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The Shoshone bartered with them for horses which the team would need to cross the Rockies and for information relating to the pass routes used by the Nez Perce (Lewis and Clark). ith this help, the expedition found a suitable pass in the fall of 1805 along the Montana/Idaho border. However, food was extremely scarce, the horses were not in great condition and the passing through the Rockies proved to be altogether difficult. Still, they did get through, this becoming the first white men to successful travel across the continental divide (Discovering Lewis).
After descending the Rockies, the team used the Columbia River to navigate west into the Oregon territory. The expedition is credited with 'discovering' the inland portions of the Columbia and its significant tributary, the Snake River, which are the two dominant rivers in the Northwest (Lewis and Clark). The discovery and charting of these two rivers led…
"Discovering Lewis and Clark- The Expedition." 1998. Lewis-Clark.org. 29 July 2010.
< http://www.lewis-clark.org/content/content-channel.asp?ChannelID=54 >
"Lewis and Clark." 1996. National Geographic Society. 29 July 2010.
Congress, under orders from President Jefferson, made the decision to send up to twelve men to explore the land all the way to the West coast, and provided a budget of $2,500. The group was going to need to study every detail about the land, including the Native American tribes which already resided on the land. Additionally, the group would need to have a working knowledge of botany, geology, and wildlife, and record information about all of these things. In addition to Native Americans, it was expected that hunters from French-Canada and ritain were active in some Western areas, and the expedition would be expected to evaluate their influence in the areas. Finally, they would need to be able to accurately map out the terrain of the land. (Rick et al.)
The expedition would eventually be called the Corps of Discovery, and would have between thirty and forty members in…
Ambrose, Stephen. "Why Did Thomas Jefferson Want the West?" Lewis and Clark. PBS. http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/living/idx_1.html
Rick, K., et al. "Lewis and Clark Expedition." Wikipedia. 12 April 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewis_and_clark
Lewis & Clark
From the time the Mayflower arrived, Manifest Destiny was etched onto the consciousness of European settlers. An immutable sense of entitlement, coupled with a belief in the spiritual purpose of the mission, is what permeated every decision made by colonial and later, American officials with regards to settlement patterns, land acquisitions, and relations with Native Americans. Native Americans may have had their own "manifest destiny," which was unfortunately to be driven off ancestral lands, massacred, and their cultures collectively and systematically decimated. When Meriwether Lewis and William Clark led the Corps of Discovery military expedition into Indian Lands, it was nothing but an expression of American intentions to seize all that was possible to seize. Americans felt entitled to the land, and did not value (or in many places even consider) the input, opinion, or needs of the Native Americans. Manifest Destiny had a dark side to…
Henderson, Rodger C. Lewis & Clark and the Indian Country: The Native American Perspective (review). The Journal of Military History. Vol 71, No. 2, April 2008.
Hoxie, Frederick E. And Nelson, Jay T. Lewis and Clark and the Indian Country. University of Illinois Press, 2007.
Jefferson also wanted to know what animals Lewis and Clark would encounter, and he wanted a full accounting of the things in the natural world that the two observed or interacted with along the route, which was the Missouri River.
Jefferson also wanted to make sure that there could be a trading port available to the young country in New Orleans, and Jefferson feared that residents of the western portion of the nation might split away. His reasons for the mission were many (beyond basic exploration), and he was smart to get Congress to appropriate the money for the trip.
What was the journey like and would I have liked to have been part of it? The journals that Lewis and Clark kept provided the president with a wealth of new information about the animals and the natural world in the northwest region of the young country. The abundance of…
For one thing, if the expedition failed, Lincoln knew that the effort could be justified on scientific grounds. A document was prepared on the various issues to be covered and with the questions to be asked. Jefferson delivered the plan to Congress on the basis of extending trade with the Indians, though clearly that was incidental to his main purpose. One of the theories to be tested was the one that saw the Indians as constituting one of the lost tribes of Israel, and it was though that this could be demonstrated by the languages of the tribes (Ronda 1-3).
The Lewis and Clark Expedition was a major undertaking and demonstrated the sort of effort that could be made by the United States when it wanted to do so. The fact that the President was the major force for the expedition is the reason it was undertaken and the reason…
De Voto, Bernard. The Course of Empire. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1952.
Fritz, Harry W. The Lewis and Clark Expedition. New York: Greenwood Publishing, 2004.
History of the Expedition." The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (2008). April 28, 2008. http://libtextcenter.unl.edu/examples/servlet/transform/tamino/Library/lewisandclarkjournals?&_xmlsrc=http://libtextcenter.unl.edu/lewisandclark/files/xml/introduction.general.xml&_xslsrc=http://libtextcenter.unl.edu/lewisandclark/LCstyles.xsl.
Jackson, Donald. Thomas Jefferson and the Stony Mountains: Exploring the West from Monticello. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981.
Lewis and Clark said to every tribe that President Thomas Jefferson was the new great father of the land and gave the Indians a peace medal "with Jefferson on one side and two hands clasping on the other" as well as some supplies ("The Native Americans," PBS.com, 2007). Then the Corps members would perform a kind of parade, marching in uniform and ritualistically firing their guns into the air ("The Native Americans," PBS.com, 2007).
The positive contact between Europeans and Native Americans is perhaps best exemplified in the persona of Sacajawea and her husband the French-Canadian trapper and fur trader, Charbonneau. Lewis and Clark admitted that it were not for Sacajawea the expedition would have met with disaster many times. Once, one of the boats capsized in a sudden squall. Sacajawea, despite the fact she was carrying a papoose on her back was able to retrieve all of the records,…
Challenges of the Lewis and Clark Expedition." National Geographic Society, 2001
Dec 2007. http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/activities/01/lewis_gallery_1.html
Circa 1803." Lewis and Clark. PBS.com. 2007. 3 Dec 2007. http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/inside/idx_cir.html
The Native Americans." Lewis and Clark. PBS.com. 2007. 3 Dec 2007. http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/native/index.html
Lewis Clark, Patrick Gass the problem interpretation (communication) encountered explorers ( Indians) expedition.
hen Thomas Jefferson wrote Meriwether Louis on June 30, 1803 to instruct upon some of the conditions that the pending expedition imposed, he made several relevant considerations. The president emphasized that it was an important objective of the mission that knowledge should be acquired in regards to the people who inhabited the target regions of the expedition. He encouraged Meriwether to acquaint himself with the tribes and their religion, wealth, productions, arts, and language, among others. He also advised Meriwether that his behavior toward the inhabitants should be ?in the most friendly and conciliatory manner? (Jefferson 1803) insofar as he would be demonstrated similar conduct. Before going into any other details, it should be mentioned that the referenced expedition is of course the Lewis and Clark Expedition commissioned by Thomas Jefferson and commanded by the two aforementioned.…
Cutright, Paul Russell. Lewis and Clark: Pioneering Naturalists. New ed. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 2003. Print.
Dillon, Richard H. Meriwether Lewis. Lafayette, CA: Great West Books, 2003. Print.
Furwangler, Albert. Acts of Discovery: Visions of America in the Lewis and Clark Journals. Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1999. Press.
Gass, Patrick. A Journal of the Voyages and Travels of a Corps of Discovery. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Matthew Cary, 1810. Web. 26 Sep 2013.
Lewis and Clarke Expedition
The 'Lewis and Clarke' expedition heralded the rise of a new and mighty American nation. However this exploration also signaled the loss of the tribal culture and traditional values, which is why many historians rightly attribute the 'Lewis and Clarke' expedition to be the 'eginning of the end ' of the tribal culture
The Lewis and Clarke expedition was a phenomenal one that had a significant impact on the American nation in terms of both geographical expansion and the cultural influence. The exploration was the outcome of the long cherished dream and vision of President Jefferson. The project, which was envisioned by Jefferson, was led by Meriwether Lewis, a twenty-eight-year-old army officer together with his friend William Clark a 32-year-old army man. The expedition was basically a commercial exploration that was planned to look into the possibility of using the Mississippi River as a communication route…
Designed by PBS media Inc., "How did Lewis and Clarke Deal with the Indians they Encountered," Accessed on April 4th, 2003, http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/living/6.html
2) Barbara Fielder, "Plains Indians" 'Polygamy', Accessed on April 4th 2003, http://www.stpaulswgl.vic.edu.au/Depts/plains%20indians/Html/family.htm
Richard L. Dieterle, "Encyclopedia of Hotcak,"
Glossary of Indian Nations," Accessed on April 4th 2003, http://hotcakencyclopedia.com/ho.GlossaryIndianNations.html .[Polygamy]
historic expedition, Lewis and Clark used the Native American tribes to their advantage in many ways. The expedition had been charged with several important objectives, including furthering proclaiming American sovereignty in the west, advancing American trade, and promoting peace between Indian tribes. These aims were often complicated by the incredible diversity of the Native American tribes and culture. Importantly, the expedition relied upon the Natives for supplies along the way, and often relied on the Native American tribes for basic necessities like food and information about the uncharted west. The expedition often had to trust the Native American tribes and vice versa, and Sacagawea played an important role in establishing that trust. Not all relationships with the Native American tribes were positive, and the expedition suffered pilfering at the hands of the Clatsop and a direct raid on their guns by the Blackfeet.
Slightly less than 200 years ago, explorers…
PBS. The Native Americans. http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/native/index.html
Ronda, James P. 2002. Lewis and Clark Among the Indians. Univ of Nebraska Pr.
Center for Educational Technologies. An Epic Journal with Lewis and Clark. 29 April 2004.
Jefferson's Character And Lewis And Clark
Thomas Jefferson's impact on the famous Lewis and Clark expedition comes from the impact of Jefferson's character on the objectives of the expedition itself, the influence of his character on the personality of Meriwether Lewis and the expedition-related tasks completed by both Lewis and illiam Clark. Jefferson's interest in Indian affairs, his love of scientific inquiry, and his loyalty to the fledgling American nation had a large impact on his design and deployment of the Lewis and Clark expedition. In addition, Jefferson's long relationship with the Lewis family likely had a strong impact on the development of the young Meriwether Lewis, especially in his love of nature. Jefferson chose both Lewis and Clark for the expedition likely because they exemplified many of the characteristics that Jefferson admired: they were both capable, self-taught men with an interest in the west and a love of nature.…
Ambrose, Stephen. 1997. Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis Thomas Jefferson and the Opening of the American West. Touchstone Books.
Moulton, Gary E. Introduction: The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. University of Nebraska Lincoln. 30 April 2004. http://lewisandclarkjournals.unl.edu/introduction.general.html
Peterson, Merrill D. 1986. Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography. Oxford University Press.
Ronda, James P. 2002. Lewis and Clark Among the Indians. The University of Nebraska Press.
Among the animals found in these relatively lush riparian zones are elk, deer, bear, sheep, and mountain lions. In addition, smaller animals that live and feed along this biologically vital corridor may include birds (like the ring-necked pheasant, grouse, geese, falcons, great blue herons, hummingbirds and warblers), small mammals (such as longtail weasel and striped skunk), reptiles (garter snake and the western painted turtle), and amphibians (red-legged frog and the Pacific giant salamander). The flora and fauna often include many threatened, endangered, or sensitive species, among which could be the bald eagle, peregrine falcon, and kit fox (The Columbia iver Basin watershed and its ecosystems 2005).
The plant life along the river can also has an effect on the health of the species living in the river by maintaining the health of the river by influencing the amount and kind of sediment in the river. The vegetation along the side…
Columbia River (2005). Center for Columbia River History. Retrieved September 10, 2005 at http://www.ccrh.org/river/history.htm.
The Columbia River Basin watershed and its ecosystems (2005). Foundation for Water and Energy Education. Retrieved September 9, 2005 at http://www.fwee.org/crb.html .
How a hydroelectric project can affect a river (2005). Foundation for Water and Energy Education. Retrieved September 9, 2005 at http://www.fwee.org/hpar.html .
Human history in the Tetons (2001). Grand Teton History, retrieved September 10, 2005 at http://www.americanparknetwork.com/parkinfo/gt/history/ .
Summary of the three most important leadership lessons learned
What one can and should learn from studying the life and thinking of Thomas Jefferson is that leaders are not necessarily born, but they are also shaped. What is takes to be a leader in those days, is similar to these. One needs constant learning and interest in different fields of activity that will cultivate not only a good understanding of their society but also a way of thinking that results into initiative. One of the features of Jefferson's leadership is the importance of initiative. Also, one should have within his communication skill those of persuasion. Without a convincingly presentation of one's ideas, these cannot become valuable initiatives - support, and later on persons that carry on one's idea, so therefore followers, are won by powerful statements by powerful men. That is what Thomas Jefferson had: initiative, based on a rigorous…
Biography Online. 3 Major Achievements of Thomas Jefferson. n.d. 22 March 2008. http://www.biographyonline.net/thomas_jefferson/achievements.html
Chemers, Martin M.. An Integrative Theory of Leadership. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1997
Eicholz, Hans. Harmonizing Sentiments: The Declaration of Independence and the Jeffersonian Idea of Self-Government. New York: Peter Lang. 2001
Gould, William D. "
Burnham spent most of his life in the early, expanding est in Detroit, Michigan. He worked as sign painter as well as a popular artist of portraits, landscapes, and genre scenes like the Young Artist. Burnham did the Lewis and Clark Expedition from his imagination, and many of his works are stylized and idealized types of Americana. The charm of the young boy drawing on a beer barrel to delight his friends, an old woman, and an African-American child (perhaps a servant or a slave, it remains slightly unclear) suggests that this is what true American art is -- and should resemble (Thomas Mickell Burnham, 2009, Ask Art). Burnham was also fond of popular seascapes of ships and sailors, evidently culled from his memory growing up in Boston.
The value of this work is primarily to get a glimpse of what American popular art resembled, and how America saw itself…
Burnham, Thomas. (1840). The Young Artist. Orlando Museum. Retrieved February 26, 2009 at: http://www.omart.org/collections/american-art/thomas-mickell-burnham-young
Thomas Mickell Burnham. (2009). Ask Art. Retrieved February 26, 2009 http://www.askart.com/askart/b/thomas_mickell_burnham/thomas_mickell_burnham.aspx
Thomas Mickell Burnham. (2009). Art Net. Retrieved February 26, 2009 http://www.artnet.com/artist/3364/thomas-mickell-burnham.html
African-Americans and Western Expansion
Prior to the 1960s and 1970s, very little was written about black participation in Western expansion from the colonial period to the 19th Century, much less about black and Native American cooperation against slavery. This history was not so much forbidden or censored as never written at all, or simply ignored when it was written. In reality, blacks participated in all facets of Western expansion, from the fur trade and cattle ranching to mining and agriculture. There were black cowboys and black participants in the Indian Wars -- on both sides, in fact. Indeed, the argument over slavery in the Western territories was one of the key factors in breaking up the Union in the 1850s and leading to the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. In the past thirty years, much of the previously unwritten and unrecorded history of the Americas since 1492 has been…
Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1970, 1995.
Foner, Philip S. History of Black Americans. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983.
Katz, William Loren. The Black West: A Documentary and Pictorial History of the African-American Role in the Westward Experience of the United States. NY: Random House, Inc., 2005.
Katz, William Loren. Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1986.
American history as it relates to the first five Presidents of the United States. Specifically, it will discuss the impact of early leaders of America on the democratic government, and how the first five presidents impacted early American government. It will also look at the accomplishments of each president and different facts about each that contributed positively and negatively on America as it formed as a nation. The first five presidents of the United States were George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. Each man influenced American history in his own unique and significant ways, with both positive and negative results. These leaders were really creating the office of President as they tried to run the country with intelligence and finesse. Their accomplishments were not always perfect, but they did the best they could with the knowledge and resources available at the time.
THE IMPACT OF…
Agar, Herbert. The People's Choice, from Washington to Harding: A Study in Democracy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1933.
Kane, Joseph Nashan. Facts about the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Data. New York H.W. Wilson Co., 1959.
Kurtz, Stephen G. The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism, 1795-1800. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1957.
Smith, Abbot Emerson. James Madison: Builder: A New Estimate of a Memorable Career. New York: Wilson-Erickson, Incorporated, 1937.
As a result, the majority of European business companies that handled the large number of fur trades were English. The largest of such firms was the Hudson's ay Company established in 1670 (elden, 82). This institution was the center of North American fur trading for more than two hundred years. It was founded by two French fur traders English merchant. The English government granted the company sole trading rights within the Hudson ay region. The development of the fur trade resulted in a greater integration between traders and merchants, and created an entire social system based upon this concept.
The French dominance of the marketplace meant that other European players wanted to gain momentum within the industry. ritish Merchants founded the North West Company in Montreal in order to compete with the stranglehold of Canadian fur trading (Innis, 154). y the late 1700's, fur became a much harder commodity to…
Burley, D., J. Scott Hamilton, and Knut R. Fladmark (1996) Prophecy of the Swan: The Upper Peace River Fur Trade of 1794-1823. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver.
Innis, Harold (1956) the Fur Trade in Canada. University of Ontario Press, Totonto.
Rich, E.E. (1966) Montreal and the Fur Trade. McGill University Press, Montreal.
The slave trade and the cotton economy grew during this time, but many Northerners wanted the practice to stop. This would ultimately lead to the Civil War, along with other events that boiled up during this time. Blacks were subjugated, had no rights, were often cruelly beaten, or whipped for any infraction, and it was a low point in their history as well.
This was a time of great strides in transportation, with the first railroads developing, canals constructed, roads built, and the growth of industry and business. It became possible to ship goods for long distances, and with the invention of the steam engine and other technologies, it became possible to automate many factories, creating more jobs in the industrial North and drawing labor from the farms to the cities. It was a time when immigration was extremely high, too, bringing the famous "melting pot" to the country, from…
Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty! An American History. New York: W.W. Norton Company, 2004.
American Indians struggled against the oppression of the White Man for nearly another seventy years but Chief Black Hawk's 1832 surrender speech epitomizes the frustration felt by the various tribes that once dominated the American landscape. From text of this speech, Kent State history professor, Phillip Weeks, drew the title for his book, Farewell, My Nation (Weeks, 2000). To his fellow Sac and Fox tribesmen, Chief Black Hawk stated, in part, "The white men do not scalp the head; but they do worse - they poison the heart....Farewell, my nation!"
Black Hawk's speech occurs fairly early in the process but it characterizes how the White Man broke the spirit of the American Indians as they continuously displaced the Indians from the land that they had occupied for thousands of years. In his book, Weeks chronicles how the United States government progressively enforced its policy of expansion while completely disregarding the…
Weeks, P. (2000). Farewell, My Nation: The American Indian and the United States in the Nineteenth Century (2nd Edition). Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson.
Farewell, My Nation
He was one of the youngest presidents in history (the same age as JFK when he took office, forty-three. He also was an avid outdoorsman and appreciative of the American West (he had a ranch in North Dakota), and his far-seeing vision created one of America's most enduring traditions, the U.S. Forest Service and protected wild lands. oosevelt's accomplishments may not have been as well-known as some of the other presidents, but they were certainly far reaching. First, he was the first president to establish an area in the White House specifically for journalists (oller, 1988, p. 200). He was an extremely popular president, and he was the first to travel outside the country, to the Panama Canal, during a presidency. He also helped create the Panama Canal Project, one of the most important building projects of the time, and still a vital link between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.…
Boller, P.F. (1996). Presidential anecdotes (Revised ed.). New York: Oxford U.S..
Bursey, L.G. (1988). 4 Abraham Lincoln. In Popular images of American presidents, Spragens, W.C. (Ed.) (pp. 67-94). New York: Greenwood Press.
Cronin, T.E., & Genovese, M.A. (1998). The paradoxes of the American presidency. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hart, John. (1995). The presidential branch: From Washington to Clinton (2nd ed.). Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers.
Cheyenne Indians and the Ghost Dance
The Cheyenne people are Native Americans of the Algonquian language family. They are of the Great Plains culture area. The name Cheyenne means 'people of an alien speech,' and was given to them by the Sioux.
The Cheyenne call themselves Tsetschestahase or Tsistsistas, which means 'beautiful people' or 'our people.'
Originally farmers, hunters, and gatherers in the land that is now central Minnesota, however, during the late 17th century, the Cheyenne were driven out of the area by the Sioux and Ojibwa tribes.
Gradually they migrated westward and settled in the area that is now North Dakota, but were forced to move south when the Ojibwa destroyed their settlement in 1770.
When the Cheyenne reached the lack Hills of South Dakota, they changed from farming and hunting and living in permanent villages to a nomadic life following the uffalo herds.
When the horse was…
The Cheyenne Indians
Thomas Jefferson Politics
Decisions and Actions
Democratic-epublican Party's Beliefs and Ideals
Federalist Party's Beliefs and Ideals
Initiated the first Barbary War -- Aligned most with the Federalists party because it was a display of national power.
They were terrified of a strong national government.
They were strong believers of a central government
Bought the Louisiana Purchase -- Aligned most with the Federalist party because they believed in expanding national power by expanding their territory and property.
They understood the Constitution as being an essential document to limit the powers of the federal government.
They believed that listening to the citizens would make for a weak government system.
Initiated the Lewis and Clark Expedition -- Aligned most with the Democratic-epublican party because it was in the best interest of the people who would be settling there. It also provided insight into the agricultural possibilities in that part of the nation.
Meacham, J. (2012). Thomas Jefferson: The art of power. New York, NY: Random House.
National Archives. (2013). The Center for Legislative Archives. Archives.gov. Retrieved April 16, 2013 from http://www.archives.gov/about/history/building-an - archives/jefferson-letter.html
supervision of instruction. The reference page appends three sources in APA format.
Supervision of Instruction
Education is that weapon which equips the student learning body with the right qualities essentially needed to be a success in today's cutthroat competition. It is the ultimate source of soul searching, mind healing and heart enlightening. Therefore, education has been one of the necessities throughout the human history, a fact that makes both the medium of instruction and the role of teachers and supervisors in student learning highly significant. Supervision of instruction is then the most crucial factor in determining student's comprehension and success in later years. "The supervision of instruction is by design a developmental process with the main purpose of improving the instructional program, generally and teaching, specifically. Only when this process is carefully planned and executed can success be assured" (Fischer). Hence for quality education and ameliorated student learning in classrooms…
Fischer C. Chapter 3: Supervision of Instruction. Retrieved March 3, 2003 from: http://www.stanswartz.com/adminbook/chap3.html
Bowler M (2001). Teaching Method Makes the Grade, Tests: Elementaries that have used a highly structured program for the past five years have greatly improved performance. Retrieved March 3, 2003 from: http://www.sra4kids.com/download/DI-Teachingmethodmakesgrade.doc
Keller A. (1995). Direct Instruction Model. Retrieved March 3, 2003 at http://cls.coe.utk.edu/pdf/keys_ld/appendix_F.pdf
He was one of the strongest proponents of the aspirations of the American people in new America. Throughout his life, he wore many hats; in addition to being a public official, he was also a philosopher and historian. This text concerns itself with Thomas Jefferson. In so doing, it looks at his life and times and outlines some of his major accomplishments. The text will also briefly highlight some of Thomas Jefferson's blunders that led to his being branded a hypocrite.
Described by Freidel and Sidey as a "powerful advocate of liberty," Thomas Jefferson was the United States' third president. He "was born in 1743 in Albemarle County, Virginia, inheriting from his father, a planter and surveyor, some 5,000 acres of land, and from his mother, a andolph, high social standing" (Freidel and Sidey). His mother came from one of the most distinguished, respected, and revered…
Blakesley, David, and Jeffrey Hoogeveen. The Thomas Handbook. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2007. Print.
Finkelman, Paul. "Thomas Jefferson and Antislavery: The Myth Goes On." The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 102.2 (April 1994): 193-228. Print.
Freidel, Frank, and Hugh Sidey. The Presidents of the United States of America. Washington, DC: White House Historical association, 2006. Print.
Gibbons, Francis. The Spiritual Dimensions of America. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 2005. Print.
Separation Church State
Study by NORC which was held at the University of Chicago reveals that although abruptly divided, people's attitudes towards homosexuals are changing swiftly, young generation leads the way. Hence there is greater acceptance and positivity. Majority of public is not just in favor of same-sex relationships and marriages but they do also support elementary civil liberties and independence of expression of homosexuals overwhelmingly. This fact goes totally in contrast to strident division on these concerns in the 1970s (Harms, 2011). However, author of the NORC report named "Public Attitudes toward Homosexuality" and director of the GSS at NORC, Tom . smith concluded from studies that there is a growing trend of greater tolerance towards homosexuality. The supporting level for same-sex marriages rose dramatically over the last 20 years. Percentage went from 11% positive in 1988 to 46% in 2010 after surveying more than 2000 people (Harms, 2011).…
Harms, William. UChicago News. 28 September 2011. 01 September 2014. Retrieved from: http://news.uchicago.edu/article/2011/09/28/americans-move-dramatically-toward-acceptance-homosexuality-survey-finds
Human Rights Campaign. 2012. 01 September 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.hrc.org/resources/entry/stances-of-faiths-on-lgbt-issues-american-baptist-church-usa
Johann, Hari. The hidden history of homosexuality in the U.S. 22 June 2011. The Independent. 01 September 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/johann-hari-the-hidden-history-of-homosexuality-in-the-us-2300636.html
Mohr, Richard D. A More Perfect Union. Boston, 1994
Zebulon Pike was a soldier best known to be an early explorer of the Louisiana erritory. His expedition from St. Louis to the Louisiana Purchase was as significant for the nation as that of Lewis and Clark who had preceded him in their explorations. Pike is remembered for two expeditions, which he led in exploring the newly acquired territory of Louisiana Purchase. His explorations have always been overshadowed by those of Lewis and Clark. his is mainly because his explorations were questionable in terms of their intentions. It was thought he was a spy, or he had secret military orders for provoking war with Spain. His first exploration mission was to find the source of Mississippi River, and the second exploration was for exploration of the regions surrounding the Arkansas and Red Rivers
he first exploration by Zebulon Pike started in August 1805. General James Wilkinson, who was the governor…
The explorations by Pike are not well-known because they are mysterious. The main intentions of the expeditions are unclear to this day. Pike was not also well educated and during his explorations he never made any new discoveries. This is what has made his explorations be less known. Wilkinson had also stated that there was a conspiracy to separate Louisiana Territory and since he was a double agent for Spain. Having not found the sources of the Red River and the Mississippi has also made his explorations less justifiable. His explorations seemed to be filled with ill luck.
Maynard, C.W. Zebulon Pike: Soldier-Explorer of the American Southwest. New York, NY: PowerKids Press, 2003.
Magoon, K., and M. Mayberry. The Zebulon Pike Expedition. Minneapolis, MN: ABDO Publishing Company, 2009.
Instead they (literally) "saw beyond" the viewpoints of their day. Furtwangler's book expresses how that made them receptive, open-minded, etc., of what they saw. Examples of this are how they included and recorded ideas of many others along the way, and how other people they met influenced their discovery facts and processes. Within the journals, for example, Lewis and Clark see, hear, taste, touch and smell what they do as a result, partly, of Native American influences.
Lewis and Clark wanted to use all five senses to experience what they discovered, and not rely on just measuring, counting, and recording (although that was also important). They wished to use their discoveries to better understand not just the areas they saw, but to learn and understand more about the universe.
Overall, I enjoyed this book, although I did feel that it was dry in some parts. All in all, Acts of…
Legacy of Sacagawea to a Discovery of American Territories
Sacagawea was a bilingual Shoshone woman who had been remembered for her immense contribution to the American history. Born in 1788, Sacagawea accompanied Clark and Lewis' Corps to assist in the discovery of many parts of Northern America from the Pacific Ocean to the Rocky mountain. Sacagawea skills as a translator were invaluable for the expeditions in passing through the difficult terrain. Her contribution to the United States made Sacagawea become the monument in the American history. Sacagawea was the native American Shoshone tribe and grew up at the surrounding of the Rocky mountain near the Salmon River region now referred as Idaho.
The objective of this essay is to illustrate the contribution of Sacagawea in the U.S. history during the era of Reconstruction.
Sacagawea Contribution in the Reconstruction Era of the U.S. history
Sacagawea was 12 years old when…
Sacagawea by Lise Erdrich, illustrated by Julie Buffalohead is an award winning children's biography of the Shoshone woman who acted as interpreter and guide for Lewis and Clark during their famous exploration of the west in 1804. The book received the Carter G. oodson Award for social science book that depicts ethnicity in the United States as well as being an International Reading Association (IRA) teacher's choice and an International Reading Association (IRA)/Children's Book Council (CBC) children's choice. Eldrich is a member of the Turtle Mountain band of Plains-Ojibway and Buffalohead is of Ponca heritage.
The book details a great deal of factual content concerning the time period and the geography of the area. The story tells of Sacagawea's life from age eleven when she was kidnapped by a Hidatsa raiding party when she was out gathering roots and berries and firewood along the riverbank and the men were out…
Erdrich, Lise. Sacagawea. Mineapolis, MN: Carolrhoda Books Inc., 2003. Print.
There were a lot of white people around, and many of them were angry that the blacks had been freed. Some of them were actually hostile toward the blacks and their newfound freedom, so the blacks learned quickly that they had to be careful. They needed to settle a little bit away from the hostile whites and do their best not to make waves or cause trouble, in the hopes that they might one day be accepted (Reconstruction, 2002).
During the first few years after the Emancipation Proclamation and the subsequent freedom of all blacks in the United States, many blacks began working very hard to educate themselves. In there minds, education meant the ability to negotiate with whites over land, earn a fair wage to pay for it, and take care of their families. lack families were often large, so many of the members could work to help support…
Black Farming and History. 2002. Homecoming. http://www.itvs.org/homecoming/history1.html .
Carroll J. 1998. Organizational learning activities in high-hazard industries. Journal of Management Studies, 35: 699-717
Reconstruction and its aftermath. 2002. African-American Odyssey. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart5.html .
VandeCreek, Drew E., Ph.D. 2000. Frontier Settlement. Abraham Lincoln Historical Digitization Project. http://Lincoln.lib.niu.edu/frontier.html .
American Territorial Expansion: The Louisiana Purchase
American territorial expansion was the top priority of ashington DC for every decade of the 19th century, including the Civil ar years. The new territory all came to Americans through treaties or conquest, and thus promoted the isolationist "Manifest Destiny" prerogative of strengthening the American continent. The earliest and largest territorial expansion of the 19th century was the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the size of the American states. The Louisiana Purchase was made with the short-term bolstering of Thomas Jefferson's government in the near-term, yet with deep concerns for the security of the new land and how and who should settle the land in the long-term.
The Louisiana Purchase was not a decision taken lightly by then President Thomas Jefferson, who felt that it would be difficult for the young America to take full possession of the territory, and thus sign the country…
1803, and the United States. "Louisiana Purchase." Gateway New Orleans: N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
Jefferson, Thomas. "Treaty with France (Louisiana Purchase). 1909-14. American Historical Documents, 1000-1904. The Harvard Classics." Bartleby.com: Great Books Online -- Quotes, Poems, Novels, Classics and hundreds more. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
"Louisiana: European Explorations and the Louisiana Purchase - The Louisiana Purchase (American Memory from the Library of Congress)." American Memory from the Library of Congress - Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
"The Louisiana Purchase -- Thomas Jefferson's Monticello." Thomas Jefferson's Monticello. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
Had the Enlightenment adequately prepared 19th century readers for Darwin's Origin of the Species? The Enlightenment view of the science of life was neatly summed up by Diderot in his Encyclopedia, in many ways a signature product of the Enlightenment's dedication to setting forth the foundations of human knowledge. As Diderot notes in his prefaratory comments, what we call biology falls under the heading of "Natural History":
The divisions of natural history derive from the existing diversity of the facts of nature, and the diversity of the facts of nature from the diversity of the states of nature. Either nature is uniform and follows a regular course, such as one notes generally in celestial bodies, animals, vegetables, etc.; or it seems forced and displaced from its ordinary course, as in monsters; or it is restrained and put to different uses, as in the arts. Nature does everything, either in…
Campbell, John Angus. Why Was Darwin Believed? Darwin's Origin and the Problem of Intellectual Revolution. Configurations 11.2 (2003) 203-237.
Cosans, Chris. Was Darwin a creationist? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48.3 (2005) 362-371.
Darwin, Charles. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Sixth Edition. Project Gutenberg. Accessed 25 March 2012 at: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/2009/2009-h/2009-h.htm
Diderot, Denis. "Detailed Explanation of the System of Human Knowledge." The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert Collaborative Translation Project. Translated by Richard N. Accessed 25 March 2012 at: http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.did2222.0001.084
Not all humans exhibit the same jealously levels, behaviors, etc.); and, 2. Today, instinct theory has a more biological emphasis for specific motives and not all (like aggression and sex). but, there is still a strong instinct perspective in the study of animals (ethology) (p. 2).
Notwithstanding this lack of consensus, there have been much attention directed to the relationship between instinct theory and the various dimensions of the human experience, which are discussed further below.
elationship of Instinct Theory to Dimensions of Human Experience.
A) Paradoxes in Human Experience. Indeed, in their book, Psychologies of 1925: Powell Lectures in Psychological Theory, Madison Bentley (1928) asked early on, "By what theory can it be explained how it comes about that an individual can exhibit so many and such extreme and even seemingly paradoxical phases, or alterations of his character, and such contrasting contradictory traits and behavior?" (p. 259). The duality…
Adler, a., Bentley, Boring, E.G. et al. (1930). Psychologies of 1930. Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
Alic, M. (2001). McDougall, William (1871-1938). In Gale encyclopedia of psychology, 2nd ed. Gale Group.
Alvarado, C.S. (2003). Reflections on Being a Parapsychologist. The Journal of Parapsychology, 67(2), 211.
Arieti, S. (1974). The foundations of psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.
hen Jacobs was transferred to the Norcoms, the reality of slavery suddenly hit the author hard because prior to her being sold to them she enjoyed a relatively happy childhood in a secure home environment. Dr. Norcom frequently made advances on Jacobs and she was forced to find solace in the arms of a white lawyer to help resist Dr. Norcom. She had two children by the lawyer, and was separated from them. Being separated from her parents and then from her children is a poignant dimension of slavery that Jacobs explicates in the narrative. Moreover, Jacobs describes the insidious psychological abuse that many domestic servants endured.
Jacobs also explains what might be new information for many readers: the different types of slavery and different ways slavery manifested. Not all slaves were field workers and not all slaves were treated poorly. Some, like her parents at the outset of the…
Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. In Norton Anthology of American Literature, 7th Edition, Vol. B. pp. 1809.