscriptions, favors, gratuities or promises that could be interpreted as seeking to cause the officer to refrain from performing official responsibilities honestly and within the law" (n.d.). With this in mind, it would not be acceptable for an officer to accept a free oil change, in exchange for him not reporting the fact that he noticed a stolen car in the back of shop. Even when gratuities are given without a specific 'favor' in mind, it could be implied that that officer will give special treatment to the person at a later date, and for this reason, in general, gratuities should not be accepted.
Code of ethics online.…
Code of ethics online. (No date). Retrieved July 21, 2006, at http://ethics.iit.edu/ codes/coe/Law_Enforcement_Code_of_Ethics.html.
Law Enforcement Officers and Gratuities
Law Enforcement Introduction
The Modern Police Forces
Prior to the formation of the Philadelphia force in 1833, policing primarily consisted of "night watches" and sheriffs recruited from the community (Sabeth). The role of law enforcement was ad hoc in nature to fight crime, night watch patrols, and not an organized or uniform organization. Incidentally, the rural nature of the country did not necessitate an established and robust policing force until the urbanization and industrialization of the 1830s and 1840s. In response to a growing need to maintain law and order on city streets, a significant and visible presence was needed to counter riots and avert crime.
Philadelphia, and later New York, first established polices forces whose jurisdiction and duties were attended twenty-four hours a day (Sabeth). The significance of the modern police force was that it was developed to prevent crime, law enforcement, and maintain order by being visibly present…
Walker, S., & Katz, C.M. (2008). The Police in America: An Introduction (6th Edition). New York, New York: McGraw-HIll.
Sabeth, D. (n.d.). The Evolution of American Policing. Retrieved September 8, 2012, from American Federation of Police & Concerned Citizens: http://www.aphf.org/hist.html
"Accountability refers to the mechanisms by which both law enforcement officers and the agencies they serve are held responsible for promoting social order, reducing crime, and treating each individual fairly and within the limits of the law" (Chambliss, 2011). The three dimensions of police accountability are accountability to the public, accountability to the law, and accountability to each other (other members of the police force. If one were to look at the most fundamental dimension of police accountability, such as accountability to the public, one would see just how crucial this is: "It both defines and protects citizens' rights while also promoting a collective sense of faith in the larger criminal justice system" (Chambliss, 2011).
The three E's are "Effectiveness -- whether police accomplish what they are supposed to do: A. Do they effectively control crime? B. Are they successful in arresting offenders? Efficiency-- whether they accomplish their tasks…
Chambliss, W. (2011). Police and Law Enforcement. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishing.
Katz, C. (2002). Chapter Outline. Retrieved from McGraw-Hill.com: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/007241497x/student_view0/part3/chapter11/chapter_outline.html
Newham, G. (2011, June). Tackling Police Corruption. Retrieved from issafrica.org: http://www.issafrica.org/crimehub/uploads/ISS_Anti-Corruption_SAPU.pdf
A comparison of Law Enforcement with Other Professions
Who first comes to mind when you think of a 'Leader'? Is it Alexander the Great? Napoleon? Winston Churchill? Gandhi? Leadership is an interesting phenomenon to consider, from the perspective of civilization, of nations, of political change, and of history. What makes one person a leader while another tries and fails? What is a good leader and how is that different from a 'great' leader? The definition of leadership also varies with the context and with the individual who is defining leadership. The nature of leaders has changed as civilization has evolved, and the leaders we as a society need today may be different from those of a century ago. A national leader is distinct from a local leader, a oy Scout leader, or a team leader in a sport.
Thus, definitions of leadership vary with the situation. However, they include…
Avery, G.C. (2004) Understanding Leadership: Paradigms and Cases. London: Sage
Avolio, B.J. (1999) Full Leadership Development: Building the Vital Forces in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bittner, Egon (1970). The functions of the police in modern society: a review of background factors, current practices, and possible role models. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Health, Center for Studies of Crime and Delinquency.
Boedker, C., Vidgen, R., Meagher, K., Cogin, J., Mouritsen, J. And Runnalls, M. (2011). Leadership, culture and management practices of high performing workplaces in Australia: The High Performing Workplaces Index. Society for Knowledge Economics: Sydney.
branches within the law enforcement field. All these branches have a range of jurisdictions but have a common purpose of enforcing laws that have been passed by legislatures and the protection of the American citizens and those who live within the American borders. There are different law enforcement agents everywhere and they are interested in what one does, the particular agents present depend on ones location and what they are doing. This paper will look at three law enforcement branches; local, state and federal law enforcement. It will look at what thee three entail and how they differ in terms of jurisdiction and authority.
At the local enforcement agencies, the commonplace and frequently experienced law enforcement agency are municipal police officers. These police officers represent villages, towns and cities. A striking difference between these local officers and those found within state and federal level is that they offer the first…
Law Teacher. (2014). Local, State and Federal Law Enforcement. Retrieved September 10, 2014 from http://www.lawteacher.net/criminology/essays/local-state-and-federal-law-enforcement.php
Harkins, D. (2009). What are the Differences Between Federal, State and Local Law Enforcement. Retrieved September 10, 2014 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8251672_differences-state-local-law-enforcement.html
Women Law Enforcement
There has been a continued effort by the police department to hire Americans into the police force without special regard to race, color or gender. This effort has had a milestone achievement throughout history and has helped gap the difference in race and gender that existed in the police force in the 70s and 80s. The affirmative action has been one of the top agendas for all the government departments and branches. The police included. However, there are some contemporary challenges that the force as a whole faces when it comes to recruitment of female law enforces and even challenges that the recruited law enforcers face. These factors will be discussed below together with the causes and possible panacea to them, in an effort to attain the ultimate balanced society.
One of the challenges as outlined by Price, B.., (1996) is the reception by their male counterparts.…
Parker, (2010). The Challenges and Benefits of Female Officers in Law Enforcement. Criminal Justice School Guide. Retrieved March 30, 2011 from http://www.criminaljusticeschoolguide.com/articles/the-challenges-and-benefits-of-female-officers-in-law-enforcement/
Police Employment, (2011). Women in Law Enforcement. Retrieved March 30, 2011 from http://www.policeemployment.com/resources/articles/women-law-enforcement
Price, B.R., (1996). Female Police Officers in the United States. Retrieved March 30, 2011 from http://www.ncjrs.gov/policing/fem635.htm
Susan A.K., (2003). In the Face of Challenges, Women in Federal Law Enforcement Persists
J. Simpson or John Gotti. In both cases, the defendants are entitled to the presumption of innocence only in court; but there is no such "presumption" in the intellectual "court" of one's mind.
A lawyer with integrity would refuse to represent any defendant he believed was probably guilty of horrendous crimes and simply let that defendant be represented by a court-appointed attorney who is obligated by law to represent any defendant who cannot afford a private attorney. If all criminal defense lawyers had high personal ethical standards, the Simpsons and Gottis of the world would find it impossible to retain any defense counsel other than those obligated by law to take their cases.
4. Define and briefly explain ethical dilemma. Of the four categories of dilemmas: discretion, duty, honesty and loyalty, which one applies best to the following situations? Explain your rationale. Also, explain how an officer might analyze the…
law enforcement agents do better?
The key to improving the efficacy of law enforcement agents is changing the organizational culture to one built on accountability. Walker and Archibold offer a new and potentially revolutionary framework for police accountability. The new vision for law enforcement centers on the PTS model, in which policy, training, supervision, and review are the core parts of organizational change. The current organizational culture of law enforcement has several dysfunctional features, values, and norms. Viewing police culture from anthropological and sociological perspectives, as Kappeler, Sluder and Alpert suggest, shows how norms, values, structures, and institutions create dysfunction, misbehavior, and corruption. Problems like excessive use of force and abuse of power can only be controlled through systematic changes in the organizational culture of policing.
Changing organizational culture requires more than just altering departmental policies and procedural guidelines. After all, most departments will have codes of ethics and guidelines…
Kappeler, V.E., Sluder, R.D. & Alpert, G.P. Forces of Deviance. 2nd edition. 1998.
Miller, L. & Tolivier, J. Implementing a body-worn camera program. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2014.
Sklansky, D.A. The persistent pull of police professionalism. New Perspectives in Policing, March 2011. Retrieved online: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/232676.pdf
Walker, S. & Archibold, C.A. The New World of Police Accountability. Sage. Kindle Edition, 2014.
The death of a child is significant and in this case avoidable and a plaintiff has the right to seek compensatory damages as is allowed by law.
Case Study 1 Part B
At the end of the night shift, Nurse Brown took a verbal handover and then noticed the observation chart had not been filled in. To assist her friend, Nurse Harvey, whom she knew had a busy night, filled in the observation chart and fluid balance chart for the hours from 0200-0600 hrs.
Overcome by the events of the last 24 hrs, Nurse Harvey and Nurse Brown go to the local tavern for a few drinks before Nurse Harvey goes on duty. They discussed Mr. Spencer and his son. John, a friend of Mr. Spencer, overheard the conversation and joined them. He was also upset by the events of the day and was most keen to discuss the accident…
Hall, J. (1960). General Principles of Criminal Law (2nd ed.). Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
Markesinis, B.S., & Deakin, S.F. (1999). Tort Law (4th ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
ANCI Competency Standards for the Enrolled Nurse at http://www.anmc.org.au/docs/Publications/Competency%20standards%20EN.pdf
Scope of Nursing Practice Decision Making Framework, 2006 at http://www.nursingboardtas.org.au/nbtonline.nsf/attachment/SoPDMFFinal/$File/Scope%20of%20Nursing%20Practice%20Decision%20Making%20Framework.pdf
The use and control of one's own mental faculties is of the utmost importance when involved in the serious and important business of government work. The word "government" itself literally translates to "controlling the mind" in Latin. Mind control is thus the most important aspect any individual who wishes to earn success and garner respect within governmental agencies may attain. Personal experience is the one true measure of the capability of thought, where the endgame is understanding these experiences and incorporating them into a practical, effective and efficient lifestyle approach both personal and professional.
As a Department of Defense (DOD) Special Agent, the ability to suppress emotion and employ rational and reasonable thought patterns is a skill that must be fully developed and tempered to allow for a suitable outlet for such activities. The purpose of this essay is to explore some personal experiences within my own career…
police and law enforcement officers have more or less discretion? Why? Give an example of a specific discretionary power in your answer. What parameters may be used to set the limits to discretion, apart from the provisions of applicable laws? Consider the role of ethics in society and discuss how those ethics are funneled to policing and law enforcement. What impact do varying ethical norms of the increasingly diverse American society have on policing? As the police force itself becomes more diverse, would we see different police responses to similar situations?
Although the Fourth Amendment protects against unreasonable searches and seizures, the police have considerable latitude in determining what constitutes probable cause. In general, "courts ordinarily suppress evidence obtained during an unreasonable search or seizure and offered against the accused" and a warrant must be obtained (Fourth Amendment, 2013, Cornell University Law School). However, exceptions to the Fourth Amendment include…
Illinois Department of Conservation Police Law Enforcement
The American system of local governance for the purpose of maintaining parks and other recreational areas is political as well as democratic, and is based on certain citizens' awareness and desire to create better living conditions as far as environment is concerned, for the benefit of future generations. This entails preservation and conservation of natural parks and wildlife to a large extent. This is especially true in the case of the citizens of Illinois, who are always on the campaign for more open spaces, more parks, and more as well as better recreational facilities for its citizens. Officials are elected for the purpose of looking after and governing the problems that arise from these forests and natural forest preserves, and these officials do believe and also demonstrate the same determination and strongly idealistic beliefs of their predecessors, of the days gone by. The…
Blagojevich, Rod. (April 2004) "Illinois's Multi-Year strategy to Control Drug and Violent Crime FFY2004" Retrieved at http://www.icjia.state.il.us/public/word/Byrne/ByrneStrategy.doc . Accessed on 28 October, 2004
Carlile, Harry E. "Keeping our parks a safe place to play" Retrieved at http://www.lib.niu.edu/ipo/ip960919.html . Accessed on 27 October, 2004
DUI, International Referral Database of DUI, DWI, Impaired and Drunk Driving, Drinking and Driving, Lawyers & Attorneys" Retrieved at http://www.lawyers.ca/international/summaryoflaw.asp. Accessed on 28 October, 2004
Educational information: Illinois Department of Natural Resources" (2003) Retrieved at http://dnr.state.il.us/lands/education/index.htm. Accessed on 27 October, 2004
Multicultural Law Enforcement
Racism in U.S. Law Enforcement
There is much controversy with regard to race and the Criminal Justice System, as many are inclined to believe that people belonging to particular racial groups are more likely to suffer from discrimination as a result of their skin color. Police officers are instructed in order for them to gain a complex understanding of moral values and ethics and this makes it possible for them to learn more about differentiation and the degree to which discriminating a person can affect the respective individual and society as a whole. Many believe that in some cases stereotypes are people's only ability to differentiate between a potential criminal and an innocent person. However, the chances to go wrong are particularly high and it is thus essential for each police officer to refrain from targeting particular groups simply because they have the same skin color as…
Campbell, A. "Florida Cops Fired Over Racist Texts, KKK Video," Retrieved April 27, 2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/03/22/cops-fired-racist-video_n_6918652.html
Keesee, T., & Nila, M.J. "Fairness and Neutrality: Addressing the Issue of Race in Policing," Retrieved April 27, 2015, from http://www.policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display_arch&article_id=2334&issue_id=32011
Shusta, R.M., Levine, D.R., Wong, H.Z. Harris, P.R. "IMPACT OF CULTURAL DIVERSITY ON LAW ENFORCEMENT," Retrieved April 27, 2015, from http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/wps/media/objects/4173/4273671/Ch01.pdf
"Obama says other police departments are racist in first remarks on Ferguson," Retrieved April 27, 2015, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2982267/Obama-holding-town-hall-historically-black-college.html
acial profiling is one of the most pressing civil right issues of our time. It extends beyond directs victims to negatively affect all persons of color of all generations and income levels. It undermines the legitimacy of the criminal justice system, and hinders effective policing in the communities that need it the most. A esource Guide on acial Profiling Data Collection System defines racial profiling as any police-initiated action that relies on the race, ethnicity or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being or having been, engaged in criminal activity. In the context of traffic stops by police officers, racial profiling should be defined broadly as encompassing officer's use of race or ethnicity as a factor in deciding to stop, question, search or arrest someone. acial profiling has been monitored in a…
Brenner, S.J., Schencke, L. (2002). Local officials seek to resolve racial profiling.
Retrieved February 10, 2005, from The Daily Illini
Web site: http://illinimedia.com/di/feb02/feb28/news/stories/news_story01.shtml
Gewertz, K. (2005). Schauer: Profiling can be a useful investigative tool. Retrieved February 10, 2005, from the President and Fellows of Harvard College
Policing needs to change, especially has it has failed to live up to its potential in improving quality of life for all citizens. The ideal police force is indeed one that prevents crime, keeps order, respects the rights and dignity of citizens, is friendly and courteous, respects the laws, and does not abuse its power through corruption. Policing needs to be increasingly situated as integral to all other community organizations and institutions. Collaborative and strategic partnerships will help law enforcement achieve the goals it shares in common with other social and political organizations. Reforming community relations, improving trust and accountability, and working together with stakeholders are some of the keynotes of twenty-first century policing models.
According to the IACP (2018) policing will change in the upcoming years by focusing on both internal and external issues. This means that in addition to the externalities of community relationships and strategic partnerships, police…
More than replacing a Code of Ethics, solutions to the issue might revolve around simply understanding, adopting, and enforcing codes that are already in place. For instance, the IACP code of ethics for law enforcement has four major themes that would clearly handle most situations: 1) Fairness towards everyone -- the public, clients, the accused, colleagues, etc. Fairness also implies the maxim of not using one's power to take advantage of the public (e.g. bribes for service, etc.); 2) Service -- Public service is a calling -- the community holds law enforcement personnel to a high standard, and expects service to be part of the regular job description; 3) Importance of the law -- Upholding the Constitution or the statues of the law that are mandated by the profession, and; 4) the importance of personal conduct -- law enforcement professionals must hold a standard of behavior that is consistent and…
Banks, J. (2004). The Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4031_Banks_Chapter_1_Proof.pdf
Chery, D. (May 7, 2009). Judges on Wrong Side of the Law. CBS News. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/08/04/national/main566433.shtml
IIT (Illinois Institute of Technology. (2012). Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions. Ethics.itt.edu. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://ethics.iit.edu/
Pollock, J. (2012). Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Ethics Leadership Analysis
One of the biggest advantages of globalization is that many different companies are able to receive cheap labor to produce a wide variety of products that are sold at numerous retail stores in the United States. However, an ugly facet to what has been happening, is that there are a number of different sweat shops in a host of regions around the world and in some cases within the U.S. itself. Evidence of this can be seen with an investigation that was conducted by the Department of Labor. They found that over half of the companies they were looking at, were breaking numerous labor laws by operating 10,000 of these kinds of facilities illegally inside the nation. At the same time, they discovered that a variety of governments around the world were encouraging these kinds of factories. (Elliot, 2009)
In the case of Kathie Lee Gifford, her…
Youth and Labor. (2011). Department of Labor. Retrieved from: http://www.dol.gov/dol/topic/youthlabor/
Elliot, J. (2009). Santa's Little Sweat Shop. Albimonitor. Retrieved from: http://www.albionmonitor.com/sweatshop/ss-intro.html
Farrell, O. (2009). Business Ethics. Mason, OH: South Western.
National Labor Committee. (2000). Children Found Sewing Clothes for Wal Mart. Harvard Law School. Retrieved from: http://www.law.harvard.edu/programs/lwp/NLC_childlabor.html
Criticism of Consequentialism:
The deontological criticism of consequentialism would suggest that the very fact that two identical acts can be highly ethical or highly unethical in different circumstances renders consequentialism purely subjective and dependent on opinion instead of objective principles. In that view, the deontological ethical approach may produce unintended negative results on occasion, but at least deontological ethics are predictable and consistent; furthermore, deontological values lead to the better choice of conduct often enough to justify any specific instances where practical injustices could result from adherence to rules.
Adhering to rules is the surest way of ensuring ethical human conduct notwithstanding that isolated societies may establish rules that could be defined objectively as unethical. One of the best examples of the impracticality of consequentialism is the general law of false arrest in most American states. A citizen arrested unlawfully by a duly authorized law enforcement officer may not flee…
Beauchamp, Bowie, & Arnold. (2009). Ethical Theory and Business. 8th Edition. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Ethics, Terrorism, & the Future of Policing
The devastating attacks on United States soil that took place on September 11, 2001, became the turning point for all police activity. The police mission went from protecting people against day-to-day violence, to protecting a society from foreign attack. Terrorism is defined as "the systematic use of terror [fear] especially as a means of coercion" (merriam-webster.com). It was this idea that something that could not be fully understood, such as a terrorist attack, could indeed cause so many people to be afraid. However, this changed what it meant to be in law enforcement. Despite problems that do exist on a local level, the focus has shifted from making sure that any threat of a potential attack could be prevented. Personal liberties have been violated, discriminatory profiling has risen, and corruption within police force has elevated -- all in the name of terrorism prevention.…
Baker, Al. (2012) Independent agency gets new powers to prosecute New York police officers. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/28/nyregion/civilian-complaint-review-board-gets-new-powers-to-prosecute-new-york-police.html?_r=2&scp=1&sq=police%20abuse%20of%20power&st=cse
Foster, C., Cordner, G., Frakes, K., Collins, P., & Mayberry, L. National Institute of Justice, (2005).The impact of terrorism on state law enforcement. Retrieved from The council of State Governments and Eastern Kentucky University website: http://www.csg.org/knowledgecenter/docs/Misc0504Terrorism.pdf
Nalle, D. (2011). Repeal or revise. Retrieved from http://www.rlc.org/2011/01/31/repeal-or-revise-the-problems-with-the-patriot-act/
Rayman, G. (2010). New york's finest cover-up. Retrieved from http://www.villagevoice.com/2010-10-13/news/nypd-cover-up-cabbie/
Ethics in Criminal Justice:
The police function has continued to be the most needed elements since the beginning of the existence of human societies because social coordination and harmony have never prospered without some kind of supervisory authority. The supervisory authority or power has usually been shared among several agencies or departments including policing. These various departments have been planned and synchronized to provide the service efficiently and effectively. Since its inception, policing have been mandated with the task of identifying and convicting criminals. However, the police have been expected to have an increasingly wider social role in acting as crisis managers or problem busters. As the police have been faced with numerous moral challenges, there are various theories that have been developed to describe ethics within the field of criminal justice.
Slippery Slope and Gratuities:
One of the long-standing and controversial practices within the police force is police gratuities…
Andrews, W.C. (2004, June). Police Gratuities, Public Perception after September 11, 2001.
Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http://www.clearwaterpolice.org/articles/andrews.asp
Delattre, E.J. (2002). Character and cops: ethics in policing (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.:
American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.
Ethics in Policing
It is crucial for organizations to clearly define ethics and ethical behaviors in the workplace and to also clearly tell its employees what constitutes unethical behavior (oufa, 2016). There is a strong push to uphold the high ethical standards set for the law enforcement community. However, without clear definition of those ethical standards, such efforts would likely not achieve any significant results.
Our understanding of ethics and ethical conduct is based on our personal and societal values. Personal values are those which are based on our personal experiences, religious beliefs, ethnic and cultural backgrounds. These values are unique to every person, which means they are not the best values to inform our professional conduct. Other values, however, are dear to the entire societies or groups. They are derived from the groups' history and understanding of ethical behavior. This is the proper platform on which to base professional…
Davis, W. A. (2014). Examining Student Perceptions: Ethics and Misconduct in Today's Police Department. The Aquila Digital Community. Retrieved from http://aquila.usm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1038&context=masters_theses
Roufa, T. (2016, October 12). Ethics in Law Enforcement and Policing. Retrieved from The Balance: https://www.thebalance.com/ethics-in-law-enforcement-and-policing-974542
Stephens, D. W. (2011, June). Police Discipline: A Case for Change. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/234052.pdf
United States Attorney's Office District of Connecticut. (2014, January 23). Former East Haven Police Officer Sentenced To Five Years In Prison For Criminal Civil Rights Violations. Retrieved from The United States Department of Justice: https://www.justice.gov/usao-ct/pr/former-east-haven-police-officer-sentenced-five-years-prison-criminal-civil-rights
A written policy regarding sexual misconduct is imperative, as is stringent hiring practices including applicant screening, adequate supervision, training, and a structured investigative process regarding allegations of sexual misconduct (Abner et al., 2011). Addressing Sexual Offenses further states that it is necessary to clearly outline the consequences for sexual misconduct as a means of deterring it (Abner et al., 2011). Additionally, Addressing Sexual Offenses outlines other strategies which need to be employed to eliminate the possibility of police sexual misconduct including videotaping all officer interactions, requiring strict time reporting, and implementing unannounced spot checks on officer's electronic devices and communication devices (Abner et al., 2011).
Specific strategies, policies, training, screening, and supervising must be employed to eradicate sexual misconduct by law enforcement officers. Obviously, sexual misconduct by law enforcement officers is a reality and has far reaching implications within a society. Only by eliminating the behavior, will it be possible…
Abner, C., Clark, D., Dahmer-Farris, T., Di Pino, B., Gamble, a., Gibbs, T… Firman, J.
(2011, June). Addressing Sexual Offenses and Misconduct by Law
Executive Guide. Retrieved November 27, 2012 from website:
esearch also showed that offenders tend to be part of or return to communities with high concentrations of offenders. The concentration of offenders in these neighborhoods affects the community negatively by increasing the stigma associated with the community and also saddling the community with additional problems without providing added resources needed for restoring or maintaining order. The ultimate consequence is the that the criminal justice system destabilizes informal networks of social control and increases poor attitudes towards formal social controls, both of which have been shown to contribute to increases in crime and disorder in the communities. Churning results in unnecessary pressure being put on the other residents of the communities who are law-abiding in disadvantaged communities. The removal of men from the community through incarceration has the chilling effect of changing the family's socio-economic structure. The families of incarcerated members, especially men, of the community also face stigma and…
Burke, K. And Leben, S. (2007). Procedural Fairness: A key Ingredient in Public Satisfaction.
Court Review: The Journal of the American Judges Association. 44 (1), 4-25.
Davis, A.J. (2008). Racial Fairness in the Criminal Justice System: The Role of the Prosecutor. Colombia Human Rights Law Review. 202 (39), 202-32.
Hurwitz, J and Peffley, M. (2001). Racial Polarization on Criminal Justice Issues:
Ethics-CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
Details of the Source
When does police mistake become murder?
The Christian Science Monitor,
Date of publication: 04-05-1999,
Summary of Facts
Racial profiling is probably the biggest concern of minorities groups in our country because it has been the cause of numerous injustices against them. Our law enforcement agencies appear to be ruthlessly biased in their exercise of duty as is clear from this article. The author shows that racial profiling has resulted in prosecution and death of many innocent immigrants. The article argues that when death results from irresponsible actions of the police, it should be counted as murder because it violates basic civil rights provided by the constitution to every citizen regardless of color or creed. However it has been noticed that our police would open fire on any immigrant who appears to be a threat. The author asks: "Should the police officer be tried…
Finally, torture is the best means to try to get this information from the suspect (McCoy, 2006). Taken as a whole, these circumstances are so unlikely to occur that, even if the ticking bomb scenario would justify the use of torture, it has not ever occurred and, therefore, cannot be used to justify torture.
In fact, what many people who advocate in favor of torture fail to acknowledge is that while torture may be guaranteed to elicit information from even the most reticent of subjects, there is no reason to believe that torture will elicit truthful information. The theory behind torture is that, with the application of sufficient pain and fear, people will talk, and that does appear to be true in the vast majority of cases. However, it is more important to wonder what they will say than whether they will talk. In the non-terrorist scenario, "About 25% of…
Armbruster, B. (2011, October 3). Obama's successful counterterror strategy. Retrieved March 21, 2012 from Think Progress website: http://thinkprogress.org/progress-report/obamas -successful-counterterror-strategy/
Bufacchi, V., & Arrigo, J.M. (2006). Torture, terrorism, and the state: A refutation of the Ticking-Bomb argument. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 23(3), 355-373.
Gathii, J. (2004). Torture, extra-territoriality, terrorism, and international law. Albany Law
Review, 67, 101-138. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from:
In the capacity of a high school counselor, certain situations will probably arise that in which the counselor will have to assume some type of leadership, and exercise decision making skills in order to address the issue. Some (if not many) of those situations are likely to include issues of illegalities or ethics.
One such scenario might include when a counselor is confronted with a student who might be an illegal immigrant. Some of the concerns that the counselor would have to consider in this case might include the fact that if the student's status were to become known (certainly by law enforcement individuals or entities), the student and his/her family might be separated, or forced into a deportation process.
Another scenario could take place when a young lady presents to the counselor a concern about pregnancy. This situation brings with it many perils; a counselor would have to…
Gardels, N.; (2007) America no longer owns globalization, New Perspectives Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 2 -- 5
This information, stored on a computer and used to correlate with other data could be considered invaluable by many researchers, but the patients have a right to keep certain information private, and to suggest anything else would be an ethical violation of the patient's privacy.
Because computer ethics is such a volatile issue, an entire branch of study has grown up around computer ethics, which proponents who believe the computer age caused these ethical issues, and others who believe these issues would have surfaced anyway. One of the proponents of computer ethics, who actually was the first to teach the concept, Walter Maner, from Old Dominion University, is a proponent of the computer creating brand new ethical issues. An expert quotes Maner, "For all of these issues, there was an essential involvement of computing technology. Except for this technology, these issues would not have arisen, or would not have arisen…
Adams, H.R., Bocher, R.F., Gordon, C.A., & Barry-Kessler, E. 2005 Privacy in the 21st Century: Issues for Public, School, and Academic Libraries. Libraries Unlimited, Westbrook, CT.
Bynum, Terryl 2008 Computer and Information Ethics, Stanford University, URL=" http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-computer/ "
Fisher, C.B. 2006 Privacy and Ethics in Pediatric Environmental Health Research-Part I: Genetic and Prenatal Testing. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(10), 1617+.
Rennie, John 2008 Who's Watching You: The Future of Privacy, Scientific American, URL=" http://www.sciam.com/podcast/episode.cfm?id=28825D7D-D772-2192-12177C05B4B2AED7 "
149-150). When the inmate failed to deliver on the guards' demands, the guards then planted drugs in the inmate's bunk (p. 150). The inmate was subsequently prosecuted, and received an extended sentence (p. 150).
Often people will doubt these kinds of stories, because, after all, the inmates are already imprisoned for offenses like drugs, and often much worse kinds of crimes. This puts the inmates at risk of guards and other prison employees who might not embrace a high set of ethics or personal morals. Everyone wants to see crime punished, but when the crimes are being committed within the prison environment, people seem to be less concerned about them, even if they are crimes being committed by the guards or prison officials. People should, in fact, be very concerned about these kinds of crimes, because it is the prison officials and those employees, including guards, who are willing to…
Bowman, J.S. & Elliston, F.A. (Eds.). (1988). Ethics, Government, and Public Policy: A Reference Guide. New York: Greenwood Press. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=30400116
Cody, W.J., & Lynn, R.R. (1992). Honest Government: An Ethics Guide for Public Service. Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6854498
Coyle, A., Campbell, A., & Neufeld, R. (Eds.). (2003). Capitalist Punishment: Prison Privatization & Human Rights. Atlanta: Clarity Press. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99960585
Dolovich, S. (2005). State Punishment and Private Prisons. Duke Law Journal, 55(3), 437+. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015707307
When ordinary 'beat cops' act unethically, it immediately garners negative media attention because it affects the public in such a visceral and immediate fashion. Police officers are the average citizen's main source of contact with the justice system and so they are carefully watched. However, prosecutors may decide to proceed with a prosecution despite questionable evidence or act unethically in other ways, and unless it comes to the media's attention or there is very stringent oversight over the office from an outside authority, prosecutors' transgressions may go unnoticed. Prosecutors and police officers both have the most serious and complex obligations of members of the justice system: not to get a conviction, but to pursue justice.
What suggestions might you offer to avoid errors in human inquiry?
First and foremost, to prevent errors in human inquiry causing errors in judgment, it is essential that members of law enforcement staff are cognizant…
Ethics and Behavior in Organizational Culture
Criminal justice uses a series of tools with the purpose of fighting criminal activities, with these respective tools working together in deterring, catching, judging, and penalizing criminals. The police are one of the principal elements in the system that are directed at addressing criminal activities. The presence of the crime problem in society has encouraged the masses to get actively involved in fighting it through devising complex systems that focus on discouraging criminal acts and on punishing individuals who commit them.
The state uses legislature with the purpose to create funds that are directed at supporting criminal justice agencies. The judiciary branch determines people's guilt and focus on devising penalties that are in accordance with their crimes. In addition to devising laws in situations that have no precedent, courts are also in charge of interpreting legislations and determine whether a person's act can be…
Harr, J. "Constitutional Law and the Criminal Justice System." (Cengage Learning, 1 Jan 2014)
"When Rivalry Between Departments Goes Too Far," Retrieved July 15, 2014, from http://www.geocities.com/stressline_com/rivalry.html
The author of this report has been asked to select and summarize the ethical charges against any politician in recent memory. One that is very recent in that it is going on right would be the ethical and legal mess that Hillary Clinton would seem to be in right now as it relates to her email server. Indeed, Ms. Clinton had a personal email server prepared and maintained and she used that server to do her business as Secretary of State. While it is not completely clear as of yet whether Hillary will face charges or if she broke the law, she certainly has received some unwanted attention from the top intelligence and law enforcement agencies in the United States.
Even if nothing Hillary did was illegal, one of her main "sins" would be that of transparency and ethics in general as a public official. Of course, one…
Hemingway, M. (2015). When Open Government Slams Shut. Reason, 47(2), 24.
Wilstein, M. (2015). Sarah Palin Compares Her Own Email Problems to Hillary
Clinton's. Mediaite.com. Retrieved 9 September 2015, from http://www.mediaite.com/online/sarah-palin-compares-her-own-email-problems -
All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).
Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on…
Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.
Brennan, M. et al. (2002). Communication, Cultural and Media Studies. Routledge. London.
Chambers, T. (1996). From the ethicist's point-of-view: The literary nature of ethical inquiry. Hastings Center Report 26(1): 25-32.
Chang K. (2005). Tiny is beautiful: translating 'nano' into practical. New York Times; p. A1.
Police Officers and the Law Enforcement Code of Ethics
Many professions, including law enforcement, maintain a code of ethics to provide general guidelines for practitioners who are routinely confronted with ethical dilemmas that defy easy resolution. This paper reviews the literature to determine what a Law Enforcement Code of Ethics (the "Code") has to say about the acts of a police officer and the extent to which these guidelines are open to interpretation due to vagaries in content or guidance. In addition, recommendations for improving the Code are followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
Like the legal and healthcare professions, law enforcement officers have an ethical responsibility to their fellow officers, their organization as well as the general public they are committed to protect and serve. These obligations make a code of ethics an integral part of the law enforcement…
Grant, J. K. (2009, December). Ethics and law enforcement. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 71(12), 11-14.
Stephens, N. (2006, November). Law enforcement ethics do not begin when you pin on the badge. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 75(11), 22-24.
The importance of ethics in the criminal justice field cannot be overemphasised. All participants must portray acceptable moral conduct for positive criminal justice outcomes to be achieved (Braswell, McCarthy & McCarthy, 2008). This is particularly true for correctional institutions, a major component of the criminal justice system. Correctional authorities play a crucial role in rehabilitating offenders and facilitating their transition back to the society. The role places huge ethical demands on correctional personnel. This paper outlines ethical requirements for correctional officers. First, a comprehensive job description of correctional officers is offered, along with the key stakeholders they work together with in the fulfilment of their day to day duties and responsibilities. Next, a number of practical work scenarios where ethical decision making is required are highlighted, with an evaluation of the relevance of theoretical perspectives to the scenarios. Finally, a code of ethics and best-practices checklist relevant for correctional officers…
.....personal ethics derive from a combination of established codifications of moral conduct, such as those embedded in political documents or in religious scripture, but also from my personality, my upbringing, and my worldview. I tend towards a utilitarian point-of-view, in that I do believe that the consequences of actions are more important than worrying about whether an action is inherently right or wrong. I also believe that there are situational variables that make true deontological ethics almost impossible to apply universally and without hypocrisy. Although I make some decisions based on the principle of doing the maximum amount to good for the maximum number of people, I also recognize the importance of a strong ethical character when making decisions "Six Ethical Theories Rough Overview," n.d.). This is why I believe that there can be no one ethical theory that encompasses all situations. A person who has a strong ethical character,…
Copyright Infringement & the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998
This paper looks into the issues of copyright infringement and circumvention of technology with reference to Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998. The author of this paper has carefully studied the law in question and has focused on various issues connected with this legislation. DMCA is a highly controversial law that has been staunchly opposed and actively supported by different section of the public and it has managed to attract great deal of media attention because of various lawsuits that emerged in this connection. The paper looks into some important Court cases for impartial and objective study of the law.
DIGITAL MILLENNIUM COPYIGHT ACT
INTODUCTION TO DMCA
There has been a long-standing debate on the issue of freedom of speech in the United States. While the Constitution of the country explicitly grants American citizens the right to share information…
Chris Taylor/San Francisco, Throwing The E-Book At Him A programmer is prosecuted for enabling users to break the security in reader software., Time, 08-20-2001, pp. 62+
Voss, David, DIGITAL SECURITY: Music Industry Strikes Sour Note for Academics., Science, 05-04-2001.
Neil Ferguson, 'Censorship in Action, Why I don't publish my HDCP results', Aug 15, 2001 http://www.macfergus.com/neils/dmca/cia.html
Lev Grossman, Business/The Future of Copyright: Digital Divisiveness., Time, 08-28-2000, pp. 40.
Media's Role in the BTK Killer Case
There have been several serial murder cases which feature killers who play with the attention of the public through their manipulation of the media for various reasons. However, with the actual publication of messages supposedly from mass murderers, the ethical role of the media is put to the test. Many believe that publishing these messages increases the chances of catching the murderer in question; but in the case of the BTK Killer in ichita Kansas, the publication of such messages by a local newspaper The Eagle provided little information to law enforcement officials and an arrest was made decades after the onslaught of the murders. Examples such as these show how publishing such communications may in fact be too much information for the public to handle and at the same time just continues to encourage the killer to commit more and more violent…
Maher, Kelly J. "Media Ethics: Media's Role in BTK Case Questioned." University of Minnesota. Study of Media Ethics and Law. www.silha.umn.edu.5. May. 2008. http://www.silha.umn.edu/Winter%202005%20Bulletin/Media%20Ethics%20Role%20in%20BTK%20Case.pdf
Merritt, Davis, Mccombs, Maxwell. The Two W's of Journalism: The What and Why of Public Affairs Reporting. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 2004.
Ethical Considerations for the Use of Technology to Meet Selected Homeland Security Objectives
The Digital Age has transformed the way the world works for better or worse. Technology exists to bring down nations’ infrastructures without ever firing a missile (Ten, Manimaran & Liu, 2010). New technology has been developed that can allow agencies to spy, snoop, monitor, and retrieve conversations had online, through email, on cell phones, or via text messaging. To meet security needs, using this technology has very real and practical advantages. At the same time, there are privacy rules and regulations that have to be considered as the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution clearly gives people the right to privacy. Nonetheless, Homeland Security requires that the nation consider the evolution of terrorism and view it not just as an external threat but also as an internal threat. In other words, terrorism is not just a…
Queen v. Dudley, a group of sailors were hired to captain a yacht from Essex, England to Sydney, Australia. Dudley was the captain, and Stephens, Brooks, and Parker were his mates and seamen. When The Mignonette capsized, the four men climbed aboard the lifeboat dinghy but had no water or supplies. Several weeks into the ordeal, Captain Dudley suggested that one of the men be sacrificed as a food source for the others so that at least three of them might remain alive rather than having them all die. Dudley first suggested they draw straws to see who would be chosen, but then decided that Parker, one of the seamen aboard, showed signs of sickness and would make an ideal candidate for sacrifice. Dudley killed Parker and the three other men ate Parker's body until they were rescued several days later. When the men returned home to England, they were…
60 Minutes. "Evidence of Innocence: The Case of Michael Morton." Retrieved online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rcyYCJZ5JTI
This American Life. 414: Right to Remain Silent. Retrieved online: http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/414/transcript
"The Mignonette, 1884 (Queen v. Dudley)."
Schwartz, J. (2014). Evidence of Concealed Jailhouse Deal Raises Questions About a Texas Execution. The New York Times. Feb 27, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/28/us/evidence-of-concealed-jailhouse-deal-raises-questions-about-a-texas-execution.html
The author of this report has been asked to create a vision statement. The vision statement should be for a technical university. It should be no more than two sentences. The overall depth, breadth and goal of the vision should be communicated in no more than four pages. The vision statement must be characteristic of a transformational leader and it must differentiate the employee and student minds from the market. While crafting a good vision statement can be difficult in some ways, there are some common threads and trends than can and should be used.
The role and goal of Acme Technical College is to inspire, teach and impart the knowledge and inspiration to create and uphold the technologies and ideals of the future. Only through innovation, strong leadership and ethical fortitude can we find the best way forward for both higher education and organizations that…
Kaplan, J. (2016). Why Apple's Fight Against the FBI Is Not Over Yet. Fortune. Retrieved 27 March 2016, from http://fortune.com/2016/03/26/apple-fbi-tim-cook/
Robinson, R. (2014). The Top 5 Retail Breaches. Security Intelligence. Retrieved 27 March 2016, from https://securityintelligence.com/the-top-5-retail-breaches/
Criminal justice is an inherently ethical profession. The judiciary ostensibly crafts laws that reflect the ethical sensibilities and social norms of the society, which are often embedded in the American Constitution. The role of the criminal justice system is to ensure that local, state, and federal laws are applied and enforced in a manner consistent with constitutional and regional codes. Issues like the equal protection clause are also ethical matters. The core objective of the criminal justice system is built on ethical responsibility: the ethical responsibility of the system to its main stakeholders, which is the American people.
However, there are also ancillary ethical issues associated with criminal justice that are not codified. Such issues are often linked with ambiguities and philosophical complexities. Applying criminal justice ethics entails sensitivity and awareness to prevailing political and social climates. Among the most pressing ethical issues in criminal justice include those related…
American Civil Liberties Union (2012). Racial profiling. Retrieved online: http://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/racial-profiling
Banks, C. (2012). Criminal Justice Ethics. Sage.
Block, W.E. & Obioha, V. (2012). War on black men: Arguments for the legalization of drugs. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 106-120.
Harfield, C. (2012). Police informers and professional ethics. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 73-95
Communication in the criminal justice system
The process of communication entails the passage of information between individuals. This flow of communication, however, has its principles. The principles include the need of effective channel of communication, message, and the sender. It is also vital for receivers to comprehend the message. In organizations, communication takes a formal and informal approach. Formal approaches to communication in organizations include the use of business memos, letters, and newsletters. On the other hand, an informal channel of communication relates to those channels of communication, not under management's control. This mode of communication refers to grapevines and other unregulated channels of communication in organizations. Successful criminal justice system organizations should have good communication structures. Flow of information in such organizations need to flow from up down and down- up.
However, current workload and tasks at the judicial justice systems have negative implications on communication channels. For centuries,…
Stohr, M.K and Collins, P.A. 2013. Criminal Justice Management. Theory and practice in Justice- centered organizations. New York: Routledge
Eaton, D.K. (2009). Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, Surveilance summaries, 58 (10), 2- 21.
Ethics: Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
The main thrust of the readings
The readings focus on the U.S. statutes prohibiting U.S. companies, citizens, and employees from issuing any valuable thing to foreign government executives for securing business benefits. The underlying thrust of the readings is twofold: first, that corruption must be deterred and second that government officials must promote economic relationships between their companies and foreign firms through the promotion of ethical foreign investment.
The rigid enactment of the FCPA has placed these two thrusts in a state of tension. Law enforcers and courts could interpret the readings broadly. For instance, any valuable thing includes not just payments in cash but also meals, gifts, entertainment and drinks. This element is not associated with any de minimis value and makes companies uncertain when they are expected to comply with the FCPA. From the readings, the FCPA has been enforced and institutes criminal…
Brenkert, G.G., & Beauchamp, T.L. (2010). The Oxford handbook of business ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cory, J. (2005). Business ethics: The ethical revolution of minority shareholders. New York: Springer.
Kumar, B.N., & Steinmann, H. (2008). Ethics in international management. Berlin, Ge: Walter de Gruyter.
Pastin, M., & Hooker, M. (1980). Ethics and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Business Horizons, 23(6), 43
'" (Aspen, 1997, p.95).
The primary step is to change the mindset of lawyers. They have to stop believing that they run the show and instead focus them as members of a team along with the judge to ensure that the legal system works for the innocent people in the right direction. Its important that every lawyer strikes a balance between his or her obligations to the clients and the justice system.
As a supplement, more stringent laws should be implemented and the actions of the prosecution should come under closer scrutiny to ensure that they will abide by the ethics and professional code of conduct as laid down by the lawmakers.
Plan for administrators
"Few problems can pose a greater threat to free, democratic societies than that of wrongful conviction -- the conviction of an innocent person. Yet relatively little attention has been paid to this problem, perhaps because…
Hon. Aspen, Marvin. (July 1997). Let Us Be Officers of the Court. ABA Journal.
Huff, Ronald; Rattner, Arye; Sagarin, Edward; MacNara, Donal. (October 1986). Guilty Until Proved Innocent: Wrongful Conviction and Public Policy. Crime Delinquency. 32 (4). 518-544.
BERGER v. UNITED STATES, 295 U.S. 78 (1935).
Miller v. Pate, 386 U.S. 1 (1967)
Deontological theory might criticize Guido's choice if the initial assumptions included the rule prohibiting lying. However, deontological analysis is only as useful as the underlying rules with respect to which it is applied. Therefore, the solution to the deontological issues raised by the issue presented by the movie is simply to reformulate a less restrictive rule that is incapable of being applied to every situation. Instead of proposing the rule that prohibits lying, the better rule might be to prohibit only lying for immoral purposes.
In fact, the blind adherence to rules under deontological principles often produces distinctly immoral results: it is difficult to imagine the moral purpose of informing a dying patient that a loved one was also killed in the same accident; nor is there a moral purpose for informing a child who is to young to understand the concept that he was adopted. In Guido's case, the…
Ethics in Cyberspace
Summary of the Book- the Ethics of Cyberspace by Cees Hamelink
Cees Hamelink is not new in the field of study of the principles relating to the communicating world and their association with civil liberties of mankind. Hamelink has accumulated his skills and views on all fields of communication and authored a book on the ways that most of the democratic society need to be resorted to in order to systematize the cyberspace. Hamelink, in his previous publications, attempted to evaluate the products, system and institutions of traditional industries vis-a-vis the morality of the people and liberty of mankind with a view to identifying these industries firmly and intentionally amidst as well as accountable to the civil society worldwide. He proved both of them to be essential. The book asserts of the facts that the control of the cyberspace worldwide should be guided by the public necessity…
Cerf, Vint; et; al (2003). "Who Rules the Net: Internet Governance and Jurisdiction" Cato
Edgar, Stacey L. (1997) "Morality and Machines: Perspectives on Computer Ethics, Jones and Bartlett Publications"
Featherstone, M; Burrows, R (1995) "Cyberspace, Cyberbodies, Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment" London. Sage.
The CDM is meant to award the developers 'credits' for supporting projects in developing countries which avoid greenhouse gas emissions (Joy, 2000). Provided that these credits can be bought and sold, effectively the price of the project is decreased. It has been anticipated that this may decrease the price of nuclear plants by as much as 20 or 30 per cent. On the other hand it was decided, after pressure from the EU, that nuclear projects should not be eligible for CDM credits, with opponents to nuclear inclusion arguing that it was not a clean, safe or sustainable option, nor a useful tool for economic development, at the reconvened Conference of Parties to the Kyoto agreement held in Bonn in 2001 (Ferguson, 2010).
Despite the fact that there are some scenarios for a nuclear revitalization in estern countries, this does not appear probable to be on a big level, and…
Martin, M.W. And Schinzinger, R. Ethics in Engineering, 2d Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008.
Brantley, C.J. Survey of Ethics Code Provisions by Subject-Matter Area, American Association of Engineering Societies, Washington, D.C., 2009.
Doyle, Thomas E. The Moral Implications of the Subversion of the Nonproliferation Treaty Regime, Ethics and Global Politics 2, no. 2. 2009.
Ferguson, Charles D. The Long Road to Zero: Overcoming the Obstacles to a Nuclear-Free World, Foreign Affairs 89, no. 1. January/February 2010.
The most adequate course of action in achieving this desiderate is based on the following steps:
the full and sustained collaboration with the national and international authorities; this will not only gain the trust of the legal representatives, but will also improve the perception of Chiquita in the eyes of its stakeholders (employees, customer, business partners, governmental and non-governmental institutions and so on) the critical and objective analysis of the loses generated by the need to pay the fine and the closing of the Columbian plants communications with the stakeholders, official apologies and explanations for the decisions made; support to institutions striving to resolve the matters of political instability in Columbia and other global regions affected by the problem the search for more adequate locations which could support the development of Chiquita's operations, without placing its managerial team is so severe ethical dilemmas, in which it would have to choose…
Carroll, a.B., Buchholtz, a.K., 2008, Business and Society: Ethics and Stakeholder Management, 7th Edition, South Western Educ Pub.
June 7, 2007, Chiquita Faces Columbia Lawsuit, Al Jazeera, http://english.aljazeera.net/news/americas/2007/06/2008525121622267726.htmllastaccessedon March 6, 2009
Arguably the deficiencies in processes and technologies throughout the distribution channel enable the unethical sharing of digital property by consumers in the first place. it's as if the incompetence of these channel partners' platforms, either from a website standpoint with the support of DM technologies or the reliance on faulty, often poorly designed DM systems, technologies and techniques create much opportunity to take digital and intellectual property and repurpose it illegally across P2P sites that seek to make all music egalitarian (Lysonski, Durvasula, 2008). it's as if the mid-tier of the distribution channel is leaving the door open wide enough from an intellectual property standpoint to allow for individuals to selectively choose which songs, digital products of all sort, and what platforms they want to repurpose them on (Levin, Dato-on, Manolis, 2007).
When the music distributors, both in the form of traditional forms including music stores selling CDs and non-traditional…
Altschuller, S., & Benbunan-fich, R.(2009). Is music downloading the new prohibition? What students reveal through an ethical dilemma. Ethics and Information Technology, 11(1), 49-56.
Banerjee, a., Faloutsos, M., & Bhuyan, L. (2008). The P2P war: Someone is monitoring your activities. Computer Networks, 52(6), 1272.
Norman E. Bowie. (2005). Digital Rights and Wrongs: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Business and Society Review, 110(1), 77-96.
Ross Dannenberg. (2006). Copyright Protection for Digitally Delivered Music: A Global Affair. Intellectual Property & Technology Law Journal, 18(2), 12-16.
He has already placed himself under a cloud of suspicion by the community, and while he still possess the same essential rights, he cannot be regarded deserving of the same attention as the boy. Cappa's rights must be respected to the fullest because he, in so far as anyone knows, has always respected the rights of others. Smoot has not. The temporary abridgment of Smoot's rights in order to ensure the Natural Rights of Mickey Cappa would seem to be in accord with an ideal of happiness for all. In this kind of situation, the existence of a predator or abductor in the community represents a threat to everyone's natural rights. It is a threat that should be removed. If indeed, Sylvester Smoot is innocent, his interrogation can be viewed as means both of making sure that Mickey Cappa's rights were protected, as well as away of showing to the…
However, while there are investors willing to invest on the profitability of gambling on the Internet, there are still many investors that are reluctant to pursue an investment on online gambling because of the financial insecurity of these sites. These gambling sites are also known and are purportedly practicing "illegal transactions," since online gambling in the U.S. is prohibited. The lack of confidence in investing on online gambling and insecurity of the financial channels and transactions of these sites stem from the fact that "[t]here is also a question mark over whether U.S. banks and financial services businesses which process online gambling transactions are in breach of law" (egum, 2005:13).
However, the question of the legality of these online gambling sites are being put into scrutiny. U.S. legislation has decided to deregulate online gambling through the 1961 Wire Act, with an updated version through the proposed bill Unlawful Internet Gambling…
Armitt, C. (2005). "One in three UK Internet users visited gambling sites in April." New Media Age.
Begum, H. (2005). "Wall Street banks shun online gaming floats." Lawyer, Vol. 19, Issue 35.
Chesler, C. (2006). "Taking a Gamble." Investment Dealer's Digest, Vol. 72, Issue 23.
Dudley, D. (2004). "Portals increase pressure to stop underage gambling." New Media Age.
While making false statements about the vehicle's history is certainly deceitful and unfair, those types of statements fall far short of the legal definition of "fraud" because they are not considered material to the sale (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008).
The Toys "" Us situation unfair and unethical but did not violate any laws; in those cases it is strictly up to the company to establish policies to prohibit conduct that is unfair to customers and to the general public. Generally, the law only establishes standards of conduct that are sufficiently unjust that criminal enforcement is appropriate; it is not a substitute for ethical judgment. Those who conform only to the minimum standards imposed by criminal statutes may often engage in conduct that is extremely immoral but not necessarily illegal. Therefore, it is up to the individual to make ethical decisions in many instances. In that regard, social mores and family…
Halbert, T., Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati,
OH: West Legal Studies.
Whichever party files the claim has the initial burden to establish that a valid contract existed (Halbert & Ingulli, 2009). In that regard, any credible evidence such as a tape recording of the original telephone call or of any subsequent calls referring to the existence of the agreement will suffice to establish the existence of a valid enforceable verbal contract for services to be provided by Eddie. Credible testimony in court from witnesses who actually heard the conversation or to whom either party admitted the existence of the agreement would also establish the existence of a valid and enforceable contract (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008).
If Eddie breaches, Grace would be seeking the remedy of the compensation for any benefit of the bargain lost, such as where she subsequently ends up paying more for the same services. If Grace breaches, Eddie would be seeking his lost profit from the sale of…
Friedman, L.M. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
Halbert, T., and Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati, OH: West Legal Studies.
Moal chaacte, that is, having couage, being pesistent, dismissing distactions and so on in pusuit of the goal.
These ae attempts to define ethics by descibing actions, and faily specific constellations of actions at that. Fedeich Paulson, a 19th centuy philosophe of ethics, defined ethics as a science of moal duty (1899).
Almost 100 yeas late, Swenson also used the concept of study in defining ethics, saying that it included the systematic study of concepts such as ight and wong. Othe eseaches note that the idea of systematic study is common in dictionay definitions of ethics, with the Ameican Heitage Dictionay focusing on thee elements: " the study of moal philosophy, the ules of a pofession (o moe boadly the chaacte of a community), and moal self-examination (Soukhanov, 1992).
Hill (2004) offes a 'definition' that is mainly pactical but also incopoates some theoetical content. They believe that ethical…
references for confidentiality of records. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34, 62-67.
Welfel, E.R. (1992). Psychologist as ethics educator: Successes, failures, and unanswered questions. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 182-189.
Welfel, E.R. (1998). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Welfel, E.R. (2002). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues (2nd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Police officers need to understand that there exists a balance between security and the individual's freedom (Banks, 2009). Officers are also susceptible to corruption, and therefore need to understand…Read Full Paper ❯
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A written policy regarding sexual misconduct is imperative, as is stringent hiring practices including applicant screening, adequate supervision, training, and a structured investigative process regarding allegations of sexual misconduct…Read Full Paper ❯
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Finally, torture is the best means to try to get this information from the suspect (McCoy, 2006). Taken as a whole, these circumstances are so unlikely to occur that,…Read Full Paper ❯
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Education - Computers
This information, stored on a computer and used to correlate with other data could be considered invaluable by many researchers, but the patients have a right to keep certain…Read Full Paper ❯
149-150). When the inmate failed to deliver on the guards' demands, the guards then planted drugs in the inmate's bunk (p. 150). The inmate was subsequently prosecuted, and received…Read Full Paper ❯
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All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethics and Morality
Police Officers and the Law Enforcement Code of Ethics Many professions, including law enforcement, maintain a code of ethics to provide general guidelines for practitioners who are routinely confronted…Read Full Paper ❯
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Ethics and Morality
.....personal ethics derive from a combination of established codifications of moral conduct, such as those embedded in political documents or in religious scripture, but also from my personality, my…Read Full Paper ❯
Law - Legal Issues
Copyright Infringement & the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998 This paper looks into the issues of copyright infringement and circumvention of technology with reference to Digital Millennium…Read Full Paper ❯
Communication - Journalism
Media's Role in the BTK Killer Case There have been several serial murder cases which feature killers who play with the attention of the public through their manipulation of…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethics / Morality
Ethical Considerations for the Use of Technology to Meet Selected Homeland Security Objectives Introduction The Digital Age has transformed the way the world works for better or worse. Technology…Read Full Paper ❯
Queen v. Dudley, a group of sailors were hired to captain a yacht from Essex, England to Sydney, Australia. Dudley was the captain, and Stephens, Brooks, and Parker were…Read Full Paper ❯
Vision Statement The author of this report has been asked to create a vision statement. The vision statement should be for a technical university. It should be no more…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethics Criminal justice is an inherently ethical profession. The judiciary ostensibly crafts laws that reflect the ethical sensibilities and social norms of the society, which are often embedded in…Read Full Paper ❯
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Ethics: Foreign Corrupt Practices Act The main thrust of the readings The readings focus on the U.S. statutes prohibiting U.S. companies, citizens, and employees from issuing any valuable thing…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
'" (Aspen, 1997, p.95). The primary step is to change the mindset of lawyers. They have to stop believing that they run the show and instead focus them as…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
Deontological theory might criticize Guido's choice if the initial assumptions included the rule prohibiting lying. However, deontological analysis is only as useful as the underlying rules with respect to…Read Full Paper ❯
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Ethics in Cyberspace Summary of the Book- the Ethics of Cyberspace by Cees Hamelink Cees Hamelink is not new in the field of study of the principles relating to…Read Full Paper ❯
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The most adequate course of action in achieving this desiderate is based on the following steps: the full and sustained collaboration with the national and international authorities; this will…Read Full Paper ❯
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Arguably the deficiencies in processes and technologies throughout the distribution channel enable the unethical sharing of digital property by consumers in the first place. it's as if the incompetence…Read Full Paper ❯
He has already placed himself under a cloud of suspicion by the community, and while he still possess the same essential rights, he cannot be regarded deserving of the…Read Full Paper ❯
However, while there are investors willing to invest on the profitability of gambling on the Internet, there are still many investors that are reluctant to pursue an investment on…Read Full Paper ❯
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While making false statements about the vehicle's history is certainly deceitful and unfair, those types of statements fall far short of the legal definition of "fraud" because they are…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
Whichever party files the claim has the initial burden to establish that a valid contract existed (Halbert & Ingulli, 2009). In that regard, any credible evidence such as a…Read Full Paper ❯
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othe values Moal chaacte, that is, having couage, being pesistent, dismissing distactions and so on in pusuit of the goal. These ae attempts to define ethics by descibing actions,…Read Full Paper ❯