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Leonardo Da Vinci
What are the sources we possess learning about the life and work of Leonardo da Vinci and what are their strengths and weaknesses in revealing his personality?
Much of what we have learned about Leonardo da Vinci's life and inventions has been uncovered from the hundreds of drawings and writings he left behind. To date, thousands of these handwritten works have been spread across European museums and libraries. It is thought that Leonardo had the intention of publishing his works in a formal reference. However, this task, like many others, was never completed. The manuscripts that he left behind serve as indicators of the breadth and depth of his creative and ingenious mind. However, many are also illegible and written in reverse script. His stream of consciousness thinking and non-sequential order of the documents seem to suggest a mind and personality that was truly. They are overflowing…… [Read More]
Leonardo Da Vinci
Theses of the Authors
Each of the articles is similar yet dissimilar. They are similar in that they all discuss Leonardo da Vinci in some respect, but differ in the subjects and theses in their discussion. The two articles that are most similar in the questions asked (or thesis presented) would have to be the article written by Martin Kemp and the article written by Patricia Rubin. Both of these authors approach da Vinci by trying to separate the man from the myth, the reality from the years of renowned celebration for his works. However, each approaches this task in a different way. Kemp begins by analyzing tangible evidence from da Vinci's life such as records for commissions, receipts from paid works, and written accounts by those who knew him, to piece together da Vinci's life as an artist during the High Renaissance. Rubin, on…… [Read More]
Leonardo da Vinci, the history of the parachute invention, retrieved March 15, 2010 from http://www.juliantrubin.com/bigten/davinciparachute.html
Leonardo da Vinci Inventions, Scuba gear, retrieved March 15, 2010 from http://www.da-vinci-inventions.com/scuba-gear.aspx
Leoardo da Vinci's study of flight,, retrieved March 15, 2010 from http://mr_sedivy.tripod.com/da_flight.html
Leonardo da Vinci: on the philosophy, art and science of Leonardo da Vinci, retrived March 15,2010 from http://www.spaceandmotion.com/philosophy-leonardo-da-vinci-art-science-quotes.htm
Leonardo's Vitruvian man, retrieved March 15, 2010 from http://leonardodavinci.stanford.edu/submissions/clabaugh/history/leonardo.html
Leonardo da Vinci, in Wikipedia the free encyclopaedia, retrieved March 15, 2010 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_da_Vinci#Leonardo_as_observer.2C_scientist_and_inventor
Leonardo da Vinci: the Codex Leicester- notebook of a genius, retrieved March 15, 2010 from http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/previous/leonardo.asp
Ornithopter flying machine in About.com, retrieved March 15, 2010 from http://inventors.about.com/od/dstartinventors/ig/Inventions-of-Leonardo-DaVinci/Ornithopter-Flying-Machine.htm
The philosophy of Leonardo da Vinci's paintings: symbolism and meaning behind the Virgin and Child with St. Anne, retrieved March 15,2010 from http://western-philosophy.suite101.com/article.cfm/the-philosophy-in-leonardo-da-vincis-paintings… [Read More]
Leonardo Da Vinci
egarded one of the most innovative and talented individuals of his time, BBC (2014) describes Leonardo da Vinci as "one of the greatest creative minds of the Italian enaissance, hugely influential as an artist and sculptor but also immensely talented as an engineer, scientist and inventor." A clearly multitalented individual, Leonardo da Vinci was born on the 15th day of April, 1452 (BBC, 2014). He was born out wedlock. His father was a prominent attorney while his mother is described in various texts as having been a simple peasant girl. As he grew up, Leonardo da Vinci spent most of his time with his father and was later on sent to Andrea del Verroccio - an accomplished painter and sculptor, as an apprentice (BBC, 2014).
One could say that it was while under the apprenticeship of Andrea that Leonardo da Vinci further developed an interest in paining…… [Read More]
ith a finite space, the supper room, Leonardo is able to precisely place objects in space using diminishing size and narrowing angle to draw the eye to the distance, although that distance is very close indeed, the rear wall. The three windows are no more than frames for what might well be pictures of the outside world, for all the detail of the exterior landscape they fail to show.
Leonardo's use of color in the Last Supper is in contrast to the solemnity of the event. Everyone knew that Jesus of Nazareth was a wanted man; he had already warned his followers that he would be arrested and might well leave them forever.
Yet, in Leonardo's painting, the group is attired in bright colors, and is engaged in animated conversation, not all of it solemn from the expressions on the faces. In setting the scene this way, Leonardo makes the…… [Read More]
During this time period, artists began seriously thinking of the perspective of the work which they were creating, "he perspective focuses on the figure of Christ in the centre. The window behind his head looks like a halo. Judas is the only figure in the painting who is leaning away from Christ, and the only figure who is in shadow," (BBC, 2008). This gave the works produced a much more real feel to the observer, which essentially echoed the social feeling of the day, the "artists' emphasis on unique qualities of each human face, figure in attempt to show individual's character, personality in life-like way," (Mary Teresa McCullagh Project, 2000). This is seen in Leonardo da Vinci's most famous piece "The Last Supper." This piece utilizes a perspective which makes the onlooker feel as though they are directly in the context of the painting. Observers get the sense that they…… [Read More]
The Renaissance was a time in which humanism and classical order united in the height of Christendom’s cultural power. The Renaissance would eventually be eclipsed by the Protestant Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, and the Age of Enlightenment—all of which in some way reduced the achievements of the Renaissance and undermined the accomplishments of the era’s greats. Leonardo da Vinci was one such great of the Renaissance: in fact, it may be said that he was the very first Renaissance Man, as he was interested in everything—from painting to physiology to mathematics to military tactics. He certainly did it all and his notebooks, drawings, inventions and ideas show just how capable he was of doing everything required of a truly Renaissance Man.
Leonardo at the Beginning
Like many young men in Italy in the 15th century, Leonardo carved out a path for himself in Florence: after six years of apprenticeship,…… [Read More]
Leonardo Da Vinci
The first object of the painter is to make a flat plane appear as a body in relief and projecting from that plane." (Leonardo Da Vinci)
The Italian philosopher, engineer, architect, mathematician, draftsman, sculptor, and painter - Leonardo Da Vinci - was a man greatly beyond his era. His intellect, conceivably more than that of any other contemporary personality, characterized the revitalization of humanist ideals. Leonardo's personal writings uncover a character of logical inquiry and mechanized creativity that was well advanced for his period of time (Richter, 1970). Leonardo's Last Supper (1495-97) and Mona Lisa (1503-06) are counted in the company of the world's most extensively famous and inspirational artworks of the Renaissance era. He was one of those unique masterminds the likes whereof the world has not witnessed again.
Leonardo Da Vinci was like a man who awoke too early in the darkness, while the others…… [Read More]
Maybe that was the message in her eyes: I know you like me and I let you enjoy painting my portrait. I am intelligent, gentle and beautiful and I take no pride in it. Leonardo, you succeeded to present the world with the essence of feminine…… [Read More]
Da Vinci and Michaelangelo
During the Renaissance, artists evolved many of the techniques which are now employed in creating works of art. There are many great artists who came out of this historical time period and while they have somewhat similar techniques and similar subject matters, they all have unique attributes as well. In this time, one of the biggest differences between artists of the Renaissance and ones that came before is the interest that artists had in the human body and the human form. Before this time, people were painted in a flat way, but Renaissance painters tried to make the people seem more realistic, which many were very successful in accomplishing this. Two of the artists in the Renaissance who are considered to be the best are Leonardo da Vinci and Michaelangelo. When looking at their most famous works, "The Mona Lisa" and "The Sistine Chapel Ceiling" respectively,…… [Read More]
Even his paintings are different in that he took painting to another level. e read that Leonardo believed that "art should be considered a form of creative knowledge, on the same level as science and philosophy" (Pedretti). As a result of this different approach to painting, Leonardo's art stands out because his method was that of a master. He incorporated sfumato in his painting, which is the technique of "placing colours next to one another rather than demarcating contours with clear cut lines" (Leonardo Online) and by doing so, he reached a "point that nobody before had reached: a way of representing living and vivacious reality" (Leonardo Online). The Mona Lisa, Leda and the Swan, and the Virgin of the Rocks illustrate Leonardo's technique that brings his subjects to life. His genius was not limited to thought and because he was able to organize his thoughts and put them on…… [Read More]
Business Success Through Da Vinci's Philosophical Orientation
The 1999 text How to Think Like Leonardo Da Vinci by Michael Gelb is a useful and entertaining discussion on how the philosophical principles of one of history's greatests thinkers can be applied to modern business practices as well as to self-improvement on an everyday level.
Thinking Like a Manager and Evaluating a Company:
One of the overarching beliefs driving the Gelb philosophy is that one need not necessarily be a genius in order to think like one. To the point, Gelb argues that Da Vinci was particularly graceful at training his mind to think in certain ways, to observe matters according to certain principles which are today applicable to models of leadership. Gelb offers what he calls "seven steps to genius every day" as influenced by the life and working habits of Da Vinci. The seven steps call for the…… [Read More]
He was an amazing man with an amazing mind, and as current projects show, many of his designs are just as viable today as they were in the 15th century when he conceived them.
Annabell, Maxine. "Catapults and Crossbows." Lairweb.org.nz. 2000. 15 April 2008. http://www.lairweb.org.nz/leonardo/catapaults.html
Flying Machines." Lairweb.org.nz. 2000. 15 April 2008. http://www.lairweb.org.nz/leonardo/ornithopters.html
Editors. "The Leonardo Bridge Project." LeonardoBridgeProject.org. 2008. 15 April 2008. http://www.leonardobridgeproject.org/Sands-Leonardo-Bridge-Project.htm
Gani, Martin. "Leonardo Lives on," World and I Nov. 2002: 272.
Kemp, Martin and Wallace, Marina. "The Ideal City." Universal Leonardo. 2006. 15 April 2008. http://www.universalleonardo.org/work.php?id=519
Armoured Car." Universal Leonardo. 2006. 15 April 2008. http://www.universalleonardo.org/work.php?id=511.
Martin Kemp and Marina Wallace. "The Ideal City." Universal Leonardo. 2006. 15 April 2008. http://www.universalleonardo.org/work.php?id=519
Editors. "The Leonardo Bridge Project." LeonardoBridgeProject.org. 2008. 15 April 2008. http://www.leonardobridgeproject.org/Sands-Leonardo-Bridge-Project.htm.
Martin Kemp and Marina Wallace. "Armoured Car." Universal Leonardo. 2006. 15 April 2008. http://www.universalleonardo.org/work.php?id=511.
Maxine Annabell. "Catapults and Crossbows." Lairweb.org.nz. 2000. 15 April 2008.…… [Read More]
The last supper is what gives the basis of the Eucharist according to the scriptures Therefore Leonardo used this tradition to form the basis for his painting.
Leonardo's painting the last supper was principally divided into three groups the first group was made up of Bartholomew, James the lesser and Andrew from the first group of three, here they ball appear surprised and Andrew holds his hands up in front of him in a gesture that depicted that he was frightened. The second group is made up of judas, simon peter and John .Judas here is holding a silver bag in his right hand and at the same time reaching with his left hand a piece of bread.simon peter leaning over Johns shoulder and holding a knife in his right hand symbolizes his readiness to defend Jesus while John appears to be swooning. This goes against the tradition since Judas…… [Read More]
Leonardo's Last Supper (1495-1498) does something very different from the other Renaissance portrayals of this scene from the Gospel. Unlike Andrea del Castagno's or Domenico Ghirlandaio's Last Supper versions, Leonardo's is at once more earthly (neither Christ nor the Apostles wear halos) and chaotic than the others -- and yet at the same time it is substantially more divine and imposing in its stark simplicity. This paper will trace the compositional, stylistic and symbolic development of the story of the Last Supper as it is told by Leonardo da Vinci in his masterpiece of the same name.
The first thing to note about the composition of Leonardo's Last Supper is that there is a distinct separation between the space occupied by Christ and the Apostles and the viewer. They exist together, cramped, huddled, literally on top of one another on one side of a long table covered like an altar…… [Read More]
Pioch also comments on the delicate and gradual blending and dissolving of the painting's colors and figures, which da Vinci achieved with the sfumato technique.
An interesting fact of da Vinci's life and attitude towards painting is provided in a biography of the artist by Antonina Vallentin: "Leonardo himself knew that masterpieces are born of [his] fear and doubting." Apparently almost crippled with fear at the start of a new project, da Vinci worked under extreme emotional stress. This makes the calmness of the Mona Lisa all the more striking. My aesthetic response towards the painting has only been strengthened, but not altered, by the background information on its creation and the magnificent artist behind it.
ATIST NAME: Leonardo da Vinci
ATIST TITLE: The Mona Lisa (La Joconde)
MEDIUM: Oil on panel (wood)
ADDITIONAL FACTS THAT I COLLECTED on THIS ATWOK THAT ELATE to the ATIST and…… [Read More]
This conveyance of human nature is part of the work's genius, and what the artist apparently intended to convey -- not greatness, but ordinariness, in contrast to Michelangelo. It is still a masterwork of craft, but of a subtler craft of character as the "Mona Lisa's "blurred outlines, graceful figure, dramatic contrasts of dark and light, and overall feeling of calm are characteristic of Leonardo's style." (Summers, "Mona Lisa," 2004) Although great a craftsman of his respective mediums as Michelangelo, in contrast to Michelangelo's expansive imagination, Leonardo was most of all an excellent observer. He concerned himself with what the eye could see, rather than with purely abstract concepts. (Summers, 2004, da Vinci)
David." Michelangelo. orld Book Online Reference Center. 2004. orld Book, Inc. 16 Oct. 2004. http://www.aolsvc.worldbook.aol.com/wb/Article?id=ar359360.
Mona Lisa." Leonardo. (1503). The Louvre, Paris. http://www.aolsvc.worldbook.aol.com/wb/ExtMedia?id=ar319880&st=Da+Vinci&em=pc006600
Summers, David. "Michelangelo." orld Book Online Reference Center. 2004. orld Book, Inc.…… [Read More]
High enaissance Movement and Its Most Celebrated Artists
The enaissance is referred to as a period of time where there was a great cultural movement that began in Italy during the early 1300's. It spread into other countries such as England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Spain. This era continued into the late 1400's and ended during the 1600's. The enaissance times were a period of rebirth and during this time many artists studied the art of ancient Greece and ome. Their desire was to recapture the spirit of the Greek and oman cultures in their own artistic, literary, and philosophic works. The cultures of ancient Greece and ome are often called classical antiquity. The enaissance thus represented a rebirth of these cultures and is therefore also known as the revival of antiquity or the revival of learning.
The artists' works include many aspects of the medieval times and incorporated…… [Read More]
Cultural Tour of the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC
Andrew William Mellon, an art collector and investor hailing from Pittsburgh, designed and presented Washington's famed National Gallery of Art to American citizens. Mellon came to the U.S. capital in the year 1921 and took up the post of U.S. "Secretary of the Treasury." He felt the nation ought to have an art gallery just like other major States. Consequently, in the year 1936, he contacted President Roosevelt and offered to contribute his splendid art collection to a new national museum, which he proposed he would construct using his personal funds. Hence, with Congressional and Presidential support, the Washington National Gallery of Art was opened in March of 1937 (National Gallery of Art, 2016).
Tour of the Gallery
I undertook a virtual visit to Washington, DC's National Gallery of Art on September 4, 2016 at approximately 11:30am. The gallery's entryway…… [Read More]
This was even though he received no immediate remuneration, in terms of money or benefits, from developing such interests. Leonardo's notebooks of this period of his life reveal a spirit of scientific inquiry and a mechanical inventiveness that were centuries ahead of his time.
Ivor Hart makes it clear that Leonardo was far more than a great artist: he had one of the best scientific minds of his time. Perhaps Leonardo's great talent was in observing -- he made careful, painstaking observations of the natural world, such as birds in flight. Such careful observations of the natural world are critical, of course, to the eye of a great artist. But Leonardo's eye enabled him to carry out research of precision as well as beauty, in science as well as art.
Perhaps the real paradox is how separate art and science have become in the modern construction of the disciplines. Leonardo…… [Read More]
The Wikipedia web site defines "art" as a "generic term for any product of the creative impulse," while Encarta Encyclopedia considered this concept as "the product of human creativity in which materials are shaped or selected to convey an idea, emotion, or visually interesting form." These definitions are related in the study of eight web sites, all of which center on the subject of (various forms of) art:
The Hubbard Street Dance Chicago (HSDC) web site (http://www.hubbardstreetdance.com/home.asp) centers on and provides an overview about street dancing through providing information about different institutions and centers that offer street dancing tutorials, competitions, other street dance-related events.
The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. (http://www.warholfoundation.org) showcases the not only the works of Andy Warhol, but also functions as a venue for artists to take advantage of grants and art projects that would be beneficial for their development/improvement as visual artists.…… [Read More]
Leonardo wanted the ability to change things as he worked, and so he developed this method. The work is another religious work that depicts Christ supping with his disciples and discovering Judas is his betrayer. It is a powerful work that communicates the downfall of Christ by one of his own supporters, and it elicits emotional reactions from many who view it. The composition and color of the work have faded during the ages, and many restoration projects have resulted. However, the power and craft of the work are clear in the facial and clothing details, and even the details of the room, the table and setting, and the view through the windows behind the group. The composition is famous, with Christ at the center of the table, symbolizing his power and leadership, and the other disciples reacting at horror at the news one of them is a traitor. The…… [Read More]
Western Art and Christianity
During the past millennium, Western art has been heavily influenced by Christianity. Art is an extension of the many complex thoughts and images that swim within an artist's mind. Because many Western artists have traditionally been raised in a Christian environment, it is difficult for their religious beliefs to be fully separated from their artwork, and oftentimes it is embraced in the works, or a patron has requested it be the specific subject matter. Although this heavy Christian influence would see a swift departure during the Renaissance, it would remain engrained in Western culture until the present day.
The Reformation heralded a swift separation between Christians in Europe, as Roman Catholics and Protestants divided roughly along a North to South split. Protestants seemed to dominate the North while the South remained dominated by Catholic countries. While much of the art in Protestant countries retained a secular…… [Read More]
enaissance and Baroque Periods
The term enaissance describes, not only a movement in art, but also a corresponding social and cultural movement that moved through Europe at the conclusion of the Middle Ages. The enaissance period lasted from the 1400s to the 1600s, and spread through most of Europe, though it is probably the most heavily associated with Italy. The term "renaissance" means revival or rebirth, and the enaissance did mark a period of significant cultural revival. In order to truly understand the enaissance, it is important to understand that the Middle Ages, the time period preceding the enaissance was a period of retraction largely due to political instability. However, as Europe emerged from the Middle Ages and became more stable, the surrounding social landscape became supportive of an explosion in the arts and learning. The movement began in Italy in the 1400s and spread into France, northern Europe, and…… [Read More]
Brunelleschi has been one of the early fathers of the Renaissance, and, the first architect to build a building with reference to classical antiquity. The architect succeeded in proving his value through various building which came in disagreement with the laws that architects had had until the time.
One of the greatest sculptors of all times, Michelangelo, became famous at the time that the public reviewed his first works of art. Despite of the fact that he had been certain that he was best fit for being a sculptor, Michelangelo accepted to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Even with his hesitation, the painting on the ceiling still stands as one of his greatest works and one of the greatest master pieces that the Renaissance period has given birth to.
The Marriage of the Virgin is a painting appreciated worldwide for its perception of depth and for its great…… [Read More]
Many people today still have trouble interpreting and understanding some of his works, thus proving that his thinking was way ahead of his time. Da Vinci's works are probably among the most parodied ideas that have ever existed, as a series of individuals reproduced them and introduced diverse concepts in an attempt to put across certain messages.
Michelangelo Buonarroti is yet another Florentine who changed the world as a result of his brilliance. Although people tend to consider that da Vinci was much more impressive because of his lavishness and because his works are more extravagant, Michelangelo is actually comparable to him when considered the wide range of fields in which he excelled. In contrast to other artists contemporary to him, he experienced much suffering and he was forced to perform many of works without actually having time to appreciate life to the fullest. Even with this, he focused on…… [Read More]
estern Studies emphasizes on the following two topics namely, Inspirational artists during the Renaissance and England before becoming a Constitutional Monarchy. The first topic takes into account the Renaissance era and the artists produced during it where as the second focuses on how the British monarchy was established and what were the perils that were faced in establishing it. This paper also highlights certain quotes.
Inspirational artists during the Renaissance.
The Europeans regard the Renaissance as an era that completely transformed their feudal society of the middle ages into a society dominated by political institutions, in which education was pursued and liberty was the right of all the citizens. This charismatic era gave birth to many philosophers, artists, scientists and thinkers who worked to present to their people a completely new perspective of life. Many artists concentrated upon human philosophy, which became the central movement during the Renaissance.…… [Read More]
However, starting from this, Leonardo was able to use this conclusion in his mathematics work and "rationalize irrational geometry of square root of 2."
The rationalization mentioned in the previous paragraph is not only related to the proportions that exist between the different body parts, but also to the easiness with which the square and circle can be constructed and how these two perfect geometric shapes are correlated. As such, the drawing initially starts with the square. If rotated by 45 degrees, the square will result in a vertical geometric projection of itself. The difference between the extremity of the projected square and the side of the initial square will form the diameter of the circle. Calculated in palms, the area of the circle is 660 palms, while the area of the square is 576 palms. This makes for the differences between the two areas 84 palms, important because of…… [Read More]
French omantic painter, Eugene Delacroix, is well-known from this period. Delacroix often took his subjects from literature but added much more by using color to create an effect of pure energy and emotion that he compared to music. He also showed that paintings can be done about present-day historical events, not just those in the past (Wood, 217). He was at home with styles such as pen, watercolor, pastel, and oil. He was also skillful in lithography, a new graphic process popular with the omantics. His illustrations of a French edition of Goethe's "Faust" and Shakespeare's "Hamlet" still stand as the finest examples in that medium.
Delacroix' painting "Massacre at Chios" is precisely detailed, but the action is so violent and the composition so dynamic that the effect is very disturbing (Janson, 678). With great vividness of color and strong emotion he pictured an incident in which 20,000 Greeks were…… [Read More]
By the early thirties the autogiro had a relatively stable control system that used the rotating blades for control of vertical flight at very low speeds
. By the end of the decade, World War II was under way and the United States Military released a request for bids from aircraft manufacturers to design and build a helicopter. Contracts were given to Sikorsky Aircraft in Bridgeport and Platt-LePage in the Philadelphia, and from this the American helicopters were developed.
. American Helicopters
There are four general helicopter designs which have been developed and produced in the United States: the most common being the tail rotor design, more popularly known as the single rotor design, which has one main rotor and a small tail rotor. Other rotor designs produced in America include the tandem rotor design, the syncropter design and the coaxial design
. The single main rotor and a small…… [Read More]
Culturally, the development of northern European art was not unlike that of Italy, particularly when powerful princes created individual states based on wealth and leisure which encouraged the growth of the arts based on commerce and on the patronage of the rich merchants who controlled these states.
This new and versatile artistic medium was exactly right for the formal intentions of the northern painters who wished to create sharp-focused, hard-edged and sparkling clarity of detail in the representation of objects and figures. While the Italian artists were interested primarily in the structure behind the appearances, being perspective, composition, anatomy, the mechanics of bodily motion and proportion, the northern painters were intent on creating appearances themselves, being the bright, colored surfaces of objects and figures touched by natural light.
For example, in Renaissance Italy, Leonardo da Vinci's The Virgin of the Rocks (ca. 1485) reflects all of the artistic integrity and…… [Read More]
Lorenzo de Medici especially helped doubling the art collection of the family and provided a liberal and generous material support for the artists. Moreover, his great critical thinking ensured that the true artistic values of the time were promoted. He constructed schools for painting and sculpture and monitored the artists that attended them in his search for artistic value. Under his rule, some of the greatest painters produced their greatest work entirely for him: "Verrocchio did almost all his work for him; that sculptor's graceful tomb in San Lorenzo over Lorenzo's father and uncle, his bronze David, and his fountain of the Boy with a Dolphin, were all executed for Lorenzo."(Young, 205) Botticelli's works in his second period were also produced in totality for Lorenzo the Magnificent. Another dimension of the family's influence over art is the fact that the atmosphere at the court clearly left its mark on the…… [Read More]
religion-focused works from literature, theatre, music, or art (such as painting and sculpture). How do they call a religion into question?
eligion is a common theme in literature, art, and music. For example, the book The Da Vinci Code is about the Catholic Church. Although the book does not discuss serious theological issues, the author Dan Brown does talk about the political hierarchies in the Church. Therefore, Brown calls into question the legitimacy of the Church due to its being a highly secretive and powerful organization that potentially uses its power as a means of social control. The book also explores the possibility that there are other narratives that can be equally as valid as the dominant narratives people have been taught.
eligion in one way or another has inspired most art throughout history and in cultures around the world. In some cultures, art is inseparable from religion, as with…… [Read More]
Thus, the invention of perspective by the artists of the Renaissance reflected the emergence of science and the mathematical ordering of man's observations of the physical world.
The manifestation of perspective can clearly be observed in the paintings of many Renaissance artists. For instance, da Vinci's masterpiece the Last Supper, rendered between 1495 and 1498 as a wall fresco, portrays the figure of Jesus Christ sitting in the center of the picture with his body framed by a central window in the background and a curved pediment, the only curve in the architectural framework serving as a halo, arching above his head which serves as the focal point for all the perspective lines/axis in the composition, a system not invented by da Vinci but one copied from earlier master painters.
Another earlier example is Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to St. Peter by Perugino, rendered as a wall…… [Read More]
Art During Renaissance
The Evolution of Art During the Renaissance
The Renaissance period is defined as a cultural movement that spanned approximately from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe (rotton 2006, p. 6). This period in the history of art included the painting, decorative arts and sculpture of the period and for many was considered a reawakening or rebirth of historic and ancient traditions based on the classical antiquity and the inclusion of more recent developments by applications of contemporary scientific knowledge.
The Renaissance was seen as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the modern era. The period also marked a cognitive shift from religious perspectives to a more intellectual and social focus. Classical texts previously lost to European scholars became readily available and included science, drama, poetry, prose, philosophy, and new considerations…… [Read More]
At the same time, it considerably increased the number of books that would reach the masses, allowing them to see outside the teachings of the Church or of the religious preachers. Moreover, the printing machine offered the possibility for those opposing the rule of the Catholic Church to spread their beliefs and convictions. Thus, Gutenberg's invention was the main tool for what would later be called the Reformation, the religious movement which is often associated with the Renaissance and which influenced the artistic movement in the same manner as the Renaissance affected the emergence of the reformist churches.
The hallmarks of the previous era were rather obvious and contrasted to the ones the Renaissance promoted. They manifested themselves at all the levels of the society. Thus, during the middle Ages, the Church represented the highest institution of the state which had as its subjects all political and land owners (Berstein…… [Read More]
aphael is one of the most renowned artists in modern human history. He is so famous that he is one of a small number of artists that they are only known by one name. His full name is affaello Sanzio da Urbino. His precise birthdate is contended, but it is agreed that he was born sometime in the spring during 1483, as the 15th century, as well as the enaissance era, concluded. His life did not spans four decades, yet his body of work persists around the world nearly five centuries later. aphael, like other enaissance artists and professionals of the period, had proficiency in several skills; he is primarily known as a painter and architect. His life spanned the final stage of the enaissance, known as High enaissance. He came from an artistically inclined family, and suffered the deaths of both of his parents before…… [Read More]
ir Cargo, Inc. only flew cargo from December, 1941 (when Pearl Harbor was attacked) through November, 1944. t that time, Siddiqi explains that individual airline companies authored their own freight services, and on page 2 the author of this article notes that in time the major passenger airlines began offering freight forwarding service and that pretty well eliminated the need for a whole fleet of airline companies that just forwarded freight (Siddiqi). Only Flying Tiger stayed aloft as a strictly air freight company until the 1980s when Federal Express entered the picture. More on FedEx later in this paper.
The Literature -- the History of ir Freight Transportation -- Berlin ir Lift
When the long, bloody war was over it was time for the winning llies to divide up the territory that once was Nazi Germany, the negotiated, agreed-upon divisions gave the llies (U.S., Britain, and France) the Western…… [Read More]
A fact of history is that enaissance marked a new emerging base towards the already established architecture of antiquity that was rooted in thorough recovery of the past and new inventiveness, but it was because of this that the great cities of Europe gathered much of their form that is admired by the world today. The word renaissance has entered the minds of people with dominant positive connotations of pure genius and renewal. (Campbell, 2004)
enaissance architecture is the architecture of the early 15th to 17th centuries in different areas of Europe which demonstrated a revival of elements of the ancient Greek and oman thought and culture. First established in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi, the renaissance spread like wild fire to other parts of Italy as well and from there the style was carried to France, England, ussia, Germany and other parts of Europe. (Gromort)
During the enaissance,…… [Read More]
Works of religious art have gone through changes during different art periods. The paper will look at three different works of religious art. These works of art will be from the Early enaissance period, the High enaissance period and the Baroque period.
The Early enaissance period
One artist who did religious art in the early enaissance period Domenico Ghirlandaio .the title of this art work was the last supper. This work was done in 1480's within the 15th century. The medium that was used in this painting was fresco. Currently the painting is located in Ognissanti, Florence.
This work of art was very large the dimensions being Height: 400 cm (157.5 in). Width: 880 cm (346.5 in).the artist uses the existing shape of the rom to create extra space. The view in the background, painting of the ceiling in the work of art and the shape of the…… [Read More]
Charles Van Doren has concluded that the Copernican Revolution is actually the Galilean Revolution because of the scale of change introduced by Galileo's work.
The technological innovation of the Renaissance era started with the invention of the printing press (the Renaissance). Even though the printing press, a mechanical device for printing multiple copies of a text on sheets of paper, was first invented in China, it was reinvented in the West by a German goldsmith and eventual printer, Johann Gutenberg, in the 1450s. Before Gutenberg's invention, each part of metal type for printing presses had to be individually engraved by hand. Gutenberg developed molds that permitted for the mass production of individual pieces of metal type. This permitted a widespread use of movable type, where each character is a separate block, in mirror image, and these blocks are assembled into a frame to form text. Because of his molds, a…… [Read More]
This became an age in which visionary thinkers said, "see, we told you so," and were able to garner additional support from not only the activist type, but the regular citizen.
Malthusian dynamics (overpopulation and resource allocation) became a focus of futurists. Marshall McLuhan, for one, combined futuristic predictions with analysis of global media and advertising trends.
Noam Chomsky was revolutionizing the idea of linguistics as a way to view our innate cultural mechanisms.
Science fiction writers like Clarke, Asimov, and Lem pushed the boundaries of science as far as possible -- insisting that the reader ask very difficult questions about what it truly means to be human, what it truly means to have conservatorship of a planet, and whether or not we have the wisdom to maintain life on earth as we know it.
Chapter 6 -- Fast Forward
Arthur C. Clarke made an interesting remark about…… [Read More]
Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between 1600 B.C. And 1400 B.C. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber."
At first they ate fish and they later start to farm, and that made it possible for them to "develop the first major civilization in Mesoamerica." (The Olmec Civilization) Thanks to the steady food supplies the Olmec population grew and some came to have other occupations. "Some became potters or weavers. Others became priests or teachers." (Ibidem) Once the population grew, so did their farming villages which developed into cities. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…… [Read More]
Since the Greek kouros, sculpture has depended on at least a basic understanding of human anatomy. Anatomy was in fact studied by ancient civilizations independently of its relevance to rendering the human body in two dimensions or three for art. The fusion of anatomy and art reached its first peak during the Renaissance, when artists in Europe longed to deepen their technique and enhance the realism of their human forms and figures. Some artists went so far as to paint anatomy lessons in a display of dramatic irony that brings the viewer face-to-face with the reality that art depends on a solid understanding of the human body. In the middle of the seventeenth century, Dutch master Rembrandt van Rijn painted "The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicholas Tulp," which depicts the titular doctor and his cadre of students with a corpse. Dr. Tulp uses a pair of scissors to slice…… [Read More]
aphael: Artist of the enaissance
aphael was the son of Giovanni Santi, an educated man that was able to provide his young son with a remarkable life exposed to much art, many artistic geniuses, and the remarkable culture of the Umbrian court. aphael was blessed during his childhood in terms of wealth and culture and would never have to know the life of a struggling artist nor the sense of begging for handouts or working in squalor. However, aphael did suffer great tragedy: his mother died when he was eight years old and his father died three years later when aphael was eleven years old. Thus, as a tender child, aphael was no stranger to tragedy, something that no doubt instilled his life, making an imprint on him as an artist. One thing that aphael's father did before his death that had a profound influence on the child and how…… [Read More]
Europeans invented a more complex sewer system and sewers spread across Europe's most important cities in a short time.
Mechanical clocks had been invented before the half of the second millennium, but, in the 16th century, they have been perfected by Galileo with the help of the pendulum. Clocks have become more advanced in time as people discovered ways of making the mechanism more precise and also of smaller proportions.
Europeans also became acquainted with the gunpowder in the Renaissance period and warfare had been taken to a whole new level. It is not clear whether Europeans have invented gunpowder alone or if they've been inspired for the concept from the Asians. As a result of this invention, knights had become out-dated as the new armed foot-soldiers became more numerous, replacing them.
The invention of eye-glasses earlier in the millennium led to the invention of the telescope somewhere between the…… [Read More]
Though my specific interest is film, I would like to learn as much as I can about the different types of art and creation that go into making a movie. I would like to work with and learn from people from many different disciplines, because I believe that this type of exposure will make me better at what it is I want to do -- make films -- and will also make me a more well-rounded individual. I would also like to the opportunity to share my knowledge, and to see how the things I have learned and will learn about film are useful in other disciplines, as well.
What I enjoy most about the artistic world is the way many kinds of people with many different talents are necessary for one project. I would like the institution where I receive my education to reflect this collaborative and cooperative nature…… [Read More]
A Comparison between the Italian and Northern European enaissance
World history is a fascinating subject, especially when one takes into account the multi-dimensional, often heavy impact changes that are constantly taking place, and that often change the course of history in a way in which it could have never been imagined. After the Dark Ages, for instance, the enaissance or "rebirth," a period of artistic-related growth across Europe, was one such change that literally pulled Europe out of the deterioration in which it found itself after the fall of the oman Empire, and put it on a path of regrowth that was so replete with creativity that many scholars are still talking about it today. In order to better understand these historical changes, this paper will examine the enaissance, for it was a very complex movement, in order to understand it better, and will do so by comparing the…… [Read More]
John Berger's "ays Seeing" Chapter One, focus idea mystification.
"ays of Seeing" - mystification
John Berger's book "ays of Seeing" is based on a television series issues in 1972 by the BBC and is generally meant to discuss with regard to art and to how society perceives this concept. Individuals are likely to benefit as a consequence of reading the book because it provides them with the opportunity to look at matters from a different angle. Berger wants readers to gain a more complex understanding of art in order for them to be able to know how to distinguish between real art and what the social order is inclined to identify as art. The writer emphasizes that the meaning of many works of art is mystified by the fact that the general public came to relate to them as being different from how they really are.
Chapter one in "ays…… [Read More]
It's oeing. Starting from their first aircraft models oeing &W and Douglas DT/C-1 and up to the modern airfreight oeing 747-400, company oeing and oeing-related enterprises had been always on the frontier of air cargo industry, and nowadays oeing airfreights stand for 90% of commercial air cargo companies.
Everything started with mail delivery. Today lots of us associate aircrafts with people transportation, but primary oeing was responsible only for cargo.
The company was started in 1916, when ill oeing and his partner George Westervelt made a first model of future civil aviation's world leader- jet &W. &W had later become the first plane that was delivering cargo and mail to New Zealand. Three years later ill oeing and Eddie Hubbard delivered 60 letters from Vancouver, Canada to Seattle, which became the first event in the history of international air shipping.
Nearly at the same time, company Douglas Aircraft had signed…… [Read More]
Ultimately, what modern iconography teaches us is that history is a prism from which we cannot escape. Art, and the study of its meaning, ultimately situates us within this prism and helps us connect the past with the present, while also paving the way towards a future conception of meaning in the visual realm.
Bal, Mieke and Norman Bryson. "Semiotics and Art History: A Discussion of Context and Senders," 1991. Reprinted in Preziosi, Donald, ed. The Art of Art History: A Critical Anthology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Carvajal, Rina. "Mapping Out the Self: The ork of Guillermo Kuitca." Guillermo
Kuitca. Rotterdam: itte de ith, 1990.
Goldberg, Vicki. "It's a Leonardo? it's a Corot? ell, No, it's Chocolate Syrup." New
York Times (September 25, 1998). Retrieved on Nov. 15, 2007 at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9406EED61639F936A1575AC0A96E958260#.
Panofsky, Erwin. Meaning in the Visual Arts. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1955.
Panofsky, Erwin. Studies in Iconology:…… [Read More]
The painting is shocking because of its dramatic perspective. First and foremost the table is not situated in the centre of the painting, nor is Jesus. In a symbolical manner this transmits the idea that God is no longer in the centre of man's world and this accounts for the chaos that seems to be omnipresent. The lower side of the painting is dominated by human figures and an atmosphere of panic and confusion seems to be dominating. The upper side of the painting is filled with angels. There is a clear separation lien between the scared world of the divine and the one of the people. The dark colours, as well as the composition succeeded into transmitting the desired message, managing to appeal to the viewer's emotions.
As opposed to the simplicity that the Protestants supported, a new style emerges, that is the aroque. This new artistic…… [Read More]
Michelangelo most probably wanted viewers to understand the connection between Jesus and Mary. Also, he did not want his sculpture to look unnatural, especially considering that a woman holding an adult male in her arms appeared to be abnormal. One might also be inclined to consider that the artist wanted people to acknowledge the fact that Jesus' death made it possible for them to see that he was vulnerable. In addition to depicting Jesus as a teenager, Michelangelo made Mary look as if she were still in her early twenties, this being an attempt to highlight the fact that she was pure and incorruptible.
Michelangelo was typically accustomed to leaving his works unsigned, but he made an exception for the Pieta. According to a story, Michelangelo overheard people saying that it was the work of another artist and could not stand knowing that another individual was appreciated for his artwork,…… [Read More]
This became more so with the advancement of molecular iology Tests. Subsequently a group of clinicians met in Ghent elgium and came up with the current diagnostic criteria known as the Ghent Nosology. (De Paepe et al. 1996) Similar to the erlin Nosology the Ghent criteria was based on clinical findings in the various organ systems as well as the nature of family history and relationships, a major criteria was classified as which has a high diagnostic specificity because it was less frequent in other conditions and in the general population. A point of divergence from the erlin Nosology was the conversion of minor criteria in the skeletal system into major criteria. For one to be diagnosed with Marfan's the patient must have a first degree relative diagnosed with the disease in addition two systems must be involved with one having a major sign. In the absence of a family…… [Read More]
Learning about bullying has revealed the darker side of cultural integration. When students are bullied, their self-esteem suffers. They are prevented from being welcomed into the dominant culture and may also become hostile to the learning process itself. To avoid bullying, students need to build on a reserve of self-confidence. Associating with other English language learners is a good way to build a reserve of self-confidence. However, my job is to teach students how to best get across points in English. This means advocating for the students and helping them to feel like their culture is equal to that of the dominant culture. Like Obert Lake does in "An Indian Father's Plea," I will ask that my students value their native language(s) as well as English.
"English Language Teaching Methodology." English aven. etrieved online: http://www.englishraven.com/methodology.html
Lake, . (n.d.). An Indian father's plea. etrieved online: http://geibtechforlearning.org/lvu/resources/WindwolfPlea.pdf
mietana, . & Czabanowska,…… [Read More]
Support for the figure being Diogenes rather than Socrates has been found in the fact that he is prone, and alone, which seems to suggest Diogenes' status as an antisocial Cynic -- he also called himself a 'dog.' However, the painting seems to depict in chronological order in the development of ancient philosophy, of the viewer moves his or her gaze from foreground to background and from left to right. This would suggest that the figure is Socrates. The bowl besides the lying figure if it is Socrates could symbolically signify his drinking of hemlock also suggests the death of Christ. Raphael, a Neo-Platonist in his philosophy, thus gave particular importance to Socrates' martyrdom (Bell 1995).
The artwork, as a glorification of the human, is sublimely Renaissance in nature, and typical of the period but it is also unique in the way that it celebrates philosophers and their intellectual arts,…… [Read More]
Steel can create a very durable and rugged car that will often outlast the animals that are drawing it. However aluminum is as durable and element resistant as well as being extremely lightweight and is often the material of choice for many countries. Pneumatic or inflatable tires also have been a boon to carts by helping to absorb some shock as well as to distributing the weight over a wider surface without significantly increasing drag on the vehicle.
Aluminum casting is already a technique that is widely used in many parts of Africa and other developing countries. Africa, usually to make cooking utensils and the like. "Aluminium wheels with integral roller bearings could be made by these artisans and would provide a very low cost solution to the wheel and bearing problem." (Oram173) See figure 6 below:
These designs element the ordinary friction involved in a typical axle joint design…… [Read More]
The conflict evolved and his works burnt in ome, following the Pope's orders gave him the opportunity to extend his efforts of reformation over the entire Northern Europe. His excommunication in 1521 led to the birth of a new church and the separation finally took place.
Calvin, unlike Luther the monk, was a lawyer who came to Geneva to help in the reformation process. At first, his attempts failed, but after being forced to leave the city, he returned and his new philosophical views about the reformed church were accepted by Geneva that became the center of Protestantism in Europe.
Question 3: Was the religiously-framed warfare of the 16th and early 17th centuries avoidable, given the realities of that place and time?
After the first period of the separation between the Catholic and the Protestant Churches that took place peacefully, there came a period of ruthless fights between the two.…… [Read More]
("DEKA: Dean Kamen" 2001, NP) Making many smart business decisions along the way and developing many innovative products, which he rarely fails to patent, have made him a renaissance man for the modern world. To some degree he could be called the Leonardo Davinci of modern science and technology.
The technology of the Segway is dependant upon its ability to balance itself, in much the same way the human body does, using technology that its makers call Dynamic Stabilization. This advance makes the Segway nearly impossible to overturn, while in use, making it extremely safe and practical for use. It also boasts a battery system utilizing lithium ion batteries that hold a charge long enough for an individual to travel up to 24 miles between charges. This advance creates a device that can be used for an entire day or even longer by some people with only very…… [Read More]
Indeed the Germans, the French, and the rest looked back to an antiquity in which their ancestors had been subjugated by the legions. Nothing is more remarkable therefore than the rapid and irrevocable penetration of Italian ideas and practices among the "barbarians," as the Italian writers referred to them, some of whom were currently invading the peninsula." (Wiener, 124) it's also important to note that influence of antique classicism typical for Italian architecture of the 14-16th centuries is not observed in the north. Classical style of Italian cathedrals and churches, typical for Ancient Greek and oman pagan temples is usually not observed in buildings of enaissance epoch in Germany, Britain or France, where architecture was influenced by Gothic style, which got earlier spread in Europe.
eformation and Counter eformation
The spread of Protestantism over Europe, which is considered to be one of the most historically significant achievements of enaissance and…… [Read More]