Learning Curve Essays (Examples)

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Learning Organizations Given Such Rapid

Words: 2725 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63477634

In the present environment of rapid technological change, it is essential for knowledge workers to continuously be in a learning mode. Metrics need to be put into place to assist managers in focusing training funds where they can be of most use.

Kaplan and Norton (1996) emphasize that learning is not the same as training. It consists of factors such as mentoring and tutoring within the organization, in addition to openness of communication among workers that gives them the opportunity to easily get assistance on a problem when needed. It also includes technological tools or what the Baldrige criteria call "high performance work system. The internal business process provides metrics that help managers know how well their business is running and whether its products and services conform to customer requirements. This organizational learning measurement also recognizes the importance of customer service. Poor performance is a leading indicator of future decline…… [Read More]

References

Demers, D.L. (2007) Organizational change theories: A synthesis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Dodgson M. 1993. Organizational learning: A review of some literature.Organization Studies

14: 375 -- 94.

Garvin, D. (1993). Building learning organizations. Harvard Business Review, 71 (4), 78 -- 91.
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Learning Case Study - Literacy

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72161594

" I still do that, " and for the question of what happens when you get stuck on a word he replied, "Just mainly that or just ask somebody"

Subject 2: Was a much more confident reader and this is most likely because of the ability to use phonics' based reading and thinking process. The subject had advanced phonics' in a previous grade and those principles have carried forward into the self-esteem and confidence in regard to reading. He has a viable solution for answering his own questions regarding words or sounds he does not know.

According to the analysis of the spelling features, both boys are in similar spelling stages, however, the phonics background in subject 2 will help him develop faster as both a readier and a speller. The children were both using phonetic spelling techniques to pass the spelling portion of the assessment, however, subject one is…… [Read More]

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Learning Styles and College Students

Words: 4864 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64521808

Community Colleges in America

In 1983 and 1984, a dozen major reports on the United States' schools were published. All stressed the need for "excellence" in education. These reports are the subject of: Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. The reports pertaining to higher education were published by The BusinessHigher Education Forum, and saw higher education as "unable to train skilled managers and technicians that they believed industry needed." (Altbach 32) These reports essentially claim that student achievement has declined at technical schools because schools "do not demand enough of their students, do not apply stiff criteria for promotion, do not test students enough, and particularly in high school, provide students with too many choices about what subjects they study." (Altbach 32) These reports are somewhat dated in that they compare American students with Japanese students and focus on technical proficiency vs. The intuitive grasp of problems and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Altbach, Philip G., Gail P. Kelly, and Lois Weis, eds. Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1985.

Baker, George A., Judy Dudziak, and Peggy Tyler, eds. A Handbook on the Community College in America: Its History, Mission, and Management. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Diaz, David P., and Ryan B. Cartnal. "Students' Learning Styles in Two Classes Online Distance Learning and Equivalent On-Campus." College Teaching 47.4 (1999): 130-135.

Miller, Richard I., Charles Finley, and Candace Shedd Vancko. Evaluating, Improving, and Judging Faculty Performance in Two-Year Colleges. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 2000.
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Challenges for Learning Organizations

Words: 3067 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95601117

Learning Organization

Prelude

The present enterprises are up against strict challenges, of which the most strenuous are fast technology adaptation, worldwide competition and clients demand for enhanced quality. This is just the tip of the iceberg. A company needs to adhere to changes fast accordingly so as to survive in the global environment. So, in short, knowledge and continual learning are crucially imperative. The competitive advantage for any company is knowledge. But according to Dr. Yogesh Malhotra (2003), initiating chairman as well as chief knowledge Architect of BINT Institute, LLC states that, 'Knowledge is a competitive tool only in cases where action oriented approach is taken. Competitive advantage is plausible when information is translated into substantial action'. A key method of creating wealth of knowledge and resources into formidable action is via instituting a learning organization (Gardiner et al., 2001).

In this paper, the focus is to examine the learning…… [Read More]

References

Driver, M. (2002). The learning organization: Foucauldian gloom or Utopian sunshine. Human Relations 55 (1): 33- 53.

Elkjaer, B. (2001). "The Learning Organization: an Undelivered Promise" in Stafylarakis, Eldridge (2008). Understanding the Learning Organization. Unit 5, Human Resource Development. Institute of Development Policy and Management, University of Manchester.

Ellinger, D., Alexander E., Baiyin Y. And Shelly W. (2003). Making the Business Case for the Learning Organization Concept. Advances in Developing Human Resources 5(2): 163- 172.

Gardiner, P., Mike L., Eugene S. (2001). "Learning in Organizations: HR Implications and Considerations" in Stafylarakis, Eldridge (2008). Understanding the Learning Organization: Unit 5, Human Resource Development. Institute of Development Policy and Management, University of Manchester.
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Teacher Attitudes and Perceptions About Curriculum Innovation in Learning and Technology

Words: 22121 Length: 76 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4872492

Self-Efficacy: A Definition

Social Cognitive Theory

Triangulation Data analysis

Teacher Self-Efficacy

Problems for the researcher

Data Analysis and Related Literature review.

aseline Group

Gender Deviation

Age Deviation

Comparison of data with other literature in the field.

Everyday Integration

Efficacy, Self-esteem, Confidence and Experience

arriers to use

Integration paradigm.

Co-oping and Project design.

Organizational Climate

Teacher Integration Education.

Meta-evaluation of data and related literature.

Data Analysis and Comparison

Recommendation for Further Research

Data Review Report

Teacher efficacy in the classroom is facilitated by a number of different factors for different professions. However, in the case of the teaching classroom, and adapting to new technology, andura's belief that the environment and the person's attitude toward / interactions with the environment are reciprocally affective.

andura (1993) identified 4 specific ways that self-efficacy is formed:

Through cognitive experiences

Through motivational experiences

Their affective interactions with environment

Through selectional experiences and choices.

Cognitive Experiences

andura…… [Read More]

Bibliography of the literature dealing with teacher training in the uses of the computer in education. (ERIC No. ED 260-696)

Bushman, B. And Baumeister, R. (1998, July) Threatened Egotism, Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Direct and Misplaced Aggression: Does Self-Love or Self-Hate Lead to Violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Campus Computing Project. (1999). The continuing challenge of instructional integration and user support. Encino, CA: Retrieved November 21, 2003 from the World Wide Web:  http://www.campuscomputing.net/ 

Christensen, R. (2002, 22 June) Effects of technology integration education on the attitudes of teachers and students.Journal of Research on Technology in Education.

Clifford, M., Kim, A. McDonald, B. (1988 Fall) "Responses to Failure as Influenced by Task Attribution, Outcome Attribution, and Failure Tolerance." The Journal of Experimental Education. Volume 57, Number 1. Pages 19-35.
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Developmental Learning and Technology

Words: 9878 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80375610

Elementary Special Education Teachers Place Value in the use of Technology Resources for Students?

Alix Desulme

Technology is an integral part of society. Students learn through use of technology like personal computers, tablets, and e-books (Garland & Tadeja, 2013). Computers can provide access to videos, documents, and other forms of data that students have the choice of absorbing via visual or auditory methods. Tablets provide the same access but with a light-weight, touch responsive interface. Technology investment within schools not only enables varied learning opportunities for students, but it also helps students discover or improve their own ability to research and analyze information, collaborate and communicate, and solve problems (Lim, Zhao, Tondeur, Chai, & Tsai, 2013). Comment by Steve Moskowitz: Yes, this is the reason

Technology helps provide other benefits. Integrating technology in schools, especially in other areas like special education enable staff to develop new ways of teaching and…… [Read More]

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Org Culture Leadership Leadership Learning

Words: 4817 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5080702

" (Simon, 188) the fundamental perspective here is that leadership and the ability to apply actions based on culturally driven decisions are central to helping members of the organization learn in a concrete manner how best to accord with the reigning culture.

In order for this to occur though, there must be a certain initial scrutiny and selectiveness where leadership and personnel are concerned, endorsing an organization-wide emphasis on the quality of personnel. This implicitly brings us to consideration of the application phase in terms of learning organizational culture, which is inevitably associated to all actionable aspects of an organization's structure and operations. The correlation between recruitment, personnel makeup and leadership personalities is perhaps threaded by the common string of day-to-day responsibility within an organizational culture. And quite certainly, we see the stamp of organizational culture on so many of the most important applicable indicators. Schein, to this end, points…… [Read More]

References

Arnold, J., Cooper, C. & Robertson, I.T. (1995). Work psychology: Understanding human behavior in the workplace, Pitman Publishing, London.

Beer, M. & Walton, E. (1990). Developing the competitive organization: interventions and strategies. American Psychologists, 45(22), 154-161.

Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The strategies for taking charge. Harper and Row, New York.

Bowditch, J.L. & Buono, a.F. (1994). A primer on organizational behavior. John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York.
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Effect of Teacher Parent Partnerships on Learning

Words: 977 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29202197

Teacher-Parent Collaboration

The following analysis focuses on the article titled "Preparation for Teacher-Parent Partnerships: A Practical Experience with a Family" by Hedges H. & Gibbs. According to the authors, there is the need for both stakeholders to collaborate, maximize the children's learning, and enhance early childhood education. The paper shows that despite these efforts, there are few ways that train the teachers of how to develop professional relationships with the parents. It continues to report on the use of field experience in family homes that occurred in the first year of a teacher educational program. While seeking to achieve the objective, it explores a case study of two student-teachers. The step is necessary because it shows the potential of the technique to this teacher's preparation. After the assessment, the students and teachers were seen to suffer from the realities that families create on a daily basis.

Hedges and Gibbs have…… [Read More]

References

Hedges H. & Gibbs C. A (2005). Practical Experience with a Family Preparation for Teacher-Parent Partnerships. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 26:115-126

Hiatt-Michael, D. B. (2010). Promising Practices to Support Family Involvement in Schools. New York: IAP

Hornby G. (2011). Parental Involvement in Childhood Education: Building Effective School-Family Partnerships. Springer Science & Business Media
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Memory and Learning and Cognitive Psychology

Words: 2891 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79054100

Learning and Cognitive Psychology Related to Memory

Memory has control over everything that an individual does and is a part of cognitive psychology that deals with all the human behavior and mental processes. It is divided into different categories with each of them performing their particular functions. The paper investigates the different types of memories and their purpose as each one plays its part in keeping the memory part of the brain functioning. The nature, maintenance, retrieval and capacity of memory are also discussed along with the different factors that influence it. The paper also discusses the application of TRS model on the working memory, which leads to the prediction that maintenance activities should postpone concurrent processing.

Introduction

Memory is what drives our everyday life, makes us relate to or recollect things from the past and in many ways defines our behavior. We take it for granted as the effort…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baddeley, A.D., Thomson, N., & Buchanan, M. (1975).World length and the structure of short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 575-589.

Blankenship, A.B. (1938). Memory span: A review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 35, 1-25.

Brener, R. (1940). An experimental investigation of memory span. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 26, 467-482

Bousfield, W.A. (1953). The occurrence of clustering in the recall of randomly arranged associates. Journal of General Psychology, 49, 229 -- 240. doi:10.1080/00221309.1953.9710088
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Production Possibilities Production Possibility Curves Are Representation

Words: 2527 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72793006

Production Possibilities

Production possibility curves are representation of the amount of two different goods that can be obtained by shifting resources from the production of one, to the production of the other. In addition, the graph represents maximum specified production level of one commodity that results given the production level of the other (Samuelson, 1962). The curve is used to describe consumers' choice between two different goods.

The curves represent a wide range of economic factors; scarcity, opportunity costs, and choice. According to the curve, scarcity is the fundamental economic problems all societies face; opportunity cost being the cost of anything used in the production in terms of what has to be given; these costs could be financial, but they could include individuals' time and other intangibles. Besides, the possibility curve shows two products and the consumer has the choice to choose the best one between them.

An individual earning…… [Read More]

References

Camerer, C. (2003). Behavioral Game Theory: Experiments in Strategic Interaction. Russell Sage Foundation.

Government of Alberta. (2012, July 25). Oil and Gas. Retrieved October 19, 2012, from www.albertacanada.com:  http://www.albertacanada.com/business/industries/oil-and-gas.aspx 

Lemieux, P. (2001, March 19). The Diminishing Returns to Tobacco Legislation. The Laissez Faire City Times.

McGraw-Hill Higher Education. (2003 ). Tutorial. Retrieved October 19, 2012, from www.highered.mcgraw-hill.com: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0070901651/student_view0/chapter10/tutorial.html
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Adult Learning Adult Education Is

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77237665

This can be exploited to encourage the adult students to get into adult education and continue from one stage to another.

Secondly nowles poses that experimental or pragmatic education is the most effective form of adult education. This involves allowing the learners to make mistakes and continue learning from the same. This, as a practitioner, I can use as a very effective tool of assisting the adult learners. It is worth encouraging them to try what they can especially in class participation, assignments, co-curricular activities without reservations and pointing out the shortfalls as I tell them how they can use the same to learn.

Thirdly, Andragogy presumes that for adults to be truly ready to learn new ideas, they need to feel the assurance that whatever they are due to learn or are learning is straightforwardly pertinent to their daily lives. This helps practitioners develop a learning curriculum that is…… [Read More]

Knowles also posed that adults learn things from the perspective of actively solving problems, rather than acquiring new content and ideas passively. Adults have a wide range of experiences that form the basis of their learning. When teaching adults, it is crucial to use their divergent experiences to help them learn the applied skills in particular. Their experiences can be used to be a pivot from which the teacher or instructor introduces new ideas o them. Ralph and Roger (1991), says that adult learner will, "Identify his learning need when he finds a problem to be solved, a skill to be acquired, or information to be obtained. He is able to articulate his need in the form of a general goal, differentiate that goal into several specific objectives, and define fairly explicitly his criteria for successful achievement. In implementing his need, he gathers the information he desires, collects ideas, practices skills, works to resolve his problems, and achieves his goals. In evaluating, the learner judges the appropriateness of newly acquired skills, the adequacy of his solutions, and the quality of his new ideas and knowledge." This is proof enough that adult learners are equally active in their quest for knowledge and its application.

Information review

There has been significant scientific research made in the field of adult learning, one of them being on the general fallacy that human beings lose the brain cells everyday. It is however s established that
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Role of the Hippocampus in Instrumental Conditioning

Words: 756 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94355022

Learning

The Role of the Hippocampus in Instrumental Conditioning

Laura H. Corbit and Bernard W. Balleine

The rational for the study is to shed light on a fundamental process occurring in instrumental learning that has not been well-researched. The authors hypothesize that instrumental learning consists of stimulus response (SR) processes and action-outcome (AO) processes. SR associations are encoded into procedural memory, whereas AO associations are encoded into declarative memory. The authors cite research that has stated that declarative memory is hippocampal dependent. Thus, the authors hypothesize that damage to the hippocampus should interfere with AO associations while not interfering with SR associations. In experiment 1A rats with dorsal hippocampal lesions and sham lesions (the IV) are tested for their sensitivity to outcome devaluation with a satiety treatment protocol (the DV) after being trained to press levers for two types of reinforces. The hypothesis was that lesioned rats would demonstrate a…… [Read More]

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Static Learning in the 21st

Words: 12488 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64826198

Millions of dollars are spent on test-prep manuals, books, computer programs and worksheets (Gluckman, 2002). Static/captive learning can help teachers around the nation prepare their students for standardized testing.

Significance of the Study to Leadership

A principal is the leader of the campus. The challenge for the principal is to know his or her district's mandated curriculum and make sure teachers are able to deliver it (Shipman & Murphy, 2001). As the key decision-maker for the use of time and space, principals must be aware of how the use of time and space affects instruction. Principals need to know how best to use assessment data based on relevant content standards with teachers, school communities. Improved student learning is always the focus of assessment.

ecause of high stakes testing, teachers are always assessing to monitor student progress and plan the scope and sequence of instruction. Principals can work to structure school…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anglin, Gary J., Vaez, Hossein, and Cunningham, Kathryn L. (nd) Visual Representations and Learning: The Role of Static and Animated Graphics. Visualization and Learning. Online available at:  http://www.aect.org/edtech/33.pdf 

Arnold, T.C., & Dwyer, F.M. (1975). Realism in visualized instruction. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 40, 369 -- 370.

de Melo, H.T. (1981). Visual self-paced instruction and visual testing in biological science at the secondary level (Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts International, 41, 4954A.

Dwyer, F.M. (1969). The effect of varying the amount of realistic detail in visual illustrations designed to complement programmed instruction. Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 6, 147 -- 153.
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Kinesthetic Exercise Improves Learning

Words: 1818 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20952034

Autism Detection and Education

Exercise and movement can affect ones' learning environment and kinesthetic learners in a variety of positive ways. Firstly, these two things induce an element of dynamism in one's learning environment, which is beneficial to kinesthetic learners. Kinesthetic learners learn best via the sort of motion and feeling associated with touch, so movement is merely an extension of this sort of tendency for learning. Additionally, these learners can thrive in an environment in which they can actually move and experience learning through the process of such motion -- which can very well involve directly apprehending things, instead of merely reading or listening to them. In this respect, exercise is a part of the kinesthetic learning style.

Persevering and never giving upon on a student embodies the Christian walk of faith and how Christ loves and forgives us in a number of different ways. Firstly, it is indicative…… [Read More]

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The Dangers of Misdiagnosing Learning Disability

Words: 2643 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57933959

Educational Diagnosis

The ethical dilemma of diagnosing a learner with a disability when there are other alternatives for support

esnik (2011) defines ethics as "norms for conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior." As in research, participants have data source rights, so too in teaching/education do students, parents/guardians, teachers and staff have legal rights that should be observed and respected in the course of ethical adherence. These rights include all Constitutional rights, as Bonauto (2008) points out. Thus, students have the right to attend school in safety, without facing harassment or discrimination, and have the right to equal access under the Equal Access Act, which is a further identification of the student's right of protection against discrimination. Teachers also possess the right of non-discrimination and enjoy the right to free speech. Teachers also have something called "academic freedom" according to Hosford v. School Committee of Sandwich, which vied that…… [Read More]

References

Bonauto, M. (2008). The legal rights of public school students and teachers in Massachusetts. Gay and Lesbian Advocates & Defenders: 1-26.

Bournot-Trites, M., Belanger, J. (2005). Ethical dilemmas facing action researchers. The Journal of Educational Thought, 39(2), 197-215.

Colorado Department of Education. (2011). Guidelines for Identifying Students with Specific Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from https://www.cde.state.co.us/sites/default/files/documents/cdesped/download/pdf/sld_guidelines.pdf

Dewey, J. (2013). The School and Society and the Child and the Curriculum. IL:
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Continuous Learning in Business

Words: 1012 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45787289

Continuous Learning and Professional Development
Differentiating Training from Development
Training
Development
What It Is
Specific program designed to give workers skills and knowledge they will need to complete work-related and role-related tasks
Broadly defined by long-term goals, such as employee growth and performance, development refers to the measure of an employee’s contributions to the workplace over a period of time
How It is Applied
Typically whenever a new hire is onboarded or whenever a new employee is brought in to perform in a new role, training is applied over the duration of a few days or weeks to acquaint the worker with the information and practices that will be required to perform in the role. Techniques can include:
· Seminars
· Video training
· Reading material
· Shadowing
· Mentoring
Development is applied by conducting employee reviews, setting goals for the department and aligning the individual worker’s performance and goals…… [Read More]

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Assessments of Literacy Learning in Ireland

Words: 1288 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79974675

Literacy in Secondary School in Ireland

The literacy curriculum in secondary school in Ireland is based on a strategy of language-related lesson modifications, identified by Peregoy and Boyle as good methods of ensuring that differentiation occurs in the classroom. This strategy allows for the use of "visuals, concrete objects, direct experience, and other nonverbal means to convey lesson content" alongside the main lesson taught by the teacher in the classroom (Peregoy, Boyle 86). In my area, this is consistent with what we experienced in school, and differentiation is a huge part of the cycle -- as much of what is centered on literacy is done so with direct relation to experiential learning, the use of visual aids, and the expression of ideas identified in readings via nonverbal means, such as drawings, videos or performance in the classroom. At the same time, there is a notable urgency among literacy leaders and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Department of Education and Skills Press Release. Education.ie, 2011. Web. 1 June

2016.

Gottlieb, M. Assessing English Language Learners. CA: Corwin Press, 2006. Print.

Peregoy, S., Boyle, O. Reading, Writing and Learning. MA: Pearson, 2013.
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Mario's Pizzeria Layout Simulation at

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4980880

Increasing table capacity has further reduced customer wait time and increased profits, but the numbers of lost sales have also increased. In the final scenario, the average waiting time is now 3.45 minutes and the average line length is 2.68. Mario earned a profit of $2,061, but lost sales worth up to $720. After the implementation of the new technology but before the acquisition of the additional space, the average waiting time in the restaurant was 5.11 minutes and the average line length was 2.3. In other words, line length increased after the expansion into the Cream Puffs space. Because of the expanded seating capacity, wait time decreased, but the decrease in wait time was relatively minimal.

This indicates a frequent problem with a 'learning curve' theory -- eventually improvements 'peter out.' The economic law of marginal utility suggests that adding to production facilities results in less and less of…… [Read More]

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Mario's Pizza Simulation Mario's Pizza Scenario- in

Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24536563

Mario's Pizza Simulation

Mario's Pizza Scenario- In The Mario's Pizza Simulation, Mario opened a pizza restaurant in Palm-Springs, California in 1950 with his wife. The current location is in a busy indoor mall in which there are a number of business and shopper clientel. Mario has notice that over the past several months, customers have had to wait an inodinante amount of time for their orders. This has resulted in him hearing dissatisfied comments about his service, and even customers leaving the restaurant prior to ordering food because they are so frustrated with the line, and the time. Mario wants to keep his customers happy, to grow his business, and to remain successful. He knows that if he does not make drastic changes, he will lose market share, and eventually dwindle down the entire business. In speaking with guests, his senior staff, and looking at other restaurants, he knows the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Operations Management for Competitive Advantage. (2006). 11th edition. Retrieved January 2012 from the University of Phoenix Student and Faculty Portal.

http://ecampus.phoenix.due.

Baloff, Nicholas (1971). "Extensions of the Learning Curve Some Empirical Results."

Operations Research Quarterly, 22.44.
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Leadership Approaches and Theories the Objective of

Words: 949 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94231805

Leadership Approaches and Theories

The objective of this study is to examine various leadership approaches and theories. This study will reflect upon the readings and consider the various leadership approaches and theories and attempt to answer how the ideas presented in the article relate both to the ideas and concepts presented in leadership as well as to the notion of ethics in leadership and finally, how these ideas and concepts in the article can be applied in ones' personal leadership practice. The work of Blanchard (2010) entitled "Mission Possible" published in the Journal for Leadership Excellence relates that leaders, while learning from the past, must also prepare for the future to avoid organizational stagnation. Blanchard's work presented the GAP Analysis Model for leadership.

Blanchard on Learning and Growth

Blanchard writes that one has to pay attention to "not only what you're doing now to perform better but also to what…… [Read More]

References

Blanchard, K. (2010) 'Mission possible', Leadership Excellence, 27 (4), p.17.

How to Conduct a GAP Analysis of Leadership (2011) Toolbox.com. 5 Jan 2011. Retrieved from: http://hr.toolbox.com/blogs/strategic-employee-recognition/how-to-conduct-a-gap-analysis-of-leadership-43481

South West Regional Skills Enterprise and Employment Analysis 2007/2008. Retrieved from:  http://www.swslim.org.uk/labourmarket/swrsp/gapanalysis/chap4/leadership.asp 

The Gap Analysis Model (nd) The Oregon Schools Initiative.
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Managerial Accounting in the Case

Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15209771

To achieve these objectives there are several tools that are utilized to include: controlling the accounts payable, receivable, job costs and inventory through a series of ledgers. This is important, because it is showing how an organization can be able to use these ideas to help improve productivity and efficiency. This is the point that the operating margins of the firm will begin to decline. Once this takes place, is when the company can most effectively adapt to changes inside the sector. (Stout, 2009, pp. 195 -- 217)

At the same time, we will be implementing a procedure that will control the cash flow of the project. This is designed to ensure that there are sufficient amounts of funding to address the needs of the division. While being able to, monitor where various expenditures are taking place. The way that this is accomplished is through looking at a number of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hendrickson, C. (2008). Project Management for Construction, Cost Control, Monitoring, and Accounting Chapter 12. PM Book. Retrieved July 26, 2010, from  http://pmbook.ce.cmu.edu/12_Cost_Control,_Monitoring,_and_Accounting.html 

Stout, D. (2009). Instructional Case: Estimating Learning-Curve Functions for Managerial Planning, Control, and Decision-Making. Issues in Accounting Education, 24(2), 195-217.
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Things That Hurt Kids in School

Words: 1446 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96590752

Student Learning

External Distractions

Mental intimidation

Name-calling

Insults

Physical violence/injury

Pushing/shoving/fights

Groups cornering single victim

Social media

Gang/Criminal Activity 6

Violence/crime near school

Troubled Family

Mental health concerns

While being one of the most demanding professions, teaching is also particularly difficult in school settings where there is a performance problem for a large proportion of the student body. Job stresses are also high as school authorities strive to raise standards and hold teachers accountable (Adelman & Taylor, 2002).

However research has shown that poor teaching standards is not the only reasons that can lead to poor performance. There are many other factors that act as barriers to the effective learning efforts by students and the teaching efforts by teachers. The highest possible level is what every teacher, counselor and administrator wants to achieve. But despite the best efforts of both teachers and students, it does not always become possible to…… [Read More]

References

Adelman, H., & Taylor, L. (2002). Building Comprehensive, Multifaceted, and Integrated Approaches to Address Barriers to Student Learning. Childhood Education, 78(5), 261-268. doi:10.1080/00094056.2002.10522738

Fingar, K., & Jolls, T. (2013). Evaluation of a school-based violence prevention media literacy curriculum. Injury Prevention, 20(3), 183-190. doi:10.1136/injuryprev-2013-040815

Goodemann, C., Zammitt, K., & Hagedorn, M. (2012). The Wolf in Sheep's Clothing: Student Harassment Veiled as Bullying. Children & Schools, 34(2), 124-127. doi:10.1093/cs/cds022

Kuhlenschmidt, S., & Layne, L. (1999). Strategies for Dealing with Difficult Behavior. New Directions For Teaching And Learning, 1999(77), 45-57. doi:10.1002/tl.7705
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Technology Updates the Cost of Technological Advances

Words: 1443 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88902659

Technology Updates

The Cost of Technological Advances

The development of technological advances has been significant in the last 50 years but more so in the last 30. According to Moore an early pioneer in silicone technology, the capacity for engineering technology innovation is clearly rapid. Moore set a benchmark for silicone technology claiming that capacity would double the number of transistors on a chip, which determines the capacity for memory every 24 months. This law served as a standard for Intel and other chip manufacture companies, creating a demonstrative goal that was followed almost to the letter from its inception to now (Intel, 2011). This rapid advancement of technology has made many functions and aspects of technology capabilities possible as computers and servers can process more and more tasks and information more rapidly than ever. The result of these advances has been both an extreme learning curve cost as well…… [Read More]

References

Ford, G.C. (2012, January 15). Demand for allied health professionals creating shortages.

Gazette, The (Cedar Rapids, IA).

Staff Writer (March 17, 2012) Stockton bankruptcy: City would be largest in American history to declare bankruptcy. Huff Post, San Francisco, CA.  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/02/23/stockton-bankruptcy-biggest-in-american-history_n_1298055.html 

Intel. (2011). Moore's Law inspires Intel innovation. Retrieved from http://www.intel.com/about/companyinfo/museum/exhibits/moore.htm
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Kinesthetic Learners Achievement Levels in Technology Rich

Words: 5427 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86589281

Kinesthetic Learners Achievement Levels in Technology Rich Classrooms

Hypothesis With Operational Definitions

Computers and Kinesthetic Learning

Existing Research

The Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project

Collaborative Visualization (CoVis) Project

Apple Classroom of Tomorrow Project

American Culture in Context: Enrichment for Secondary Schools

SchoolNet / Rescol Report: The emerging contribution of online resources and tools to classroom learning and teaching

Lehrer HyperAuthor Study

The Highly Interactive Computing Environments (HI-CE) Group

Lego/Logo Project

Interactive technologies that are appealing to kinesthetic learning such as multimedia, hypermedia, and visualization in virtual learning environments hold great promise for enhancing the learning experience. A variety of research studies have produced results ranging from the ability of interactive computing not only to enhance the student's ability to absorb complex information, but also to fundamentally reshape the learning process.

Interactive computing holds exciting potential to create student-controlled learning environments in which students are more responsible for their own instruction. And,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

About learning and power. Retreived March 14, 2003 from Power Learning

Network Web Site: http://www.powerlearningnetwork.com/main/about.asp#Multiple

Bracewell, R., Breuleux, A., Laferriere, T., Benoit, J., and Abdous, M.

1998). The emerging contribution of online resources and tools to classroom learning and teaching.
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Laptop Implementation Program - Action Plan Ideal

Words: 3072 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80239141

Laptop Implementation Program - Action Plan

Ideal Classroom

The ideal school in the modern era of global education evokes dynamic and progressive thought to what exactly enables a student population to excel and succeed in life's endeavors. Truly, this is central to any discussion regarding educational reformation via school and classroom development. The critical component to these decisions is inherent to the leadership at the school to understand that, according to Cause & Chen, "the children's active use of technology in making decisions, technology resources in writing and drawing, and logical thinking programs to solve problems and illustrate ideas." (Cause, Chen, 2010)

The ideal school will therefore target the way young children learn and teach accordingly. According to Cause & Chen, an appropriate method to educate the young is to "offer pictures and sounds to support the natural ways that young children learn." (Cause, Chen, 2010) The importance of vision…… [Read More]

References

Katie Ash. (2010, March). Building on a Decade of 1-to-1 Lessons: Sustaining a laptop program at a middle school in Michigan requires a wireless vision and parent purchasing power.. Education Week, 29(26), 12, 14, 15. Retrieved December 20, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 2030552671).

Cause, L., & Chen, D.. (2010). A Tablet Computer for Young Children? Exploring Its Viability for Early Childhood Education. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 43(1), 75-98. Retrieved December 20, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 2134707481).

Dawson, K., Cavanaugh, C., & Ritzhaupt, A.. (2008). Florida's EETT Leveraging Laptops Initiative and Its Impact on Teaching Practices. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(2), 143-159. Retrieved December 20, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 1609084841).

Chris Kieffer. (15 September). Tupelo hopes to expand school laptop use. McClatchy - Tribune Business News,***[insert pages]***. Retrieved December 20, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Dateline. (Document ID: 1859409821).
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Neural Network

Words: 3129 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7103440

Artificial Intelligence

hat is AI?

Future of AI

The Expert System

hat is an Expert System?

Three Major Components of an Expert System

Structure of an Expert System

Neural network

Fuzzy Logic

Chaos Engineering

Field and Benefit

Debate on Comparison

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined

Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.

An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company Fuziare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.

Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.

Bylinsky, Gene. "Computers That Learn By Doing." Fortune 6 Sep. 1993: 96-102.

Liebowitz, Jay. "Roll Your Own Hybrids." Byte July (1993): 113-115.
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Hybrid Online Instruction There Is

Words: 3091 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2875150



Class Assessment Techniques

Classroom Assessment Techniques are decisive methods of evaluation that are useful in two major areas. The level of which the student has understood the content of the course can be assessed and provides information regarding your teaching methods efficiency. It's an approach which bases on the fact that the planning of learning activities and structuring of teaching is better when one knows the how and what the student is learning. It's also a simple technique which is anonymous and non-graded activities of in-class that provided useful feedback to the teacher and the students on the learning and teaching process. The difference of Classroom Assessment to other methods of assessing the students is that its objective is to improve the course and not grade assignment. It's primarily aimed at understanding of the learning process of the student and improvement of the teaching approaches (Angelo, & Cross, 1995, p.257).…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, B. (2006). Web 2.0: A new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? Educause

Review, 41(2), 32-44. Retrieved March 29th 2010 from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/erm0621.pdf

Angelo, T.A., & Cross, K.P. (1995). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bartram, D. (2007). Guidelines and standards for computer-based testing. Retrieved March, 30th,
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Human Resources Training and E-Learning

Words: 1718 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90892224

The most significant of these observations is that online will never totally replace face-to-face training and development. While this was believed to be possible during the early days of e-learning, the move towards blended learning solutions reveal that face-to-face is essential (E-learning: trends, predictions and IBM's leading edge approach: Computer giant networks its employees to integrate formal and informal learning online, 2007).

As rapid e-learning continues to develop as a concept and drive the training industry forward, there will be an increased level of maturity in terms of implementations and tools available. Until the concept becomes established however, it will suffer from the same pitfalls that all emerging technologies and concepts face, and that is the 'buzz effect of over-hyping and promising to be a fix-all solution. A final thing to consider is that while all rapid e-learning implementations promise to reduce content creation time, there still needs to be…… [Read More]

References

Unneberg, Lars. (2007). Grand designs for e-learning -- can e-learning make the grade for our biggest corporates? Industrial and commercial training, 39(4), pp. 201-207, ISSN 0019-

E-learning: trends, predictions and IBM's leading edge approach: Computer giant networks its employees to integrate formal and informal learning online. (2007). Development and Learning in Organizations. 21 (6), p. 21 -- 24.
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Schools in the Future

Words: 2207 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46657348

Schools in the 21st century are very different from the one-room schoolhouses that once dotted the American landscape. Today a single school can house thousands of students at various grade levels and many schools integrate the latest technologies into their curriculums. With this being understood, it will be interesting to see how school curriculum will change in the future. The purpose of this discussion is to examine how schools will change in the future as it pertains to technology. The discussion will also focus on the introduction of schools as social anchors, that are both moral and purposeful.

Schools of the future

Indeed technology will continue to play a large role in schools of the future. Educators will continue to incorporate technology into the curriculum. According to Caldwell and Hayward (1998) "schooling at the upper secondary level will become more complex and diverse, with multiple providers; combined with advances made…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Briefing paper on Emerging Issues and Best Practices -- Introduction. Retrieved April 19, 2005 from; http://www.arc.org/gripp/publicEducation/grippPublicEducPg06.html

Florida Virtual School: The Future of Learning? A Forum Brief -- October 18, 2002. American Youth Policy Forum. Retrieved April 19, 2005 from; http://www.aypf.org/forumbriefs/2002/fb101802.htm

Caldwell, B.J., & Hayward, D.K. (1998). The Future of Schools: Lessons from the Reform of Public Education. London: Falmer Press.

Huskey, B.L., & Wiley, R. (1993, August). Using Public Education Campaigns to Build Community Partnerships. Corrections Today, 55, 154+.
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Role and Importance of Effective

Words: 6404 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41028144



A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001246515

Heckman, James J. "Doing it Right: Job Training and Education." Public Interest Spring 1999: 86+.

This journal article assesses the value of offering parents choices in the education of their children. It compares the cost effectiveness and the relative value of training vs. education to the clients.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001760849

Holton Iii, Elwood F., Reid a. ates, and Sharon S. Naquin. "Large-Scale Performance-Driven Training Needs Assessment: A Case Study." Public Personnel Management 29.2 (2000): 253.

This case study covered the assessment of needs for government performance driven training programs on a large scale for annual implementation and continual availability to employees. The purpose of this paper is to report on the methodology developed and the pilot implementation.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006002281

Hornik, ryan. "Listening to Experience: 10 Steps to Successful Online Training; How Do You Reap the enefits of Online Training While Avoiding the Pitfalls That Can Derail a Program? A…… [Read More]

Bibliography to show the extent of my preliminary research on this subject and have identified the sources used in the final sources cited to follow.

I have looked at feedback as a part of training and identified its role and importance. I have consulted many sources in order to documents my findings. In addition I have described the value of feedback and where and when it is important. I have also defined the various types of feedback and the difference between positive and negative feedback. I have shown that positive feedback is necessary for effecting learning.

I have also shown how positive feedback can be delivered and, in fact, insured within a training program or module. Suggestions as to how the trainer can compensate for lack of positive impressions of the trainee or a perceived lack of respect for the trainer. Ideas have been explored for modifying either the attitude of the trainer or the trainees.

The final conclusions are that feedback is absolutely critical in the effectiveness of any learning process, including training. Positive feedback has more value than negative, which can be counter-productive. It is in the delivery and acceptance where feedback becomes positive or negative, and this is based upon attitudes and perception. A positive perception of the deliverer of feedback will weight the positive factor of the feedback. Positive feedback can strengthen motivation, allow trainees to create or modify goals, and raise self-confidence. It provides a measure against which further actions can be taken. These may include modifying the program according to feedback from participants. Feedback from computers is, at best, perceived as neutral, so a human trainer to back up these responses is valuable. If positive feedback is not being delivered, changes need to be made to the perceptions of either trainer or trainee to adjust this, because positive feedback is essential to the learning process and the effectiveness of the training depends upon it as much as the three other essential factors, which are: relevance, demonstration and practice.

Annotated Bibleography
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Meditate Upon the Experiences Writing

Words: 984 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70128824

By this time, had a quite a bit of confidence because I had already written a successful speech. In addition, I was very excited about the speaking opportunity and spent many long hours preparing for the presentation. I noticed that my writing was improving but I still remember having doubts about my speaking and writing abilities.

As I began college I was worried that I would need to write. I remember thinking to myself; how could I avoid writing? I knew that if I got a job I would be required to write letters and reports. I remember beginning to prepare for a college exam and that same fear of writing came over me again. I remember thinking, how would I pass my English composition test if I could not write? Searching the Internet I found a preparatory course for the English composition test. As I started the course my…… [Read More]

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Retention Levels of Online Such

Words: 2257 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25793348

On the other hand, online training tutorials offer the user a great many more benefits. For one, the user would have instant access to hundreds of other users, and can share his views and even his designs with them. Secondly, he would have access to constant updates of his training materials, and study at his own pace. (Online Training Library, benefits)

However, it must be remembered that in general opinion, learning Photoshop is by no means an easy task, perhaps because of the hundreds and thousands of applications that it can be used for. It must be noted that Adobe Photoshop is one of the world's more renowned and recognized digital graphics application software to have ever been made, and unlike any of the others, it is most probably the only one that has an endless learning curve, and even today, there are probably very few people in the world,…… [Read More]

References

Adobe Advanced Photoshop Artistry Tutorial." Retrieved at  http://www.softwaretrainingtutorials.com/photoshop-art.php . Accessed 8 July, 2006

Adobe Photoshop CS, try for Free" Retrieved at http://apex.vtc.com/photoshop-cs.php. Accessed 8 July, 2006

Adobe Photoshop Video Tutorials online Training Courses" Retrieved at http://www.computer-training-software.com/photoshop-t.htm. Accessed 8 July, 2006

Beckham Digital: Add a new sky." Retrieved at http://www.beckhamdigital.co.uk/onlinetuts/addsky/addsky.htm. Accessed 8 July, 2006
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Measure Faculty Success in an

Words: 563 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55859970



What are the attributes of a successful online instructor?

As in the case of the criteria for success in online instructors, the personal and professional attributes of good teachers are also substantially consistent as between the online and traditional teaching environments. Specifically, the most successful teachers tend to be those who are the most passionate about their profession, the achievements of their students, and of their subject matter. Successful teachers make the necessary effort to ensure that their course work is interesting to students. This can be more challenging online, simply because teachers do not have the benefit of as much data, such as in the form of real-time student responses that they can observe. Similarly, the ability and willingness to make themselves as accessible as possible to students is crucial to success as any kind of teacher.

Successful online teachers must be able to motivate and encourage their students…… [Read More]

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Technology's Negative Affect on Our

Words: 1892 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72101764

The efforts of the federal government have been thoroughly and extensively backed up by fiscal funds given by the numerous states, districts, businesses, and parents (NCES, 2000). However, the overall literacy and literature education of students with the incorporation of technology has been primarily negative and this needs to change with time as the overall long-term impact of this negative pattern will be very damaging to the mindset of students and the overall literacy activities that they engage in.

eferences

Anderson, .E., & onnkvist, A. (1999). The presence of computers in American schools. Center for esearch on Information Technology and Organizations.

Becker, H.J., & Sterling C.W. (1987). Equity in school computer use: National data and neglected considerations. Journal of Educational Computing esearch, 3, 289 -- 311.

Becker, H.J. (2000). Who's wired and who's not. University of California, Irvine. Available: http://www.gse.uci.edu/doehome/DeptInfo/Faculty/Becker/packard/text.html

Cuban, L. (1998). High-tech schools and low-tech teaching. Journal of…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, R.E., & Ronnkvist, A. (1999). The presence of computers in American schools. Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations.

Becker, H.J., & Sterling C.W. (1987). Equity in school computer use: National data and neglected considerations. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 3, 289 -- 311.

Becker, H.J. (2000). Who's wired and who's not. University of California, Irvine. Available: http://www.gse.uci.edu/doehome/DeptInfo/Faculty/Becker/packard/text.html

Cuban, L. (1998). High-tech schools and low-tech teaching. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 14(2), 6 -- 7.
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Human Performance Technology

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45345419

Human Performance Technology (HPT) uses a wide range of interventions that are drawn from many other disciplines including, behavioral psychology, instructional systems design, organizational development, and human resources management. It stresses a rigorous analysis of present and desired levels of performance, identifies the causes for the performance gap, offers a wide range of interventions with which to improve performance, guides the change management process, and evaluates the results.

Human Performance Technology Process

The human performance technology process begins with a comparison of the present and the desired levels of individual and organizational performance to identify the performance gap. A cause analysis is then done to determine what impact the work environment (information, resources, and incentives) and the people (motives, individual capacity, and skills) are having on performance. Solution to performance problems can fail when they are selected to treat only visible symptoms rather than underlying causes. When the root causes…… [Read More]

References

Human Performance Technology. (n.d). Retrieved June 10, 2005, from Ericdigest.org

Web site:  http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-928/human.htm 

What is human performance technology?. (n.d). Retrieved June 10, 2005, from ISPI San Diego

Web site: http://www.ispisandiego.org/faqs.htm
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CDN Honey Industry the Canadian Honey Industry

Words: 2859 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23954033

CDN Honey Industry

The Canadian honey industry is widely fragmented and largely undifferentiated. There are approximately 7000 beekeepers and 600,000 colonies in Canada, according to the Canadian Honey Council (2010). Canadian honey is widely exported, to over 30 countries. Annual production is around 28,000 tonnes of honey, of which 16,000 is exported, the export value being $37 million. In recent years, honey production has slipped, but the reputation of Canadian honey abroad remains high (Agriculture Canada, 2008).

This paper will examine the Canadian honey industry, providing not only an overview of the industry and its trends, but also an examination of the industry's key success factors. A complete competitive analysis will be provided, including a Five Forces Analysis and a Value Chain Analysis. There will also be a key success factor (KSF) analysis included in this essay. The paper is intended as an overview of the industry and therefore will…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Agriculture Canada (2008). Canada's honey industry. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Retrieved November 29, 2010 from http://www.ats.agr.gc.ca/supply/3308_e.htm

Canadian Honey Council. (2009). Production and value of honey and maple products. Canadian Honey Council. Retrieved November 29, 2010 from  http://www.honeycouncil.ca/documents/Honey%20and%20maple%20production%202009.pdf 

Canadian Honey Council website, various pages. (2010). Retrieved November 29, 2010 from  http://www.honeycouncil.ca/index.php/honey_industry 

QuickMBA. (2010). Porter's five forces. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved November 29, 2010 from  http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/porter.shtml
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Business Organizational Behavior Theory and

Words: 2417 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45459971



In this context, the learning curves followed by the collective of entrepreneurs place that collective of entrepreneurs within the still larger setting of the global marketplace. Taylor and Asheim refer to an economic geography that is more than merely a map of where economic activities take place (Taylor & Asheim, 2001, p. 315). A modern learning organization integrates itself on virtually every conceivable level. Much as its individual members make use consciously and unconsciously of a variety of learning techniques in order to work together as a unit, so too do all of their learning paradigms combine to make them a single, effective player on a larger global stage.

Taylor and Asheim encourage firms to immerse themselves in the concept of economic geography, to complete, as it were, the learning curve, by employing their cognitive abilities vis-a-vis the global marketplace, and so use that marketplace as a source for policies…… [Read More]

References http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009563626

Chen, G. (2005). Management Practices and Tools for Enhancing Organizational Learning Capability. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 70(1), 4+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002492408

Chrisman, J.J., Chua, J.H., & Steier, L.P. (2002). The Influence of National Culture and Family Involvement on Entrepreneurial Perceptions and Performance at the State Level. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 26(4), 113+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011099975
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Reinforcement the Post-Reinforcement Pause a

Words: 1854 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57030583

They inserted a small electrode in the brain of the rat. The rat had access to a lever that was connected to the electric supply of the electrode. Every time the rat pressed on the lever, there was a low voltage current that would stimulate the reward center and therefore the rat was reinforced to press the lever again and again. This is the way through which the researchers got to know more about the neuromechanics of reinforcement.

When neuromechanics were studied specifically with respect to the learning curves in animals, like monkeys, it was noted that at the beginning of learning the release of dopamine is greater. As the period of learning proceeds, the learning curve declines along with the decline in the production of dopamine. The researchers, during this experiment, also suggested that different reinforces should be given to the animals in which one wants to improve learning.…… [Read More]

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Adoption of New Technology

Words: 1092 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76782639

Introduction

That there is resistance to the adoption of this new technology should not surprise. There is often a fair amount of inertia within any organization when it comes to organizational change in general, and rolling out new technology in particular. Structural inertia has long been studied in organizational change literature – people become accustomed to doing things a certain way, they have fallen into routines, and many people really do not like being broken out of their comfort zones (Hannan & Freeman, 1984). This phenomenon can be observed on the macro level, but it will also manifest on the micro level, with respect to individual changes that are non-structural in nature. A good example is the rolling out of new technology. There are a few things that a nurse leader can do to ensure that the rollout of the new electronic health record system is successful.

Overview

Those who…… [Read More]

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Programming Rapid Development for Web-Based Applications by

Words: 1604 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58576568

Programming: apid Development for Web-Based Applications" by Frank Maurer and Sebastian Martel of the University of Calgary and is composed of an in-depth explanation of extreme programming (xp). The bulk of the content of the article describes the advantages and benefits of this method. One of the most immediate benefits of extreme programming is that it changes the way that work and communication can manifest in the world of programming: it makes it a more social and team-oriented form of work which is a tremendous advantage. This essentially means that work can be conducted in a more pleasant manner, which means that members of staff will enjoy doing it more, something which will ultimately lead to greater productivity. For example, as the article aptly states, "XP's focus on small teams lets it replace paper-based documentation with face-to-face communication. Hence, it's a good fit for many Web-based software projects, which often…… [Read More]

References

Enterpriseblog.net. (2009, March 29). Top 10 Benefits of Extreme Programming. Retrieved from Enterpriseblog.net:  http://enterpriseblog.net/a/top-10-benefits-of-extreme-programming/ 

Fowler, M. (2004, December). Is Design Dead? Retrieved from Martin Fowler:  http://martinfowler.com/articles/designDead.html 

Maurer, F. & . (2002). Extreme Programming. IEEE Internet Computing, 86-90.

Smith, K. (2003). Benefits of Extreme Programming (XP). Retrieved from Qualitycode.com:  http://www.qualitycode.com/html/Essay10.html
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Southwest Airlines

Words: 2977 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57092356

Business

An Examination of Southwest Airlines

Globalization and Technology

Improving eturns

Application of the I/O Model

Application of the BV Model

Mission and Vision Statement

Stakeholder Influences

Southwest Airlines has been one of the aviation industry's success stories; founded in 1967 the airline pioneered the low cost carrier model, and grew organically leveraging a first mover advantage (Morrison, 2001). The airline now operates approximately 3,600 flights every day, employees 45,009 staff and with the acquisition of AirTran in 2011 it became the largest domestic U.S. carrier (Southwest Airlines, 2014). The airline has grown, but in recent years the airline industry has seen significant constraints on growth due to the maturity of the industry in the U.S. along with the economic influences constraining growth (IATA, 2014). However, this does not mean there is not room for growth; to assess ways in which the firm may improve and understand the position of…… [Read More]

References

Belobaba, Peter; Odoni, Amedeo; Barnhart, Cynthia, (2009), The Global Airline Industry, John Wiley & Sons

Buchanan, D; Huczynski, A, (2010) Organisational Behaviour, Harlow, FT/Prentice Hall

Carey, (2014, Oct 14), Steep Learning Curve for Southwest Airlines as It Flies Overseas, Wall Street Journal, accessed at http://online.wsj.com/articles/steep-learning-curve-for-southwest-airlines-as-it-flies-overseas-1413326936

Cook Sarah, (2008), The Essential Guide to Employee Engagement: Better Business Performance Through Staff Satisfaction, Kogan Page Publishers
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Stress Coping Mechanisms

Words: 766 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58302892

Org Development

There are many sources of stress, and one of the keys to managing stress is to identify its sources, and address them. I feel that I have stress relating to many things, including money and family and career. But at this stage of my life, I also feel that while there is a lot of pressure, these sources of stress are pretty reasonable. I have taken on responsibilities in the past few years, and especially since I started going to school (which is part of the career stress) that have increased what is expected of me by others. Ultimately, I feel that it comes down to how I perceive the pressures upon me, and I know that I perceive them maybe more strongly than they are -- I expect to be perfect, even when others do not expect that of me. So I see people noticing my mistakes…… [Read More]

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Department of Homeland Security Assessment

Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79733935

58, 59).

These insights are equally applicable to forecasting how global events will potentially impact the United States and its trading partners. The same techniques used for anticipating terrorism threats can use used for anticipating conditions of genocide and political upheaval, even in countries that appear to be economically and politically stable (Goldsmith, utcher, Semenovich, Sowmy (2012), et.al.). The DHS has also had to architect it systems that overcome bureaucratic inertia and protecting bureaucracy instead of flattening it (Larson (2004), pp. 29). Having had to streamline not just their own structure but the integration points with many other departments and divisions also shows how unique their cross-functional structure is (Mitchell (2003), p. 18). Using the lessons learned of organizational structure efficiencies and dynamics of cross-functional performance in more expanded areas could solve the impasse on budgeting within the broader U.S. government as well. There is also the potential to combine…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Goldsmith, Benjamin E., Charles Robert Butcher, Dimitri Semenovich, and Arcot Sowmya. Forecasting the Onset of Genocide and Politicide: Annual Out-of-Sample Forecasts on a Global Dataset, 1988-2003. Rochester, Rochester: 2012.

Hewitt, Ronald T. "Valuing it Human Capital." It Professional Magazine 14, no. 1 (2012): 58-60.

Larson, Richard C. "Emergency Response: Operations Research Models for Homeland Security." or-MS Today 31, no. 5 (2004): 22-9.

Mitchell, Kenneth. "The Other Homeland Security Threat: Bureaucratic Haggling." Public Manager 32, no. 1 (2003): 15-18.
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Teacher Training for Inclusiveness in

Words: 3343 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40953583

1 million today, Smith explains. About 79% of ESL students have Spanish as their native language, and hence, Smith insists, "there is an urgent need for as many teachers as possible to be skilled in and passionate about working with ESL students" (Smith, 2008, p. 5).

The mentor (an ESL specialist) needs to apply "professional knowledge to actual practice" when working with another teacher, Smith explains. There are two components to Smith's mentoring suggestions: a) the ESL specialist shares his or her "best of ideas"; and b) but by mentoring, the ESL specialist is "supporting the professional and personal growth of the teacher" (Smith, 6). Smith breaks down her mentoring program ideas into six conversations, or specific aspects, of how to relate to ESL students. This mentoring is for new teachers, who need to be submerged in diversity and inclusion quickly, and for existing teachers, that have perhaps avoided becoming…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Conroy, Paula Werner, Rude, Harvey, and Phillips, Jacqueline S. (2006). Rural Challenges to Educating English Language learners with Visual Impairments. Rural Special Education

Quarterly, 25(4), 16-24.

Duncan, Arne. (2011). Preparing Students with Disabilities for Success: Secretary Duncan's

Remarks to the American Association for People with Disabilities. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved June 28, 2011, from  http://www.ed.gov .
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Activities to Reduce Inappropriate Behaviors Displayed by

Words: 10021 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93835103

Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities

The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…… [Read More]

references, and favorites)

Child and Family Assets

(Abilities, strengths, skills, accomplishments, and capabilities)

Functional and Meaningful Interactions

(Purposeful interactions; ways interests and assets are used in everyday life)
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Shortest Path Using Antnet Routing

Words: 2742 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36568755

An agent-based state engine also alleviates the need for frequent database queries and the use of time-consuming pointers that drastically drag down ms access times and erase any optimization gains from first defining the network. The antnet agent-based engine only on exception writes back to a database and instead keeps its own table-based approach to mapping the network while synchronizing the key elements suggested for inclusion to antnet agents within this section.

Taxonomy creation algorithms and shared intelligence approaches to ensuring all ants have perfect knowledge of the network's structure (taxonomy). This is critical as antnet routing needs to include the ability not just map, but learn specific networks' characteristics and either equate the network structure and behavior to previously-learned models, or quickly create one through a series of network definition routines that scope, classify and optimize the network structure.

Support for Directed Diffusion data elements. Included within an antnet…… [Read More]

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Social Work Assessment From My

Words: 6527 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87836590

Therefore, today's society in the United States is diverse, which is something a social worker needs to understand and know how to deal with each diverse group. Furthermore, through research, it has been discovered most ethnic groups that live in the United States consist of young people, which means by staying in this country, they grow accustom to their surroundings. Once they have grown accustom to living here, they feel like this is their home to start a life with their own families. This continues the growing number of ethnic groups in this country.

Due to the educational accommodations that schools and college campuses make for students that have ethnic backgrounds, there is not enough prejudice of one group to let a Holocaust to occur in the United Stated. Furthermore, this country believes in freedom of speech to allow one ethnic to be isolated from the rest and condone any…… [Read More]

References

Dennen, Johan. THE 'EVIL' MIND: PT. 3. CRUELTY AND 'BEAST-IN-MAN' IMAGERY. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://rechten.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/FILES/departments/Algemeen/overigepublicaties/2005enouder/EVIL_CRU/EVIL_CRU.pdf

Citrome, Lesilie,. (2007). Aggression. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3005.htm

Hall, Kathy Jo. (1997). Carl Rogers. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=Throughout+this+Jim+knocks+the+clay+figurines+head+of+and+crushes+the+body+while+shouting&invocationType=spelling

Seal, B., A. Bradford, and C. Meston. 2009. The Association Between Body Esteem and Sexual Desire Among College Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior 38, no. 5, (October 1): 866-72. http://www.proquest.com.library.capella.edu / (accessed April 1, 2010).
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Education Media Options Do the

Words: 599 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29443000

Thus, an instructor and his or her assistants may actually spend more time with an online class, and it seems many instructors and administrators simply do not understand that concept before they begin designing and programming an online class.

I believe that many people who are still unfamiliar with online programming and development also misjudge the time it takes to create a class and upload it to the Web. Many may be at least a little familiar with old HTML techniques, and unfamiliar with newer programming, like Java and XL, that require a lot more programming knowledge and understanding, and most classes today need sophisticated programming techniques to keep much more Internet-savvy students interested in the content and the course. An old-fashioned basic HTML course might be good for older students, but for young, college-age students, the programming and design need to capture their attention, like a sophisticated video game,…… [Read More]

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Cbrne Event and Response

Words: 4392 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54266014

CRNE Event and Response

Over the last several years, the safety of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive related weapons (CRNE) has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because downfall of the Soviet Union has meant that acquiring these materials from failed states have increased exponentially. As, the stockpiles in many of these areas have questionable security procedures that are allowing terrorist and other rogue organizations to have access to these materials. (Prosser, 2011)

At the same time, the total amount of countries that are possessing these materials have increased dramatically. As different nations, are using these weapons to protect against possible military attacks or internal insurrection. In a number of cases, the majority of states that possess CRNE's are more than likely considered to: have questionable human rights records or they may not have signed different international provisions limiting the proliferation of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chemical, Biological and Nuclear Weapons at a Glance. (2011). Arms Control. Retrieved from: http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/cbwprolif

Alfred, R. (2009). March 20, 1995. Wired. Retrieved from: http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2009/03/dayintech_0320

Carus, S. (1997). The Threat of Bioterrorism. Strategic Forum, 127.

Hoffman, B. (2001). Changes and Continuity. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 24 (5), 417 -- 428.
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Career Planning Development and Management

Words: 2477 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83695221

.....personal marketing plan with the intention of marketing myself to my future employer. This is my first step into the management profession and I am excited to settle into a job in this field. This Personal Marketing Plan (PMP) will guide me on the areas I need to focus more as far as my career is concerned.

I am an American resident having completed all my studies here. Throughout my elementary and secondary years, I held various positions such as class representative. Later, I got an admission in the University and since I was inclined to the commerce side, I opted to major in management. After completing this course, I intend to sort out today's market needs and the employment opportunities just within the country (Herrick 50). My belief is that improvement and continuous innovation are the keys for competing in the currently challenging market. I have done extensive research…… [Read More]

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Education to the Gifted in

Words: 1777 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61769235

The sample will be drawn from a single school in large urban district. By framing the study this way, researchers understand that findings may produce insights into the way this subject is addressed in some school settings. However, this will lack external validity within the frame of only a single sample school.

The primary delimitation is shaped by the selected grade levels for review and by the teacher population which will drive the focus of the study. Accordingly, the methodology will center on an interview of teachers who preside over grades 6 through 8 in the selected school. The expected sample population is comprised of 11 participants, who will answer questions regarding the identification, labeling and education of students who are talented and gifted.

Assumptions:

The study proceeds from the assumption that instructors have addressed the questions presented to them with clarity and honesty. The research is also carried by…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Baker, B.D. & McIntire, B. (2003). Evaluating State Funding for Gifted Education Programs. Roeper Review, 25(4).

Chance, P.L. (1998) Meeting in the Middle: Gifted Education and Middle Schools Working Together. Roeper Review, 21(2).

Cooper, C.R. (1995) Integrating Gifted Education into the Total School Curriculum. American Association of School Administrators: School Administrator, 52(4).

Winebrenner, S. (1999). Shortchanging the Gifted. School Administrator, 56(9)
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Motivation Performance & Achivement the

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33880673

Additionally, those who were in the test group also scored, on average 20% higher on the test when it was graded by the researcher. Though the case study was based on an abnormal psychology case the questions are associated with content (i.e. reading comprehension) and are not expected to be interpretive. The group was also debriefed at the close of the exam and informed of the nature of the exam and the resulting scoring, which was based on participation as apposed to test scores.

Discussion

This brief research work demonstrates that extrinsic motivation (in an anomalous form) motivates students to achieve success on tests. The balance between intrinsic (results of moderate scores on MSLQ) and extrinsic, the motivation to score high on the exam as an impetus to a higher extra credit score, as apposed to a participation only score motivated those students in the test group to pay closer…… [Read More]

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MA or Phd Level Is Designed to

Words: 1054 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8987093

MA or PHD level is designed to develop and new argument on a particular subject. Within the overall presentation, a literature review is a section in which previously published information in a particular subject area, time period, or focus level, is discussed. ather than a summation of sources, a literature review should have an organizational pattern that combines both summary and analysis -- summary to recap the information from the particular author's point-of-view, analysis to provide a way to interpret material and synthesize new information (Literature eviews, 2004).

Case Studies -- Literature eview Outlines-

Teacher's Perceptions of Strategies and Skills Affecting Learning of Gifted 7th Graders in English Classes (Noble, 2010)

Introduction

Historic Influences on Gift Education

b. Defining Giftedness

c. Precursors to Gifted Performance

Identification of Gifted Students

a. Teacher/Student Motivation

b. Instructional Strategies

c. elationship between strategies and learning skills

III. Teacher perceptions of giftedness

a. Factors affecting…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Alstron, A. (2011). Having Our Say: Thoughts, Perspectives and Perceptions of Graduates of Satellite East Junior High School for the Gifted and Talented. Teacher's College, Columbia University.

Jordan, K.A. (2010). Gifted Student Academic Achievement and Program Quality. College of Education -- Louisiana Technical University.

Literature Reviews. (2004). University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved from: http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/literature_review.html

Noble, J.P. (2010). Teacher's Perceptions of Strategies and Skills Affecting Learning of Gifted 7th Graders in English Classes. University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.
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Pre-K Students and Their Teachers

Words: 1549 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7288052

The move went smoothly and a month later Andrea was happily chasing her fellow red group peers across the playground on recess the same way she did the blue group previously. This could have been handled badly by pointing out to Andrea her reading troubles as compared to her two closest friends. She may have withdrawn and wanted to stop trying which would have possibly caused a lifelong fear and dislike of one of the most important academic skills there is.

All of the above situations were handled well. Had they been handled in any other way it could have created an atmosphere of stagnation not growth.

It is important for teachers of this age bracket to maintain the line between guidance and hindrance and help the children begin problem solving skill development while at the same time stepping in to assist when the problem threatens to overwhelm the child's…… [Read More]

References

Educators: Program is not just day care Critical year: Officials want parents to take children's pre-k more seriously. The Atlanta Constitution; 4/6/2000; Duane D. Stanford, Staff the Atlanta Constitution 04-06-2000

Best pre-k classes let kids explore freely, study shows. The Atlanta Journal and Constitution; 4/15/1999; Diane Loupe, Staff the Atlanta Journal and Constitution 04-15-1999

Pre-K Class Gives Tykes Head Start. The Tampa Tribune; 8/15/2004; MEGAN HUSSEY. The Tampa Tribune. 08-15-2004
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Adidas Market Entry

Words: 2593 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41746013

Company Background

Adidas was formed in Herzogenaurach, a town in Mittelfranken, north of Nürnberg, not far from Erlangen, and remains headquartered there today. The company was founded by Adi and Rudolf Dassler. The brothers eventually had a falling out, with Rudolph founding Puma. Adidas has grown to become one of the leading designers and marketers of sports apparel, footballs, and other related items. The company operates globally, has revenues of nearly €20 billion, and profits of €0.72 billion in 2015 (Adidas 2015 Annual Report).

Adidas competes against Nike, Reebok, Puma, and several other brands in this space. Major product lines include footwear, apparel, and footballs. Adidas sponsors a lot of athletes and athletic clubs as part of its marketing. Ultimately, this industry is characterized by incremental changes to basic product designs, a strategic emphasis on marketing spending, and distribution, and companies that utilize a global strategy, selling the same way…… [Read More]

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Coach Is a Luxury Goods

Words: 3408 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50158835

For example, an employee should be categorized on his or her ability to move up the corporate ladder, and the timing of such a move. If Coach wishes to enter India in 2011, then, the company would know which among the firm's managers is able to move into one of the new roles today, and which might be able to move into such roles in the future.

The second policy implication of the integrated approach to strategic human resources management is the locus of control (Bratton, n.d.). This is the control-based component of the strategy. The locus of workplace control at Coach focuses on outcomes and the primary means of employee acquisition are internal, so the policy prescription is focused on a commitment HR strategy. This strategy emphasizes training as a means to increase employees' competencies and outcome control (Ibid). The high consistency of service standards implies that the paternalistic…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bratton, J. (no date). Strategic human resource management. Palgrave. Retrieved October 28, 2010 from http://www.palgrave.com/business/brattonandgold/docs/bgcha02.pdf

Business Standard. (2010). KIT: The luxury products market in India. Business Standard. Retrieved October 28, 2010 from http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/kitluxury-products-market-in-india/387902/

CIA World Factbook. (2010). India. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved October 28, 2010 from  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html 

Coach.com website, various pages. (2010). Retrieved October 28, 2010 from http://www.coach.com
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Organizational Behavior Terminology and Concepts American Companies

Words: 1289 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77806235

Organizational Behavior

Terminology and Concepts

American companies have suffered in recent years. In their efforts to reduce cost, restructuring and downsizing have affected almost every organization either directly or indirectly. These attempts to 'right the ship' so to speak will cause problems for these organizations in the terms of their ability to perform in the long-term. Organizational behavior has been cast aside in too many areas which entails that these companies have shown poor leadership by trying to capitalize on technological breakthroughs as opposed to building the human resource aspects of their businesses. This paper is a summary of some organizational behavior concepts and terminologies that are affected by the quest for profits. Through readings, articles, and my personal experiences, I have summarized what I feel can be construed as organizational behavior, culture, diversity, communication, effectiveness, efficiency and learning. I have been blessed by the fact that I hold a…… [Read More]

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Beijing EAPS Consulting Inc After Evaluating the

Words: 1193 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82757107

Beijing EAPS Consulting, Inc." After evaluating the case study the paper has described various learning from it. The case study has described a situation of BES and the problems that it was facing related to project planning and project management. The paper has analyzed the situation and offered solutions to the problems.

Implications of co conducting a project plan:

Conducting a project in itself isn't any easy task; there are a number of complications in the implementation stage. These issues are multiplied when there are two or more projects going on simultaneously. In the case of "Beijing EAPS Consulting, Inc.," Mr. Zhang and Ms. Song were involved in co conducting projects. Their relationship was a positive one since the beginning however they were facing some issues among themselves which was making it extremely hard for the whole team to work out. They were at the same level of business hierarchy…… [Read More]

References:

Harold Kerzner (2003). Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling (8th Ed. Ed.). Wile

David I. Cleland, Roland Gareis (2006). Global Project Management Handbook. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. p.1-4

F.L. Harrison, Dennis Lock (2004). Advanced project management: a structured approach. Gower Publishing, Ltd., 2004. p.34.
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Development Guidance for a School or a Community Agency

Words: 2098 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67883423

Guidance and Counseling Program for a school or a community Agency

Comprehensive School Counseling Program Guide of the - Public School

Guidance and counseling has been included as a professional course by the Higher Education Commission document publicized in 2010. The teachers must have a basic know how about the school guidance and counseling techniques in order to tackle the personal and social issues which students face within the classroom as per Higher Education Commission (2012). Comprehensive School Counseling Program Guide of the - Public School is a brief explanation of design, application and assessment of SPS school counseling program (Dahir, 2009).

Objectives of the model:

The basic aims of this model are as follows:

Outlining school counseling and transitioning of conventional practice into transformed practice (Dahir, 2009).

Comprehending the different roles the guidance and counseling system entails for backing the students in their future goals and social challenges

This…… [Read More]

References

Connecticut State Department of Education (2008).Comprehensive School Counseling. Retrieved from http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/lib/sde/PDF/DEPS/Special/counseling.pdf

Dahir, C. (2009).Comprehensive School Counseling Program Guide. Working Document. Retrieved from http://www.sps.springfield.ma.us/webContent/Policies/Comprehensive%20School%20Counseling%20Program%20Guide%20&%20Appendix.pdf

Higher Education Commission (2012).Introduction to Guidance and Counseling. Retrieved from http://www.hec.gov.pk/InsideHEC/Divisions/AECA/CurriculumRevision/Documents/GuidanceCounseling_Sept13.pdf

Gysbers, N.C., & Henderson, P. (2001). Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs: A Rich History and a Bright Future. Professional School Counseling, 4 (4), 246-259. Retrieved from http://fcett.nu.edu/sites/default/files/file_file/gysbers_history.pdf