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No matter what efforts were attempted, the aggression of Germany in Europe and Japan in the Pacific Ocean and the then-American territory of Hawaii exploded into the official beginning of World War II in 1941. Strangely enough, it is fair to make the argument that one of the events which drove Hitler to push Germany deeper and deeper into war, despite being advised to the contrary, was the humiliation of having to cater to the peace movement that culminated after World War I and led to the birth of the League; this is not to say that the League actually caused additional war, however.
Upon the conclusion of World War II, after the death of Hitler and defeat of Germany and Japan respectively, the world once again in 1945 found itself repeating where it had been immediately after World War I. Whether the popular opinion that the League of Nations…
Grigorescu, Alexandru. "Mapping the UN-League of Nations Analogy: Are There Still Lessons to Be Learned from the League?." Global Governance 11.1 (2005): 25+.
Margulies, Herbert F. "The Moderates in the League of Nations Battle: An Overlooked Faction." The Historian 60.2 (1998): 273+.
Mazower, Mark. "Minorities and the League of Nations in Interwar Europe." Daedalus 126.2 (1997): 47+.
Northedge, F.S. The League of Nations: Its Life and Times, 1920-1946. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1986.
America, United ations and the League of ations
All through its continuation, The ational Interest of the United States of America has endeavored to recognize and assess the rational structures that motivate American Foreign-policy production. All efforts to devise a proper tactical political policy have constantly escorted, back to the invariable foundation: the recognition of national objectives, goals, and intents. Successive American administrations have believed that foreign policy is devoid of implication unless it points in the direction of the achievement of America's national objectives.
Therefore, the inevitable prerequisite to a balanced assessment of the usage of the United ations and the League of ations is to study the aims and intents of American foreign policy during that time. The paper has made an attempt to recognize the connection between the American ational Interest and the utility of these two organizations.
America's Rejection to support the League of ations
Nicholas H.G. The United Nations as a Political Institution. London: Oxford University Press, 1959. Taken from: Thomas G. Weiss. United Nations and Changing World Politics. Westview Press. 2004. Pg: 221
Wilcox Francis. Proposals for Changes in the United Nations. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1956. Taken from: Thomas G. Weiss. United Nations and Changing World Politics. Westview Press. 2004. Pg: 222.
Wilcox Francis. Proposals for Changes in the United Nations. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1956. Taken from: Thomas G. Weiss. United Nations and Changing World Politics. Westview Press. 2004. Pg: 223
Are states still relevant?
ealist, cooperative, liberal and critical theories of international relations
The realist theory of international politics views states as 'black box' actors. The possibly competing interests of citizens and bureaucrats within the state are ignored. ealism holds that "at its most fundamental level, the national interest is generic and easy to define: all states seek to preserve their political autonomy and their territorial integrity. Once these two interests have been secured, however, national interests may take different forms. Some states may have an interest in securing more resources or land; other states may wish to expand their own political or economic systems into other areas; some states may merely wish to be left alone" (Ferraro 2011). Another synonym for realism is 'rationalism.' States are assumed to be able to rationally pursue their own interests in the international community.
Of course, realists understand that the…
Ferraro, Vincent. (2011). Political realism. Mt. Holyoke College.
Retrieved December 13, 2011 at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pol116/realism.htm
Morgenthau, Hans J. (1978). Politics among nations: The struggle for power and peace,
5th Ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978, pp. 4-15. Retrieved December 13, 2011 at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/morg6.htm
Responsible for the Failure of the League Nations
Absence of extraordinary powers
Great powers refer to nations that have influential abilities and capabilities to exert force in any national or international happening. The League of Nations lacked enormous formidable powers who could participate in influencing decision-making processes. The covenant of the League of Nations was incorporated to be part of the peace settlement. Nonetheless, the league failed to be separated from the powers that could have had influential powers to its policies. Many nations were for the nation that the Treaty of Versailles in order to foster revenge activities.
The same idea had no plans to be rectified in the case that the plans never went as planned. ecause these nations had failed to be part of the rectification processes, these nations failed to be members of the League of Nations. ecause of this aspect, many nations failed to be…
Ellis, C.H. (2003). The origin, structure & working of the League of Nations. Clark, N.J.,
Ginneken, A.H.M.V. (2006). Historical dictionary of the League of Nations. Lanham, MD,
Scarecrow Press. Retrieved on 17th February 2013 from .
United Nations, the Unwanted Nobodies and this tells you much about its status in the world.
The UN has been implicated in a good deal of corruption and scandal. It has been said to be political, to be bigoted, to evidence cowardice and fail its responsibilities, to misappropriate its resources, and to misuse judgment. These have been only a few -- and the weakest -- of the accusations leveled against this not particularly effective institution.
The UN has failed, time and again, to intervene in major world crisis when it was most needed. ather than stand their ground with Egypt for instance during the six-day war, it deserted the region, and it demonstrated this same behavior time and again during the African genocides. Similarly, too, the UN showed its ineffectiveness during the crisis with Iraq, becoming a puppet in the hands of France and ussia who tried to use it…
americans-world.org . Americans and the World: a source of comprehensive information on U.S. public opinion http://www.americans-world.org/digest/global_issues/un/un1.cfm
Charter of the UN
Kim R. Holmes, Assistant Secretary of State, "The Challenges Facing the United Nations Today: An American View," address to the Council on Foreign Relations, October 21, 2003, at www.cfr.org/publication.php?id=6451#.
Once all countries, big, small, rich and poor, realize that their greater good lies in maintaining global peace without any "ifs and buts" they can join forces to reform the UN and make it a more effective body.
Charter of the United Nations." United Nations' Official ebsite. 2007. March 10, 2007. http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/index.html
Holmes, Kim R. "New orld Disorder: A Critique of the United Nations." Journal of International Affairs. 46: 2, 1993. pp: 323-340
Kant, Immanuel. "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch." 1795. Mount Holyoke College. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm
Mallaby, Sebastian. "Bound to Fail." Newsweek International, March 5, 2007 issue. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/17311792/site/newsweek/
Slavin, Barbara and Bill Nichols. "Bolton a 'guided missile.'" USA TODAY. 11/30/2003. March 10, 2007 http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2003-11-30-bolton-usat_x.htm
The Charter of the United Nations was signed by the representatives of 50 countries on June 26, 1945; the start of its preamble states: "e the peoples of the United Nations [are] determined to save…
Charter of the United Nations." United Nations' Official Website. 2007. March 10, 2007. http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/index.html
Holmes, Kim R. "New World Disorder: A Critique of the United Nations." Journal of International Affairs. 46: 2, 1993. pp: 323-340
Kant, Immanuel. "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch." 1795. Mount Holyoke College. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm
Mallaby, Sebastian. "Bound to Fail." Newsweek International, March 5, 2007 issue. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/17311792/site/newsweek/
United Nations: Failures
The United Nations is the result of an international policy experiment that aimed at bringing together the countries of the world in an attempt to avoid conflagrations such as the First and Second World wars from taking place again in the modern history of human kind. The loss of lives in the wars that marked the 20th century determined world leaders and in particular the five great powers that emerged victorious after the Second World War to consider a new political structure that would determine a path of communication, of public diplomacy and ensure a system of constant contact based on international law. lmost seven decades later, no world conflagrations have taken place; yet, the UN is considered to have failed in its attempt to manage regional and local conflicts and avoiding the loss of human life. The late 20th century saw a series of significant failures…
As innocent lives were torn apart, there were individual efforts to take action for the protection. Monique Mujawamariya, a Rwandan human rights activist, personally visited Washington to contact Anthony Lake, a UN National Security Advisor, in order to request extra arms and military assistance to prevent the Hutu extremists from killing her people. However, Anthony Lake responded, "the U.S. has no friends, only interests, and the U.S. has no interest in Rwanda. We have no motivation." He also reminded her about the previous incident in Somalia, where UN troops were killed brutally. He said that he did not want the UN to "return with coffins again." However, the situation in Rwanda was incomparable to the situation in Somalia because there was a public genocide. Despite this urgency, the UN did not even recognize the situation as "genocide."
According to the analysis framework of the UN, the UN defined genocide in 1948 as "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part1; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [and] forcibly transferring children of the group to another group." Nonetheless, there was an increased indifference to the situation in Rwanda, and ambassadors of the UN refused to accept the situation as genocide. However, the massacre of Tutsis in particular by the Hutus is a sign of "deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction." The mere fact that the UN eschewed the gravity of this genocide was a failure of the UN to exercise its intended practices as an international peacekeeping force.
The majority of the UN officials especially in the Security Council simply did not recognize this event as a significant factor or issue during their discussions. Even President Clinton of the United States himself stated in a speech regarding the country's intentions stated that issues ranging from "Rwanda to Georgia" will
The coelation between coopeative initiation and eceptive tendencies, howeve, is much weake" (p. 32).
The oveiding theme that emeges fom all of the foegoing analytical models is the fact that although intenational conflicts and be effectively modeled and deconstucted in ode to gain a bette undestanding of the pecipitating factos and how they play out in eal-wold settings, they do not necessaily povide the insights needed to develop esolutions to these conflicts no do they povide peemptive altenatives that could stop the conflict fom stating in the fist place. Indeed, epidemiologists use compaable techniques to undestanding how disease pocesses evolve and spead thoughout a human population, but diffeent techniques ae equied to develop coesponding cues and teatments fo thei diseases. Similaly, the analysis of intenational conflicts that is needed to help decision-makes identify viable solutions will equie an additional and supplemental type of analytical methodology.
Given the potential fo death…
references. New York: United Nations University Press.
Bercovitch, J. (1999). Resolving international conflicts: The theory and practice of mediation.
Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Kenneth B. (1962). Conflict and defense. New York: Harper and Row.
Goertz, G. & Diehl, P.F. (1992). Territorial changes and international conflict. New York:
nations real? What makes them more or less real? Consider two concrete examples of the embodiment of national ideology.
Are nations real?
ecause of their establishment in the political firmament of contemporary society, nations seem or 'feel' so real that we forget most of the nations we take for granted are relatively young constructs. Italy and Germany were fractious, yoked-together provinces well into the 19th century. Even the United States only became united by a civil war, and today many Americans still proclaim the virtues of states' rights. During the end of both global conflicts in the 20th century, there was an international debate amongst the victorious map-drawing nations as to what constituted a 'nation' and what types of ethnic, religious, and cultural claims justified a right to sovereignty. "Nationalist claims are focused upon the non-voluntary community of common origin, language, tradition and culture, so that in the classical view…
Israel. 2011. U.S. Department of State. [10 Dec 2011].
Miscevic, Nenad. 2010. Nationalism. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Accessed: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/nationalism / [10 Dec 2011]
history of the League of Women Voters rightly begins with the very inception of the Women's Movement and the fight for liberation in the United States. During the early history of the United States there was little, if any respect for the principles of women's rights. In an intensely patriarchal society a man " ... virtually owned his wife and children as he did his material possessions. If a poor man chose to send his children to the poorhouse, the mother was legally defenseless to object." (Women's History in America) The history of women's movements in the United States is largely a reaction to this system of exclusion and male-dominance.
The start of the history of the fight for women's rights begins with a tea party hosted by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, in New York. Mrs. Stanton expressed her feelings of discontent at the situation of women in society. This meeting…
A biography of America: The sixties. learner. February 13, 2005.. http://www.learner.org/biographyofamerica/prog24/feature/
Eisenberg B. And Ruthsdotter M. Living the Legacy:
The Women's Rights Movement 1848 -- 1998. February 12, 2005. http://www.legacy98.org/move-hist.html
LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS. Houghton Mifflin. February 13, 2005.
ut help is on the way. A elgian theologian is cited as saying: 'It is important and healthy for women, for families, for societies, that we are dealing with the return of the human male, almost from the dead'." (2007) It is interesting to note that there appears to be great fear among the Polish majority mindset that the strong role of men in their society will somehow be diminished by women also entering into a role that is modified from the present role attributed to Polish womanhood and strengthened. The media in Poland has actively and imaginatively played with the Polish nationalist party and served to drive the country back into pre-E.U. accession mindset.
The cover of Wprost in May 2004 is stated to feature a man "placed well above the woman" who is looking "proudly and sternly ahead, into the future; the woman teeth bared in a submissive…
Abizadeh, Arash (2004) Liberal nationalist vs. postnational social integration: on the nation's ethno-cultural particularity and 'concreteness. Nations and Nationalism 10 (3), 2004, 231 -- 250. r ASEN 2004
Agnieszka Graff (2005) The Return of the Real Man: Gender and E.U. Accession in Three Polish Weeklies. Online available at: http://www.iub.edu/~reeiweb/events/2005/graffpaper.pdf
Alsop, Rachel and Hockey, Jenny (2004) in: In Women in society: achievements, risk, and challenges. Nova Publishers, 2004
Dizard, R., Korte, H. And Zamejc, A (2007) Right-Wing Nationalism in Poland: A threat to human rights? 2007 by Rachael Dizard, Henrike Korte and Anna "amej." Online available at: http://humanityinaction.org/docs/Reports/2007_Reports_P oland/Dizard_Korte_Z
movie, A League of Their Own centers on the All-American Girls Professional aseball League's (AAGPL) first season; the league was initiated to bridge the chasm that was formed by disbanding of the Major League aseball on account of the Second World War. For the very first time in baseball history, young females from urban softball and farm leagues across America were sought for playing professional baseball. The league was fairly short-lived, partly due to a return of the men following the war's culmination and subsequent re-establishment of ML; as a result, the AAGPL's popularity dropped. The dozen years for which the league operated left its mark on sports history, since it offered female athletes a chance to professionally pursue baseball and make much more money than factory workers.
How does the film relate to what you read about the early history of sport (Module 3: The Early History of Sport…
AAGPBL. (n.d.). League History. Retrieved from www.aagpbl.org: http://www.aagpbl.org/index.cfm/pages/league/12/league-history
Bonzel, K. (n.d.). A League of Their Own: The Impossibility of the Female Sports Hero. Retrieved from www.screeningthepast.com: http://www.screeningthepast.com/2013/10/a-league-of-their-own-the-impossibility-of-the-female-sports-hero/
Crosset, T. (n.d.). Masculinity, Sexuality, and the Development of Early Modern Sport.
Early history of sport. in North America. (n.d.)
Native Americans and European nations during the seventeenth century lived peacefully in such a manner that it was impossible to believe that this peace coexistence would be disrupted after the end of French and Indian ar in 1763. The ar of League of Augsburg and the ar of Spanish Succession were fought in late seventeenth and early eighteenth century respectively in order to gain power, wealth and lands in the eastern part of North America.
Native Americans in North America after 1763
Native Americans and European nations during the seventeenth century lived peacefully in such a manner that it was impossible to believe that this peace coexistence would be disrupted after the end of French and Indian ar in 1763. The ar of League of Augsburg and the ar of Spanish Succession were fought in late seventeenth and early eighteenth century respectively in order to gain power, wealth…
James A. Henretta, Rebecca Edwards, Robert O. Self. America: A Concise History (textbook) 2012. pgs. 100-104 and 116-125, 138-142
The U.S. Debate over Membership in the League of Nations
After the end of orld ar I, the world was weary of war and the ravages that it had taken on the European continent and it would seem reasonable to suggest that policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic would be eager to form some type of league to resolve future conflicts. According to Margulies (1998), "Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference in June 1919, where he played a major role in negotiating that treaty, which established the League of Nations, President oodrow ilson turned his attention to persuading the U.S. Senate to ratify the new treaty" (273). The Senate of the 66th Congress was almost equally divided between the Republican Party with 49 and the Democrats who fielded 47 senators (Marguilies). Although the president could rely on the majority of the Democrats…
Egerton, George W. Great Britain and the Creation of the League of Nations: Strategy, Politics,
and International Organization, 1914-1919. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North
Carolina Press, 1978.
Janas, Michael. 2006. "Woodrow Wilson's Western Tour: Rhetoric, Public Opinion and the League of Nations." Argumentation and Advocacy 42(4): 229.
Scholarship notes that these five groups are critical in managing the electoral politics of the U.N., and in the manner resolutions are adopted by group. Complications arise, for instance, because the Arab world is split between Africa and Asia, and the former Soviet Republics are split between Asia and Eastern Europe, which also includes Russia. [12: Ibid.]
The importance of understanding these groupings is that they play a strategic role in controlling issues surrounding leadership, membership, responsibilities, and structure. The success or failure of a number of campaigns and issues follows the ability to find consensus with the groups, and the individual group's ability to exercise negotiation techniques to sway other blocs. Ironically, analysis of voting records over the past few decades show that despite the importance of electoral groups, 10% of written commitments between groups and 20% of oral commitments are discounted based on misleading information or intention. [13:…
World War I
Causes and Consequences of World War I
World War 1
(Causes, America's Contribution to the War, ole of President Woodrow Wilson, Treaty of Versailles Failure)
The First World War (1914-1918) or the Great War was fought between the Allies and the Central Powers. The Allies included 27 countries of which ussia, the United States of America, France, Japan and Britain are the most prominent. The Central Powers consisted of Turkey, Germany, Bulgaria and Austria-Hungary as the chief combatants. It is the greatest and most atrocious war brawled till date.
There were a number of causes that initiated the brutality of World War I Major causes include imperialism, nationalism, materialism and alliance systems. However, the immediate cause of the beginning of the War was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the oyal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia. As he was killed by a Serbian nationalist in June…
America in the Great War. (2000). Retrieved from http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/snpwwi1.htm
Wilson, Woodrow. (2009). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved April 15, 2011, from http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=117053275
World war one - causes. (2011, 01, 02). Retrieved from http://www.historyonthenet.com/WW1/causes.htm
World War I. (2009). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved April 15, 2011, from
For instance, Moens and his colleagues advise, "It bears recalling that NATO for Canada and other allies, has always made sense as a vehicle for providing at least some access into the shaping of the U.S. national interest. NATO has been good not only because it kept the Russians out and the Germans down, but because it got the Americans mixed up in the security affairs of other, reasonably like-minded, states" (13).
Discuss President George . Bush's doctrine of preemptive war?
Include in your discussion, its basic assumptions. The term "preemptive war" is used to describe a nation's use of military force to attack a belligerent before it can attack the attacker. The basic assumptions of this doctrine follow those of the "Just ar" tradition wherein a nation is permitted to protect itself from threats that are posed by other countries in its own self-interests (ester 2004:20).
Lake, David A. 2000. "The Self-Restrained Superpower." Harvard International Review 22(3):
Mcmanus, John F. 2002, December 2. "Irreconcilable Differences." The New American 18(24):
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife represented a culmination of several concurrent forces, all of which led to the outbreak of World War. The concurrent forces that led to World War One can be loosely grouped under the following categories: nationalism, imperialism, and militarism. Within each of these categories are ample sub-categories that can testify to the extent of forces that shaped the pre-war conditions throughout not just Europe but the entire world. World War One was a total war for many reasons: it involved serious civilian casualties on a horrific scale for all parties. The Great War also brought to light the impact of globalization on the global economy and political enterprise. Nationalism, imperialism, and militarism all played a part in shaping participation in World War One; the effects of which continue to reverberate.
As Marshall (2001) points out, "Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were all…
Allan, T. (2003). The Causes of World War I. Chicago: Reed Elsevier.
Bosco, P., & Bosco, A. (2003). World War I. Infobase.
Heyman, N.M. (1997). World War I. Greenwood.
Marshall, S.L.A. (2001). World War I. New York: First Mariner.
interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…
'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.
Available from . [24 Aug 2013].
Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
America react to the Japanese seizure of Manchuria in 1931?
To begin with we have to analyze the situation around China and international relations between the U.S. And Japan as they were two major powers of the Pacific region for a long time after ussian Empire had collapsed. There is no doubt that China was a desirable region both for the U.S. And Japan as it had extremely rich natural resources and huge market for foreign goods (Chinese industry was not developed at all). Japanese imperialists and owners of leading American corporations dreamed of strengthening their positions in the region and gaining unlimited access to the huge Chinese markets and resources. Japan was a new superpower of the region after it rose from feudal country to developed industrial state and became a dangerous rival both for the United States and ussian Empire. After ussian evolution, United States and Japan became…
1. 1. Lafeber, W. The Clash: U.S.-Japanese Relations Throughout History Norton & Company; 1998
2. Rosenfeld, Michael Japanese aggression Chesterfield publishing, 1972
3. Tomine, T. Manchurian Crisis JTR, 1967.
4. Rana, M. The Manchurian Myth: Nationalism, Resistance, and Collaboration in Modern China by University of California Press2000p.
The 11-member Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) was formed. In the end, the majority of the members recommended that Palestine be divided into an Arab State and a Jewish State. Jerusalem would be awarded special international status.
On November 29th, 1947, the General Assembly adopted resolution 181 (III) the Plan of Partition with Economic Union, per the UNSCOP. This resolution included an attached four-part documented, which included the termination of the Mandate for Palestine, progressive withdrawal of ritish forces, and border creation between the Arab state, Jewish state and Jerusalem. The creation of Arab and Jewish states were to be done by October 1st, 1948. Palestine would be divided into eight parts. Three parts would be allocated to the Arab state; three would be allocated to the Jewish state. The seventh part would be the town of Jaffa, which would be an Arab enclave, within the Jewish state. The eight…
"The Balfour Declaration." Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs . http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/the+Balfour+Declaration.htm (accessed November 23, 2010).
BBC News (London), "Israel Confirms Settlement Growth," March 21, 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4367787.stm (accessed November 22, 2010).
Berger, Robert. "Opposition Mounts to U.S. Plan for Israeli Settlement Freeze." Voice of America (Washington ), November 21, 2010. http://www.voanews.com/english/news/Opposition-Mounts-to-U.S.-Plan-for-Israeli-Settlement-Freeze-109692414.html (accessed November 22, 2010).
"Israel and Palestine: A Brief History." Mideast Web. www.mideastweb.org/briefhistory.htm (accessed November 23, 2010).
Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality
The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1
The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…
Bailey, Sydney D. Four Arab-Israeli Wars and the Peace Process. Palgrave: Macmillan, 1990
Barber, Benjamin. Fear's Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy. W.W. Norton and Company, 2003
Barton, F.D; Crocker, B. Winning the Peace in Iraq. Washington Quarterly Volume: 26, Number: 2. Spring 2003, pp. 7-22.
Bijl, Nick van der. Nine Battles to Stanley. Pen and Sword Books, 1999
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…
Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=34158088
Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database:
Wilson was one of the massive supporters of this League of Nations as he felt it would help in being responsible in preventing subsequent wars. One major aspect of the treaty of Paris in 1919 was that it contained the Treaty of Versailles, one which has a major goal of disciplining Germany and forcing a sense of punishment and finality of Germany. For instance, Germany lost many colonies and investments in lieu of this treaty and their ability to forge a military was crippled and limited to a fraction of its original size; the German air force was also similarly crippled. Germany was also further bankrupt in the reparations that it was ordered to pay -- the equivalent of $132 billion gold marks. These intense punishments were a major aspect of the treaty and were something that did cause a deadlock at certain points in the negotiating process (MacMillan, 195).…
Afflerbach, H. (2007). An Improbable War?: The Outbreak of World War I and European Political. New York: Berghahn Books.
Louis, W. (2006). Ends of British Imperialism. New York: I.B.Tauris.
MacMillan, M. (2007). Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World. New York: Random House Publishers.
MacMillan, M. (2009). The War that Ended Peace. New York: Random House Publishers.
After World War I, the German nation and its people were devastated. The public was led to believe that Germany was going to win the war, and it looked forward to a much- improved socio-economic climate. Instead, the war was lost and the country was facing a very dreary future. As a result, the government established the Weimar epublic under the leadership of Friedrich Ebert, a past leader of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and a supporter of the war efforts. Some historians believe it was fate that Weimar Germany did not succeed. From the beginning the challenges were too great, the situation too grim and the individuals involved too unprepared. As a result, Weimar Germany had a short and bumpy ride that combined the best with the worst: Culturally, it remains one of Germany's most creative periods of time in art, literature and thought. Politically and economically,…
Delmar, Sefton. Weimar Germany. New York: American Heritage, 1972.
Gay, Peter. Weimar Culture. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.
Kracauer, Siegfried. From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film. Princeton: Princeton Press, 1947.
Library of Congress. Library of Congress. "Country Studies, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.htm . Updated 6 February 2004. Visited 11 March 2004.
The U.S. emerged as a leading superpower and the sole nuclear power in the world, determined to play a leading role in international politics. The post-Second World War era saw the start of a prolonged Cold War in which the U.S. competed for political domination around the world with Soviet Communism until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990. The Second World War also helped the country to overcome the economic depression of the 1930s as its wartime industrial production stimulated its economy.
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. etrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Dwyer, J.J. (2004). "The United States and World War I." Lew ockwell.com. etrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig3/dwyer3.html
Keylor, William . (2007). "World War I." Encyclopedia Encarta Online. On May 26, 2007 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569981/World_War_I.html
Steiner, Z. (2001). 2 the…
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. Retrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Dwyer, J.J. (2004). "The United States and World War I." Lew Rockwell.com. Retrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig3/dwyer3.html
Keylor, William R. (2007). "World War I." Encyclopedia Encarta Online. On May 26, 2007 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569981/World_War_I.html
By way of introduction to the topic, Legro examines the general presumption that a state's sense of identity defines the parameter of its national interests, thus directing its domestic or international conduct. Rather than subscribing blindly to this fundamental precept of neorealism, Legro offers a competing theory of identity and its influence on international relations, surmising that "states become what they do as much as they do what they are, they desire what they do as much as they do what they desire" (20). It is Legro's contention that a state's distinct set of cultural norms, social values, and other markers of identity can direct governmental actions on the world stage, but that these actions will inevitably influence this identity, thus providing an entirely different contextual framework for international relations as time progresses and circumstances change.
Legro cites the example of America's divergent approaches to participation in each of the…
Dunne, Tim, Kurki, Milja, and Smith, Steve. International relations theories: discipline and diversity. Oxford University Press, USA, 2007.
Ikenberry, G. John. After victory: institutions, strategic restraint, and the rebuilding of order after major wars. Princeton University Press, 2009.
Keohane, Robert O. Neorealism and its Critics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.
Legro, Jeffrey. Rethinking the world: great power strategies and international order. Cornell University Press, 2005.
Presidential power is thus a matter of persuasion of the public and the other branches and actors within the government. Today in particular, because of the ability of the President to invoke the information of the intelligence agencies, information which the President has special authority over, he can persuade members Congress that if they do not do his bidding, they are jeopardizing America. hen the presidential office was first created, the federal army and navy were far smaller than today -- and only Congress has the power to declare war. Yet many undeclared wars have been waged subsequently, and Congress has ceded some of its powers of controlling these institutions, from the Gulf of Tonkin resolution during Vietnam, to being persuaded by faulty intelligence it is assured it is true, as in Iraq. Presidents like Gerald Ford have limited the prosecutorial abilities of the nation by bestowing pardons, even changed…
Neustadt, Richard E. Presidential Power and the Modern President. New York: Free Press,
History of UNESCO
Philosophy and Objectives
Strategies to Achieve Vision and Mission
The Other Facets of UNESCO
Organizations abound the world over and they promote various objectives from agreements on free trade and commerce, cultural exchange, peace and security, and other worthwhile endeavors. One organization that can be deemed as primus inter-pares amongst all organizations globally is the United Nations (UN), whose membership includes close to 200 nations across the world and the overall objective thereof is the promotion and facilitation of international law, security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. Like any other major bureaucracy, the UN fulfills its mandate through the various agencies and sub-organizations under its auspices. Depending upon the specific thrusts or objectives, bodies under the UN will spearhead the implementation and fulfillment of these missions and goals.
In the milieu where the 'mission is to contribute to the…
Bureau of Public Information, UNESCO 2008, UNESCO and Knowledge Sharing. Available from: . [May 31, 2011].
United Nations 2010, The Millennium Development Goals Report 2010. Available from: . [May 31, 2011].
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 2008, Medium-Term Strategy for 2008 -- 2013. Available from: . [May 31, 2011].
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 2010, UNESCO-Mainstreaming The Culture of Peace. Available from: . [May 31, 2011].
However, despite this sweeping generalization offered by the government, U.S. foreign policy has always been clear and direct about its stance against terrorism. Even President Clinton, far prior to the tragedy of 9/11 addressed the United Nations General Assembly about the importance of the prevention of international terrorism and identified it as a major priority in the world arena (Chomsky, 84).
What must be stressed at this point is that terrorism is about the frustrations of a voiceless country -- one that feels that it will not be heard through conventional political or military means. Since the root of the problem is political, the solution is more of a political issue than a security issue because the solution is not in counterstrikes, or fighting fire with fire, but in finding a way to restore the country's voice so that the frustration is relieved instead of stoked (Scheuer, 88). So far…
Taheri, A. (1988). Nest of Spies. New York: Pantheon Books. Discusses how American polices in Iran have failed since World War II. It provides the history of post-WWII foreign policies with the Middle East and plainly details Kissinger's role in the downfall of positive relations with the country. Offers little in the way of solutions except for being an advocate of the truth in media and the education of the American public on its own foreign affairs and other government workings.
Hartung, W.D. Breaking the arms-sales addiction. World Policy Journal, winter 1990-
91, 7. Describes the fundamental policies and drives behind the arms sales of the U.S. And Britain. Reveals how the sale of arms is, on the surface, seemingly beneficial to the enemy nations, but is in fact a key element of keeping those nations from acquiring capital and therefore independence. Discusses polices of genuine humanitarian efforts and peace treaties that would eliminate the need for the oppression of capital and therefore the perceived need of arms sales.
Chomsky, N. (1999). The new military humanism: lessons from Kosovo. Maine:
"Diaspora" is a Greek term meaning "to disperse," or "to scatter," and is often applied to the Jews and their dispersion out of the land of Israel. Many scholars point to the year 588 B.C., when the kingdom of Judea was conquered by the Babylonians as the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora. ("Diaspora") The Jews were forced to relocate to Babylon where, even after the Persians conquered the Babylonians and allowed the Jews to return to Judea, many remained. It was also when the Babylonians conquered Judea that many Jews fled to Egypt, where they created a Jewish community in exile that continued for centuries. After the return of the Jews to Judea in 538 B.C., the entire area became embroiled in a series of conflicts that resulted in the creation of a Hellenic culture throughout the middle east. As a result, Jews spread out from their traditional homeland…
"Balfour Declaration." Avalon Project. Web. 8 Dec. 2012.
"Diaspora." Jewish Encyclopedia. Web. 8 Dec. 2012.
orld ar I upon the Great Depression on the federal role of American government
After the advent of the Great Depression and the presidency of Franklin Roosevelt, America shifted in its national emphasis from being an economically decentralized nation, with a capitalistic and 'hands off' attitude to the development of industry, to a more truly modern nation that took an active role in the lives and well being of its citizens. The American federal government also began to seek to exercise its moral influence upon the rest of the world. However, this shift from American isolationism towards those in need within America, as well as the needs of individuals abroad, did not come with some national soul-searching. The historian illiam E. Leuchtenburg writes in his text The Perils of Prosperity: 1914-32 that the economic advancement of the post orld ar I era, and America's less economically damaging late involvement in…
Gould, Lewis. America in the Progressive Era. New York Longman, 2000.
Leuchtenburg, William E. The Perils of Prosperity, 1914-32. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958.
Iraq is constantly in the news today, as the war in the Middle East continues. It is important to examine specific details of Iraq in order to gain a better understanding of the country.
Iraq is officially known by four different names. These names are: "conventional long form- Republic of Iraq; conventional short form- Iraq; local long form- Al Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah; local short form- Al Iraq (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)."
Iraq occupies a total of 437,072 sq km or 271596.5 sq miles, and is "slightly more than twice the size of Idaho (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)." The country is located in the Middle East, "bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait, with geographic coordinates of 33-00 N, 44-00 E, as compared with the geographic coordinates of the United States of 38-00 N, 97-00 (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)."
In terms of physical geography, Iraq is "mostly desert with mild to cool winters and dry,…
(World Factbook- Iraq. (Accessed 29 November, 2004).
WWI was also the first time that toxins such as mustard gas were used and this created panic and death in many different countries, significantly raising the death toll from the war and also making it more difficult for the country to stay organized and on-track when it came to supporting the troops that were fighting (Marston, 1981).
Italy was another of the allies that joined up to retaliate against Germany. If it were not for the issue with the alkans, it is likely that WWI would have never taken place, but other countries objected so strongly to the way that Germany handled the problem that they felt they must become involved. When Italy had finally been pushed far enough, it "decided to retaliate" and officially joined the war (Marston, 1981).
For Italy, going into the war meant protecting itself and its allies. It had generally enjoyed a good relationship…
Americanization (1925). Dept. Veterans of Foreign Wars of U.S., America: Great crises in our history told by its makers.
Barnes, Harry Elmer. (1970). The genesis of the world war: an introduction to the problem of war guilt. Howard Fertig, Inc.
Marston, F.S. (1981). The peace conference of 1919: organization and procedure Greenwood Press, 1981.
Rothberg, Gunter E., Moltke, Schlieffen (1986). The Doctrine of Strategic Envelopment. In Makers of modern strategy from Machiavelli to the nuclear age. Peter Paret ed.
Lloyd George from England, Woodrow Wilson from the U.S., Orlando from Italy, and Clemenceau from France held a meeting in 1919 to discuss the manner through which Germany was to be made to pay for the harm that had been brought about by World War 1. According to Woodrow Wilson, an agreement founded on his 14-point plan was the most appropriate way of bringing peace to Europe. However, Georges Clemenceau wanted payback. He wanted an assurance that Germany would never attempt to begin another war. Lloyd George welcomed Wilson's idea, however, realized that the British public welcomed Clemenceau's idea. He attempted to find some compromise amidst Clemenceau and Wilson (World War Two -- Causes). Germany was anticipating an agreement founded on Wilson's 14 points, and was not pleased with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. Nonetheless, they had no option but to sign the treaty.
The League of Nations…
"Causes of World War 2 - What REALLY caused WW2?" World War Two History Guide -- WW2 Battle Guide. Web. 9 Oct 2015. .
"World War Two - Causes -- HistoryOnTheNet." From Ancient Times to the 20th Century -- HistoryOnTheNet. 14 Aug 2014. Web. 9 Oct 2015. .
"World War II: Causes and Outbreak." Infoplease: Encyclopedia, Almanac, Atlas, Biographies, Dictionary, Thesaurus. Free online reference, research & homework help.. Web. 9 Oct 2015.
Many women and children live in substandard and marginal conditions in many parts of the world and they need a voice to transmit those conditions and voting power to correct those conditions. Too much masculinity is behind this contagion and chivalry cannot substitute for true justice. Nellie McClung, one of Canada's foremost social activists and its first feminist waged a political battle for Canadian women's rights, specifically the right to vote. In her time, women were not considered persons under the British North American Act but were mere appendages to men. She and the rest of the Famous 5 fought to secure that right and won it. Women's rights and women's movements are expressions of the best instincts of womanhood to serve and help the human race. Women, like men, think and think as dynamically. If women's thoughts are ignored or repressed, evolution is blocked and similarly suppressed.…
"Women who place a low value on themselves make life hard for all women."
"The world has taunted women into marrying."
(Industry Canada 1998)
Present day international affairs are done to a level much greater than ilson wanted them to, making it especially intriguing for him to examine them and to cooperate with a professional team in looking over the world's problems and finding solutions to them. Although ilson supported the concept of intervening in the affairs of other countries when democracy seemed to be threatened in these territories, he also supported the theory of self-governing, insisting that each country should be allowed to govern itself as it wishes, with international intervention being limited to preserving freedom, instead of forcing people to act against their will.
oodrow ilson's plans to see an international committee preserving peace failed to the highest degree during the years in which the League of Nations functioned. Not only did the organization fail in preserving peace, but in some cases it actually expressed indifference to conditions involving an oppressing country…
1. Cranston, Ruth, The Story of Woodrow Wilson: Twenty-Eighth President of the United States, Pioneer of World Democracy (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1945).
2. Hoover, Herbert, The Ordeal of Woodrow Wilson, 1st ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958)
America and the Great War
How the Forces of Nationalism, Imperialism, and Militarism Irrevocably Led to World War I
At face value, it can be concluded that WW started as a result of increasing military power in the participating European nations. It may also be argued that the arms race played a role too. However, an in-depth interrogation of the circumstances that surrounded the outbreak of the war reveals that there were more reasons why countries rose against each other.
To begin with, countries in Europe experienced a strong sense of nationalism that set them apart from the rest. This euphoric nationalistic tendencies and patriotism was also the seed for hatred for other countries. It seemed to the people of that age that for one to excel, the other must be under subjugation or eliminated altogether. Economic competition that existed at the time also played a major role in fuelling…
Wilson, W. (1914). President Wilson's Declaration of Neutrality, issued by The World War I. Retrieved from http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/President_Wilson%27s_Declaration_of_Neutrality
Legitimacy of International Institutions
International institutions are based on the multilateral treaties or the agreements among multiple states. States generally enter in the treaties to promote their common aims, and law recognizes the existence of international institutions. Typically, international institutions are established based on the charters that bind the member states together. "International institutions are the set of rules means to govern international behaviours" (Simmons & Martin 2001 P. 194). This definition is very important because international institutions have established set of rules guiding the conduct of member states. Based on the definitions of international institutions, it is revealed that member states are subject to abide by the decision of international institutions. However, there are hot debates among scholars and political actors whether international institutions posses legitimacy on the member states. (D'Amato,2007, Zurn, & Stephen 2010).
The objective of this paper is to investigate the legitimacy of international institutions.
BBC News (2011).Libya: UN Security Council votes sanctions on Gaddafi. BBC News Africa.27 February 2011.
Bodansky, D. (2011). International Relations and Legitimacy in International Law.
Sandra Day O'Connor College of Law Arizona State University.
Buchanan, A & Keohane, R.O. (2006). The Legitimacy of Global Governance Institutions. Ethics & International Affairs, 20(4): 405-437.
international relations: idealism vs. realism
The theories of international relations have been seen as a mechanism thru which practitioners in the area of international politics as well as scholars tried to explain the way in which international politics function and how the behavior of states and actors on the international scene can be anticipated.
The beginning of the 20th century was a period of deep consideration for international politics, given the First World War and its aftermath. The idealistic approach on international politics tried to explain the behavior states had after the end of the war and also define the period between the two conflagrations. The realist theory on the other hand appeared as a result of the Second World War and its aftermath and, although it took into account similar elements, the points made in reference to these elements were somewhat in contrast. There are several key issues that…
Griffiths. M. 1999. Fifty key thinkers in international relations. Routledge, London.
Guzzini, S. 1998. Realism in international relations and international political economy: the continuing story of a death foretold. Routledge, London.
Kissinger, H. 1994. Diplomacy. Simon & Schuster, London.
This became a reality with the killing of the tsar in 1918. The death of the tsar was the visible reaction to a series of underlining causes that would eventually encourage the raise to power of a political ideology that addressed these issues and offered political and propagandistic solutions.
The social situation of the populations was rather grim during the tsar's regime. ussia had been engaged in the First World War effort and the condition of the soldiers was disastrous. Similarly, the peasants often were subjected to oppressive taxes in order for the regime to be able to financially support the war effort.
Aside from the social causes of the revolution, there were also political aspects that determined the fall of the tsar and the subsequent establishment of the communist regime. Thus, the authoritarian imperial rule opposed the visions of politicians such as the Bolshevik leader Trotsky. He was seen…
Carroll, J., and George Herring. (1986) Modern American Diplomacy. Scholarly Resources Inc. Wilmington, Delaware.
Fairbank, J.K. (1986). The great Chinese Revolution: 1800- 1985. London: Pan Books.
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
Rauch, Basil. (1963). The history of the New Deal. New York: Capricorn Books.
Causes of orld ar II
orld ar II was generated by a combination of worldwide economic distress, nationalism, and ineffective attempts to stem the tide of fascism. The unsatisfactory solution of the Versailles Treaty laid the groundwork for political unrest which eventually led to another mass upheaval throughout Europe, Asia, and most of the European colonies. The failure of appeasement to contain Hitler combined with the lack of an effective international governing structure to broker an agreement due to the weakness of League of Nations further exacerbated the existing problems simmering beneath the surface.
Although all nations suffered in the wake of the worldwide Great Depression of the 1930s, in Germany the suffering was particularly acute. Despite then-President oodrow ilson's desire for a peace without victors after orld ar I, France insisted that Germany be heavily penalized. The Treaty of Versailles humiliated Germany by forcing it to assume responsibility for…
"World War II: Causes." History on the Net. August 14, 2014.
http://www.historyonthenet.com/ww2/causes.htm (accessed December 28, 2014).
American Way of War
The history of the American Way of War is a transitional one, as Weigley shows in his landmark work of the same name. The strategy of war went from, under Washington, a small scale, elude and survive set of tactics practiced by what seem today to be relatively "quaint" militias, to -- in the 20th century -- a full-scale operation known as "total war." True, "total war" was not a concept invented by the Americans in the 20th century. The North eventually practiced "total war" against the Confederates when Sherman's campaign left utter destruction of civilian territory in its wake. The ancient Romans practiced it when, under the direction of Cato, they destroyed Carthage because its mere existence, they felt, posed a threat to their prosperity. In the 20th century, however, "total war" received an enormous boost of technical support when the inventors of the atom…
Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. LA: Feral House, 2003.
Chollet, Derek and James Goldgeier. America Between the Wars. NY: Public Affairs,
Debs, Eugene. "Anti-War Speech," 16 June 1918. Web.
Thirdly, the approach Woodrow Wilson had put forward at the Peace Conference was based on the mutual agreement between the states of the world to avoid any military confrontation in the future. The final point which demanded for the creation of a world body to guarantee "political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike" would have implied certain equality between the parts of this Pact. The actual situation on the ground however could not have supported such a claim because the states present in Paris were split between winners and losers of the war and automatically between countries that were satisfied with the status quo the war had established and the ones that were unsatisfied with the post war situation. Part of the first category, France and ritain, as well as the U.S. tried to keep to the results the armed conflict had reached, while Russia and…
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994
Brigham Young University Library. President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points. 1996. Accessed 2 August, 2007 at http://net.lib.byu.edu/~rdh7/wwi/1918/14points.html
Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Schlesinger, Stephen. Act of Creation. The Founding of the United Nations. Colorado: Westview, 2003
Likewise, the Institute of Agriculture required a quorum of two-thirds of its members for voting purposes and for the balancing of votes according to the size of the budgetary contributions (owett, 1970). While this analysis of these early forms of public international unions is not complete, it does suggest that they were beginning to identify the wide range of interests involved in modern international commerce and what was required to mediate disputes rather than war over them. According to owett (1970), despite the growing body of research into the history and purpose of international public unions, the authorities have not reached a consensus on their classification; however, the constitutional developments and innovations made by the public unions are important considerations for policymakers today because they presaged those made by contemporary inter-governmental organizations (owett, 1970).
In the first instance, the trend towards permanence of association was distinct, no matter whether…
Armstrong, D., L. Lloyd and J. Redmond. 2005. International Organization in World Politics, 3rd ed. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
Avruch, Kevin, Peter W. Black and Joseph A. Scimecca. Conflict Resolution: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Bar-Siman-Tov, Yaacov. 2004. From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bell, Lynda S., Andrew J. Nathan and Ilan Peleg. 2001. Negotiating Culture and Human Rights. New York: Columbia University Press.
Hapsburg Empire in the Half entury before World War I
At the outbreak of World War I, The Hapsburg Empire was one of the last vestiges of Holy Roman Empire to be found in Europe. The eventual defeat of the Austrian Haspburgs culminated a demise that began in the half century before the war started.
The reason for the longevity of the Hapsburg Empire rested in its ability to form advantageous political alliances whether they be through marriage- Maria Theresa and Joseph II, religion- acceptance of Protestants ending discrimination against Jews or militaristic- alliance w / Germany, in nature. During the half century before the World War, The Haspburgs created some allegiances that would prove to be faulty.
During the rimean War (1853-1856) the Haspburgs flirted with siding with the France and England against Russia if Russia did not leave Romania. Russia withdrew but not without hard feelings towards the…
Conflicting National Interests
Military Casualties of W.W.I http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/casualties.htm
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
Kellogg-Briand Pact, originally signed on August 27th, 1928, was an effort by a combination of nations to effectively eliminate war. More properly known as the Pact of Paris, the Pact denounced war as an instrument of national policy, and stated that conflicts should be resolved through pacific means only. The Pact was one of several attempts following World War I to ensure everlasting peace for all nations and was, in theory, a solid effort to entice nations to find peaceful solutions to problems. However, in practice, the Pact was no more than an empty promise to eliminate war.
This paper discusses the origins of the Kellogg-Briand Pact, and will discuss the reasons for its signing by those nations primarily responsible for its inception. Additionally, this paper will discuss the conflicts since the signing of the Pact, and will show how countries easily avoided repercussions for violating the Pact. Further, this…
Borchard, Edwin. "The Multilateral Pact -- Renunciation of War." Foreign Relations 1929, Vol II. Washington D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1929, 243-245.
Committee on Foreign Relations. "Hearings Before the Committee of Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Seventieth Congress on the General Pact for the Renunciation of War Signed At Paris, August 27, 1928." Foreign Relations 1929, Vol. II. Washington D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1929, 3-10.
Crozier, Andrew J. The Causes of the Second World War. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 1997.
Davies, Nicolas J.S. "The Crime of War: From Nuremberg to Fallujah: A Review of Current International Law Regarding Wars of Aggression." Z. Magazine: Law and Order, 18.2 (2005): 205-207.
All European nations suffered devastating postwar economic consequences, which further increased the reluctance to use military force to subdue Hitler. The United States enjoyed a postwar boom, given that none of the battles had been waged upon its own territories. But the Republican-dominated Senate refused to allow the U.S. To become a member of the League of Nations, and the absence of strong American leadership made the League ineffective as a peacekeeping force. Germany was also stripped of all of its colonies: the fact that many new nations were created in the redrawing of the map of Europe meant that many of the recently evolved national identities and infrastructures of new countries were quite fragile.
Although they were 'older' nations, Germany and Russia were particularly politically unstable, as a result of the conditions spawned by orld ar I. Despite its early exit from the ar, Russia's economy was undergoing an…
"German Revolution." Spartacus Schoolnet. April 14, 2010.
"Wars and Battles, World War I." U.S. History. April 14, 2010.
The U.S. role in the current Lebanese crisis is beset with blatant double standards. For example, the Bush administration has accused Syria of being in violation of the UN Resolutions and, therefore, liable for international sanctions, while completely ignoring Israel's disregard of several UN resolutions that called for its withdrawal from Gaza and the est Bank. (Zunes) hile calling for immediate withdrawal of occupation forces from Lebanon, it conveniently forgets the fact that Syria has only 14,000 troops in Lebanon while the U.S. has a 150,000 strong occupation force in Iraq. Israel's invasion of Lebanon in 1982 and its occupation of Southern Lebanon until 2000 with U.S.'s tacit approval are not even mentioned in passing. Moreover, the U.S. democratization rhetoric vis a vis its policy in Lebanon and Syria does not carry much credibility as a number of authoritarian regimes in the Middle East continue to be supported…
Auken, Bill Van. "The assassination of Rafiq Hariri: who benefited?" World Socialist Web Site. 17 February 2005. March 13, 2005. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2005/feb2005/hari-f17.shtml
Cole, Juan. "Lebanon Realignment and Syria." Informed Comment
March 01, 2005. March 13, 2005
http://www.juancole.com/2005/03/lebanon-realignment-and-syria-it-is.html / 'Lebanese Civil War." From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2005. March 13, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lebanese_Civil_War
European Federalism: Historical Analysis
Fascism is considered to be a political belief and concept, which is based on the principle that social, economic and cultural and traditional beliefs of a country must be used in order to increase nationalism. In Europe, fascist movements had emerged in twentieth century. The goal of these fascist movements was to promote fundamentalist and fanatic beliefs in order to deal with the social and political turmoil that occurred in the European region after the end of World War I. Federalism is considered to be the theory, which is based on the principles of federation, which seeks to create a balance of power by dividing it among the member of the same institution. The aim of this paper is to historically analyze the rise of European Union from 1918 to the end of World War II in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources. Furthermore,…
1. Boka Eva (2005): The Democratic European Idea in Central Europe, 1849-1945 (Federalism contra Nationalism) Specimina Nova, University of Pecs,2005. 7-24
2. Boka Eva (2006): In Search of European federalism. Society and Economy (The Journal of the Corvinus University of Budapest), 28. 2006. 3. 309-331.
3. Levi, Lucio (ed.) (1990): Altiero Spinelli and Federalism in Europe and in the World. Franco Angeli, Milan
4. Lindberg, Leon (1963): The Political Dynamics of European Economic Integration. Stanford University Press
United States entry into world war.
Taking nations from more than half the globe as partakers and victims, the first war broke out, 1914-1918, and that is known as World War 1 or the First World War. Until the World War II broke out, it was widely known as the war which had broken out which had the capacity to put an end to all wars, and commonly it was known as The Great War. In fact multiple factors produced the First World War. An International anarchy was seen all over Europe. On the eve of the World War I there were 25 sovereign states in Europe, each desiring to act on its own individual conscience. None of them was ready to submit to the interference or will of the other, as each of them held its pride high, thinking if they accepted the advice of any other state, their…
Bass, Herbert J., "America's Entry Into World War I." Chicago; Holt, Rinehart And Winston, 1964, p.14-17
Andrea, Alfred J., and Overfield, James H., "The Human Record." Boston; Houghton Mifflin Company, 1994, p.63-66
Pope, Stephen, and Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, "The Dictionary of The First World War" New York; St. Marten's Press, 1995, p.24-27
Venzon, Anne Cipriano, "The United States in the First World War" New York; Garland Publishing, Inc., 1995, p.56-59
Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip and Jordan took control of Israel's West Bank. In 1949 the Green Line was the name of the boundary between Israel and its Arab neighbors. However, the end of the war did not bring peace. he 1950s were marked by a series of skirmishes between Israel and various Arab countries, but none of these skirmishes resulted in significant boundary differences.
he next significant war occurred in 1967, when Egypt, Jordan, and Syria expelled UN peacekeepers and blocked Israel's access to the Red Sea. Israel struck out against these countries, in the Six-Day War. his was had a dramatic impact on Israel's borders, because Israel captured the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and Golan Heights from its neighboring Arab Countries. By the 1970s, Palestinians were engaging in violent anti-Israel protests, such as murdering Israeli athletes at the 1972 Summer Olympics. However,…
The next significant war occurred in 1967, when Egypt, Jordan, and Syria expelled UN peacekeepers and blocked Israel's access to the Red Sea. Israel struck out against these countries, in the Six-Day War. This was had a dramatic impact on Israel's borders, because Israel captured the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and Golan Heights from its neighboring Arab Countries. By the 1970s, Palestinians were engaging in violent anti-Israel protests, such as murdering Israeli athletes at the 1972 Summer Olympics. However, the next official act of war began on October 6, 1973, when Egypt and Syria attacked Israel. This attack exacerbated the existing religious tensions, because it was launched on the high holy day of Judaism, Yom Kippur. Israel managed to repel the Egyptian and Syrian forces, but suffered territorial losses. In the late 1970s, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula and began negotiating its withdrawal from occupied Palestine. The withdrawal never occurred, and in 1982 Israel because involved in the Lebanese Civil War so that it could destroy Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) bases, which had been used to attack Israel. Israel's involvement transformed the Lebanese Civil War into the First Lebanon War. Israel withdrew from most of Lebanon. In 1987, Palestinians again protested the Israeli occupation, with six years of violence in occupied territories that is now referred to as the First Intifada.
The 1990s brought hopes of peace to Israel. First, in 1993, Israel and the PLO signed the Oslo Accords, giving Palestinians a limited right to self-government and formal recognition of the state of Israel. Israel later withdrew from Hebron, and gave even more autonomy to the Palestinian National Authority. In the early 2000s, Israel withdrew forces from southern Lebanon, unilaterally withdrew from the Gaza Strip, and began constructing the Israeli West Bank barrier. However, peace was short-lived. When two Arab groups, Hamas and Hezbollah, kidnapped Israeli soldiers, Israeli launched the Second Lebanon War, which lasted five weeks.
Israel currently is bordered by Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt. Israel continues to control the West-Bank, though its government is ostensibly Palestinian. Israel continues to occupy some Arab territories, including the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and Golan Heights. Golan Heights and East Jerusalem are treated as a future part of Israel, while the Arab territories, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, are part of the proposed future independent state of Palestine. The United Nations is currently attempting to work with Israel and the Arab nations to negotiate an Independent Palestine.
U.. Foreign Policies during 1920s and 1930s
The United tates was at a crucial point in its international relations after WWI. ome scholars say that the U.. pulled out of world affairs, that it didn't actively participate in post-war reconstruction of Europe, and that it failed to behave as a powerful nation should. They most often cite the enate's failure to ratify the treaty establishing the League of Nations as evidence of this unwillingness to participate in world affairs (Constitutional Rights Foundation 1).
Other scholars, however, say that in the post-war period "the U.. emerged as world's most respectable country," (Howard 1). They note that the U.. became more involved economically, that it joined in enforcing penalties against Axis powers and that it contributed immeasurable amounts of influence on world cultures.
One answer to this difference might be that the U.. did participate in world affairs, but that it did…
Hampton, Mary. The Wilsonian Impulse: U.S. Foreign Policy, the Alliance, and German Unification. Westport:Praeger, 1996.
Lake, David. Entangling Relations: American Foreign Policy in its Century. New Jersey:Princeton University Press, 1999.
No author, "The Evolution of U.S. Foreign Policy," Howard University AFROTC notes, Powerpoint, available online at http://www.howard.edu/howardlife/AFROTC/files/sld407_policy.ppt
No author, "War in Iraq," Constitutional Rights Foundation, 18 paragraphs, available online at http://www.crf-usa.org/Iraqwar_html/Iraqwar_foreignpolicy1.html
In 1621, iga came under the rule of Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus who declared iga the second capital of Sweden. During the ussian-Swedish War, ussia failed to colonize iga as it remained to be the, "second largest city under Swedish control until 1720 during a period in which the city retained a great deal of self-government autonomy" (ibid., par. 13). In 1720, Tsar Peter the Great of ussia became successful in its invasion to iga. As a result, "iga was annexed by ussia and became an industrialized port city of the ussian empire" (ibid., par. 13). By 1900, iga was already holding the third spot in terms of ussia's most industrialized cities. This massive industrialization led to the rise of Latvian bourgeoisie which made iga the center of National Awakening. This particular social phenomenon entailed a string of nationalist movements (ibid., par.15).
German occupation in iga during World…
History of Nations. (n.d.) "History of Latvia." Retrieved from www.historyofnations.net/europe/latvia.html. On December 1.
Latvia & Riga. (n.d.). "History." Retrieved at http://www.latvia-riga.com/history_latvia.htm#on December 1, 2008.
New World Encyclopedia, (n.d.). "Riga, Latvia." Retrieved at http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Riga,_Latviaon December 1, 2008.
U.S. Department of State. (n.d.). "Background Note: Latvia." Retrieved from www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5378.htm. On December 1.
Compare the presidencies of Roosevelt, Taft, and ilson. hat made them Progressive presidents? Identify what you believe to be the most important pieces of legislation passed during each administration. hy are these so significant? Finally, be sure to indicate what each president did to expand the meaning of freedom for American
Theodore Roosevelt is often called our nation's first Progressive president. Roosevelt used the Sherman Anti-Trust Act to break up heavily consolidated industries that were having a stifling effect upon American commerce and limiting the choices of the American consumer. Roosevelt was also an advocate against child labor and unfair labor practices in general. One of his first noteworthy achievements as president involved negotiating an end to a crippling coal strike. Roosevelt was the first president to pass food and drug safety laws; mandated government supervision of insurance companies; investigated child labor violations and also passed the Hepburn Act,…
Freidel, Frank & Hugh Sidey. "William Howard Taft." White House Historical Association.
2006. Web. 30 Jan 2015.
"Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom." U.S. History. 2014. Web. 30 Jan 2015.
Yarborough, Jean. "Theodore Roosevelt: Progressive Crusader." The Heritage Foundation. Web.
They were followed in 1936 by the Harlem River Houses, a more modest experiment in housing projects. And by 1964, nine giant public housing projects had been constructed in the neighborhood, housing over 41,000 people [see also Tritter; Pinckney and oock].
The roots of Harlem's various pre 1960's-era movements for African-American equality began growing years before the Harlem Renaissance itself, and were still alive long after the Harlem Renaissance ended. For example:
The NAACP became active in Harlem in 1910 and Marcus Garvey's Universal
Negro Improvement Organization in 1916. The NAACP chapter there soon grew to be the largest in the country. Activist a. Philip Randolph lived in Harlem and published the radical magazine the Messenger starting in 1917.
It was from Harlem that he organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
Porters. .E.B. DuBois lived and published in Harlem in the 1920s, as did
James eldon Johnson and Marcus Garvey.…
Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Online. Retrieved February 3, 2007, at http://www.spcollege.edu/Central/libonline/path/shortstory.pdf .
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)'. Wikipedia.
December 7, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://en.
S. responded to the Great Depression by electing FDR, who brought out his Alphabet Programs which were supposed to put the nation back to work with public works projects. When that failed to restore the economy, the world elected to start with a new war: WWII. Germany had been buried by the Western powers following WWI -- and now the country threatened to assert itself once more. Russia was in the middle of its own revolution: Stalin was liquidating the kulaks and rounding others up and shipping them off to the Gulag. That did not help Russia's economy any more than FDR's Alphabet program -- but it did not matter: war was on the horizon. Japan was being strangled by Western powers: the American military-industrial-congressional complex essentially forced Japan to attack -- and then sat back and let it happen when Japan finally decided to bomb Pearl Harbor. Thus, America…
264) the result was chaos and no idea of how peace would realistically be achieved. Sharp writes that the statements of President Wilson in the 1918 speeches were the bases of the peace settlement, which was eventually made. (Sharp, 2006, paraphrased)
The primary decision making body of the gathering in Paris is reported by Sharp to have been the 'Council of Ten' which was comprised by the French, Italian and Great Britain prime ministers and the U.S. president including the respective ministers of foreign affairs and two delegates from Japan. Sharp reports that the 'Council of Four' including Lloyd George, Clemenceau, Wilson and Vittorio Orlando formed the critical decision making body. It is reported that it took the promises of Lloyd George and Wilson to assure the full support of the British and U.S. forces were Germany to attack France again to convince Clemenceau to demonstrate more flexibility. A decision…
Alan Sharp,(2006) Peacemaking after World War I, in G. Martel (ed.), Companion to Europe 1900-1945, Blackwell, Oxford, 2006, pp. 261-75.
David a. Andelman, a Shattered Peace: Versailles and the Price We Pay Today, New Jersey, John Wiley and Sons, 2008, pp. 1-3, 4, 6, 9, 10-11, 13-14.
Margaret Macmillan, (2005) Making War, Making Peace: Versailles, 1919 Queen's Quarterly, vol. 112, No. 1, 2005, pp. 8-18.
92). Pope Innocent X lamented the procedure, of course -- for it served to subvert the truths which the oman Church strove to propagate.
Thus, the modern world was built not upon the majesty of kings and religion, but upon treaties and revolutionary ideals. The philosophical fruit of Protestantism would spring up in the age of omantic/Enlightenment doctrine, which would produce the American and French evolutions. "Liberty, equality, fraternity" would be the modern world's ethos -- in theory. However, capitalist ethics would undermine the romantic ideology. Imperialism -- for gold, God, and glory at the end of the medieval world -- would be based, in the modern world, upon sheer greed (as a principle). America defined this principle well with the notion of "manifest destiny," which by the end of the 19th century was expanded beyond the American frontier to encompass the whole globe.
The new Imperialism of America (and…
Elliot, J.H. (2009). Spain, Europe and the Wider World: 1500-1800. Yale Universtiy
Haaren, J. (1904). Famous Men of the Middle Ages. New York, NY: American Book