Legal Drinking Age Essays (Examples)

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Lowering the Drinking Age the

Words: 2161 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55088185

The issue was a charged issue that many people felt very strongly about, i.e. race and was an allowable and supported social stigma, and yet when faced with the real life decision to break the taboo and serve Chinese people they did so with little hesitation and then effectively lied about it in self report. (Pager & Lincoln, 2005, p. 355)

Drinking and driving is a seriously socially charged issue that could have the same self-report results if given the correct avenue to do so. The self-report dogmatic dialogue regarding drinking and driving is an absolute rejection of the behavior (even after 1-2 drinks as is asked in the New Zealand Study) and yet this is an attitude and a self-report dogma, what we would say when offered the social choice, not a real reflection of how individuals would behave if given the opportunity to drink and drive. Another fault…… [Read More]

References

Brownfield, K., Fernando, K., & Halberstadt, J. (2003). Indirect Effects of Lowering the Drinking Age on New Zealand Students' Alcohol-Related Behaviours and Attitudes. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 32(1), 22. Retrieved May 28, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001970912

Fagan, J. (2005, September). Adolescents, Maturity, and the Law: Why Science and Development Matter in Juvenile Justice. The American Prospect, 16, 5.

Fillmore, M.T., Carscadden, J.L., & Vogel-Sprott, M. (1998). Alcohol, Cognitive Impairment and Expectancies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59(2), 174.

A and Lincoln Q. Walking the Talk? What Employers Say vs. What They Do. American Sociological Review 70: 2005, 355-380.
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Drinking in Favor of Increasing

Words: 1957 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71330025

This means that alcohol is made accessible to underage persons and in this way, they start consuming alcohol at a young age. It is for this reason that the legal drinking age should not be lowered, but actually increased to reduce the chances of it being made available to those who are underage. Increasing the minimum legal drinking age to at least 25 years, like India, will go a long way in ensuring that underage drinking does not take place. Teenagers can be able to access alcohol with the help of their older friends and siblings who may be in college. This will ensure that only responsible adults will have access to alcohol. There have also been cases of increased rates of binge drinking among college age youths and the increase in the minimum legal age for drinking will go a long way in helping preventing this (Kypri et al.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Atwood, T. The Consequences of Underage Drinking. 1 May. 2006. 23 Apr. 2010,



Berridge V., Herring R. And Thom B. "Binge Drinking: A Confused Concept and its

Contemporary History" Social History of Medicine 22.3 (2009): 597-607
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Drinking and Alcoholism

Words: 1990 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52270032

Etiology of Campus Binge Drinking

Drinking and Alcoholism

A Failed Experiment in Social Control

The consumption of alcohol has always been a focus of government efforts to limits its use, due to the potential for abuse, the financial burden imposed upon social programs, and its association with criminal activity. Between 1920 and 1934 the consumption of alcohol was outlawed in the United States, with the intention of addressing these social problems. During the first year following the enactment of Prohibition, alcohol-related deaths, psychosis, and arrests all declined by 20-40%, but between 1921 and 1927 these measures reveal a sharp increase to near pre-Prohibition levels (Miron and Zwiebel, 1991). By the end of Prohibition, which correlates with the start of the Great Depression, alcohol consumption leveled out at around 60-70% of pre-Prohibition levels despite costing three times as much for a drink. Given the infamous criminal activity that emerged around the…… [Read More]

References

Amethyst Initiative. (2008). Amethyst Initiative: Rethinking the drinking age. Retrieved July 15, 2011 from http://www.amethystinitiative.org/statement/

Beseler, Cheryl L., Taylor, Laura A., Leeman, Robert F. (2010). Alcohol-Use Disorder criteria and "binge" drinking in undergraduates. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71, 418-423.

Grucza, Richard A., Norberg, Karen E., and Beirut, Laura J. (2009). Binge drinking among youths and young adults in the United States: 1979-2006. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 692-702.

Leppel, Karen. (2006). College binge drinking: Deviant vs. mainstream behavior. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 32, 519-525.
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Official Legal Definition of Contradiction

Words: 4563 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55696657

This act enlarged the labels on the cigarettes, and required that the labels on cigarettes and cigarette ads say things like,."..Cause lung cancer...may complicate pregnancy...quitting smoking now greatly reduces hazards to your health... may result in low birth weight and fetal injury." Yet despite all these attempts to educate, all the package warnings and all the public service ads, we still see that despite the millions of dollars spent on smoking prevention each year, every year sees more and more people taking up the habit, until today death from cardiovascular disease remains the number one killer in the United States, contributed in a great part by smoking. And yet we keep legislating, when then proof shows that what we are doing is not working.

Our discussion of vice-based legislation now brings us to the subject of fattening foods. In 2002, a lawyer in New York filed suit against the four…… [Read More]

Reference:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-Attributable Mortality and Years of Potential Life Lost-United States, 1984. MMWR 1997 46:444-51.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing Tobacco Use: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Federal Trade Commission Request for Comments Concerning Regulations Implementing the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986. Accessed [March 7, 2000]. http://www.tobaccolaw.org/Documents/Events/HealthCanadaNewcigarettelabellingmeasures.htm" Health Canada New Cigarette labeling Measures.

National Cancer Institute. Cigars Health Effects and Trends. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 9. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. NIH Publication No. 98-4302, 1998.
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Alcohol Drinking Among Young Jews

Words: 23454 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67540801

Paenting Style Influence on Excess Alcohol Intake Among Jewish Youth

Clinical Psychology

The health hazads that ae associated with adolescent alcohol use ae well documented, and thee is gowing ecognition among policymakes and clinicians alike that moe needs to be done to addess this public health theat. The pupose of this study was to examine the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish college students in the United States. The study daws on attachment theoy, social leaning theoy, and a paenting style model as the main theoetical famewoks to evaluate the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish adolescents to develop infomed answes to the study's thee guiding eseach questions concening the elationship between peceived paenting style and excess alcohol use of male, Jewish, college students aged 18-26 yeas, the elationship between academic achievement and the alcohol use fequency of male Jewish…… [Read More]

references to gender.

Scoring: The PAQ is scored easily by summing the individual items to comprise the subscale scores. Scores on each subscale range from 10 to 50.

Author: Dr. John R. Buri, Department of Psychology, University of St. Thomas, 2115

Summit Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55105.

Source: Buri, J.R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Assessment, 57, 110-119
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Alcohol Drinking Among Young Jews

Words: 23424 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99740327

Paenting Style Influence on Excess Alcohol Intake Among Jewish Youth

Clinical Psychology

The health hazads that ae associated with adolescent alcohol use ae well documented, and thee is gowing ecognition among policymakes and clinicians alike that moe needs to be done to addess this public health theat. The pupose of this study was to examine the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish college students in the United States. The study daws on attachment theoy, social leaning theoy, and a paenting style model as the main theoetical famewoks to evaluate the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish adolescents to develop infomed answes to the study's thee guiding eseach questions concening the elationship between peceived paenting style and excess alcohol use of male, Jewish, college students aged 18-26 yeas, the elationship between academic achievement and the alcohol use fequency of male Jewish…… [Read More]

references to gender.

Scoring: The PAQ is scored easily by summing the individual items to comprise the subscale scores. Scores on each subscale range from 10 to 50.

Author: Dr. John R. Buri, Department of Psychology, University of St. Thomas, 2115

Summit Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55105.

Source: Buri, J.R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Assessment, 57, 110-119
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Alcohol Should Not Be Legalized at Age 18

Words: 1220 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47754038

Legal Age for Alcohol Consumption

Laws are established for the legal age of alcohol consumption in order to attend to the best interests of both youth and society at large. With exposure to such influences as music, television, movies, and peers, youth are under pressure to behave in certain ways and partake in certain activities to be perceived as being "cool." Alcohol consumption among young people may be seen as a way to loosen up, fit in, or even possibly as a sign of rebellion against parents, teachers, and figures of authority in general.

It is often difficult for youth to know their limits and exactly how much alcohol they can consume and yet still be somewhat "in control." This results in increased risks of alcohol poisonings, drunk driving, and in some cases death among the adolescent population. Therefore, with the well being of youth and society in mind, it…… [Read More]

References

Hot topic: Underage teen drinking." Website of Congresswoman Roybal-Allard. http://www/house.gov/roybal-allard/ht_underage.htm.

Statistics: Underage drinking." SADD Online. http://www.saddonline.com/stats.htm.

Survey says: Teen alcohol use on the rise." The Citizen: The 6th Area Support Group Online Newspaper 30.10 May 22, 2001. http://www.stuttgart.army.mil/community/citizen/2001/0522/surveys.htm.

Richardson, A. & Budd, T. "Young adults, alcohol, crime and disorder." Criminal Behavior and Mental Health 13.1 (2003): 5-16.
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Keeping Driving Age at or Above 16 Years Old

Words: 1515 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33642942

Young Drivers

Perhaps it is unfair to label all younger drivers as reckless and dangerous. At the very least, they are most certainly less experienced and adept at driving, on average. Since a firm and enforced age is the best way to regulate who can drive for the first time, that is the method that should remain. On average, teen drivers are restricted or banned from driving for several reasons. Those reasons include insufficient brain development, lack of responsibility and a propensity to not pay proper attention. While typecasting people based on age is not always fair, there are reasons behind the age restriction.

Analysis

The first main point to consider when it comes to why children under sixteen should not be driving, at least in an unrestricted way, is insufficient brain development. The ideas and theories about the broader subject development do vary. However, there are some things that…… [Read More]

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Alcohol How Effective Has the Legal Prohibition

Words: 3114 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76710303

Alcohol

How effective has the legal prohibition of alcohol been in controlling crime? A recent Department of Justice Report (U.S. Department of Justice) said that alcohol was a factor in 40% of all violent crimes and accounted for 40.9% of all traffic fatalities in the U.S.A. In the last decade. ut these figures were 34% and 29%, respectively, lower than those of the previous decade. The Report further stated that arrests conducted for driving under the influence of alcohol correspondingly declined and attributed this to the establishment of the legal and uniform drinking age in the early 1980s.

Elucidating, the Report said that, approximately 3 million violent crimes occurred each year in that decade where the offenders were drinking at the time. And although arrests were made in every age group, those made on offenders below 21 notably decreased. The rate of intoxication in fatal accidents, it said, likewise went…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Abbe, Winfield. Toughening Liquor Laws Will Do Little to Sober Our Drunk Culture.

Athens Banner Herald, February 2002. (accessed 25:03:03). http://www.*****/stories/022202/let_letter4.shtml

2. Alcoholics Anonymous. Alcohol. (accessed 25:03:03). http://soc.qc.edu/aa/aager.html

3. Davis, George. Why Crime? Action Sunshine Coast Crime Prevention Program. Crime Prevention through Community Building, 2000. (accessed 25:03:03). http://www.suncoastcentral.com/crimeprevention
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Drinking Alcohol Together With Tobacco

Words: 2119 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8875256

hile each of these studies has reported a cardioprotective effect of alcohol, they differ over which type of alcoholic beverage provides the greatest benefit" (634).

Overlooked in many of these studies, though, is the fact that some people who categorize themselves as being one type of drinker compared to another may engage in other activities that are unhealthy from the outset (for instance, beer drinkers may be more likely to also be tobacco users) while others may engage in a wide range of healthy behaviors (for example, wine drinkers may not be smokers and may job or exercise regularly). As McGregor and his colleagues emphasize, "One inherent difficulty within these studies is that in the general population, drinkers distinguished as primarily wine, beer or spirits drinkers tend to differ in other important aspects. If, for example, wine drinkers are found to be healthier, it may be the result of a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Alcohol." 2009, Partnership for a Drug-Free America. [Online]. Available: http://www.drug free.org/Portal/drug_guide/Alcohol.

Booth, Brenda M., Joann, Kirchner, John Fortney, Robin Ross and Kathryn Rost, 2000, "Rural

At-Risk Drinkers: Correlates and One-Year Use of Alcoholism Treatment Services."

Journal of Studies on Alcohol 61(2): 267.
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Legal Age for Smoking Today

Words: 412 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68507499



In addition, smoking is addictive, and the earlier a person starts, the more likely they are to continue, making it more difficult to quit as one ages. Young people do not understand smoking, because they tend to have an "it will not happen to me" mentality, and it should not be available to teens, you should have to be an adult to make the choice to smoke, because it is a health choice, as well as a lifestyle choice.

In conclusion, smoking is hazardous to your health and well-being, and that has been proven. People start to smoke too early in life, and then they find it difficult to quit. The earlier you start smoking, the longer smoke can do damage to your lungs, making it more likely you will develop lung disease such as emphysema or lung cancer. Smoking is no less dangerous than drinking, it can harm others…… [Read More]

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Drinking While Pregnant on Unborn

Words: 2120 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24639192



In the article "Pregnancy & Treatment," Linda L.M. Worley, past medical director of UAMS Arkansas CAES: Center for Addiction, esearch, Education and Services, and Curtis Lowery (2005), maternal fetal medicine expert, report that a number of medical and child welfare groups, including the American Medical Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Nurses Association, and the March of Dimes, conclude that threatening to arrest pregnant women who drink alcohol beverages will not help them quit drinking. "ather, it will frighten them away from prenatal care and discourage them from speaking honestly to health care providers who may be able to help" (Worley & Lowery, 2005, ¶ 2). Worley and Lowery (2005) recommend that instead of imprisoning pregnant mothers, drug treatment "works and is much less expensive than imprisoning" them. When pregnant mothers are imprisoned, the state may not only incur delivery charges…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Cave, E. (2004). The mother of all crimes: Human rights, criminalization, and the child born alive. Hants, England: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Chudler, E.H. (2008). Alcohol and the brain. Neuroscience for Kids. Retrieved October 27,

2009 from  http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/alco.html 

Denny, C.H., Tsai, J., Floyd, R.L. & Green, P.P. (2009). Alcohol use among pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age - United States, 1991-2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. U.S. Center for Disease Control. Retrieved October 27, 2009
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Yes Carla T Main Carla Main Believes

Words: 1973 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19984285

Yes: Carla T. Main

Carla Main believes the drinking age should remain at 21, and she bases the first part of her discussion on a project called "The Amethyst Initiative," which has issued a statement calling for an official probe into the drinking laws as they now stand. The aim of the Amethyst Initiative is to have the drinking age of 21 lowered because the current laws are simply not working. Main is in agreement with the Amethyst Initiative on this point: the current laws are not working, and they should be reexamined. However, Main does not agree with the objectives of the Initiative beyond this. She explains why by laying out the history of the 21 Laws and the changes in society that have occurred since they have been in place (Main, pp. 58-59).

Main's primary issue with the arguments put forth by the Amethyst Initiative and similar groups…… [Read More]

References

Main, C.T. (2009). Underage drinking and the drinking age. In R. Goldberg (Ed.), Taking sides:

Clashing views in drugs and society (pp. 58-67). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

McMullen, J.G. (2006). Underage drinking: does current policy make sense? In R. Goldberg

(Ed.), Taking sides: Clashing views in drugs and society (pp. 69-81). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
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Young Is Too Young Lowering

Words: 1635 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 201893

However, "a 2003 study showed that in many countries with lower minimum drinking ages, 15- and 16-year-olds are less likely to become intoxicated compared with teens in the U.S. (Roan 2008, p.3).

Opponents of lowering the law in the U.S. have increasingly used medical science to support their position, pointing out that the teenage brain is less developmentally mature than an adult brain and "younger someone starts drinking, the greater the likelihood of developing alcohol dependence" (Roan 2008, p.3). But a 2006 Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine study shows that while it is true that prepubescents who begin drinking have dramatically higher rates of alcoholism, between 18 and 21, the difference is "insignificant" in terms of how age of first use affects later consumption. "hat we ought to look at is not keeping 18-year-olds from drinking, it's keeping 13-year-olds from drinking," concluded the study (Roan 2008, p.3).

hile medical…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alias, Michaela. "Lowering the drinking age would benefit young adults." The Daily Collegian.

February 2, 2009. May 31, 2010.

http://www.collegian.psu.edu/archive/2009/02/02/lowering_drinking_age_to_18_wo.aspx

"College presidents seek lower drinking age." Associated Press. August 18, 2008. May 31, 2010.
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Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments 10-Year Critical

Words: 14685 Length: 53 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28105173

Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments: 10-Year Critical eview of the esearch Literature

Over ten million teenagers in the United States admit in a national survey that they drink alcohol, although it is illegal under the age of 21 in all states. In some studies, nearly one-quarter of school-age children both smoked cigarettes and drank alcohol. Over four thousand adolescents every day try marijuana for the first time. The dangers of use, abuse and dependency on each of these substances have been established. When we also consider that these three substances are considered gateway drugs, that is, drugs whose use is likely to lead to experimentation with "hard" drugs, the potential problem of such widespread use is even more severe. Additionally, use of these substances is known to co-occur with a number of other psychiatric conditions as well as health issues such as the incidence of sexually-transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies and…… [Read More]

References

Aarons, Gregory A.; Brown, Sandra A.; Hough, Richard L.; Garland, Ann F.; Wood, Patricia A. Prevalence of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders Across Five Sectors of Care (Statistical Data Included). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, April 2001 v40 i4 p419

Adger, Hoover Jr.; Werner, Mark J. The pediatrician (role in treatment of alcohol-related disorders). Alcohol Health and Research World, Spring 1994 v18 n2 p121 (6)

Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Symptoms of Adolescents. National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence of the San Fernando Valley, Inc. [Online]. Retrieved January 20, 2003 from http:/ / www.ncadd-sfv.org/symptoms/teen_symptoms.html

Alcohol use and abuse: a pediatric concern (American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Substance Abuse). Pediatrics, March 1995 v95 n3 p439 (4)
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Effects Alcohol Consumption Has on Risky Sexual Behavior

Words: 4729 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33616752

Alcohol Consumption Has on Risky Sexual Behavior

Since the ancient days of Bacchanalian celebratory worship of the Greek pantheon, the consumption of alcohol and risky sexual rites have gone hand in hand. Both drinking and sex are considered to be pleasurable activities, and conservative or religious portions of the population may consider them to be sinful or immoral on varying scales. Regardless of whether alcohol and sexual activities have a negative social stigma within a certain social group, peer group, or subculture, these activities are inevitably associated with some risk. Physical, emotional, and social well-being are put on the line when partaking in drinking or sexual modern rituals. The combination of these activities may increase the level of risk associated with them, and likewise they may also be contributing factors to the likelihood that the other will occur (e.g., drinking may increase the chance of sexual activity). However, despite the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

2000, April 28) Alcohol policy and sexually transmitted disease rates -- United States, 1981-1995. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

Business Publishers. (2004, February) High-risk drinking and sexual assault go hand-in-hand, researchers find. Campus Crime, 14.2, 13.

Coren, C. (2003, January-February) Timming, amount of teenage alcohol or marijuana use may make future risky sex more likely. Perspectives on sexual and reproductive health.

Chandra, P.S. (2003, February) High-risk sexual behaviour & sensation seeking among heavy alcohol users. Indian Journal of Medical Research.
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Hour of Power Because of

Words: 422 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55299012

A true and effective method of combating games like the hour of power would be for the media to present the possible consequences of the game exactly as they are. It is clear that young people are not afraid of abusing alcohol. However, after witnessing the effects that an apparently simple game has on the ones that play it and on their families, people would definitely think twice before joining a power hour game. Another method which would most probably be effective would be for young people to be taught that most of the effects that they believe alcohol to have do not exist. People should learn that alcohol does not make you sociable and does not make you more attractive for the opposite sex.

orks cited:

1. "Power Hour' a Dangerous Ritual for Young Drinkers." Retrieved June 4, 2009, from the Join Together eb site: http://www.jointogether.org/news/headlines/inthenews/2005/power-hour-a-dangerous-ritual.html

2. "4 Tiers."…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. "Power Hour' a Dangerous Ritual for Young Drinkers." Retrieved June 4, 2009, from the Join Together Web site: http://www.jointogether.org/news/headlines/inthenews/2005/power-hour-a-dangerous-ritual.html

2. "4 Tiers." Retrieved June 4, 2009, from College Drinking Prevention Web site:  http://www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/StatsSummaries/4tier.aspx 

"Power Hour' a Dangerous Ritual for Young Drinkers." Retrieved June 4, 2009, from the Join Together Web site: http://www.jointogether.org/news/headlines/inthenews/2005/power-hour-a-dangerous-ritual.html

'4 Tiers." Retrieved June 4, 2009, from College Drinking Prevention Web site:
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Alcohol Advertisement Alcohol Abuse Is

Words: 3021 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39387720

Seeing more advertisements had a stronger effect on drinking than drinking had on noticing advertisements. The effect of alcohol advertising exposure on youth drinking was small and positive. The advertising effects were similar for the subset of underage respondents (Martin et al., 2002, 902 citing Snyder et (2006)."

In addition to Snyder et al. (2006) other researchers have examined the impact of alcohol advertisements on underage youth. For instance, in their study entitled "Alcohol Advertising and Youth: A Measured Approach," Jernigan et al. (2005) examined the advertisement of alcohol companies and the manner in which they expose youth to such advertisements. The study involved the impact of alcohol advertisements on youth age 15-20. The research found that most alcohol advertisement occurred in places where youth were more likely to see them than adults. In addition the research found that "much of this excess exposure of youth to alcohol advertising in…… [Read More]

References

Adlaf EM, Kohn PM (1989) Alcohol advertising, consumption and abuse: a covariance-structural modeling look at Strickland's data. Br J. Addict

84:749 -- 757.

Aitken PP, Eadie DR, Leathar DS, McNeill REJ, Scott AC (1988) Television advertisements for alcoholic drinks do reinforce under-age drinking. Br J. Addict 83:1399 -- 1419.

Atkin CK (1993) Effects of media alcohol messages on adolescent audiences. Adolesc Med 4:527 -- 542.
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Teen Alcohol Abuse Adolescent Alcohol Abuse Has

Words: 1654 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15965636

Teen Alcohol Abuse

Adolescent alcohol abuse has been an ongoing public health problem for many years. While alcohol abuse trends tend to increase and subside over time, recent research continues to show an alarming level of alcohol use. For example, surveys by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) show that alcohol use has dropped slightly when compared with previous years, in 2011 almost two thirds (65%) of high school seniors and almost one third (29%) of eighth graders had used alcohol within the past month (Winters, Botzet & Fahnhorst, 2011).

Health Needs Assessment

As of 1988, the purchase of alcohol by youth under the age of 21 is prohibited. Therefore, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) define underage drinking as consuming alcohol prior to the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years. Further, zero tolerance laws make it illegal in all states for youth under age 21 to drive…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2010). Alcohol & drug use. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Retrieved February 25, 2012 from:  http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/alcoholdrug/index.htm 

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). (2011). InfoFacts: Nationwide trends. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved February 25, 2012 from: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/infofacts/nationwide-trends

Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. (n.d.) Substance abuse/Chemical dependency. Retrieved February 25, 2012 from: http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/mental_health/mental_health_about/substance/Pages/index.aspx

Sterling, S., Weisner, C., Hinman, A., & Parthasarathy, S. (2010 July). "Access to treatment for adolescents with substance use and co-occurring disorders: Challenges and opportunities." Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(7): 637-726. doi: 10:1016/j.jaac.2010.03.019
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Barcardi a Strategic Overview of

Words: 3646 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48097779

Given the scale and global penetration of the Bacardi brand and its product line, it is appropriate that Bacardi should possess a visible and meaningful presence in the discussion on underage drinking and alcohol abuse. Certainly, this would be considered an appropriate measure for an organization boasting Bacardi's proliferation. According to Yahoo! Finance (2010), "the company's portfolio consists of more than 200 brands and labels, including Bombay Sapphire Gin, Martini Vermouth, Dewar's Scotch hisky, B&B and Benedictine liqueurs, and Grey Goose Vodka. Other types of spirits in its portfolio include tequila, vermouth, cognac, and sparkling wine. Serving more than 100 countries, the company operates 27 production sites around the world." (Yahoo! Finance, 1)

This accounts for the company's greatest strength, which is its enormity of scale. Though Bacardi has been in operation for well over a century, the growth potential at this scale has only really been realized in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bacardi & Company Limited. (2010). Bacardi Limited. Bacardilimited.com.

Gjelten, T. (2008). Bacardi and the Long Fight for Cuba: The Biography of a Cause. Viking Adult.

Hambrick, D.C. & Fredrickson, J.W. (2001). Are you sure you have a strategy? The Academy of Management Executive, 15(4), 48-59.

Mizrahi, A. (2009). Historic Bacardi Building. Urban City Architecture.
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Bingeing Became the New College

Words: 569 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8402836

I would be interested to see information on the number of these incidents when the drinking age was 18.

In his article, Seaman explains the practice of pregaming. According to Seaman, college students who are too young to purchase alcohol drink large quantities of liquor prior to going to a party. This practice results in many students either being hospitalized or actually dying from alcohol poisoning. In relating the history of the legislation regarding the drinking age, Seaman explains that the drinking age was lowered to 18 in the 1960s as a result of student protests. During the 1980s, pressures from Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD) forced legislation that increased the drinking age to 21 in all 50 states. According to Seaman, prohibiting the use of alcohol for 18 to 20-year-olds resulted in making the use of alcohol more attractive for these young adults. He argues that while lowering the…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Seaman, Barrett. "How Bingeing Became the New College Sport." Time.com. Web 23 June 2011. http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,1096516,00.html.

Urban Dictionary. Web. 23 June 2011. http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=pregame&defid=1483677
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Alcohol and Youth According to the Center

Words: 1166 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53111639

Alcohol and Youth

According to the Center on Marketing and Youth (CAMY), states are not doing very much in terms of keeping adolescents and other youth from being over-exposed to alcohol-related advertisements on television. The liquor and beer companies are clearly interested in getting young people started with their particular brand, and through television commercials those companies make beer and liquor seem very "cool" to impressionable young people. This paper reviews and critiques the literature on youth and alcohol-related advertising on television -- including peer-reviewed scholarship from several sources.

Youth Exposure to Alcohol Advertising

The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth -- a component of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health -- reports that the amount of advertising on television that specifically targets youth rose by 38% between 2001 and 2007. About one in five alcohol advertisements was placed on programs that attracts young people ages 12 to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth. (2008). Youth Exposure to Alcohol Advertising on Television, 2001-2007. Retrieved March 17, 2013, from  http://www.camy.org .

Jernigan, David H. (2010). The extent of global alcohol marketing and its impact on youth.

Contemporary Drug Problems, 37(1), 57-89.

Siegel, Michael, King, Charles, Ostroff, Joshua, Ross, Craig, Dixon, Karen, and Jernigan, David
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Bartenders and Their Responsibility Specifically it Will

Words: 1818 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90625067

bartenders and their responsibility. Specifically it will discuss whether states and communities should hold bartenders responsible for the behavior of their patrons. Bartenders have become the butt of some very serious charges in many communities, because more and more states are holding them accountable for the behavior of the patrons they serve. However, bartenders should not be held accountable for what their patrons do after they leave the bar. Bartenders have no control over that behavior, and they have no way of knowing what patrons will do after they leave. Patrons are accountable for their own behavior, and they should act like adults and take responsibility for their own actions, rather than blaming them on someone else, like a bartender.

Bartenders, as most people know, work behind the bar, serving alcoholic drinks, to people in restaurants, bars, pubs, clubs, taverns and other locations all around the country. They often serve…… [Read More]

References

Buka, Stephen L., and Isolde J. Birdthistle. "Long-Term Effects of a Community-Wide Alcohol Server Training Intervention." Journal of Studies on Alcohol 60.1 (1999): 27.

Caprione, Carol Ann. Opportunities in Food Service Careers. Revised ed. Lincolnwood, IL: VGM Career Horizons, 2000.

Editors. "County Attorney Unfair to Bar Owners." Seacoastonline.com. 2009. 30 Oct. 2009.

.
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MADD Against Advertising Alcohol

Words: 1063 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57766229

prohibition is a moribund idea, a strong, well-organized anti-alcohol movement marches on. Its strength lies in dozens of church, health, consumer, and citizens' groups such as Mothers Against Drunk Driving," or MADD. MADD was founded in 1980 to combat problems related to drunk driving. Since its founding, MADD has expanded its mission and vision to include issues like underage drinking and drugged driving. MADD has been instrumental in influencing state governments to raise the legal drinking age to 21 in almost all parts of the United States, and to lowering the legal blood alcohol content for driving and operating equipment. Moreover, MADD believes that advertising alcohol should be banned and their reasoning is founded on four core ideas. Because alcohol advertising targets the most vulnerable populations such as underage drinkers, encourages greater consumption of the product, and sells false beliefs, lawmakers could consider curtailing the entire practice of alcohol advertising.…… [Read More]

References

Advertising Standards Authority (2015). Alcohol advertising.

"Alcohol Advertising," (n.d.). Document.

Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (2015). Alcohol beverage advertising. TTB.gov. Retrieved online: http://www.ttb.gov/advertising/alcohol-beverage.shtml

Federal Trade Commission (FCC, 2013). Alcohol adverting. Retrieved online: http://www.consumer.ftc.gov/articles/0391-alcohol-advertising
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At Risk Some Adolescents Are

Words: 3813 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91842638

Nowadays, adolescent problem behavior is conceptualized as 2 empirically derived syndromes: externalizing problems (including delinquency and aggression) and internalizing problems (including depression, anxiety, and withdrawal) (Achenbach, 1991a, 1991b). Little is known about the structure of internalizing problem behavior. Accordingly, the first aim of this study is to examine the structure of externalizing and internalizing problem behavior during adolescence. (eitz, Dekovic, & Meijer, 2005, ¶ 2).

At the end of their study, eitz, Dekovic, and Meijer (2005) recount that prior research primarily focused on externalizing problems, the structure of a limited range of problem behavior, and basically found support for a 1-factor structure. Their study, eitz, Dekovic, and Meijer assert, extended previoius research as it explored externalizing, as well as internalizing problems, examining whether both types of behaviors belonged to one single factor of general problem behavior (1-factor model), or whether the two types behavior ought to be deemed two separate…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bartlett, R., Holditch-Davis, D. & Belyea, M. (2007). Problem behaviors in adolescents.

Pediatric Nursing. Jannetti Publications, Inc. Retrieved April 27, 2009 from HighBeam

Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-160925919.html

Biglan, Anthony., Foster, Sharon L., Brennan, Patricia A., & Holder, Harold D. (2005). Helping
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mnc and international operations

Words: 1175 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45029430

Diageo -- Expanding International Operations in Ghana

Assess the MNC's marketing mix in the country, its promotional practices, pricing, branding strategies -- standardized or differentiated marketing program? hat are the characteristics of the MNC's customers in that country?

Diageo is experiencing a vast amount of growth relative to its activities on the African Continent in many different markets on the continent. In Ghana in particular, the brand has stated its mission to be the most vibrant and iconic businesses in Ghana as well as becoming the market leader in beer and adult premium non-alcoholic drinks (Guiness Ghana Breweries Limited, 2016). However, the current economic situation in Ghana poses some significant challenges that could make sales challenging even with the best marketing platform. For example, even though the market in general is still experiencing growth, the growth rate is slowing and is predicted to be more volatile.

Furthermore, there are also…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Broadman, H. (2016). Competing for African markets: Strategies to win new business now. Retrieved from PWC: http://www.pwc.com/us/en/view/issue-16/strategies-win-african-business.html

Diageo Africa. (N.d.). Our Business. Retrieved from Diageo Africa: http://www.diageo.com/en-us/ourbusiness/ourregions/Pages/Diageo-Africa.aspx

Diageo. (N.d.). Responsible drinking programme in Ghana. Retrieved from Diageo: http://www.diageo.com/en-us/ourbrands/infocus/Pages/ggbl.aspx

GNA. (2016, May 24). Diageo top executives call on Ashantehene. Retrieved from Modern Ghana: http://www.modernghana.com/news/694064/diageo-top-executives-call-on-asantehene.html
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College Campus Across the Country Students Are

Words: 2604 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38431692

college campus across the country, students are greeted with the familiar sight of individuals seated at folding tables, with the purpose of marketing credit cards to them. These salespeople are most frequently seen during the beginning of the college semester and are usually young and attractive and smiling, barely older than the students themselves. Quite often, if a student fills out an application for the credit card, he or she may receive a small toy or a gigantic in exchange for his or her pains. hat could be more harmless? hat's wrong with having a credit card on hand, 'just in case?'

However, this familiar sight is one of the many reasons that college students are becoming more and more deeply ensnared in debt. These smiling individuals prey upon students when they are at their most vulnerable. Most of these students have just had to pay hundreds of dollars for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Indentured Servitude Contract in 17th Century Virginia. Stratford Hall History Resource of Historical Documents. http://www.history.pdx.edu/hst201/headrts.htm

Encarta Encyclopedia. "Sharecropping."
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Law and the Legal Systems

Words: 804 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29918446



11. The issued rose in this case is unauthorized use of a company vehicle, which resulted in an accident. Prater was told to bring the truck home over the weekend to work on the body only. His boss never gave him permission to use the truck for any other purpose. Besides, the insurance on the truck would probably only pay for the accident if it occurred on company time. Prater could be charged for stealing the truck and unauthorized use. The ruling in this case should be for the plaintiff. Prater should have to pay for the accident and repairs to the truck.

Week 8

5. In this case, the city is still the rightful owner of the piece of restored artwork. It does not matter how long Hoeltzer had the artwork, it is still the property of the city. Therefore, the city has legal title to the artwork unless…… [Read More]

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Dark Age and the Archaic Age

Words: 1920 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36563837

Dark Age and the Archaic Age

Having watched the lectures for the prior learning unit on video, I was prepared to enjoy the video lecture presentation for this learning unit. I previously found the presentation of lectures in the video format to be very convenient because I could observe at my own pace, rewind if I missed part of the lecture, have flexibility about when I was viewing the lecture, and not be distracted by the behavior or questions of other students. I acknowledged that there were some negatives to the video-learning environment, such as missing out on the organic and natural question and answers that develop in a live classroom setting, but had decided that missing those was an acceptable trade-off given the other benefits that I was receiving from the video lecture environment. Therefore, I was surprised to find that I did not enjoy the video lectures for…… [Read More]

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Teen Drinking Media Campaign a

Words: 4337 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29506360

One of those alarming physical changes is that the younger a person is when they begin drinking, even at low levels the more likely they are to become alcoholics. This change even overrides a known genetic predisposition for alcoholism. (Butler, July 4, 2006) Time forward ads regarding adult failure could be developed at a later time but again such images and concerns do not seem to sway teens. Funding for such a campaign would likely come from national and local foundations that stress clean living, and possibly from litigation funds that have been secured for healthier youth programs.

Alcohol use may begin simply as an exciting experiment, or as a way for a teen to feel a part of his or her peer group, lowering the feeling of awkwardness that often comes with the territory. Yet teen drinking can become a social disaster, that brings on extreme grief and loss.…… [Read More]

References

"AH shoes the best pillow when your a drunk teen and can't get up!" April, 10 2005 http://www.myspace.com/babyjenaya

"American Academy of Pediatrics Survey of Teen Alcohol Consumption: Summary Findings,"

American Academy of Pediatrics, September 30, 1998.

http://www.aap.org/advocacy/releases/aapkeyf2.htm
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Teenage Drinking Too Much Alcohol

Words: 759 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20377798

Alcoholism

There has been an ever increasing trend of young people getting to the habit of too much drinking. This is rampant at the point where these youth become of legal age and to majority, that acts as the go ahead to binge drinking and absolute abuse of alcohol. There are various issues that are related to excessive drinking especially among the youth. These risks are emanated as one moves from one category to another as of these categories formed by the HNS (2010);

Lower-risk drinkers -- who are the teenagers drinking between 2-3 units and are at a lower risk of causing themselves health risks in the future. However they may be exposed to injury if operating machinery, dangerous driving, risk or drowning if planning to go swimming alone without peers, babies may be affected in the womb for teenagers who get pregnant these among other minor risks.

Increasing-risk…… [Read More]

References

HNS (2010). The risks of drinking too much. Retrieved February 22, 2012 from  http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/alcohol/Pages/Effectsofalcohol.aspx 

Men's health (2012). 4 Strange Reasons You Drink Too Much. Retrieved February 22, 2012 from http://news.menshealth.com/reasons-for-binge-drinking/2012/01/21/

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, (2012). Underage Drinking: Why Do Adolescents Drink, What Are the Risks, and How Can Underage Drinking Be Prevented? Retrieved February 22, 2012 from  http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/AA67/AA67.htm
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Right to Die Legal and Ethical Issues Concerning the Withdrawal Withholding of Treatment

Words: 2116 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90932592

Right to Die

For the last few decades, the issue of a person's right to choose the time and method of his or her own death has been one of passionate debate in the United States, with emotions running high on both sides of the controversy as the meanings of liberty and freedom of choice, the morality of taking one's own life, the ethics of people involved in such actions, and the laws related to this issue take center stage in the arguments.

Since civilization began, suicide has existed in one form or another, with varying degrees of acceptance, such as the ancient Greeks who held tribunals for elderly people who requested to die, and if approved, were given hemlock and during the first century B.C. actually held annual banquets where the elderly were allowed to attend and drink poison if they felt they had lived long enough.

Moreover, "traditional…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brennecke, Shari J. "Right to Die: An Overview" Gerontology Manual. http://otpt.ups.edu/Gerontological_Resources/Gerontology_Manual/Brennecke.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Chachere, Vickie. "Judge appoints professor as guardian for brain-damaged woman in Florida." AP Worldstream. November 01, 2003. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?querydocid=1P1:86544618&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&pubname=AP+Worldstream&author=VICKIE+CHACHERE%2C+Associated+Press+Writer&title=Judge+appoints+professor+as+guardian+for+brain%2Ddamaged+woman+in+Florida&date=11%2F01%2F2003&query=Terry+Schiavo+and+the+State+of+Florida%2E&maxdoc=30&idx=2&ctrlInfo=result%3ASR%3Aprod.(accessed 12-03-2003)

Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. Of Health." Citation: 497 U.S. 261 (1990)

Concepts: Right to Die/State Police Powers. http://www.tourolaw.edu/patch/CaseSummary.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).
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United States There Is No

Words: 2727 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28805466

, 2005). At no time is any state obligated to comply with the federal guidelines for federal highway fund eligibility or to give up any sovereign rights established by the Tenth Constitutional Amendment. Furthermore, there is no issue of "withholding" or "withdrawing" any federal funds from states that choose not to comply with federal guidelines pertaining to the drinking age eligibility. Those monies are supplemental to any other federal funds and would not be offered except as an incentive to follow federal recommendations about the minimum drinking age. States do not have to comply if they prefer to lower the drinking age.

Reason # 3 -- Adults Younger than 21 are not as Responsible as Adults over 21

At the age of 18 or 19, most young people lack the fundamental abilities to make good decisions, especially about things such as taking risks and considering all of the consequences of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Centers for Disease Control (2007) Teen Drivers: Fact Sheet. Retrieved October 22,

2011, from the CDC public website, at:

http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/factsheets/teenmvh.htm

Dershowitz, A.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
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Federalism Throughout American History the Power of

Words: 1244 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86270255

Federalism

Throughout American history the power of the federal government in comparison with the states has been continually debated. This is because there is a principal known as the separation of powers. In the Constitution, this is reserving certain areas of authority for the federal and state governments. The problem is that many of these powers can often come into conflict with one another on a regular basis. As the Constitution, will provide some basic guidelines, but it will not address specific areas. To account for this, the courts are relying on individual interpretations and case precedent. This creates conflicting areas of authority, based upon the general powers that are given to the states and federal government. (Bonnie)

In the case of the federal government, this kind of conflict occurred in 1984 with the passage of the National Minimum Drinking Age Act. This law encouraged the states to raise the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Title 23." U.S. Senate, 2000. Web. 9 Mar. 2012

Bonnie, Richard. Reducing Underage Drinking. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 2004. Print.
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Supreme Court Concurring Dissent South

Words: 864 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76799084

If this is the idea that we convey here today what is going to stop the imposition of regulations in other areas of the State's social and economic life just because Congress feels that there might be a relationship to highway use or safety. In the end this is going to allow Congress to effectively be able to regulate almost any area of a State's social, political, or economic life on the theory that use of the interstate transportation system is somehow improved. The bigger question is whether or not this infringement upon the State's rights, which have been afforded to them by the Constitution, is going to stop with this or are we going to see it spill over into other areas. I feel that setting this precedence is only going to open the door for further abuses and violations of the State's rights as they have been given.…… [Read More]

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Women's Rights Cases for Gender

Words: 4162 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90558822

The United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of Illinois and argued that the Fourteenth Amendment was designed to protect against race discrimination only…" Gibson, 2007, Background to Muller v. Oregon section ¶ 1). The Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment did not include the protection of women's rights.

The following depicts Justice Bradley's concurring opinion regarding Bradwell's

Man is, or should be, woman's protector and defender. The natural and proper timidity and delicacy which belongs to the female sex evidently unfits it for many of the occupations of civil life. The constitution of the family organization, which is founded in the divine ordinance, as well in the nature of things, indicates the domestic sphere as that which properly belongs to the domain and functions of womanhood.... The paramount destiny and mission of woman are to fulfill the noble and benign offices of wife and mother. This is the law…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Babcock, Barbara Allen. (1975). Sex Discrimination and the Law: Causes. Retrieved April 3,

2009, from http://books.google.com/books?id=pi5AAAAAIAAJ&q=Liberti+v.+York&dq=Li

erti+v.+York&lr=&ei=ub3YScLeEIqKNKT3vIAD&pgis=1

The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). Columbia University Press. New York.
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Export Strategy Expansion of Highest

Words: 3137 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67500321

39 It was against this background that ASEAN Foreign Ministers during their retreat at Cebu in the Philippines in April 2005 decided to lay down three main criteria for the membership of the EAS: 1. Substantive relations with ASEAN; 2. Full Dialogue Partner status; and 3. Accession to the ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Co-operation. The Foreign Minister of Singapore had stated that, India obviously qualifies on all three counts and it will be included in the first EAS. e hope that Australia and New Zealand which have not acceded to the TAC, will agree to the TAC in the coming months (Battese & Coelli, 1992-page 18). If so, we would welcome them to the EAS in Kuala Lumpur. The Minister further added that ASEAN alone will decide the future members of all subsequent summits and ?this is to ensure that ASEAN remains in the driver's seat of the EAS…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Kym; Bernard Hoekman; and Anna Strutt. 1999. "Agriculture and the WTO: Next Steps." Revised version of a paper presented at the Second Annual Conference on Global Economic Analysis, Avernaes Conference Centre, Helnaes, Denmark, June 20-22, 1999.

Barshefsky, Charlene. 1999. Press briefing at the WTO Ministerial Conference, Seattle, WA.

Bhagwati, Jagdish. 1999. "Globalization: The Question of Appropriate Governance." Sang-don Suh prize-acceptance speech, Taegu. Republic of Korea, October 7, 1999

Birdsall, Nancy, and Robert Z. Lawrence. 1999. "Deep Integration and Trade Agreements: Good for Developing Countries?" In Kaul, Grunberg, and Stern, ed., Global Public Goods, 128-51.
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Substance Abuse in the Military

Words: 1400 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83212221

Drugs and Alcohol Abuse

The United States military faces considerable difficulty related to substance abuse amongst its personnel. It is critical to denote that its substance abuse issues pertain to both active personnel on duty, as well as to veterans. Of the myriad issues that the military faces, one is the evolving nature of substance abuse in the 21st century. Whereas such abuse has traditionally focused on alcohol and illegal narcotics, there is a stronger emphasis on the abuse of prescription medication. This abuse, in addition to binge drinking, (Institute of Medicine, 2015, p. 243) has considerable ramifications for the aforementioned military personnel. Active personnel face situations in which their readiness and ability to engage in combat is impaired by over-consumption of drugs and alcohol, whereas veterans must reckon with decreased quality of life and ability to successfully reintegrate into society because of the same problems.

Consequence of War ?…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association. (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. American Psychologist. 58(5), 377-402.

Bohart, A.C., Tallman, K. (1999). How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process of Active Self-Healing. New York: American Psychological Association.

Furuya, S., Slobodzien, J. (2015). ASAP Triage (brief screen note) for:.

Furuya, S., Slobodzien, J. (2015). Confidential treatment program. ASAP Triage.
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Alcohol Tobacco and Marijuana The

Words: 1476 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30695449



Like alcohol, tobacco use is prohibited by minors but permitted by adults. Also like alcohol, tobacco use is detrimental to the health of the user, except even more so.

Whereas alcohol consumption generally benign and only acutely harmful when it is overused, tobacco use (especially in the form of cigarettes) is extremely dangerous for practically all users. This is simply a function of the fact that "typical" use of tobacco entails physical addiction to nicotine, its primary active ingredient. For this reason, it is very rare for smokers to use tobacco too infrequently to become chronic daily users

In contrast, most alcohol users do not partake so often that it compromises their physical health.

The dramatic long-term medical consequences of long-term tobacco use are universal as well as predictable; in fact, the medical community is united in the position that tobacco use causes more preventable illness and death than all…… [Read More]

References

Brecher, E.M. (1972) Licit and Illicit Drugs: The Consumers Union Report.

Boston: Little, Brown & Co.

Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age

New York: Little Brown & Co.
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Egyptian Culture The Writer Explores

Words: 1813 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27761426



The children also rent decorated bikes to ride around town on for the holiday. It is a time for families to get together and celebrate with food and music and fellowship.

For a lot of families from working neighborhoods, Eid celebration also includes picnics in green areas including parks, zoos, botanical gardens and even green islands on major roads (Osama, 2004)."

Islam

Most of Egypt is Islam. Like Christians, the Islam followers trace their roots to Abraham and believe in one God who is universal. In Islam God is referred to as ALLAH which means One Universal God.

The Quran is the final revealed Word of God and provides the complete guide for human behavior. Its text was revealed directly to the prophet Muhammad between 610 and 632 C.E. Muhammad is revered by Muslims as the last of God's prophets but is not worshipped (Ahmad, 2005)."

Men and women are…… [Read More]

References

Ahmad, Seemi (2005)Islam in a Nutshell

 http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/islam.htm 

Carta, Joyce (2004) Egyptian Food

 http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/food.htm
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British Cannabis Policy Reform

Words: 11793 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41229071

Cannabis in the UK: De-Penalisation, Decriminalisation, or Legalisation?

In October of 2015, the Parliament of the United Kingdom was forced to debate whether the current prohibition on cannabis should end in some way. "Forced" is the correct word here, because Parliament seems otherwise unwilling to address the issue, but in this case it was obliged by its own policy, whereby any petition signed by at least one hundred thousand people must necessarily trigger a parliamentary debate. In the case of the issue of ending the prohibition on cannabis, the petition requesting that Parliament address the issue received well over the required number of signatures; it was, in the words of Smith (2015), "a petition signed by 220,000 people - the third most popular on Parliament's website." Therefore on 12 October 2015, Parliament was obliged to take up the matter for debate. Liberal Democrat MP Norman Lamb ultimately took up the…… [Read More]

References

Abel, EA. (1980) Marihuana: The first twelve thousand years. New York: Springer.

Adda, J, McConnell, B, Rasul, I. (2014). Crime and the depenalisation of cannabis possession: Evidence from a policing experiment. Journal of Political Economy 122:5.

Aoyagi, MT. (2006). Beyond punitive prohibition: Liberalizing the dialogue on international drug policy. International Law and Politics 37:3.

Atuesta-Becerra, LH. (2014) Internally displaced populations in Columbia and Mexico. In Quah, D, Collins, J, et al. (2014) Ending the drug wars: Report of the LSE Expert Group on the economics of drug policy. London: London School of Economics.
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Framers of U S Constitution Created

Words: 540 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94237090

Another example is drinking laws are defined by each state, but the federal government passed a law stating they would not provide monies to any state that did not raise their drinking age to twenty-one years of age .

lock Grants

lock grants have been part of the United States federal system as early as the late 1960's . lock grants are fixed -- sum of federal grants to state and local governments which allows them to design and implement programs . Examples: Child Welfare: gives states option to receive Title IV-E Foster Care funding as flexible Grant; Medicaid: gives states the option to consolidate Medicate and SCHIP funding into state acute care and long-term care allotments. A block grant has different budgetary implications from an entitlement. While both block grants and categorical grants are normally financed by fixed appropriations, entitlement funding is usually open-ended . lock grants give Congress…… [Read More]

Block grants have been part of the United States federal system as early as the late 1960's . Block grants are fixed -- sum of federal grants to state and local governments which allows them to design and implement programs . Examples: Child Welfare: gives states option to receive Title IV-E Foster Care funding as flexible Grant; Medicaid: gives states the option to consolidate Medicate and SCHIP funding into state acute care and long-term care allotments. A block grant has different budgetary implications from an entitlement. While both block grants and categorical grants are normally financed by fixed appropriations, entitlement funding is usually open-ended . Block grants give Congress more authority and be in command of over future spending, entitlements are more responsive to macroeconomic conditions .

Welfare Reform Act of 1996

Welfare Reform Act of 1996 was signed into law by President Clinton on August 22, 1996. This law changes how government financial assistance is administered including: changing federal funding to states from an open-ended entitlement to a series of capped block grants allocations; sets time limits on entitlements and cash assistance to welfare recipients; requires more welfare recipients to engage in job programs, and enforces collection of unpaid child support, and denies legal immigrants from collecting SSI and food stamps. The legislative goals of the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 was to reduce dependence, to reduce child poverty, and to reduce illegitimacy and strengthen marriage. This reform has been effective in meeting each of these goals.
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New Zealand Facts & News

Words: 734 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43125917



New Zealand is a fairly liberal nation with homosexual marriage (Civil Union) being legal and prostitution, soliciting, and brothel keeping being legal. The driving age is 15, the consensual sex age is 16, and the drinking age is 18, though minors accompanied by adults are allowed alcohol in restaurants.

Current News

New Zealand has slipped one place to sixth position in the world in the 2011 Global Gender Gap report that measures 135 countries, falling behind Ireland. The internationally recognized Global Gender Gap eport 2011's rankings and scores are produced by the World Economic Forum to quantify the magnitude of gender-based disparities and tracks their progress over time.

The ena, a container ship that has been grounded on a reef for nearly a month, could soon break apart. The vessel has leaked more than 300 tons of fuel oil from its tanks since it ran aground off New Zealand's north…… [Read More]

References

Frater, J. (2008, June 19) Top 20 cool facts about New Zealand. Listverse.Retrieved October 30, 2011, from  http://listverse.com/2008/06/19/top-20-cool-facts-about-new-zealand/ 

Tukia, A. (2011, November 2). Occupy Dunedin standoff continues. 3 news.3news.co.nz. Retrieved November 1, 2011, from http://www.3news.co.nz/Occupy-Dunedin-standoff continues/tabid/423/articleID/231538/Default.aspx
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Ethical and Societal Issues of

Words: 3019 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86625585

The concentration on action and violence draws larger audiences, yet is not effective in selling products Pechmann, Levine, Loughlin, Leslie, 2005).

esearchers have also found that the brains of pre-adolescents and adolescents have low levels of inhibitory control and therefore pursue reckless and risky activities due to their judgment not being fully developed (Cauffman, Steinberg, 2000). Adolescents who have seen reckless and risky behavior online or on television advertising are 80% more likely to engage in the behavior (Trimpop, udiger, Kerr, Kirkcaldy, 1999). The lack of inhibitory controls when combined with the an abundance of violent content leads quickly to replication of viewed acts of violence, especially in pre-adolescents, as verified through research completed (Trimpop, udiger, Kerr, Kirkcaldy, 1999).

Ethically this raises the question of whether the advertisers are more adept at the selling of violent acts than products, as the brains of the audience members they are selling products…… [Read More]

References

Charlie Cray (2001). Booze for kids. Multinational Monitor, 22(6), 4. Retrieved February 22, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 74131265).

Cauffman, Elizabeth and Laurence Steinberg (2000), "(Im)maturity of Judgment in Adolescence: Why Adolescents May Be Less Culpable Than Adults," Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 18 (6), 741-60.

Glenn Cummins (2007). Selling Music with Sex: The Content and Effects of Sex in Music Videos on Viewer Enjoyment. Journal of Promotion Management, 13(1/2), 95. Retrieved February 23, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1398611091).

Matthew C. Farrelly, Kevin C. Davis, M Lyndon Haviland, Peter Messeri, Cheryl G. Healton. (2005). Evidence of a Dose-Response Relationship Between "truth" Antismoking Ads and Youth Smoking Prevalence. American Journal of Public Health, 95(3), 425-31. Retrieved February 26, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 820162831).
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Deviant Behavior Why Is Deviance

Words: 330 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98036231

On the other hand, this exposure to many different systems of morality can also be confusing, and can make any kind of deviant behavior seem acceptable in a relativistic fashion. hy obey the drug laws of the United States when in Amsterdam, there are no such regulations?

Setting standards of deviance and normalcy is a negotiation between the rights of the individual and the needs of the community. Sometimes, the rights of the individual will win out, other times the community's need for harmony will supersede these individual rights. This negotiation will vary from nation to nation, time to time, and place to place.

orks Cited

Simon, David R. (2006). Elite Deviance.

7th Ed.

Thio, Alex & Thomas C. Calhoun. (2006). Readings in Deviant…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Simon, David R. (2006). Elite Deviance.

7th Ed.

Thio, Alex & Thomas C. Calhoun. (2006). Readings in Deviant Behavior. 3rd Ed.
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Gender Race and Religion on

Words: 3335 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23773721

The referent methods of collecting data are summative to the two key positions of the same sex in the society. Some of the methods used included sampling, interviews, issuance of questionnaires and used of printed or secondary data.

Sampling

Samples were collected from different members of the society. The samples collected were directed reactions to the issue of the same sex in the society. Most approaches of collection that were used aimed at establishing a common ground and avoiding bias from the concerned members. The samples were collected from a diverse society. The researchers ensured that the samples came from different members with regard to religion, race, social meanings and avenues, and social classes. Furthermore, the samples were collected from a diverse society in order to ensure that they were a true reflection of the real state of matter in the world as concerns same sex marriage.

Interviews

Interviews are…… [Read More]

References

Cantor, D.J. (2006). Same-sex marriage: The legal and psychological evolution in America.

Middletown, CT: Wesleyan Univ. Press.

Corvino, J. (1999). Same sex: Debating the ethics, science, and culture of homosexuality journal. Vol. 5, Issue 1, Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield.

Corvino, J., & Gallagher, M. (2012). The great debate: Debating same-sex marriage journal. Vol. 5
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Abortion Throughout History Abortion Has

Words: 2447 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35785908

However, when all said and done the situation is still critical and those having resorted to abortion have a hard time getting over the psychological traumas that they suffer. Of course, such an experience is difficult to put behind and the best solution for abortion victims should be their subjection to intense psychological discussions in order to get over the shock more easily.

It seems that the women that cannot psychologically recover from an abortion describe similar symptoms. Most have reported having nightmares about children, blood, and voices calling them. It is horrible for someone that underwent an abortion to be reminded of the episode, as images immediately spring to their minds making them go into a state of distress. It is not surprising that consequent to undergoing an abortion, one's self-esteem drops significantly, as women feel that they have been incompetent at performing one of humanity's basic functions-that of…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Angela Kennedy, and Mary Krane Derr, "Feminism and Abortion," History Today Aug. 1999: 34, Questia, Web, 9 Mar. 2010.

2. Beverly Wildung Harrison, Our Right to Choose: Toward a New Ethic of Abortion (Boston: Beacon Press, 1983) 163, Questia, Web, 9 Mar. 2010.

3. Robert M. Baird, and Stuart E. Rosenbaum, eds., the Ethics of Abortion Pro-Life vs. Pro-Choice, Revised ed. (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1993) 7, Questia, Web, 9 Mar. 2010.

4. "Is Abortion Safe?." Retrieved March 09, 2010, from the nrcl.org website: http://www.nrlc.org/abortion/asmf/asmf14.html
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Scotch Whiskey the Olde Distillerie

Words: 5163 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20382463

However, the Act of Union in 1707 that combined England, Wales, and Scotland into the United Kingdom had a profound effect on the production of Scotch Whiskey (Beverage Testing Institute, 2007). The English government levied heavy taxes on Scottish whiskey, while lowering taxes on English gin (Beverage Testing Institute, 2007). This resulted in a boom in illegal stills across the country. Many present-day producers have their origins in these illegal operations. In 1823, the Excise Act reduced taxes on Scotch Whiskey to a level where it was once again a viable legal industry (Beverage Testing Institute, 2007).

Scotch whiskey was ingrained in the culture of Scotland. Whether they are malted, blended, or single grain concoctions, they are a part of Scottish history that is slowly becoming adopted by others around the globe. The whiskey market experiences periods of boom followed by periods of bust. The market has not been one…… [Read More]

References

Barrow, a. First Swedish Malt Whiskey. Slashfood. April 17, 2006. [Online] Available at http://www.slashfood.com/2006/04/17/first-swedish-malt-whisky/[Accessed 23, December 2007].

Beverage Testing Institute. 2007. All About Scotch Whiskey. [Online] Available at http://www.tastings.com/spirits/Scotch.html[Accessed 23, December 2007].

Broom, D.(2006) Global market review of malt whisky - forecasts to 2011. Bharat Books. [Online] Available at http://www.bharatbook.com/bookdetail.asp?bookid=12503&publisher=[Accessed 23, December 2007].

FedEx. 2007. Ireland. Country Profile. [Online] Available at http://www.FedEx.com/us/international/irc/profiles/irc_ie_profile.html?gtmcc=us[Accessed 23, December 2007].
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Changing the DWI Legislation for Missouri

Words: 813 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12930007

Proposal for New DWI Laws for Missouri

DWI laws will always be contentious, with different viewpoints impacting on requirements of the laws. If rewriting the Missouri DWI laws the following would be recommended, the reasons for each recommendation are provided. 

1.    The legal limit; A person will be deemed to be intoxicated if they have a blood alcohol content higher than the level allowed. The level allowed for drivers of commercial vehicles will be 0%, for drivers under age of 21 and under it will be 0.01 and for drivers over the age of 21 it will be 0.05. The bill will also include any type of intoxication or undue influence of other substances which impair judgement. 
There is a clear relationship between higher blood alcohol content and higher road traffic accidents (Karakus et al. 440; Fell and Voas 869). The implementation of a zero blood alcohol level would be…… [Read More]

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Proposal for Unmet Community Need

Words: 1853 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32883355

Geagua County, OH

Planning -- The most effective strategy within a community for any public health issue is two-fold: education and focus. To accomplish this at the community level, there needs to be a broad level of focus and support from all levels of the government: local, State and Federal, in order for there to be a consistent and proactive message. Education should begin at the elementary school level, with teaching talking about substances, abuse and alternatives; and move through the school system as appropriate for the cognitive abilities of various age groups. In this way, the community can collaborate with schools to provide initiatives and programs that address the problem prior to it becoming as endemic, and offer proposed solutions in a way that almost everyone involved knows they can receive help if necessary. The educational process must also be pervasive and accessible -- people need a number to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bangeret-Drowns, R. (1988). The Effects of School-Based Substance Abuse Education. Journal of Drug Education, 18(3), 243-64.

Berkowitz, M., et al. (1991). Sociomoral Development and Drug and Alcohol Abuse. In W. Kurtines (Ed.), Handbook of Moral Behavior and Development (Vol. 3). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum.

Blondell, R. (2005). Ambulatory detoxification of patients with alchohol dependence. American Family Physician, 71(3), 495-502.

Cook, P., & Moore, M. (2002). The Economics of Alchohol Abuse. Health Affairs, 21(2), 120-33.
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Abortion An Argument in Favor Abortion Is

Words: 1328 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51811639

Abortion: An Argument in Favor

Abortion is one of the most controversial topics of our day as it involves an entanglement of truly pressing issues that people generally feel incredibly passionate about: human life, religion, morality, and the rights of women. Historically, America has been a nation founded by and run by Caucasian men, which has meant that the bulk of legislation can be and has historically been harsh, unfair and unequal to women and minorities. Women (and minorities) have had to work harder and fight harder to receive rights that white men don't hesitate in giving themselves. For example, women have had to fight for the right to be reinstated to their jobs after maternity leave, for equal pay, and to fight against federal laws that have made it a crime to use contraceptives or birth control information (ACLU, 2012). Women have had to fight in certain states to…… [Read More]

References

Aclu.org. (2012). The ACLU And Women's Rights: Proud History, Continuing Struggle. Retrieved from aclu.org: http://www.aclu.org/womens-rights/aclu-and-womens-rights- proud-history-continuing-struggle

Alessio, J. (2011). Social Problems and Inequality: Social Responsibility Through Progressive. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing.

Amplifiy. (2012). 10 Arguments in Favor of Pro-Choice Policy. Retrieved from Amplify.com: http://amplifyyourvoice.org/u/pheo152/2009/01/26/10-arguments-in-favor-of-prochoice- policy

Life.org.nz. (2011). Child Abuse Link to Abortion. Retrieved from Life.org.nz: http://www.life.org.nz/abortion/abortionkeyissues/childabuselink/
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The American Prohibition Era

Words: 1235 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39076879

Prohibition is a chapter in the history of the United States where the government implemented a nationwide ban on the consumption and sale of alcohol. Although it seems archaic and nonsensical now since most countries allow alcohol consumption, back then, for thirteen years it was considered illegal to buy, sell, and consume alcohol in the United States. A time of bootleggers and social 'Progressives' the Prohibition Era of the United Sates shocked the nation, revealing how important the need was for people to drink. It was a time for many to understand alcohol consumption and in retrospective, see what caused the activity to be outlawed in the first place.

The Prohibition Era: A Brief Background

The Prohibition Era of the United States lasted from 1920 to 1933. January 1, 1920 saw the start of national Prohibition that became effective via the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The driving…… [Read More]

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Tax on Obesity

Words: 1090 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73539010

¶ … prediction comparison vote real members House Representatives a law. 1. You choose real members House Representatives, Republican Democrat. (There 435 members House, find interests .

A tax on obesity as seen by Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives Bill Cassidy and Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives James McGovern

Obesity has come to be a significant issue in the United States today, with more and more individuals displaying the malady's symptoms. As a consequence, the authorities have gotten actively involved in trying to control it through installing tougher regulation and by implementing programs meant to educate people with regard to attitudes they should take toward the concept. While agreeing about the significance of this issue, American politicians seem to have different opinions on the matter -- some believe that the solution stays with tougher legislations while others consider that it all comes down to…… [Read More]