Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Learning Disability Student ESL
There is an urgent necessity to help reading-disabled pupils read, since weak reading skills are linked to serious consequences. Children who fail at reading properly will be prone to dropping out of school and facing pervasive scholastic issues. To add to this scenario's urgency, standard instruction does not aid most pupils who fail to grasp adequate reading skills during their early elementary years even till they complete school. Further, premature basic reading issues often lead to limited time devoted to text reading, on account of which decoding issues can ultimately grow into a generalized deficiency in reading marked by poor proficiency, general knowledge and vocabulary, which further impair reading comprehension in pupils (Otaiba & Denton, 2015). eading/writing issues resemble dyslexia symptoms. That is, dyslexics can't be told apart from pupils suffering from general reading issues. The present age recognizes literacy skills and considers them crucial to…
Born, M., & Curtis, R. (2013). (Re)Discovering Retrospective Miscue Analysis: An Action Research Exploration using Recorded Readings to Improve Third-grade Students Reading Fluency. i.e.: inquiry in education.
Bus, A., Takacs, Z., & Kegal, C. (2015). Affordances and limitations of electronic storybooks for young children's emergent literacy. Developmental Review - Elsevier, 79-97.
Connor, C., Alberto, P., Compton, D., & O'Connor, R. (2014). Improving Reading Outcomes for Students with or at Risk for Reading Disabilities. Natioanl Center for Special Education Research - U.S. Department of Education.
Hamilton, S., & Glascoe, F. (2016). Evaluation of Children with Reading Difficulties. Retrieved from American Familyt Pysician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1215/p2079.html
The ethical dilemma of diagnosing a learner with a disability when there are other alternatives for support
esnik (2011) defines ethics as "norms for conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior." As in research, participants have data source rights, so too in teaching/education do students, parents/guardians, teachers and staff have legal rights that should be observed and respected in the course of ethical adherence. These rights include all Constitutional rights, as Bonauto (2008) points out. Thus, students have the right to attend school in safety, without facing harassment or discrimination, and have the right to equal access under the Equal Access Act, which is a further identification of the student's right of protection against discrimination. Teachers also possess the right of non-discrimination and enjoy the right to free speech. Teachers also have something called "academic freedom" according to Hosford v. School Committee of Sandwich, which vied that…
Bonauto, M. (2008). The legal rights of public school students and teachers in Massachusetts. Gay and Lesbian Advocates & Defenders: 1-26.
Bournot-Trites, M., Belanger, J. (2005). Ethical dilemmas facing action researchers. The Journal of Educational Thought, 39(2), 197-215.
Colorado Department of Education. (2011). Guidelines for Identifying Students with Specific Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from https://www.cde.state.co.us/sites/default/files/documents/cdesped/download/pdf/sld_guidelines.pdf
Dewey, J. (2013). The School and Society and the Child and the Curriculum. IL:
Canada Public Policy: ADHD and Education
Canadian Public Policy, Education Learning disability A.D.H.D
Struggle by Human ights Groups and Parents
Public Policy Canada: An Overview
It has been estimated that almost five percent of School aged children out of population of 2.1 Million in Ontario are suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Contrasting other disabilities like autism or learning disabilities the ADHD was not in the special education previously. The students with ADHD were not included in the special education policy and thus the students and parents were suffering as they could not get the necessary interventions at School suggested by the doctor. (Andrea Golden, 2012)
ecently Education Minister of Ontario has announced to accommodate the students with ADHD and thus relaxed the parents as previously parents were spending from their pockets on theirs children with ADHD. A memorandum has been posted on the Ministry of Education…
Andrea Golden. (2012) Students with ADHD have legal right to supports in school Accessed online at http://www.thestar.com/living/article/1112930 -- students-with-adhd-have-legal-right-to-supports-in-school?bn=1
Castellanos, X.F. And Tannock, R. (2002). Neuroscience of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The search for endophenotypes. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, 617-628.
Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The Constitution Act, 1982, being Schedule B. To the Canada Act 1982 (U.K.), 1982, c. 11. Ottawa, ON. Government of Canada.
Dryer, R., Kiernan, M.J., and Tyson, G.A. (2006). Implicit theories of the characteristics and causes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder held by parents and professionals in the psychological, educational, medical and allied health fields. Australian Journal of Psychology, 58, 79-92
Specifically, the parents want their son's teachers to help him not only learn, but to be able to receive instruction from others. So far, they are fairly pleased with the progress that they have seen their son make in the classroom, but wish the teachers could develop more large-group activities and take the time to really make sure their son was a full participant, which they feel would help him to progress socially more than the often individualized instruction he receives.
The difficulty, they acknowledge, is that individualized instruction is how he learns best, and with a class the size of his they understand that the teachers couldn't focus their attention on him during a large group project. Still, they are hopeful that new ideas might come up that will improve his situation even more, and they continue to work closely with the teachers regarding his progress.
LDA. (209). Learning disabilities association of America. Accessed 2 October 2009. http://www.ldanatl.org/
WV Dept. Of Education. 92009). "Schools of Brooke County." Accessed 2 October 2009. http://wvde.state.wv.us/ed_directory/index.html?county_id=10
Disorder / impairment Characetristics Teaching Strategy Example
Adults ith Learning Disabilities
It has been estimated (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 that 50-80% of the students in Adult Basic Education and literacy programs are affected by learning disabilities (LD). Unfortunately, there has been little research on adults who have learning disabilities, leaving literacy practitioners with limited information on the unique manifestations of learning disabilities in adults.
One of the major goals of the (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 National
Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center (National ALLD Center) is to raise awareness among literacy practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and adult learners about the nature of learning disabilities and their impact on the provision of literacy services. This fact sheet provides: a definition of learning disabilities in adults; a list of common elements found in many useful LD definitions; and a list of areas in which LD may affect life situations of adults.
In 1963, the term "learning…
Author Unkown. Adult with Learning Disabilities
Corley, Mary Ann & Taymans, Juliana M. Adults with Learning Disabilities:A Review of Literature
Lesson for Children With Learning Disabilities
Developing a Lesson for Children with Learning Disabilities
Learning disability is a term misused severally. In essence, it applies to students who have different learning challenges. Most people associate learning disability to the development of a child, thus assuming that it is a short-term condition and disappears as the person matures. The accepted definition, provided by the National Adult Literacy and Learning Disability Center states that; learning disability is generic and refers to a composite group of disorders that become evident in the person; through observing that they have challenges in the acquisition and use of speaking, listening, reading, reasoning and execution of mathematical concepts, as well as, understanding social skills. As teachers process the learning procedure in class, they encounter various children with varied challenges, which constitute the learning disorders (Aster & Shalev, 2007). Thus, they have the obligation to accommodate those children…
Aster, M.G. v., M.D., & Shalev, R.S., M.D. (2007). Number development and developmental dyscalculia. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 49(11), 868-73. Retrieved
Canizares, D.C., Crespo, V.R., & Alemany, E.G. (2012). Symbolic and non-symbolic number magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia. The Spanish Journal
of Psychology, 15(3), 952-66. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1439791245?accountid=458
Inclusion of Disabilities in the Classroom
During the later years of the 20th century and the start of the new millennium, it has become abundantly clear that we are living in an increasingly diverse world. Indeed, the diversity of the world has increased not only in terms of race and nationality, but also in terms of ability and aptitude. So recognized have these differences become that that accommodations have been made for them in work, educational, and social settings. The same is true for persons with learning disabilities, or LD. Although there has been much controversy around including such children in general education settings, the trend has been to opt for this choice rather than excluding them from the general education classroom. Interestingly, studies such as the one by McLesky and Waldron have proved that such an idea may indeed be worth the considerable time and money involved in setting…
Lauchlan, F. And Boyle, C. (2007). Is the use of labels in special education helpful? Support for Learning. 22(1).
McLeskey, J. And Waldron, N.L. (2011, Apr.). Full inclusion programs for elementary students with learning disabilities: Can they meet student needs in an era of high stakes accountability? Council for Exceptional Children Convention.
Tom: A Case Study
Three themes that emerge from the case study of Tom are 1) Parent advocacy is key to helping the student with a learning disability overcome obstacles, 2) Early referral is another factor in assisting in this achievement, and 3) Personal perseverance and will power are a third variable that impacts how the LD student overcomes issues.
As shown in the case study of Tom, my brother, a learning difficulty might often be termed a "hidden disability." Disabilities are difficult to diagnose in this respect, as there is often limited information to go on. Teachers may identify a problem, but there is not the research or time put into assessing the situation. eschly (1996) notes that there are specific procedures that should be implemented when identifying students with learning disabilities: parents should be interviewed along with other teachers and administrators within the school. A history of the…
Great Schools. (2015). Study and test-taking strategies for kids with learning
disabilities. Greatschools. Retrieved from http://www.greatschools.org/gk/articles/study-and-test-taking-strategies-for-kids-with-learning-difficulties/
Kent ISD. (2015). Classroom Adaptations. Retrieved from http://www.khps.org/files/8613/9100/2965/classroom_adaptations1_20121127_152737_3.pdf
Reschly, D. (1996). Identification and assessment of students with disabilities. Special
memory, classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning. The paper also describes the effect of diversity issues on the learning process. In addition to that, the paper also summarizes the psychiatric disorders and their effect on learning and memorizing process. Lastly, the paper gives a comparison between various behavioral counseling approaches.
THEOIES OF LEANING AND MEMOY
Learning is an important topic in the field of psychology. Learning refers to a permanent change in the behavior and attitude of a person. The reason behind this change is experience and thus maturation or illness has nothing to do with it. This definition of learning as a permanent change and therefore it eliminates the temporary mood swings and illnesses from it. In this paper, we will be focusing on two types of learning: (Wood, 2010)
Instrumental Conditioning (Wood, 2010)
There are a lot of visuals and sounds that trigger certain emotions…
Cassidy*, S. (2004). Learning styles: An overview of theories, models, and measures. Educational Psychology, 24(4), 419 -- 444.
Cortiella, C., & Horowitz, S. (2014). The State of Learning Disabilities (1st ed., pp. 3-5). New York: National Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.ncld.org/images/content/files/stateofld2014/2014%20State%20of%20LD%20FINAL%20FOR%20RELEASE.pdf
Lutz, S., & Huitt, W. (2003). Information Processing and Memory: Theory and Applications (1st ed., pp. 1-5). Valdosta: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/papers/infoproc.pdf
Nelson-Jones, R. (2011). Theory and practice of counselling and therapy (1st ed., pp. 1-3). Los Angeles, Calif.; London: SAGE.
Social Promotion on Students With Learning Disabilities
Prospectus: Effects of Social Promotion on Young Students with Learning Disabilities
Social promotion in various learning institutions is a practice where the students are promoted to the next grade level even if they have not attained the required learning standards by the understanding material used. In most cases, social promotion has been contrasted with retention, which is a practice of holding students back to remain in the same class or grade if they fail to meet academic expectations. Students are always expet to show that they have attained the required learning standards or academic expectations before they are promoted to the next class of grade level (Chou et al., 2016). The practice is referred to social promotion in various learning institutions because as non-academic considerations factors like societal expectations and pressures influence promotions decisions made on students from one class to the next…
Chou, Y. C., Wehmeyer, M. L., Palmer, S. B., & Lee, J. (2016). Comparisons of Self-Determination Among Students With Autism, Intellectual Disability, and Learning Disabilities A Multivariate Analysis. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 1088357615625059.
Ciullo, S., Falcomata, T., & Vaughn, S. (2015). Teaching Social Studies to Upper Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities Graphic Organizers and Explicit Instruction. Learning Disability Quarterly, 38(1), 15-26.
Wehmeyer, M. L., Shogren, K. A., & Seo, H. (2015). Promoting the Self-Determination and Goal Attainment of Youth with Learning Disabilities And Behavioral Disorders. In Transition of Youth and Young Adults (pp. 173-196). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Students individualized education program (IEP)
The term IEP is used to refer to the special program or plan that is created with a specific student in mind due to the disability that they have in class which prevents them to learn as fast or with ease as the others in the class. In this instance, the student has special learning disability and needs to be helped through the IEP in order to get an environment that is conducive for his learning and a team that is assistive as much as possible. The student has difficulty in reading skills and also has difficulty in decoding, comprehension and fluency. These predispose him to be socially removed from peers and there is need to have IEP that would help him in the subjects in class and the social life too.
The seven components of the IEP to be use for the student with…
Davies R.D. (1192). 37 Common Characteristics of Dyslexia. 37 Common Characteristics of Dyslexia
fundraiser to benefit children with learning disabilities. The money raised from the event will be earmarked for needed equipment by the various local organizations that sponsor and maintain programs designed to assist these individuals. The site will need to accommodate between 130 -- 200 patrons in a comfortable manner and will also need to be large enough to allow for dancing and entertainment. The proposed date of the event is May, 2012 and the time will be from approximately 6 pm to midnight.
It was originally thought that this type of event would best be hosted by an outdoor facility, and in the long run that assumption might hold true. However, in the process of finding a facility, a large downtown hotel has expressed interest in hosting, and being a sponsor of the event. The hotel's contribution would be a number of conference rooms (to be decided) that could…
Rushmore, S. (2011) Lodging Hospitality, accessed at http://lhonline.com/services/insurance/rushmore_risk_management_0211/ , on January 27, 2012
During the course of a child's school years they will learn to define themselves as a person and shape their personality, sense of self-concept and perception of their potential for achievement for life (Persaud, 2000). Thus the early educational years may be considered one of the most impacting and important with regard to emotional, social and cognitive development for students of all disabilities. Labeling is a common by-product of educational institutions, one that has been hotly debated with regard to its benefits and consequences by educators and administrators over time. There are proponents of labeling and those that suggest that labeling may be damaging to students in some manner.
Students who are labeled at the elementary and middle school level as learning disabled may face greater difficulties achieving their true potential in part due to a decreased sense of self-esteem, self-concept and personal achievement (Persaud, 2000). The intent…
Beilke, J.R. & Yssel, N. (Sept., 1999). "The chilly climate for students with disabilites in higher education." College Student Journal, Retrieved October 19, 2004 from LookSmart. Available: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles.mi_m0FCR/is_3_33/ai_62839444/pg_3
Clark, M. (1997). "Teacher response to learning disability: A test of attributional principles." The Journals of Learning Disabilities, 30 (1), 69-79. Retrieved Oct 4, 2004 from LDOnline. Available:
Clark, M. And Artiles, A. (2000). "A cross-national study of teachers' attributional patterns." The Journal of Special Education, 32(2), 77-99.
Learning to read and write are complementary skills. While in the younger years, writing depends on reading skills, by middle and high school, they are complementary skills: reading is necessary to do writing assignments, while writing about what has read increases comprehension of the reading materials. For this reason, separating reading and writing instruction from content areas is arbitrary and will eventually interfere with the students' progress in those content areas.
From the day children are born, parents are told by doctors, teachers and other experts to read to them, and to read to them every day. They are told to do this because hearing language that contains story lines, rich language and vivid imagery facilitates language development and develops a desire to read. From "The Poky Little Puppy" to Rudyard Kipling, children's literature exists that uses language in exciting and colorful ways. Good children's literature doesn't sound the same…
Erickson, Lawrence.Jan. 11, 1998. "Informational literacy in the middle grades." The Clearing House.
Foley, Regina M. Winter, 2001. "Academic Charateristics of incarcerated youth and correctional educational programs: a literature review." Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.
Gardill, M. Cathleen, and Jitendra, Asha K.April 15, 1999. "Advanced Story Map Instruction: Effects on the Reading Comprehension of Students with Learning Disabilities." Journal of Special Education: Vol.33.
Nourie, Barbara; Livingston, Lenski, and Davis, Susan.July 17, 1998. "The (in)effectiveness of content area literacy instruction for secondary preservice teachers." The Clearing House: 71: 372-375.
Learning Problems vs Language Problems
The objective of this study is to examine how learning problems and language problems are related. Specifically considered will be the fact that when students who are learning English as their second language and who are experiencing academic or behavioral difficulties that the teacher and the school's problem-solving teams must examine whether these problems are related to learning a new language or whether the problems may be due to cognitive delays or developmental delay or disability.
The work of Fisher ( nd) entitled "Assessing English Language Learners for a Learning Disability or Language Issue" states that English language learners all "with learning disabilities...too often...fall through the cracks." (p.13) The reason stated for this is that these learners are often considered to be "slow English learners, or they may be in a school district that does not have enough resources to test them in their L1…
Recommended Practices for Assessment, Diagnosis, and Documentation of Learning Disabilities (2014) Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario. Retrieved from: http://www.ldao.ca/documents/Assessment%20Protocols_Sept%2003.pdf
Special Education and English Language Learners: Guidance for LEA Staff
An Overview of the ELL/SPED Programs and the Identification Process
(Webinar #1) (nd) Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. Retrieved from: http://dese.mo.gov/sites/default/files/webinar/documents/ELL-QandA-12-09-13.pdf
n other words, it can be criticized for being somewhat discursive and for not providing any form of comparative analysis.
Alternatively, one could argue that methodologically the research falls into the category of a case study, a legitimate form of intensive qualitative research. n the final analysis the article does provide some illuminating insights into the possibilities of literature for social and emotional development in gifted students.
Article 3: The Connection between Social-Emotional Learning and Learning Disabilities: mplications for ntervention by Maurice J. Elias.
The author of this article identifies a number of problematic social and emotional areas for the learning disabled or special needs student. These include the recognition of emotions in self and others; the regulation and management of strong emotions and the recognition of strengths and areas of need ( Elias, 2004). The article also reviews the literature and theoretical positions on this topic. Furthermore, the author…
In order to deal with these problems, the author suggests that in the first instance these inabilities and difficulties in the student must be recognized by the teacher or the therapist. Once they have been recognized, a responsive and caring approach should be taken. The teacher becomes involved in the process of articulating "... The strategies that students must use when they feel the strong feelings that are preventing them from learning effectively..."( Elias, 2004). Furthermore, the teacher should help the student to recognize his or her strengths. This can go a long way to reducing any sense of guilt or inadequacy.
While this study does not provide any quantitative methodology or strategy it does provide a comprehensive overview of the theoretical aspects of the problems and the way that these problems can be addressed by the teacher. What is clearly implied throughout is that the innate talents and abilities of the special needs student enhanced by the caring and responsive techniques and strategies on the part of the teacher.
It could be argued that this study is possibly not as rigorous and methodologically intensive as the first article discussed in the present paper. However, what is clear from an analysis of the study by Elias is that the author provides a comparatively comprehensive overview of the issues and problems at stake and also supports this with practical examples of methods
When children are given the option between a reward they would like and the internal desire to learn something, most children would rather have the reward. That is also true of many adults, whether they are in an educational setting or a business setting. Still, that does not mean that intrinsic interest cannot come along with extrinsic reward, or that operant theory is completely wrong. Many educators mix operant theory with cognitive theory in an effort to provide those with different learning styles more of an opportunity to learn and develop. This helps to reach the largest number of students per educator, improving the overall educational goal.
ognitive Theory of Learning
The cognitive theory of learning has been part of education since the late 1920's, when a Gestalt psychologist focused on the issue of Gestalt teaching and learning, and what that could offer to students who were not learning…
Carton, J.S. (1996). The differential effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation: A comparison of cognitive evaluation theory and operant theory. The Behavior Analyst, 19, 237-255.
Cavalier, a.R., Ferretti, R.P., & Hodges, a.E. (1997). Self-management within a classroom token economy for students with learning disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18, 167-178.
Davidson, P., & Bucher, B. (1978). Intrinsic interest and extrinsic reward: The effects of a continuing token program on continuing nonconstrained preference. Behavior Therapy, 9, 222-234.
This way of thinking and taking action has been evolving over many decades, but it reached its widest audience with the 1990 publication of 'The Fifth Discipline' by Peter Senge." (2003)
The Charter school has a unique opportunity to implement the principles of Peter Senge, and most particularly the principles associated with the 'learning organization' and from a perspective noted in the statement of Senge that it is very unlikely that the "deep systemic problems that afflict our institutions and society..." will find correction until "the ability to honor and integrate theory, personal development and practical results..." has been rediscovered since it is seemingly a lost ability. (Senge, 1997)
Senge states that change may very well involve "returning to an older model of community: traditional societies that gave respect to elders for their wisdom: teachers for their ability to help people grow, and warriors, weavers, and growers for their life…
Five Disciplines: Peter Senge (2008) Value-Based Management 25 Mar 2008. Online available at http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_senge_five_disciplines.html
Larsen, Kai, et al. (1996) the Learning Organization. Leader Values. Online available at http://www.leader-values.com/Content/detail.asp?ContentDetailID=186
Senge, P (1990). The Fifth Discipline. New York: Currency Doubleday.
Senge, Peter M. (1997) Communities of Leaders and Learners. Harvard Business Review September-October 1997. 75th Anniversary Edition. Reprint Online.
This study investigates how ESL students' perception affects the teacher-student interaction in the writing conferences. The multiple-case study explores: ESL students' expectations of the writing conference and factors contributing to the expectations, participation patterns of ESL students in the conferences, and ESL students' perception of the effectiveness of teacher-student conferences. A questionnaire, distributed to 110 (65 NS and 45 ESL) students enrolled in the first-year composition classes, examines students' previous writing experience and expectations of the writing conferences. Pre-conference interviews with 19 focus students (8 NS and 11 ESL) were conducted to verify the survey results. Students' participation patterns were investigated via the video-recorded writing conferences of the 19 focus students. Students' perceptions of the conference were investigated through the post conference interviews with the 19 focus students and follow-up interviews with six Chinese students.
esults of the research that Liu (2009) conducted determined that ESL students and NS students…
Beare, K. (n.d.). ESL Writing Workshop 2. Retrieved from http://esl.about.com/od/writinglessonplan/a/l_wwshop2.htm
Bitchener, J., & Knoch, U. (2009). The value of a focused approach to written corrective feedback. ELT Journal: English Language Teachers Journal, 63(3), 204-211. doi:10.1093/elt/ccn043.
Liu, Y.. ESL students in the college writing conferences: Perception and participation. Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Arizona, United States -- Arizona. Retrieved September 06, 2010, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text.(Publication No. AAT 3359771).
Matthews-Aydinli, J. (2008). OVERLOOKED AND UNDERSTUDIED? A SURVEY OF CURRENT TRENDS IN RESEARCH ON ADULT ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS. Adult Education Quarterly, 58(3), 198. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database.
Learning Journal: Personal eflection
Now more than ever before, diversity is a real issue for the American society, and with this demographic change comes the need to develop strategies and techniques for making people more appreciative of the gender, ethnic, religious, and cultural differences that constitute the fabric of society. One's gender, ethnicity, race, religion, or sexual orientation does not define who they are and what their abilities are. These elements, therefore, ought not to be used as the primary bases for assigning positions, benefits, or advancement opportunities at the workplace. Just because someone is male is no guarantee that they will display better performance in a leadership or supervisory position than a female candidate would. We may consider men better-placed for such positions because we think of them…
Alonso, M. (2012). Best Inclusion Practices: LGBT Diversity. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan
Community Tool Box. (2014). Strategies and Activities for Reducing Racial Prejudice and Racism. Kaplan University. Retrieved 22 March 2015 from http://ctb.dept.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/culture/cultural-competence/reduce-prejudice-racism/main
O'Brien, R. (2013). Bodies in Revolt: Gender Disability and a Workplace Ethic of Care. New York, NY: Routledge
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2001). Affirmative Action. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 24 March 2015 from http://www.civilrights.org/resources/civilrights101/affirmaction.html
The question is not whether the students are truly disabled but rather what constitutes a child who is a low achiever? Is there something in the pedagogy, the methodology or the manner of instruction that fails to tap into what the child is good at and expounds on that to improve learning? For those students who are non-native English speakers, is that a problem of the student or the teacher who may not be bi-lingual or impatient in his or her instruction? As suggested by Kaufman, Hallahan, ills and others, it is incumbent upon the educational system to determine a universal way to classify students as learning disabled and stop school systems from using it as a catch all for the students they find difficult to instruct.
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. (2006). Introduction to response to intervention: what, why, and how valid is it? Reading Research Quarterly.…
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. (2006). Introduction to response to intervention: what, why, and how valid is it? Reading Research Quarterly.
Gresham, F., MacMillan, D., & Bocian, K. (1996). Learning disabilities, low
Achievement and mild mental retardation: more alike than different? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29, 570-581.
Hale, J., Naglieri, J., Kaufman, a., & Kavate, K (2004). Specific learning disability
For the purposes of this review, Web-based instruction is considered to be any educational or training program distributed over the Internet or an intranet and conveyed through a browser, such as Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. Java applet-based instruction is a special form of Web-based instruction.
Although there is very little research on comparing the effectiveness of Java applet-based instruction to the traditional face-to-face offering. However Web-based instruction has received enough attention that many studies are now available in the research literature.
Comparing the learning effects of Web-based learning with traditional face-to-face teaching and learning is emphasized in the research on the Internet as a medium in higher education. However, these research studies always produce conflicting results. esearchers found significant differences, positive or negative, in using different Internet-based approaches to facilitate teaching and learning.
This literature review explores three dominant themes: impact on student performance, student attitude, and student satisfaction.…
Rajshree Agarwal, a Edward Day. (1998). The impact of the Internet on economic education. Journal of Economic Education, 29(2), 99. Retrieved November 14, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 28501331).
Al-Jarf, a. & Sado, R. (2002). Effect of online learning on struggling ESL college writers. San Antonio, TX: National Educational Computing Conference Proceedings. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 475-920).
Anthony Basile, Jill M. D'Aquila. (2002). An experimental analysis of computer-mediated instruction and student attitudes in a principles of financial accounting course. Journal of Education for Business, 77(3), 137-143. Retrieved November 17, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 115217377).
Carey, J. (2001). Effective student outcomes: A comparison of online and face-to-face delivery modes. Retrieved November 14, 2008, at http://www.ed.psu.edu/acsde/deos/deosnews/deosnews11_9.asp
disabilities as 'deficits.' Even though I did not harbor prejudices against the disabled or regard people who had disabilities as 'inferior,' I viewed disabilities as challenges that had to be overcome. This class has helped me see persons with disabilities as people with particular conditions or differences, not as people defined by a singular characteristic. Everyone has personal deficits and strengths, but needing 'talking books' to read a book does not make a blind or dyslexic person defined by their condition any more than someone who needs glasses to see the same text. Defining persons with disabilities as people 'with' specific conditions, such as saying that Johnny is a child 'with ADHD' rather than a 'hyperactive kid,' much as you would say someone is 'a person who wears glasses' rather than a 'glasses-wearing friend' has been helpful in changing my mindset.
Before I took this course, I also had a…
In order to build an age-appropriate vocabulary in the English language, ESL students must learn words at a faster rate than normal (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005; Drucker 2003). This results in a widening gap between the reading and comprehension levels of ESL and non-ESL students if the needs of ESL students are not addressed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005).
Some ESL students come from a native language that poses more difficulties than others. For example, ussian and Arabic have alphabets that look very different from the English alphabet. Children must learn an entirely new coding system in order to proceed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005). Even when the alphabet is similar, the English language is difficult to learn due to the many inconsistencies in tense and individual word use. Because they may not be conversationally fluent, subtleties of the English language may take some time to master (Palmer, El_Ashry,…
Abu-Rabia, a., and Maroun, L. (2005). The effect of consanguineous marriage on reading disability in the Arab community. Dyslexia, 11, 1-21.
Davis, G.N., Lindo, E.J., and Compton, D.L. (2007). Children at risk for reading failureL Constructing an early screening measure. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(5), 32-37.
Drucker, M.J. (2003). What reading teachers should know about ESL learners. The Reading Teacher, 57, 22-29.
Hudson, R.F., High, L., and Al Otaiba, S. (2007). Dyslexia and the brain: What does current research tell us? The Reading Teacher, 60, 506-515.
Inclusion of a Child With Disabilities
Child With Disability
Inclusion of a child with disabilities into a general education class
Inclusion is a right that should be provided to all children. Parents fight for access to quality education to their children even though they have disabilities. This fight has contributed to the provision of equal access to quality education opportunities and equal opportunities oach & Elliott, 2006.
The passage of the PL 94-142 lessened the fight that parents had to fight for general education. PL 94-142 made a call for education of those children who have special needs in an LE (least restrictive environment) Terman, Larner, Stevenson, & Behrman, 1996.
What constitutes the LE has led to a huge debate on how to best include those children who have disabilities into the regular education system.
Additionally, the amendments that were made to IDEA of 1996 put further emphasis on inclusion…
Berry, R.A.W. (2006). Inclusion, Power, and Community: Teachers and Students Interpret the Language of Community in an Inclusion Classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 43(3), 489-529.
Cawthon, S.W. (2007). Hidden Benefits and Unintended Consequences of 'No Child Left Behind' Policies for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. American Educational Research Journal, 44(3), 460-492.
Conyers, L.M., Reynolds, A.J., & Ou, S.-R. (2003). The Effect of Early Childhood Intervention and Subsequent Special Education Services: Findings from the Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25(1), 75-95.
Cook, B.G. (2004). Inclusive Teachers' Attitudes toward Their Students with Disabilities: A Replication and Extension. The Elementary School Journal, 104(4), 307-320.
It also lists goals and objectives, which are used to measure a student's progress and determine whether the program and placement are appropriate" ("The IEP Cycle," DREF, 2007). Each student's IEP must be developed by a team of people who are knowledgeable and concerned about the student and must be at least reviewed annually. The team may include the child's teacher, the parents, the child, and agency representatives. "If parents disagree with the proposed IEP, they can request a due process hearing and a review from the State educational agency if applicable in that state" ("Guide to Disability Rights Laws," U.S. Dept. Of Justice, 2005).
IDEA lists 13 categories under which a student can qualify for special education services, including autism, deaf-blindness, deafness, hearing impairment, mental retardation, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairment, other health impairment, serious emotional disturbance, specific learning disability, speech or, language impairment, traumatic brain Injury and visual impairment,…
Guide to Disability Rights Laws." U.S. Dept. Of Justice. (Sept 2005). Retrieved 18 Jun
2007 at http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/cguide.htm#anchor65310
The IEP Cycle." DREF: Disability Rights Education & Defense Fund. Retrieved 18 Jun
2007 at http://www.dredf.org/special_education/iep_cycle.shtml
Education: Teaching Math to Students ith Disabilities
orking with students with disabilities (SD) can be quite challenging, especially for teachers working on a full-time basis. Almost every classroom today has one or more students dealing with either an emotional, educational, or physical disability; and teachers are likely to find themselves looking for resources or information that would enable them teach all their students in the most effective way. There are numerous special-education websites from which teachers and instructors can obtain information or lessons on teaching their respective subjects. Five websites available to the math special education teacher have been discussed in the subsequent sections of this text.
Teachers Helping Teachers: http://www.pacificnet.net/~mandel/
This online resource provides teaching information for all teachers, with a 'Special Education' segment that provides a number of activities meant specifically for instilling basic conceptual skills in learners with special needs. The activities are submitted by…
Oldham County Schools. "Instructional Resources for Math." Oldham County Schools, n.d. Web. 17 August 2014 http://www.oldham.k12.ky.us/files/intervention_resources/Math/Instructional_Resources_for_Math.pdf
Starr, Linda. "Teaching Special Kids: Online Resources for Teachers." Education World, 2010. Web. 17 August 2014 from http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr139.shtml
hear the word 'disability, the first images that come to mind are people with obvious disabilities, such as physical limitations. But now I know that disabilities come in many shapes and sizes. Learning disabilities are not always immediately apparent to even the trained eye of a seasoned teacher. A student with ADHD can seem very normal running around on the playground, and it is not until the child is sitting in a classroom environment that his or her 'disability' becomes evident on a test.
The first words which come to my mind when I hear 'disability' tend to be negative words: it is difficult not to see a disability as a liability rather than simply as a difference, although from the point-of-view of a teacher it is better to view it as such, and is more empowering for the students to do so as well.
Question Box 2 on
Emotions affect how memories are processed, stored, and retrieved, which also impacts how learning takes place. Perhaps more importantly, emotions impact cognitive processes and learning. Neuroscience shows the ways thoughts are processed depends on one's cultural context and also emotional states. Thinking styles may be also linked to the learning process, as Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, and thinking styles are themselves related to cultural variables. The ways people process information therefore has to do with social learning as well as emotional learning and memory. Certain types of emotions may be more conducive to specific types of learning styles or learning behaviors. Emotions can also promote synchronized or chaotic neurological responses. These findings have implications for classroom design and pedagogy.
Wealth means far more than just possession of material goods. As Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, capital refers not only to assets in the traditional sense but also…
Constructivism in all forms faces many obstacles and hurdles in getting fair application in the classroom of schools today for many reasons. One reason is that when constructivism is applied properly and fully to a classroom environment, the teacher may find him or herself in the "backseat" while the students steer the direction of the learning process. It removes much of the inherent hierarchal power of the teacher vs. The student in the classroom. Students are allowed a very high degree of autonomy. There is a strong tendency in our society to subordinate children and to keep children submissive to the dominant adult figures in their lives, and within the school it is completely unheard of to treat students as equals to the teachers. This is due to the belief of both teachers and parents that children are not equal to adults. The rationalist myth of "cold reason"…
Brier, S. (1992): "Information and consciousness: A critique of the mechanistic concept of information," in Vol.1, no. 2/3 pp. 71-94 of "Cybernetics & Human Knowing." Aalborg, Denmark.
Dougiamas, M. (1998) "A Journey into Constructivism." Accessed Jan 21, 2004 at http://dougiamas.com/writing/constructivism.html
Glasersfeld, E.V., (1992) "Aspects of Radical Constructivism and its Educational Recommendations." Scientific Reasoning research Institute. Presented at ICMe-7, Working Group #4, Quebec. Accessed Jan 21, 2004 at http://www.umass.edu/srri/vonGlasersfeld/onlinePapers/html/195.html
Glasersfeld, E.V. (1992) "Why I Consider Myself a Cybernetician" CYBERNETICS & HUMAN KNOWING. A Journal of Second Order Cybernetics & Cyber-Semiotics, Vol. 1 no. 1. Accessed Jan 21, 2004 from: www.flec.kvl.dk/sbr/Cyber/cybernetics/vol1/v1-1evg.htm
Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."
As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.
This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…
Brandon, Thomas H.; Herzog, Thaddeus a.; Irvin, Jennifer E.; & Gwaltney, Chad J. (2004).
Cognitive and social learning models of drug dependence; implications for the assessment of Tobacco dependence in adolescents. Addiction, 99(1), 51-77.
Center on English Learning and Achievement. (2002). Scaffolding Student Performance of New and Difficult Tasks. Retrieved March 10, 2007, at http://cela.albany.edu/newslet/fall02/scaffolding.htm.
Demant, Meagan S, & Yates, Gregory C.R. (2003). Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Direct Instruction Construct. Educational Psychology, 23(5), 483-489.
Following are Hofstede's four categories and what they measure:
Power Distance (PD) is the "extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally" (Hofstede 1998) with a small PD meaning more equality in the society, and a large PD meaning less.
Individualism (ID) defines whether the society expects people to look after themselves or not. Its opposite is Collectivism, which Hofstede (1998) defines as "the extent to which people in a society from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty."
Masculinity (MA) defines the degree of distinction of gender roles. High MA means men are supposed to be "assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life" (Hofstede 1998). Its…
Al-Mekhalfi, A.G. (2001). Instructional media for teachers' preparation. International Journal of Instructional Media, 28(2), 191. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Arab World (2005). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_arab_world.shtml
Australia. (2005) Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_australia.shtml
Bilimoria, P. (1995). Introduction to the Special Issue: Comparative and Asian philosophy in Australia and New Zealand. Philosophy East & West, 45(3), 151-169.
V. Government System RARPA
The government introduced the RARPA Program which is abbreviated for the:: "Recording and Recognition of Progress and Achievement Summary of the Evaluation Report" in relation to the Pilot Projects April 2003 to March 2004 Learning and Skills Development Agency National Institute of Adult Continuing Education 2004 August. Since 2002 the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) has focused its efforts on establishing an appropriate method of recognizing and recording the progress and achievement of learners that is non-accredited in nature. Development of a model called the 'Staged Process." The RARPA consists of the application "of an explicit and common staged process to the recognition and recording of progress and achievement, together with the validation of this process through a range of judgments about its consistent and effective application." The background of the project is stated to be that LSDA and NIACE were involved in preparation of work…
McCallum, Myra K. (1999) "Strategies and Activities to Stimulate Adequate ESOL Instruction in Content Area Courses and Increase Honest Effort and Motivation Among ESOL Students Dekalb County School System, Decatur, GA 1999 November U.S. Department of Education: #FL026093.
Your Guide 2 Skills For Life Policy and Strategy (2005) Skills and Education Network March Online available at: http://senet.lsc.gov.uk/guide2/skill sforlife/G2skillsforlifeG028.pdf
English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Case Studies of Provision, Learner's Needs and Resources, National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy Online at www.nrcd.org.uk ISBN 0 95456492 Kings College London, University of Leeds, Institute of Education, University of London and Lancaster University.
Fogel, H. & Ehri, L.C. (2000). Teaching elementary students who speak Black English Vernacular to write in Standard English: effects of dialect transformation practice. Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 25.
Boys and Girls Learn Differently! -- Michael Gurian and Patricia Henley
Michael Gurian's book has been a best seller and a much-discussed, respected handbook on the topic of boys vs. girls in a learning milieu since it was published in 2001. But more than its popularity and success in the market, Gurian's book has made a positive impact on parents, teachers, counselors and others interested in education and human development because it delves into the neurological, chemical and hormonal disparities between boys and girls. Gurian's book is a well-presented narrative and moreover it is based on the author's vast experience as a teacher, family therapist and researcher -- and his ability to relate those experiences well.
There are many significant points in the book that make it valuable in today's educational setting. For one, the author offers believable, reader-friendly narrative on why boys and girls process information differently. For another,…
Gurian, Michael, Henley, Patricia, and Trueman, Terry. (2001). Boys and Girls Learn
Differently! San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Teaching Historical Events to Student With Disabilities
Our perspective of the concept of the passing of time and our place in the history of the world is important to us towards our growth and evolution. Lacking a sense of time and space, one is prone to be disconnected with the universe. While it can be frightening to be trapped in a moment in time and not be cognizant of the position in space you occupy, it is the experience people classified to have Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties (PMLD) go through (Tony Jones, 2013). Adolescents who have learning disabilities (LD) face a number of challenges with the strict application of Common Core State Standards for literacy when considering subjects such as social studies and history. Besides the challenges they have with reading, students with LD are required to take part in reasoning and thinking at a high level. For teachers…
Candy Bear, & Cheryl Mason Bolick. (2013). Teaching Social Studies in Middle and Secondary Schools. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill: Pearson.
Carole Boudreau, Anne Rodrigue, Veronique Parent, Julie Myre-Bisaillon, & Annick Tremblay-Bouchard. (2014). Teaching History to High School Students with LDs: Pedagogical Considerations & Strategies. LD School.
Janis A. Bulgren, Patricia Sampson Graner, & Donald D. Deshler. (2013). Literacy Challenges and Opportunities for Students with Learning Disabilities in Social Studies and History. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 17-27.
Tony Jones. (2013). History for Individuals Experiencing Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties. Nottinghamshire: Talksense.
deficits of students with mathematics disabilities?
Mathematical skills are definitely just as crucial as literacy and reading skills when it comes to succeeding at school and beyond. Of late, researchers and policymakers have focused considerably on reading; the latter's attention was manifest in the 2001 No Child Left ehind (NCL) Act. While reading deficiencies are commonly believed to be one among the main characteristics of learning-disabled pupils, mathematical disabilities pose an issue just as serious as reading in case of several learning-disabled pupils and might, in fact, be just as common as reading deficits.
Although cognitive skills (including intelligence quotient), educational experience, drive, etc. might challenge mathematical ability development, a major probable barrier is DD or Developmental Dyscalculia, a numeracy-specific developmental learning problem impacting roughly three to six percent of persons' school-level mathematical skill acquisition (Price, 2013). DD-related studies have revealed a broad array of mathematical skill-related behavioral deficiencies. ut…
MCUE. (2008). Culturally Responsive Classroom Management Strategies. New York: New York University.
Morin, A. (2014, March 10). Understanding Dyscalculia. Retrieved from Understood.org: https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/child-learning-disabilities/dyscalculia/understanding-dyscalculia
NASET. (2014). Characteristics of Children with Learning Disabilities. National Association of Special Education Teachers.
O'Connell, T., Freed, G., & Rothberg, M. (2010). Using Apple Technology to Support Learning for Students with Sensory and Learning Disabilities. WGBH Educational, 9.
In addition to a lightened burden of proof and broader definition there were two additional changes resulting from the amendment which served to positively affect the impact and ultimate effectiveness of the legislation. This amendment clarified the fact that judges are not allowed to assess possible mitigating factors such as medication, corrective surgery, or specialized equipment in the determination of whether or not an individual is disabled. This change is directly related to the Sutton case. Further the amendments clarified the definition of major life activities. This amendment relates directly to the Williams case in which a judge deemed that Carpal Tunnel wasn't in fact a significant impairment to major life activities, it merely precluded her from successfully completing specific tasks in the work place. Though the language of the Act is still quite ambiguous, these changes help to clarify and protect the intention of the act.
1. Disability Discrimination Act 1995. (c.50), London: HMSO.
2. Schall, C., 1998. The Americans with Disabilities Act -- Are we keeping our promise? An analysis of the effect of the ADA on the employment of persons with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 10(3), pp.191-203.
3. Stowe, M., 2000. Interpreting "place of public accommodation" under Title III of the ADA: A technical determination with potentially broad civil rights implications. Duke Law Journal, pp. 297- 329.
4. Grabois, R., Nosek, M., & Rossi, D., 2005. Accessibility of primary care physicians' offices for people with disabilities: An analysis of compliance with the American with Disabilities Act. Archives of Family Medicine, 8, pp. 44- 51.
One area that was missed in the literature was the effectiveness of various intervention strategies in reducing stress in families with persons with disabilities. It is not known what interventions have been tried and which ones were most effective in helping families to build coping mechanisms and reduce stress. This is the obvious next step into developing a thorough understanding of the topic area.
This literature review revealed several key trends into research regarding families and cognitive impairment. This area continues to be an area of interest. However, the focus seems to be shifting from a psychological perspective into a sociological based approach. There is much more interest in recent years regarding the issues of cognitive disability and its impact on society at large. In the area of persons with cognitive disability, having families of their own, politics will play a factor in the direction of research in the future.…
Anderson, V., Catroppa, C., & Haritou., M. et al. (2005). Identifying factors contributing to child and family outcome 30 months after traumatic brain injury in children. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 76(3):401-408,
Family Village. (2006). Cognitive Disability/Mental Retardation. Retrieved April 9, 2009 from http://www.familyvillage.wisc.edu/lib_cdmr.htm
Feldman, M., Varghese, J., Ramsay, J., & Rajska, D. (2002). Relationships between social
support, stress, and mother-child interactions in mothers with intellectual disabilities.
Federal legislation requires students with disabilities to participate in state assessments, partly because such assessments are important components of educational accountability. These assessments are used to classify students according to their educational needs, provide information regarding the progress of students with disabilities, and identify the extent to which students are attaining state academic standards. The large majority of classified students are classified under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). But classification is highly inconsistent, which should raise concerns about over-, under-, and misclassifying certain types of disabilities. Misclassification can result from failing to identify students with disabilities, from classifying students with disabilities they do not have, and from delaying classifying disabilities in students. Some of this inconsistency is accounted for by teachers and schools (McDonnell, McLaughlin, & Morison, 1997); however, when contrasting state classification data there are striking differences that indicate that state guidelines vary and lead to the…
Data Accountability Center (2009). Data Tables for OSEP State Reported Data, table 1-13, https://www.ideadata.org/arc_toc6.asp. May, 9, 2011.
Jimerson, S.R., Burns, M.K., & VanDerHeyden, AM. (2007). Response to intervention at school: The science and practice of assessment and intervention. In S.R. Jimerson, M.K. Burns, & A.M. VanDerHeyden, Handbook of Response to Intervention: The Science and Practice of Assessment and Intervention. New York: Springer.
Harry B. & Klinger, J.K. (2006). Why are so many minority students in special education?: Understanding race & disability in schools. New York: Teachers College Press.
McDonnell, L., McLaughlin, M., & Morison, P. (Eds.). (1997). Educating one and all:
Methods for evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of peer-assisted learning programs are discussed as well, followed by a summary of the literature review.
Background and Overview.
The growing body of scholarly evidence concerning peer tutoring has been consistent in emphasizing the powerful effects that children can exert on the academic and interpersonal development of their classmates and/or other students (Ehly & Topping, 1998). For example, Bloom (1984) reported early on that one-on-one tutoring by a fully skilled peer was more effective than both conventional (i.e., teachers' lecturing) and mastery learning (i.e., student- regulated) methods of teaching. Across several replications of academic content and student age levels, Bloom (1984) reported that peer tutoring programs produced effect sizes on the order of 2 standard deviations above the mean of the control group (i.e., students receiving conventional lecture-based instruction), compared with 1.3 standard deviations for mastery learning (effect sizes larger than.25 of 1…
Adelgais, a., King, a., & Staffieri, a. (1998). Mutual peer tutoring: Effects of structuring tutorial interaction to scaffold peer learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 134.
Afflerbach, P., Baumann, J.F., Duffy-Hester, a.M., Hoffman, J.V., McCarthey, S.J. & Ro, J.M. (2000). Balancing principles for teaching elementary reading. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Arreaga-Mayer, C., Gavin, K.M., Greenwood, C.R., Terry, B.T., & Utley, C.A. (2001). Classwide peer tutoring learning management system. Remedial and Special Education, 22(1), 34.
Bloom, B.S. (1984). The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher, 13, 4-16.
..set of critical stages for normal psychologic development." (2001) Kandel relates that prior to formal studies being conducted on material deprivation: "...a few anecdotal examples of social isolation were collected by anthropologists and clinicians. From time to time children had been discovered living in an attic or a cellar, with minimal social contact, perhaps spending only a few minutes a day with a caretaker, a nurse or a parent. Children so deprived in early childhood are often later found to be speechless and lacking in social responsiveness." (Kandel, 2001) According to the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities in the work entitled: "Issues in Learning Disabilities: Assessment and Diagnosis": Diagnosis, assessment and treatment must be in the nature of 'differential diagnosis' in making identification between varying disorders, syndromes and other factors that impact the acquisition of the skills of listening, speaking, reading, writing reasoning or mathematical abilities." (National Joint Committee…
Kamhi, a.G. (1984) Problem Solving in Child Language Disorders. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in School Journal. Volume 15. October 1984.
Federici, R.S. (1999) Neuropsychological Evaluation and Rehabilitation of the Post-Institutionalized Child. Presented at the Conference for Children and Residential Care, Stockholm, Sweden May 3, 1999. Neuropsychological and Family Therapy Associated.
A de Valenzuela, JA (1999) the Social Construction of Language Competence: Language Socialization in Three Bilingual Kindergarten Classrooms. University of New Mexico. Dissertation Synopsis.
Thanasoulas, Dimitrios (2001) Language and Disadvantage - Article 70 - the Weekly Column. 2001 August.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate academic achievement of special education students enrolled in Challenger Middle school's inclusion program and the fidelity measured by student progress in CST/CMA scores in reading/language arts and mathematics and the relationship and efficacy of behavioral support. The evaluation of Challenger Middle school's inclusion program will serve as criteria to determine if any adjustments needed in relation to providing adequate and equitable service for special education students in compliance with the federal mandates and regulations of NCLB & IDEA.
There will be three research questions for this study. The research questions are:
What is the success rate of the special education program of Challenger Middle school students in grades seven on the academic proficiency in writing as measured by California's CST/CMA scores?
What is the impact of the special education program designed for Challenger Middle school students in grades six, seven,…
Do you think this student might have a learning disability? Why or why not?
learning disability is referred to as affecting acquisition, organization, retention, and understanding of information, both verbal and nonverbal, as gauged from perceiving, thinking, remembering, or learning. The student understands information, memorizes information, understands science concepts, and has fairly good math skills.
Do you think this student might have ADHD? Why or why not?
ADHD is defined through three main groups of symptoms; inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Inattention; the student has messy writing, lacks focus -- struggles to read class materials, and forgets to complete homework. Hyperactivity; the student has difficulty staying at his desk, and is very talkative in class. Impulsivity; has difficulty following rules, and talks out inappropriately without raising his hand.
What assessment tools would be used to determine whether or not this student has ADHD?
There is not an established criterion…
Danielson, M. (2015, October). "The Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD Among Children in Foster Care Using Medicaid Claims Data, 2011." In 2015 AAP National Conference and Exhibition. American Academy of Pediatrics.
Siu, A. L. (2015). Screening for speech and language delay and disorders in children aged 5 years or younger: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Pediatrics, 136(2), e474-e481.
urban elementary school in Eastern, New York . That problem
Specifically, is the social promotion of fourth grade students with disabilities. Currently, nothing is being done to address the issue as social promotion which is supported by state education policies that benefit from children being passed to the next grade level. This benefit consists essentially of state and federal funding (Meier et al., 2004, p.8). Special education teachers are tasked with teaching students who have not mastered basic skills.
Meier, D. et al. (2004). Many Children Left Behind: How the No Child Left Behind Act
is Damaging Our Children and Our Schools. Boston: Beacon Press.
There is a gap in practice regarding the effects of social promotion regarding teachers and students, as the concept remains controversial (Frey, 2005).
Frey, N. (2005). Retention, social promotion, and academic redshirting. Remedial and Special Education, 26(6): 332-346.
There is a…
students becoming more eager to learn with technology?
What affect does the use of technology in the classroom have on the students or interest in the curriculum?
Does the engagement in computer activities improve the concentration span of the students?
The reason why I chose these questions:
The reason I would find this topic exciting is because, my son is on an IEP with a learning disability in reading. I must say he has gotten a lot better with using the computer and the opportunity to learn on various sites as well as other different programs. This has motivated him to learn and he has gained confidence from it, so I felt it would become great to find out why is it easier for children to learn from technology than an actual teacher. Is technology taking the place of an educator?
The processes in coming up with these three…
Carpenter, S. (2000). In the digital age, experts pause to examine effects on kids. American Psychological Association, 1.
CIO. (2003). Technology's impact on child's growth and development. Retrieved June 27, 2011, from CIO: http://www.cio.com/article/29797/David_Elkind_Technology_s_Impact_on_Child_Growth_and_Development .
The Real Truth. (2009). Does technology stunt children's social development? Retrieved June 27, 2011, from The Real Truth: http://www.realtruth.org/news/090303-008-society.html .
he 1992 sessions, for example, consisted of approximately twenty-five pupils between 10 and 15 years of age who were mainly drawn from the Seattle area, plus about a dozen staff members.
he daily timetable was organized around activities such as computer graphics, electronic music, and VR itself. he end goal, however, was to build a virtual world. Pupils worked in small groups on the process of world-building and were encouraged to work as teams. (Schroeder, 1996, p. 70)
he technology for this system consisted of both the developmental tools, the PCs and special plug in technology and an immersive system, not afforded to all program trials but very useful here, as can be seen by the outcomes and the engaged student body of the program.
he equipment for building worlds was Swivel 3-D software (see Kalawsky 1993:211-212), and the immersive system consisted of a VPL system with a glove or…
Technology the Journal (Technological Horizons in Education), 26(7), 61. Retrieved October 24, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
US Department of Education website, 2004, "Educational Technology Fact
Sheet" at http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/os/technology/facts.html .
search "students with disabilities in higher education" consist of themes that focus on the need to assist learning disability students in universities by extending their test taking time (Spenceley, Wheeler, 2016; Hadley, 2011), by identifying their disability and providing extra assistance and resources (Budd et al., 2016; Callens, Tops, Brysbaert, 2013; Diez, Lopez, Molina, 2015; Kimberley, Laurie, 2011), and by applying programs designed to assist students with learning disabilities in particular classes in which they consistently struggle (King-Sears et al., 2015; Sachs, Schreuer, 2011; yan, 2011; Hutcheon, Wolbring, 2012).
Spenceley and Wheeler (2016) find that extending the test times for students with disabilities is one way in which universities can help such students work towards graduating college. Hadley (2011) likewise identifies the need for universities to extend more welcoming and favorable conditions to students with disabilities in order to facilitate their academic aims. This theme is essentially supported by the…
Budd, J. et al. (2016). Postsecondary students with specific learning disabilities and with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder should not be considered as a unified group for research or practice. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(4): 206-216.
Callens, M., Tops, W., Brysbaert, M. (2012). Cognitive profile of students who enter higher education with an indication of dyslexia. PLoS ONE, 7(6): e38081. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038081
Diez, A., Lopez, R., Molina, V. (2015). Students with disabilities in higher education: a biographical-narrative approach to the role of lecturers. Higher Education Research and Development, 34(1): 147-159.
Hadley, W. (2011). College students with disabilities: A student development perspective. New Directions for Higher Education, 154: 77-81.
fifth of all Americans have some type of disability (United States Census Bureau, 2000).
Alarming? Yes, however, disabilities do not discriminate and people of all ages, race, and socioeconomic backgrounds can be affected or have a family member who has a disability. Disabilities in children may include, but are not limited to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Autism, Central Auditory Processing Disorder, Dyscalculia, Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dysprazia, Learning Disabilities, and Nonverbal Learning Disability. While these are only a few of the ever-growing list of disabilities discovered in children, the list continues to grow as additional research is conducted to identify more disabilities in children. This paper will discuss the issues, concepts, and findings of recent literature on the important issue of children with disabilities. It will also include information on how a disabled child and the parents search for help and resources with an emphasis being on treatment and educational…
Administration for Children and Families. (2004). Head Start Bureau.
Accessed March 30, 2004, from, http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/hsb/index.htm
American Dietetic Association. (2004). Position of the American Dietetic Association: providing nutrition services for infants, children, and adults with developmental disabilities and special health care needs. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104 (1) 97-108.
Bayerl, C., Ries J., Bettencourt M., & Fisher P. (1993). Nutrition issues of children in early intervention programs: primary care team approach. Semin Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutrition 4:11-15.
Elementary Special Education Teachers Place Value in the use of Technology Resources for Students?
Technology is an integral part of society. Students learn through use of technology like personal computers, tablets, and e-books (Garland & Tadeja, 2013). Computers can provide access to videos, documents, and other forms of data that students have the choice of absorbing via visual or auditory methods. Tablets provide the same access but with a light-weight, touch responsive interface. Technology investment within schools not only enables varied learning opportunities for students, but it also helps students discover or improve their own ability to research and analyze information, collaborate and communicate, and solve problems (Lim, Zhao, Tondeur, Chai, & Tsai, 2013). Comment by Steve Moskowitz: Yes, this is the reason
Technology helps provide other benefits. Integrating technology in schools, especially in other areas like special education enable staff to develop new ways of teaching and…
Long-Term Effects of Social Promotion on Student and Teacher
There is a problem in an urban elementary school in Eastern New York. This problem specifically is the social promotion of fifth grade students. Currently, nothing is being done to address the issue of social promotion which is supported by state education policies that benefits from children being passed to the next grade level. There is a lack of training for teachers who teach students who are at risk learners. Teaching at risk learners is one of the areas that require high quality teachers to enhance learner outcomes. However, at risk learners have teachers who are not adequately trained to meet the standards of effective teaching to meet their needs (Grant, Stronge & Popp, 2008). The current educational system/framework does not align such learners with expert teachers, but with average teachers with inadequate training, average skills, and less experience (Grant, Stronge…
Aldridge, J. & Goldman, R. (2014, May 7). Current issues and trends in education (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Allyn & Bacon.
Education Week. (2004, August 4). Social Promotion. Retrieved December 22, 2016, from https://www.edweek.org/ew/issues/social-promotion/
Grant, L., Stronge, J.H. & Popp, P. (2008, May). Effective Teaching and At-Risk/Highly Mobile Students: What Do Award-Winning Teachers Do? Retrieved from Sonoma State University website: http://www.sonoma.edu/TRIO-training/research/homeless/mobile.pdf
Hernandez-Tutop, J. (2012, May). Social Promotion or Grade Repetition: What's Best for the 21st Century Student. Retrieved from Institute of Education Sciences website: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED532287.pdf
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) governs how the U.S. states offer special education services to children with disabilities. It addresses the educational needs of the children with disabilities from birth to age 21, and involves more than a dozen specific categories of disability. Congress has reauthorized and amended IDEA several times, most recently in December 2004. Although historically, students with disabilities have not had the same access to the general education curriculum as their peers, IDEA has changed the access and accountability requirements for special education students immeasurably (NCTM, 2011).
The challenges for meeting the needs of students with disabilities and ensuring their mathematical proficiency, confront teachers of mathematics every day. Teachers must use the results of all assessments, formative and summative, to identify the students whose learning problems have gone unrecognized, and monitor the progress of all students. Regardless of the level or method of assessment used, teachers…
Gavigann, K., & Kurtts, S. (2010). Together We Can: Collaborating to Meet the Needs of At-Risk Students. Library Media Connection, 29(3), 10-12.
King, C. (2011, March). Adults Learning. Retrieved from http://content.yudu.com/A1rfni/ALmarch2011/resources/a29.htm
Sellman, E. (Ed.). (2011). Creative Teaching/Creative Schools Bundle: Creative Learning for Inclusion: Creative. Port Melbourne: Routledge.
Semantics envisages language meaning and the term focuses on the interpretation of individual words and the denotations that arise from word combinations (Chapter 7, n.d.). The word 'song' can elucidate on this definition. The latter refers to a composition of words or a poem that individuals can sing. Additionally, the word 'song' can be used to show the element of possession, for example, ihanna's song. Semantics can be classified into two namely, receptive and expressive facets. eceptive dimension points to the understanding of language. On the other hand, expressive semantics denotes production of meaningful discourse (Chapter 7, n.d.). The classification of semantics engages the generality in objects, actions, and relations between objects.
Pragmatics alludes to the use of language. The term incorporates rules that dominate the engagement of language for social interaction (Chapter 7, n.d.). The rules of pragmatics are centered on influencing the actions and attitudes of the listener.…
Self-Efficacy: A Definition
Social Cognitive Theory
Triangulation Data analysis
Problems for the researcher
Data Analysis and Related Literature review.
Comparison of data with other literature in the field.
Efficacy, Self-esteem, Confidence and Experience
arriers to use
Co-oping and Project design.
Teacher Integration Education.
Meta-evaluation of data and related literature.
Data Analysis and Comparison
Recommendation for Further Research
Data Review Report
Teacher efficacy in the classroom is facilitated by a number of different factors for different professions. However, in the case of the teaching classroom, and adapting to new technology, andura's belief that the environment and the person's attitude toward / interactions with the environment are reciprocally affective.
andura (1993) identified 4 specific ways that self-efficacy is formed:
Through cognitive experiences
Through motivational experiences
Their affective interactions with environment
Through selectional experiences and choices.
Bibliography of the literature dealing with teacher training in the uses of the computer in education. (ERIC No. ED 260-696)
Bushman, B. And Baumeister, R. (1998, July) Threatened Egotism, Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Direct and Misplaced Aggression: Does Self-Love or Self-Hate Lead to Violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Campus Computing Project. (1999). The continuing challenge of instructional integration and user support. Encino, CA: Retrieved November 21, 2003 from the World Wide Web: http://www.campuscomputing.net/
Christensen, R. (2002, 22 June) Effects of technology integration education on the attitudes of teachers and students.Journal of Research on Technology in Education.
Clifford, M., Kim, A. McDonald, B. (1988 Fall) "Responses to Failure as Influenced by Task Attribution, Outcome Attribution, and Failure Tolerance." The Journal of Experimental Education. Volume 57, Number 1. Pages 19-35.
children learn how to read at the same pace. However, the parent does have some cause for concern. As Kelly & Campbell (n.d.) points out, "studies indicate that when students get off to a poor start in reading, they rarely catch up," (p. 1). Therefore, I would first thank and congratulate the parent on being concerned and seeking assistance. According to the Oxford Owl (n.d.), "the best thing to do if you are worried about your child is to talk to your child's class teacher." The first question I would ask would be how old the child is, and if the child is young, to direct the parent to the Oxford Owl website. This website includes a wide range of resources, games, and tools that parents can use with their children. I would also tell the parent, possibly later in our conversation, that a range of formal programs are available…
Kelly, C. & Campbell, L. (n.d.). Helping struggling readers. Johns Hopkins. Retrieved online: http://education.jhu.edu/PD/newhorizons/strategies/topics/literacy/articles/helping-struggling-readers/
Oxford Owl (n.d.). Helping struggling readers. Retrieved online: http://www.oxfordowl.co.uk/welcome/for-home/reading-owl/expert-help/helping-struggling-readers
children in the U.S. has a learning disability and nearly 3 million have ADHD. Most of them are between the ages of 5 and 21, males whose mothers have less than 12 years of education, of poor health and socio-economically disadvantaged. One in every 25 or 30 school children in one classroom will have a learning disability. Learning disabilities also persist for a lifetime. At present, these affected children and adults can only be helped to make the best use of their skills and themselves through stimulants and psychotherapy as well as the combined support of their families, school, community and public services.
Learning disabilities in children and adults have yet to be thoroughly understood and adequately contained.
A learning disability generally refers to one of specific kinds of learning problems, such as the difficulty in learning and using certain skills (NICHCY 2002). These trouble areas are often reading, writing,…
1. Blair, Clancy. (2002). Proportion of Learning Difficulty Placements Associated with Low Socio-economic Status: Evidence for a Gradient? Journal of Special Education, Pro-Ed. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOHDF/is_1_36/ai_85916838
2. Farmer, Jeanette. (2004). Retrain the Brain Your Family Health Site. http://www.retainthebrain.com/?OVRAW=learning%20disabilities&OVKEY=learning%20disability&OVMT
3. Kidsource Online. (2003). General Information About Learning Disabilities. Kidsource Online, Inc. http://www.kidsource.com/NICHCY/learning_disabilities.html
4. National Institute of Mental Health. (2003). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Firstgov.com http://www.nimh.nih.gov/healthinformation/adhdmenu.cfm
conveyed in an effective manner to meet the needs of students. It is an important aspect of differentiating instruction. Students with diagnosed learning disabilities will receive an IEP designed to address their specific learning issues and deficits. Presentation, response, timing (scheduling) and setting can all be addressed in differentiation. Memory; auditory, visual, and even motor processing; attention deficits; abstract reasoning issues; and organizational problems can all cause issues for students that can be improved with differentiated instruction (Ginsberg & Dolan, 2003, p. 87).
In-class assessment can take place in both in traditional formative and performance-based ways. Formative assessment is used during the learning process so the teacher can check in to see what the student has retained. This can be observational or in the form of quizzes or other graded formats. But while performance-based assessment can take the form of conventional tests there are other methods besides exams, including flexible…
Chapter 6: Algebra
Algebra is often taught relatively early in a student's middle school or high school career but many students, particularly students with learning disabilities, struggle to grasp its basic concepts (Lannin & Van Garderen, 2013, p.141). Weak abstract reasoning skills, combined with computational and memory deficits as well as low self-esteem all conspire to make learning algebra especially difficult for LD students. The most basic concepts of algebra can be fostered as early as grade school, when children learn the intrinsic properties of numbers such as even and odd and zero. Even elementary school children should understand that adding and subtracting the same thing does not change the property's intrinsic value (Lannin & Van Garderen, 2013, p.146). By grade 6 or so they should be able to write their own equations to understand simple word problems; by grade 8 they should understand linear functions (Lannin & Van Garderen, 2013, p.148). But always, the emphasis must be on real understanding. Tables, graphs, and other methods can be useful although it is important for the instructor to be focused on conveying the meaning of the equation to the student, above all else. Linking the equation to a physical representation is key, not simply using a graphic without an expressed pedagogical purpose (Lannin & Van Garderen, 2013, p.152).
For LD students in particular, developing a step-by-step method to approach algebraic equations is critical. Pictorial representations can also be useful. Finally, self-monitoring is important, given that LD often have a weak skill set in this area. All of these approaches can be useful for all students but a teacher must be especially mindful of using this approach with LD students. Both authentic tasks and cognitive understanding is essential for true mastery (Lannin & Van Garderen, 2013, p.157). Peer-based learning can be helpful to enhance motivation.
The goal is to have these workshops taking place in every location of the state. Ultimately, people of all ages learn how to have a voice for what it is they need or want through the self-advocacy workshops (Van-Belle, et. al.,2006).
Self-advocacy is needed in all levels of education. A way of application is to implement this concept by means of having workshops in one's particular state. He or she can ensure that one communicates with various agencies to take part in these efforts by means of helping with raising the necessary funds or training individuals to present their thoughts on what skills to teach. These workshops would consist of using PowerPoint as well as using a testimonial of how self-advocacy has helped an individual to find his or her voice. Through this, success is achieved both in and outside of the school district for children of all ages to…
Van-Belle, J., Marks, S., Martin, R., & Chun, M. (2006). Voicing one's dreams: high school students with developmental disabilities learn about self-advocacy. Council for Exceptional Children, 38 (4), 40-46.
Leadership Learning & Development
The reorganization of a business can take many forms. One of the most crucial areas for reorganization when expanding a business, buying a new business, or even restructuring because of bankruptcy, is to focus the new management team and to incorporate viable solutions for leadership learning & development protection. This report aims to draw up a management development program, devise a program that ensures that the learning needs of the organization are met in a sound and reliable strategic plan and illustrate how a well formatted strategic plan can tie in the objectives associated with learning and development planning.
In addition, the report must also justify the management development program including the strengths and weaknesses of this type of program. By explaining the importance of learning and development in the strategic direction of an organization, the management team is more likely to successfully evaluate what…
Ciulla, Joanne B. (1998). Ethics, the Heart of Leadership. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishing.
Daft, Richard L. (1997). Management (4th ed.). New York, NY: The Dryden Press.
Dew, John R. (1997). Empowerment and Democracy in the Workplace: Applying Adult Education Theory and Practice for Cultivating Empowerment. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Durgee, Jeffrey F., Gina Colarelli O'Connor, and Robert W. Veryzer. (1996) Translating Values Into Product Wants. Journal of Advertising Research. Vol. 36.
Thus, the deficit must be due to an "inefficient mapping of acoustic information into phonetic features at a central (postcochlear) conversion stage. Accordingly, these findings provide new routes by which researchers should examine and practitioners should diagnose and treat SLI (Ziegler, et.al., 2005).
We live in a day and age of rapid technological development. In the area of cognition, our knowledge of how brain works and how language functions and is processed has seen rapid advancement in just the past three decades. Given the information that we have uncovered here, there is hope for a more rapid diagnosis and a more effective treatment of students with SLI's. With more understanding of the role of input and noise, perhaps, our teachers whom area affected greatly by his or her students' performance, would understand how to properly handle such students and provide a classroom environmentally set up so as to…
Binder, J. (200). The new neuroanatomy of speech perception. Oxford Journal, 123(12), 2371-2372. Retrieved from Oxford University Press.
Kuhl, Patricia K, Ph.D. (2004) "Speech Perception." Introduction to Communication Sciences and Disorders. San Diego: Singular Publishing Group, Inc.
Lane, D. (2008, June 18). Speech Perception. Retrieved from the Connexions Web site: http://cnx.org/content/m11175/2.9/
Merzenich, M., Jenkins, W., Johnston, P., Schreiner, C., Miller, S., and Tallal, P. Temporal Processing De-cits of Language-Learning Im-paired Children Ameliorated by Training, Science vol. 271, January 5-1996, p.77-80.
Educators as far back as Aristotle have attempted to determine the most optimal approach to teaching and learning. Any theory of learning must take a constellation of factors into consideration. Evidence-based research on the different components of learning theory, effective instruction, and learning environments abound, yet the one commonality is that individual differences are pivotal to the success of any approach. Additionally, even if perfect learning environments could be created, learning must be applicable to the world outside of the classroom. Indeed, that it its ultimate purpose. In this paper, this author will explore the characteristics of the backwards mapping, or designing for understanding, Common Core State Standards, both of which are integrative frameworks that promote efficient learning and effective teaching.
Learning Theory and Its Importance
A primary consideration of learning theorists is how to effectively address individual differences. Consider that from the 18th century and earlier, learning…
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annuals Rev. Psychology, 51(2), 1-26. Retrieved from http://moodle2.cs.huji.ac.il/nu14/pluginfile.php/179670/mod_resource/content/1/Bandura_2001.pdf
Brown, D. (2014). Opening classroom doors to collaborative learning. The Education Digest, 79(7), 19-22. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1506936575?accountid=12085
Fine, L., & Myers, J.W. (2004). Understanding students with Asperger's syndrome. Phi Delta Kappa Fastbacks, (520), 3-39. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/203654515?accountid=12085
Griswold, D.E., Barnhill, G.P., Brenda, S.M., Hagiwara, T., & Simpson, R.L. (2002). Asperger syndrome and academic achievement. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(2), 94. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/205061045?accountid=12085