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Life After Death
Bertrand Russel presents a logical argument against the existence of a continuous human soul that would survive after the death of the body. Stating that "the continuity of a human body is a matter of appearance and behavior, not of substance," Russel argues that because our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are inextricably bound with the body, those very thoughts, feelings, and behaviors perish as the body does (89). Moreover, the sense that the "I" that exists now is the same as the "I" that existed yesterday is but an illusion, based on the fact that we possess certain memories and neural pathways that create the sense of a continuous self. Really, though, what we take to be the continuous "I" is nothing more than well-worn neural pathways, which Russel compares to a riverbed.
Because experimentation in this area of thought is impossible, Russel's argument does not amount…
Life After Death
Introduction classical point of departure in defining Death seems to be Life itself. Death is perceived either as a cessation of Life - or as a "transit area," on the way to a continuation of Life by other means. While the former presents a disjunction, the latter is a continuum, Death being nothing but a corridor into another plane of existence (the hereafter). A logically more rigorous approach would be to ask "Who Dies" when Death occurs. In other words, the identity of the Dying (it which "commits" Death) is essential in defining Death.
Those of a religious nature would argue that we are far more than that; they would argue that we have a soul. A soul is, for a layperson hard to imagine. How do you describe it? It is not something that we can detect, it is a spiritual thing without any physical substance,…
Shakespeare William, Julius Caesar, 1599
Hunt Gladys, Don't Be Afraid To Die, 1971
Dr. Moody Raymond, Life After Life, 1988
Life After Death
Is there such a thing as life after death? This is a question which has attracted the attention of philosophers, scientists, and religions for centuries. The difficulty with the question of life after death is that there exists no genuine persuasive proof on the question one way or another: attempts to prove the phenomenon are seldom universally persuasive. In examining some realms in which the question of life after death has been approached -- by philosophy (exemplified by Socrates and Plato), and by science in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (exemplified by Sir Oliver Lodge) and by contemporary research (focusing on near-death experience) -- I hope to demonstrate that the persistence of belief in life after death remains, because the alternative is unappealing to the majority of people.
We must first consider the question from the standpoint of philosophy. In philosophical terms, life after death is generally…
Alexander, E. (2012). Proof of heaven: A neurosurgeon's journey into the afterlife. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Beauregard, M. (2012). Brain wars: The scientific battle over the existence of the mind and the proof that will change the way we live our lives. New York: HarperOne.
Beauregard, M and O'Leary, D. (2007). The spiritual brain: A neuroscientist's case for the existence of the soul. New York: HarperOne.
Burpo, T. And Vincent, L. (2010) Heaven is for real: A little boy's astounding story of his trip to Heaven and back. New York: Thomas Nelson.
Life After Death Different Cultures
LIFE AFTE DEATH
What Lies Beyond Death
Islam was founded in 622 A.D by Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) in the Holy city of Makkah. It developed in the Middle East in the 7th century and according to Islamic Encyclopedia, Islam is one of the major and widely spread religions of the world (Campo, 2009).
The Holy Book of Muslims, "Quran" states that this life is a trial, and this world is a place where humans prepare themselves for the next and eternal life. According to the doctrine of Islam, death is the end of a physical life. After this life, a new period of rest begins in which the soul remains in the kind of sleep. Muslims also believe that in this position of rest, the righteous people are able to see visions of God while the wicked see the vision of…
Campo, J. (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Encyclopedia of World Religions.
Edwards, L. (2001). A Brief Guide to Believes, Ideas, Theologies, Mysteries and Movements. Westminster John
Meyer, J. (1997). Christian Beliefs and Teachings, Second edition, University Press of America Inc.
Life and Death and Freud and Nietzsche
hat are the similarities between Plato's concept of life after death and the early Christian concept of life after death? How did later Christians combine these concepts? hat is the evidence that Jesus came back to life after execution?
Plato is often considered as one of the greatest philosophers who ever lived. He wrote about the concepts of justice and social order, of moral right and wrong, and about the dichotomy of life and death. Throughout a person's life they are inexorably moving ever closer to their own demise. It is inevitable and yet people are terrified of this event even though it is as natural a part of living as is breathing or the beating of your heart. In one piece, Plato expresses his beliefs on the immortality of the soul (Peterson 214). He explains this in different ways, first of which…
Peterson, Michael, Hasker, William, Reichenbach, Bruce, & Basinger, David. Reason and Religious Belief: and Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. New York, NY: Oxford UP, 2003. Print.
It is impossible for science to "overtake" the light but not impossible for humans to experience it. hile light is pleasing, it is not lasting for the poet. hen it is no longer present, what remains is something that is almost opposite to light. The poet describes the experience as a "quality of loss / Affecting our content, / As Trade had suddenly encroached / Upon a Sacrament" (17-20). Here we see the emergence of despair and loss when the light is gone. The light is a severe contrast with the darkness alluded to in the other poems mentioned here but above all, the contrast demonstrates the poet's ability to write about diverse topics.
Death is a source of inspiration for Emily Dickinson and while this make seem creepy to many readers, it is actually brave for the poet because death, even today, seems taboo for many artists. This may…
Dickinson, Emily. "A Light Exists in Spring." The Complete Poems of Emily
Thomas Johnson. New York: Little, Brown and Company. 1960. Print.
-. "Because I Could Not Stop for Death." The Complete Poems of Emily
All of these scenes indicate that there might be little more than nothing after life. This poem allows us to see that Dickinson was not happy with accepting the traditional attitudes toward death and dying.
Another poem that examines death is "The Bustle in the House." Again, we see death is uneventful. Elizabeth Piedmont-Marton claims that in Dickinson's poetry, "the moment of death seems often less momentous than ordinary" (Piedmont-Marton) and it is "one of the most disturbing and powerful characteristics of Dickinson's poems" (Piedmont-Marton). "The Bustle in the House," demonstrates this assertion very well with its idea of humanity continuing to get along with the "industries" (the Bustle in the House 3) of life after a loved one dies. The heart of the dead is swept up (4), making it seem like the process of death needs a clean sweep and that is it. Mourning is nothing more than…
Dickinson, Emily. "Because I Could Not Stop for Death." The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. 8th edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press. 2009.
Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died." The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. 8th edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press. 2009.
Some keep the Sabbath going to Church." The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. 8th edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press. 2009.
Tell All the Truth but Tell it Slant. " the Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. 8th edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press. 2009.
Life and Death in Shanghai
Nien Cheng, a lady of wealth, culture, and social refinement, was unused to the treatment she would ultimately receive at the hands of Mao Zedung's Red Guards. Viewed as a natural enemy to a Communistic regime - based on a measure of wealth and education - the mostly teenaged "Red Guards" invaded homes and workplaces in search of people disloyal to Zedung and the political environment of the day.
Considered "too aggressive and too independent in mind and spirit for a Chinese woman," Ms. Cheng would be humiliated in "town meetings" where false and unfounded accusations were used to force a confession of subterfuge and espionage, tortured, imprisoned for over 6 years without news of her only daughter, Meiping, who had been murdered by Maoists revolutionaries for refusing to denounce her mother as a spy, and placed under house arrest.
The Red Guard…
Paradoxically, states with harsher criminal statutes and higher conviction rates tend to maintain fewer inmate developmental programs because high-volume prisons tend to be run on a for-profit basis that discourages "unnecessary" spending. The most cynical suggestion is that decreasing recidivism is against the financial interests of private prisons and (although to a lesser extent,) those of government-run prisons as well (Schmalleger, 2008).
Other aspects of many types of contemporary criminal trends may also significantly undermine any strategy of deterrence through awareness of strict prosecution and sentencing. In that regard, law enforcement authorities across the nation have catalogued volumes of information about criminal subcultures in general and of the street gang mentality in particular (Pinizzotto, Davis, & Miller, 2007). Urban street gangs in particular have given rise to a culture of remorseless violence and disregard for the consequences of even the most violent crime that largely precludes any real deterrent value…
Dershowitz, A. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Friedman, A. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Virginia Woolf, the author focuses her attention on a number of scenes to bring home a central idea to her reader. Through her considerations of people, insects, and a variety of other elements Ms. Woolf considers the deeper meanings of life and the various meanings it might have for individuals and the collective of humanity. By a variety of essays that range from the death of a simple moth at a window to the complex writings of Horace Walpole, Virginia Woolf appears to contemplate the many ways in which life might make itself meaningful via death, perpetual pain, and creativity.
Virginia Woolf's interpretation of death as life's ultimate purpose in its simplest form is provided in "The Death of the Moth." The author describes a moth that flies "by day," which is caught at a window. She also describes night moths as somewhat pleasantly exciting a sense of darkness, which…
.....deathbed, Morrie reflects on his life, and relays several messages about the meaning or purpose of life. Ironically, one of the main messages of the story is that life does not necessarily have a greater or cosmic meaning. Meaning is found in what is immediately before us, in the day-to-day existence and especially in relationships with others. Life's meaning is found in accepting life for what it is rather than wishing it could be something else. The meaning of life can therefore be best understood by appreciating what we have now instead of wishing we were different or that things were different.
Second, and following from this, the meaning of life is located in the small details, things we can frequently overlook -- finding beauty and joy in every day, even on bad days and in situations that are painful or uncomfortable. Meaning is especially found in friendship, caring for…
In order to understand the underlying concepts of faith with respect to philosophy, first it is important to understand 'philosophy' adequately. Jaspers was concerned about noting the originality and singularity of philosophy and he frames it as "to elucidate" (erhellen). As per Jaspers, this clarification or elucidation does not come to philosophers through an external agent but it happens by itself during the philosophical process and this happening is an innermost act. (Wildermuth, 2007). Philosophers understand the meaning and philosophy behind actions and things as they seek to explore hitherto mysterious, unexplained happenings and phenomenon.
However, only a few philosophers speak about the death. Even then, the best they can reveal about death is about its awareness. As such, although death is an unavoidable event and that is the only knowledge we have about it. All are aware that they have to face death one day and it will…
According to Coble (2010), Chinese reporters found themselves unwilling to demonstrate their countrymen as helpless victims of the Japanese. Therefore, the narrative that pervaded the era in the form of "news" reports and statements of "fact" was often colored by a collective attempt to focus on the potential unity and strength of the Chinese as a nation. This is therefore a trend that persisted in the collective narrative of the massacre at Nanjing, and the national perception of those who suffered because of it. While suffering was part of this narrative, it served to demonstrate the reaction of the Chinese people as a collective as one of heroism and a spur to action rather than being the hapless victims that so many indeed were.
Also, as far as the Nanjing massacre specifically is concerned, the relative silence that surrounded it both during and after the war is also the result…
Coble, P.M. (Feb 10, 2011). Remembering China's War with Japan: The Wartime Generation in Post-War China and East Asia. Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 45, Iss. 2.
Cooke, P. And Silberman, M. (2010). Introduction: German Suffering? Screening War: Perspectives on German Suffering.
A good example is the 1985 murder of convenience store clerk Cynthia Barlieb, whose murder was prosecuted by a district attorney bent on securing execution for Barlieb's killer (Pompeilo 2005). The original trial and all the subsequent appeals forced Barlieb's family, including four young daughters, to spend 17 years in the legal process - her oldest daughter was 8 years old when Cynthia was first shot, and 25 when the process ended without a death sentence (Pompelio 2005). During those 17 years, Cynthia Barlieb's family was forced to repeatedly relive her murder.
hen a person is murdered, it is understandable that American society demands justice, particularly on behalf of the victim's family and loved ones. But we can not advocate capital punishment under the guise of protecting the interests of victims' families, and then cut those members out of the process when they do not support the death penalty. and,…
American Civil Liberties Union (2002). "ACLU Praises Supreme Court Refusal of 'Sleeping Lawyer' Case as 'Acknowledgment and Reminder' of Death Penalty Problems." Retrieved Sept. 30, 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/unequal/10466prs20020603.html .
American Civil Liberties Union (2002). "DNA testing and the death penalty." Retrieved Oct. 1, 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/innocence/10392pub20020626.html .
Amnesty International (2006). "Death penalty." Retrieved Sept. 30, 2006 at http://www.amnestyusa.org/abolish/index.do .
Antonio, Michael E. (2006). "Arbitrariness and the death penalty: how the defendant's appearance during trial influences capital jurors' punishment decision." Behavioral Sciences & the Law. March 2006.Vol.24, Iss. 2.
The death penalty is therefore morally and ethically necessary not only for an ordered society but as a necessary means to protect the innocent from evil.
Secondly, from a Catholic point-of-view this stance is supported by centuries of Church doctrine and by references to iblical test, as discussed above. This also refers to the view that many modern Catholics take; which in turn refers to the contemporary emphasis on the right to life as a sign of the decline of religion and the growth of secularization. This reflects the view that the growing opposition to the death penalty"… has gone hand in hand with a decline of faith in eternal life." ( Dulles)
The above discussion has outlined the two central arguments for and against the death penalty from a Catholic perspective. There is little doubt that this topic has also crested intense debate within the Church. This…
Dulles A. Catholicism & Capital Punishment. Sunday. 3 Oct. 2010
( http://www.catholiceducation.org/articles/religion/re0461.html ).
Gonzales A. Pro-life and Pro-Capital Punishment Contradiction in Terms? 3 Oct. 2010
( http://www.roman-catholic.com/Roman/Articles/CapitalPunishment.htm )
As one performs their dharma, they earn karma, which is the cause and effect aspect of Hinduism. Karma explains good actions bring good results, and by obeying this principle and dharma, one can experience rebirth into a "better" life that puts one in a stronger position to achieve moksha. The ultimate goal for any Hindu soul is to achieve moksha, which is the liberation from samsara, the cycle of life and death (Chidester: 85). The critical aspect of Hinduism is realizing when the body dies, the Self (Atman) does not die. The Self is carried from life to life, through reincarnation, and the secret to death is to realize the Supreme Self hidden in the heart through meditation and grace (Kramer: 30). Realizing Self in Hindu customs is required to achieve moksha, and be liberated from the endless round of birth, death, and rebirth of samsara. Only when the Self…
Chidester, D. Patterns of Transcendence: Religion, Death, and Dying. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth Publishing, 2001. 1-216. Print.
Kramer, K. The Sacred Art of Dying: How the world Religions Understand Death. Mahwah, NJL
Paulist Press, 1988. 27-166. Print.
It is important to note that though the victim's family also does suffer, the accused could be somebody's mother, father, spouse or even best friend. In such a case, it becomes hard for many to come to terms with death as a form of punishment for a loved one. Thus though capital punishment may be viewed as a symbol of justice by the victim's family as well as friends, it surely does cause pain to the wrongdoer's family and friends who may have had nothing to do with the offense committed.
In recognition of opposing views, it is important to note that over time, those in support of capital punishment have often cited cost considerations. Here, they argue that through the long-term imprisonment of criminals, who would have otherwise been on death row, the government wastes funds which should ideally be used for other more worthy needs including but not…
Banks, C. (2004). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. California: SAGE.
Gaines, L.K., & Miller, R.L. (2011). Criminal Justice in Action: The Core. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Souryal, S.S. (2010). Ethics in Criminal Justice: In Search of the Truth (5th ed.). Burlington, MA: Elsevier.
Our prejudiced minds and clouded vision make us believe that all black men are criminals resulting in a twisted criminal justice system. Thomas Sancton (1991) reveals, "...blacks and Hispanics are proportionally far more likely to be sent to death chambers than whites; that poor defendants are condemned more often than rich ones; that the existence of the death penalty, despite widespread beliefs to the contrary, in fact has no deterrent value. The execution in some states of minors and retarded inmates is profoundly shocking to many people in the U.S. And abroad, as is the multiplicity of judicial errors that have sent innocent people to execution chambers or long terms on death row."
Regardless of what people have to say about death penalty, researches and unbiased studies have shown that this form of punishment doesn't serve any good purpose. It exists because society refuses to operate with compassion but revels…
1) Richard a. Posner, Capital Crimes., the New Republic, 04-01-2002
2) Thomas Sancton/Paris With reporting by James Graff and Gareth Harding/Brussels, Barry Hillenbrand/Washington, Christine Whitehou, a Matter of Life or Death the McVeigh case shows how differently Europe and America view capital punishment., Time International, 05-21-2001, pp 28+.
4) Eric Pooley Reported by Sally B. Donnelly and J.F.O. Mcallister / Washington, Sylvester Monroe/Atmore, Andrea Sac, Nation/Crime and Punishment: Death or Life? Mcveigh Could Be the Best Argument for Executions, but His Case Highlights the Problems That Arise When Death Sentences Are Churned Out in Huge Numbers., Time, 06-16-1997, Pp 31+.
5) the cruel and ever more unusual punishment. Vol. 351, the Economist, 05-15-1999.
In his novels he focused on characters, motivations, and reactions to the forces around his characters. He realistically examined Spanish politics, economy, religion, and family through the eyes of the middle class, addressing the cruelty of human beings against each another in his novels Miau and Misericordia. Galdos was called the conscience of Spain for his realistic observations of society with all its ills. (Columbia 2005) His plays were less successful than his novels.
In 1907 he became deputy of the Republican Party in Madrid. He went blind in 1912, but overcoming this tragedy, he continued to dictate his books until his death. Other works translated into English are Tristana (tr. 1961) and Compassion (tr. 1962) Outside Spain his Novelas Espanolas Contemporaneas are the most popular. Perez Galdos was elected to the "Real Academia Espanola" Real Academia Espanola (Royal Spanish Academy) in 1897. A statue of him was raised in…
The Academy of American Poets" Poets.org. 1997-2007. http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/348 .
Cole, Toby, (ed.). "Garc'a Lorca" in Playwrights on Playwrighting, 1961.
Hills, Elijah Clarence and Morley, S. Griswold, Modern Spanish Lyrics, New York: H. Holt, 1913.
Jehle, Fred F. Anthology of Spanish Poetry: A Collection of Spanish Poems, 1999. http://users.ipfw.edu/jehle/poetry.htm.
However, this difficulty can be avoided by examining van den Haag's distinction between justice and equality. The physical reality of administering justice can never match its theoretical guidelines. Justice is a necessary tool in the aim of producing a functional society. Accordingly, inequities that arise in its practice must be tolerated -- although fought against. State sanctioned killing, on the other hand, is not a logistic necessity for any society. Death is the most severe and permanent form of punishment American society has to offer. Mistakes and breeches of justice cannot be rectified. The most direct, simplest, and easiest way to eliminate the arbitrary factors in a form of punishment not essential to society is to remove that form of punishment. Justice is intrinsically unequal, so assigning it the responsibility of life and death decisions is unwarrantable. Stephen Nathanson writes,
To do away with punishment entirely would be to do…
Baird, Robert M. And Stuart E. Rosenbaum. (1995). Punishment and the Death Penalty. New York: Prometheus.
Bessler, John D. (2003). Kiss of Death: America's Love Affair with the Death Penalty. Boston: Northeastern University.
Kurtis, Bill. (2004). The Death Penalty on Trial: Crisis in American Justice. New York: Public Affairs.
Sarat, Austin. (2001). When the State Kills: Capital Punishment and the American Condition. Princeton: Princeton University.
The story investigates justice from different standpoints. Gerardo and Paulina have similar perceptions on how the military rule in the past had treated their society wrongly. However their perspectives vary in terms of how justice should be served. According to Gerardo, the efficiency of the commission he led was the best way to proceed. This would involve assessing all related human rights and letting the courts decide on a solution. Paulina was unsure of judges and their decisions considering their lack of support in the past seventeen years under a dictator. According to her, the pre-existing foundations of justice are not trustworthy enough. Making the final decision herself made more sense to her. The severity of what happened to her, guided her opinions. At one point when Gerardo tries to act reasonably rather than violently, she emphasizes how someone who did not experience any abuse himself does not have the…
Dorfman, Ariel. Death and the Maiden. Nick Hern Books, 1996. Print.
Life in a Family
In On Going Home, the things that represent family for Didion is where the family is, she writes that, by "home" she is not referring to the place in Los Angeles where her husband and child live but where her family is. In addition, dust defines a significant part of their family life. Surfaces in their house are covered in dust and even when her husband wrote the words 'D-U-S-T' all over them, and no one noticed. She fittingly described her home as, "difficult, oblique, deliberately inarticulate…" The reader can see the families' obliqueness in the themes that the writer chooses to speak about with her brother (Didion 2). They start to speak about the people they know have been committed to mental hospitals or have been booked on drunk-driving charges.
Through the portrayal that Didion about her family life, her conservative nature is evident, she…
Lee, Chang-rae. "Coming home again." What a son remembers when all that is left are memories, (2006): 1-6. Print
Didion, Joan. "On Going Home." Beacon Book of Essays; Contemporary AmericanWomen
(1997): 3-5. Print
Life sucks and then you die, is a popular saying among Gen-Xers to describe the futility of it all. The phrase may be original, but the sentiment certainly is not. Long before Generation X came on the scene, Ernest Hemingway was writing about heroes who faced the harsh unfairness of finite life with dignity and grace. This "grace under pressure" became known as the Hemingway Code.
Hemingway scholar Philip Young explains that the code "is made of the controls of honor and courage which in a life of tension and pain make a man..." (63). Feminist scholars have suggested that this definition of the code is sexist and that women in Hemingway's work, too, display honor and courage (Tyler 29).
Rovit and Brenner agree with Young's basic definition and add an additional component. Hemingway's code, they say, also has to do with "learning how to make one's passive vulnerability (to…
Hemingway, Ernest. A Farewell to Arms. 1929. New York, NY: Scribner Paperback Fiction, 1995.
Nagel, James. "Catherine Barkley and Retrospective Narration." Critical Essays on Ernest Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms. Ed. George Monteiro. New York, NY G.K. Hall & Co., 1994. 161-174.
Oldsey, Bernard. "The Sense of an Ending in A Farewell to Arms." Modern Critical Interpretations: Ernest Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms. Ed. Harold Bloom. Modern Critical Interpretations. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. 77-96.
Rovit, Earl and Gerry Brenner. Ernest Hemingway. Rev. ed. Twayne's United States Authors Series. New York, NY: Twayne Publishers, 1995.
Justice Kennedy, writing for the majority, warned about broader problems with the capital punishment. "When the law punishes by death, it risks its own sudden descent into brutality, transgressing the constitutional commitment to decency and restraint." He took into account the many dangers of the death penalty and concluded it should be restricted to homicides (Death Penalty Information Center, 2008).
The main question regarding the research for or against capital punishment as a deterrent is whether to continue the death penalty because the findings are inconsistent or to stop it for the same reason. esearchers adelet and Borg (2000), in fact, say that the findings impact how Americans perceive the death penalty. They showed how the conclusions of the research over the past several decades have influenced the debate pro-or con capital punishment. Their literature review in relationship to historical events "suggests changes in the nature of death penalty debates…
Berk, R. (2005) New Claims about Execution and General Deterrence: Deja Vu All over Again? Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 2(2), 303-330
Death Penalty Information Center. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
Dezhbakhsh, H., Rubin, P. & Shepherd, J. (2003) Does capital punishment have a deterrent effect? American Law and Economics Review, 344.
Many including Weijer (1999) comment on the futility of the current medical system as established in the United States. There are many doctors making decisions on whether patients need life support with or without just cause. Here lies the problem. With all patients, not just patients with disabilities, the writer feels multiple considerations must come into play. ight to life types may suggest it is the patient's right to live and the physician has an obligation to maintain the life of the patient for as long as feasible (Freeborn, Lynn & Desbiens, 2000). There are others however concerned that certain patients are not given appropriate consideration.
For example, some patients with disabilities may not be given adequate consideration. In cases as these doctors may feel they are better able to understand what is and is not in the patient's best interests compared with the wishes of the patient and/or…
Freeborne, N., Lynn, J., & Desbiens, N.A. (2000). Insights about dying from the SUPPORT Project. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 48, 5199-5205.
Weijer, C. (1999). Medial futility: Physicians, not patients, call the shots. The Western Journal of Medicine, (170): p. 254.
Werth, James.L. (2005). Concerns about decisions related to withholding/withdrawing life-sustaining treatment and futility for persons with disabilities. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, (16):1, p.31.
A near death experience is a collection of cognitive and emotional responses to an encounter with death, whether that encounter is related to a sudden accident or to an illness. The phenomenon has been recorded throughout history, and in various cultures around the world. "Although the term near-death experience…was not coined until 1975, accounts of similar events can be found in the folklore and writings of European, Middle Eastern, African, Indian, East Asian, Pacific, and Native American cultures," (Grayson, 2006, p. 394).
Near death experiences "are described at length in both the eighth-century Tibetan Book of the Dead, and in the 2500-year-old Egyptian Book of the Dead," as well as in Plato's epublic (Talbot, 1991, p. 240). There is also a strong history of near death experience testimony in the literature of Christian mystics (Zaleski, 1987). According to Michael Talbot, author of The Holographic Universe, near death experiences occur…
Blackmore, S. (n.d.). Near-death experiences. Excerpt from The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. Retrieved online: http://www.susanblackmore.co.uk/Chapters/ShermerNDE.htm
Blackmore, S.J. (1993). Near-death experiences in India: They have tunnels too. Journal of Near Death Studies 11(4). Retrieved online: http://www.susanblackmore.co.uk/Articles/PDFs/JNDS%201993.pdf
Braithwaite, J.J. (2008). Near death experiences: The dying brain. Skeptic 21(2).
Grayson, B. (2006). Near death experiences and spirituality. Zygon 41(2). Retrieved online: http://spiritualscientific.com/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/GreysonNDEandSpirituality.79194349.pdf
The writer goes on, "Then I saw a light and everything stopped. It was as if the light communicated to me everything I had done wrong and it showed me what love it" (www.near-death.com). Maybe that "light" was his conscience? Meanwhile, another person who claims to have had a NDE recalls that in 1970 he was a 24-year-old "with serious psycho-emotional problems." Right there at the opening of his narrative any reader with an investigative tendency would wonder how believable someone is going to be who had psycho-emotional issues at 24.
But he goes on, saying the room "was flooded with light from overhead" and he was engaged in a "new dimension of psychic communion" with a hippie couple who had given him the LSD. He went into a "trance" and was "truly" born again, "without even the need of Jesus." If this sounds like a person was on an…
Crislip, Mark. "Near Death Experiences and the Medical Literature." Skeptic 14.2
Dieguez, Sebastian. "NDE Experiment." Skeptical Inquirer 33.5 (2009): 44-49.
Evans, John M. "Near-Death Experiences." The Lancet Vol. 359 (2002): 2116.
Humans and Death
Technically, of course, it is impossible for a human being to "survive" death. The body is buried and regenerates back into the earth, and the person is gone. There is no survival, and it happens to everyone, no matter how important or insignificant his or her life has been. However, life after death is another matter. Most every religion in the world believes strongly in life after death, and many of the world's greatest thinkers engage in the belief too, if only in vague terms. For example, Plato thought that the soul survived after death and simply continued "living" by entering another body (Vardy & Arliss 123). This seems to be a fairly reasonable thought, and one that explains how many people visualize life after death.
Personally, I do not believe that human beings survive death, or "come back" after death. I personally have lost very…
Vardy, Peter & Arliss, Julie. The Thinker's Guide to God. Alresford, Hants, UK: John Hunt Publishing, Ltd., 2003.
The author notes that suicide is a major health issue in the United tates, and that while 30,000 thousand successfully complete suicide every year in this country, another 650,000 people attempt it. uicide is a serious public health issue. Because of this, the urgeon General, David atcher has spoken out about the importance of identifying those at risk of suicide so effective interventions can be used, emphasizing that early detection is important.
Imperio notes that while research has been done on identifying those
With suicidal tendencies, less work has been done regarding what are the most effective treatment regimes of such people. Because of this, psychiatrists and therapists don't really know which therapies are most effective, or under what circumstances and with whom they should be used. Until there is more empirical evidence, Imperio suggests that therapists and psychiatrists look closely at what they're doing with each patient or client…
Benasutti, Kathleen M. 2004. "Life after death: grief therapy after the sudden traumatic death of a family member." Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, October.
Imperio, Winnie Anne. 2001. "MDs Can Do More to Cut Suicide Rate." Clinical Psychiatry News, June.
"Because I Could Not Stop for Death," Emily Dickenson shows that death is not the end of anything, but the beginning of eternal life. The poet addresses death directly, presenting death as a character without going so far as to anthropomorphize death. Death is a "he," but he also appears as more a disembodied spirit or abstraction than a person. Nevertheless, the speaker is on intimate terms with death, who is presented as a kind companion or counterpart to life. Death is contrasted with life, with the latter being fleeting and the former being eternal. Whereas life is hurried and harried, death is calm and slow. Death represents eternity, whereas life remains trapped in time. Dickenson's attitudes toward death conveyed in this poem help readers to overcome their fear of death, and urge readers to reconsider how they live their lives too.
When the speaker claims she "could not stop"…
However the Christian follower knows that life after death awaits him, the actual information on this life is rather scarce. Foremost, the fear of the unknown is common for all humans, and it is not a sign of weak faith in the divinity. Similar situations of reluctance to the new or unknown are revealed when a young couple awaits their first baby, when one changes their job or when a fresh graduate is thrown into the labor force market. None of these instances reveal a reduced faith in God, but a natural resistance and anxiety to change.
A fourth reason, which is in fact strongly connected to a strong belief in God, is given by the fear of what will happen once the individual enters his eternal life. The Christian expects to be judged and sent to either heaven or hell. He could be afraid that his life may not…
Stop for Death by Emily Dickinson
The Poem Because I Could Not Stop For Death by Emily Dickinson is both morose and whimsical. Making light of the speed at which people live their lives Dickinson thanks Death for think of taking the time to stop and pick her up by the side of the road. The whimsical language of the opening stanza;
Because I could not stop for Death
He kindly stopped for me
The Carriage held but just Ourselves
Gives the impression that the weight of the images of death and immortality is trivial at best. The whimsy continues as Dickinson describes the proverbial life flashing before her eyes as the landscape passes the carriage without haste. As can be seen from a critical analysis of the language of the piece, Dickinson whimsically plays with the heady issues of Death, Immorality and Eternity as if they…
Dickens, Charles. A Christmas Carol. London: J.M. Dent & Sons Limited, 1914.
Dickinson, Emily. Because I Could Not Stop For Death,
Gordon, George A. The Witness to Immortality in Literature, Philosophy and Life. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin and Company, 1900.
friend of mine overcome the desire to kill himself. He was suicidal and made several attempts on his life. Gradually he found the help he needed and today is still alive and healthy and no long suicidal.
I think my culture would find this story inspiring because today despair is everywhere and we see people succumb to it all to often, so when someone overcomes despair, which can be life threatening, is a great blessing to see. I think this would be true for every culture because despair is a universal phenomenon.
Freud felt that there was a death instinct and a life instinct, with the sex drive characterizing the life instinct and self-destructive behavior characterizing the death instinct (Life and Death Instincts, 2016). Thus Thanatos can be defined as the unconscious desire to die -- death being the end goal of life, according to Freud. He felt that this…
Doka, K. (2005). Death Awareness Movement. Retrieved from http://feleciamoon50.typepad.com/blog/2011/07/the-death-awareness-movement-description-history-and-analysis.html
Eig, J. (2005). Luckiest Man: The Life and Death of Lou Gehrig. NY: Simon & Schuster.
Escobar, P. (2015). Empire of Chaos. MI: Nimble Books.
Gatto, John. "AgainstSchool." WesJones.com. (n.d.). Web.
"Are the Developmental Needs of Children in America Adequately Addressed during the Grief Process?." Journal of Instructional Psychology 31.2 (2004): 143+. Questia. 2 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006444121.
Seibert, Dinah, Judy C. Drolet, and Joyce V. Fetro. Helping Children Live with Death and Loss. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2003. Questia. 2 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105244795.
ebb, Nancy Boyd, ed. Helping Bereaved Children: A Handbook for Practitioners. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press, 2002. Questia. 2 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111651481.
Barnard, Paul, Ian Morland, and Julie Nagy. Children, Bereavement, and Trauma: Nurturing Resilience. London: Jessica Kingsley, 1999. Questia. 2 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113438929 .
Branch, Mary Louise, and Sabrina a. Brinson. "Gone but Not Forgotten: Children's Experiences with Attachment, Separation, and Loss." Reclaiming Children and Youth 16.3 (2007): 41+. Questia. 2 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5024491224 .
Human Soul and the Existence of Life After Death
The presence of the human soul and the existence of life after death are questions that have plagued people for centuries, perhaps since the beginning of human life. Specifically, fear and concern over death of the physical and metaphysical permeate human life and culture. While there is no concrete proof of the existence of life after death, most people do believe in it as we are spiritual beings connected to something greater than the physical body and life. By altering our perception of death -- learning not to fear it and understanding it as a beginning, not an end -- we can alter our lives.
Almost all religions of the world have concerned themselves with the questions of life after death. While religious leaders, prophets of God, emphasized the concept of life after death, followers usually came to odds with this…
Fear of death is typically referred to by researchers as death anxiety. The phenomenon has been split into several categories. There is the fear of pain, the fear of the unknown, the fear of losing a loved one, and the fear of the consequences that may arise because of the loss of a loved one. The fear of not being able to survive is the prominent one among these fears. Many people are terrified at the fact that death is the end of one's life. Science does not help matters either. It, instead, aggravates the fear. No aspect of science has ever unveiled any element of the human body that can exist long after death. Thus, most scientists view death as biological process. This is the reason that makes many people still fear the consequences of death; even when they are devout religious believers of life after death (Hanson).
Hanson, Robin. "Fear of Death and Muddled Thinking -- It Is So Much Worse Than You Think," 2005, http://mason.gmu.edu/~rhanson/feardie.pdf . Accessed 29 Apr. 2017.
Konstan, David. "Epicurus." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, September 2016, https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/epicurus/ . Accessed 29 Apr. 2017.
Lacewing, Michael. "Descartes, the cogito and clear and distinct ideas. " Philosophy for AS: Epistemology and Philosophy of Religion. London and New York: Routledge, 2014. 106-117.
Robertson, Donald. "Stoicism and the Art of Happiness." London: Hodder & Stoughton General Division, 2014.
difficult to imagine a religion that was indifferent to death; after all, the aspects of life that all religions attempt to explain are truly only relevant with reference to death. Religions attempt to look at life from the largest of possible perspectives and describe those aspects of it that are not altogether apparent through everyday interaction. The fact that the human life is a finite existence requires that individuals make important decisions throughout their lives regarding what set of values they are going to apply to their actions. Faith, in this respect, plays a central role in the way many people perceive and understand death and the afterlife. In Islam, people believe that the time of each person's death is predetermined by God and cannot be avoided. Accordingly, death through the Muslim's lens must be understood as an aspect of the submission to the will of God; therefore, it must…
The use of earthen vessels or treasure in clay jars to represent the weakness of human ministers provides a good metaphor for use in the sermon. Tribulation encompasses a future seven-year period where people will suffer greatly as God judges the earth. As human beings the body is weak against the elements, against poverty, and lack of food. However, there is a treasure hidden deep within humanity that will allow for people suffering through this important time, to pull through (Gorman, 2017). The human soul is that treasure that cannot be affected by the trials endured by the human body. It is here where people can depend on to pull strength during difficult times.
The reading states that through the examples of the jar and earthen vessel, it is meant to teach humanity to not lose heart, to not discourage (Gorman, 2017). People may be raptured because of belief in…
I do believe, therefore, that the Harvard criteria for determining brain death are a very important component of making decisions that affect individuals and families at the end of their lives.
When the EEG criteria are applied, for example, it might affect a family's decision to terminate artificial means of keeping a person alive, since there is no hope of revival. It could also affect the decision to donate organs.
ne thing I found quite surprising was that the concept of "brain death" only became an official diagnostic category in 1981. The term has been used so often that it feels almost like it has been in existence for far longer than this. Still, I think I find it quite comforting that there are criteria to determine whether a person has indeed completely died, or whether the end of brain function could be recovered after ceasing because of drugs or…
One thing I found quite surprising was that the concept of "brain death" only became an official diagnostic category in 1981. The term has been used so often that it feels almost like it has been in existence for far longer than this. Still, I think I find it quite comforting that there are criteria to determine whether a person has indeed completely died, or whether the end of brain function could be recovered after ceasing because of drugs or seizures. One wonders how many misdiagnoses have been made of death over the millennia of human existence. The particular horror of being buried alive has been the subject of many a horror tale. It is comforting that the possibility of this has been significantly diminished with the implementation of elements such as the Harvard criteria.
In conclusion, I find it particularly interesting that the reading gives such particular consideration not only of death in terms of physical functioning, but also in terms of the concept of spirituality. While nobody can truly claim to know what death is or whether anything happens after we die, it is good to know that there are criteria to determine whether death has indeed occurred.
I therefore believe that the Harvard criteria sufficiently cover all the areas necessary to determine the state of physical death. Where voluntary breathing, reflex, sensation, and brain function has ceased, it is indeed logical to assume that a person has died and that there is no hope of the person reviving.
Both characters found ways to avoid living through isolation. They alienated themselves from practically everyone and this resulted in severe pain. The message here is to think about the things that consume us and then consider how important those things will be at the end of our lives or when our lives become difficult.
The Death of Ivan Ilych" and "ard No. 6" are compelling stories that force us to think of life and death through the most painful experience of others. The search for the meaning of life becomes significant with these men who have lived rather aloof lives until they are stricken with a confounding truth. Ivan must face the truth that his life was not lived the best way that it could have been. Andrey must come to terms that he has been living has been terribly misguided. Both men realize that to some extent, their lives…
Chekhov, Anton. Ward No. 6." Read Print Online Library. Information Retrieved February 27, 2009. http://www.readprint.com/work-356/Anton-Chekhov
Tolstoy, Leo. "The Death of Ivan Ilych." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction R.V. Cassill, ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1981.
The concept of death is an abstract concept, but this does not mean that one has to be educated in order to understand this concept.
Death is as abstract a word as life is. There are people who are alive but may not necessarily be truly living. In the case of these people who are not living to their full potential, when does their life end? When does death occur? This changes the way then that we think about death. Is death necessarily evil? Is death something that can be avoided in some cases? If a person loses their family -- their spouses, their children, and all their friends -- is that person still alive if their life has been abruptly brought to a metaphorical death because they are no longer with the ones they love? Death, viewed in this way, is more philosophical and less physical.
As nurses, we…
Alligood, M.R. & Tomey, A.M. (2009). Nursing theorists and their work. (Seventh
I would set aside the death sentences imposed as violative of the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments." ("Top 10 Pros and Cons," 2012) This is significant, in showing how the use of the death penalty is considered to be a violation of the basic civil rights that are provided to everyone.
Conclusion of why we should abolish
The main reason why opponents are arguing that the death penalty should be abolished is based on: the right of the government to take life and it is violation of the principles of democracy. These basic ideas are directly associated with the ethical theory of deontology. This is when an action is judged based upon how it is applied to society's rules. Given the fact that America is based on freedom and the right to life means that the death penalty is going against these basic provisions. This is important, in showing how the…
Ethical Theories Compared. (2001). Trinity. Retrieved from: http://www.trinity.edu/cbrown/intro/ethical_theories.html
Federal Laws Providing for the Death Penalty. (2012). Death Penalty Information Center. Retrieved from: http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/ federal-laws-providing-death-penalty
Pro-Death Penalty. (2011). Wesley Lowe. Retrieved from: http://www.wesleylowe.com/cp.html#history
Randal Dale Adams. (2006). Northwestern. Retrieved from: http://www.law.northwestern.edu/cwc/exonerations/txAdamsSummary.html
The aging brochure states, "Older workers, however, are more dependable, have lower turnover rates, have fewer absences and accidents, show better judgment, and are as productive as younger workers" (Schmall and Pratt, 1996, p. 8). His most productive time in promoting his cause came in his 60s and 70s, and he is still doing it at nearly 81 years of age, illustrating that older workers and older people in general, still have plenty of capabilities to work hard for what they believe in.
This exercise helps the student become more aware of the great gift of growing old and learning from your experiences. Dr. Kevorkian did not begin his work with PAS until well into his career, another indication of older adults being able to change, and his dedication to his cause is inspiring and educational at the same time. At age 80, he still travels the country…
Atwood Gailey, E. (2003). Write to death: News framing of the right to die conflict, from Quinlan's coma to Kevorkian's conviction. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Dr. Kevorkian and His Victims. (1996, August 24). The Washington Times, p. 12.
Gorsuch, N.M. (2000). The right to assisted suicide and euthanasia. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 23(3), 599.
Schmall, V., and Pratt, C. (1996). What do you know about aging? Pacific Northwest Extension.
One is most deterred by what one fears most. From which it follows that whatever statistics fail, or do not fail, to show, the death penalty is likely to be more deterrent than any other.
If it is difficult, perhaps impossible, to prove statistically, and just as hard to disprove, that the death penalty deters more from capital crimes than available alternative punishments do (such as life imprisonment), why do so many people believe so firmly that the death penalty is a more effective deterrent?
Some are persuaded by irrelevant arguments. They insist that the death penalty at least makes sure that the person who suffered it will not commit other crimes. True. Yet this confuses incapacitation with a specific way to bring it about: death. Death is the surest way to bring about the most total incapacitation, and it is irrevocable. ut does incapacitation need to…
1. Bedau, Hugo and Radelet, Michael., Miscarriages of Justice in Potentially Capital Cases, 40 Stan. L. Rev. 21., 1987.
2. Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153. 1976.
3. Louis Pojman, The Death Penalty: For and Against, Lanham, Md., Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
4. Nathanson, Stephen., An Eye for an Eye, 2d ed., Lanham, Md., Rowman and Littlefield, 2001
From the beginning of a capital punishment trial, the focus of the legal process is on the perpetrator's rights. If found guilty of the crime for which he or she stands accused, and once the death penalty sentence is imposed, the subsequent legal processes and efforts continue to be focused on the perpetrator's legal rights, but gain the added dimension of his or her human rights. The victim and the victim's surviving family members' rights exist only during the investigation of the crime, when the focus is to bring the perpetrator to justice. Justice, however, is structured to protect the perpetrator's rights; the victim's rights cease once the case goes to trial. Each death sentence becomes a new argument against capital punishment by opponents of the death penalty whose advocacy is relentless. Abolitionists argue for life imprisonment, but the prison system in the United States is a system…
Reference List amnestyusa.org (2010). States with and without the Death Penalty. Retrieved from http://www.amnestyusa.org/death-penalty/death-penalty-in - states/page.do?id=1101153.
Bedau, A. And Cassell, P. (2005). Debating the Death Penalty: Should America Have Capital Punishment? The Experts on Both Sides Make Their Case. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bedau, H. (2008). The Death Penalty in America: Current Controversies. New York: Oxford Paperbacks.
Bumgartner, F., De Boef, S., and Boydstun, A. (2008). The Decline of the Death Penalty and the Discovery of Innocence. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Canning, A., Muir, D., Netter, S., and Kamlet, L. (2010). Dr. William Petit Takes the Stand, Tells of His Family's Slaughter. ABC News, September 14, 2010. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/U.S./dr-william-petit-testifies-trial-familys-alleged - murderer/story?id=11633236.
death: suicide, euthanasia and the death penalty. Looking at certain aspects of each and discussing the issues concerning society. Also providing a sociological out look and economic basis for the arguments.
Death: Three Chances
Suicide is not a new phenomenon it has been around as long as mankind. The causes of suicide have been discussed on many occasions, and different theories have merged regarding the reason for which someone would commit suicide. There have been many studies undertaken in order to understand the phenomena in greater detail. Certain social factors were identified as being causal or contributing to this phenomenon, and suicides was broken down into different types, with different causes.
Henslin just as Durkheim before has looked at suicide, which Durkheim defined as any action which, leads subsequently to the death of the individual, either through positive action, such as hanging oneself or shooting oneself, or by way of…
Conwell Yeates, MD; Caine Eric D., MD 'Rational Suicide and the Right to Die: Reality and Myth' (1991 Oct 10); The New England Journal of Medicine, pp 1100-1103
Callahan J 'The ethics of assisted suicide' (1994 November);Health and Social Work, Vol. 19, PP. 234-244.
Donchin, Anne Autonomy, interdependence, and assisted suicide: Respecting boundaries/crossing lines. Bioethics. 2000 Jul; Vol 14(3): 187-204.
Haralambos and Holborn, (2000), Sociology; Themes and Perspectives, London, Collins.
Death in Poetry
Poetry is an effective form of literature wherein the significance and importance of human experience are depicted. Life as people perceive and live it are the most common issues and topics used in poetry, although death is becoming a dominant topic in contemporary poetry because of its enigmatic and subjective quality. Death has many meanings for people: death can be an escape, relief, punishment, pain, suffering, or a meaningless void in a person's life. These different depictions of death will be discussed in the analyses of 5 poems wherein the theme of death is used.
Emily Dickinson's poem entitled, "Death" is a poem that talks about the futility of Man's greatness after death. The poem illustrates two dead people who had been known for their beauty (character 1) and a champion for the truth (character 2). Although these people had been great in their previous lives,…
It may be too late but he does come to understand what is right and good.
In "The Murders in the Rue Morgue," we find another type of struggle, which aims at working toward solving a mystery. This story is noted for being one of the first of its kind and the narrator reaches his conclusion through analysis. How Dupin comes to his conclusions is his struggle because he is working with disarray. The atrocity of the murders and the chaos of the of Mademoiselle L'Espanaye's apartment set the scene for a rather messy situation. The furnishings in the apartment were "broken and thrown about in all directions" (Poe 63) and the bed was tossed in the middle of the floor. Someone had stuffed the daughter in the chimney, "head downward" (63) in such a way her body had been "thrust up and disengaged" (63). The mother's throat was cut…
Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Murders in the Rue Morgue." The Complete Tales of Mystery and Imagination.
Minnesota: Amaranth Press: 1984. Print.
Tolstoy, Leo. The Death of Ivan Ilych. The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction. Shorter Sixth Ed.
Eds. Cassill, R.V. And Bausch, Richard. New York W.W. Norton and Company, 2000. Print.
This creates a conflict that is not easily resolved.
In conclusion, it is unlikely that the capital punishment debate in the United States will resolve itself soon. Although the public tends towards opposing it, there is a significant proportion of citizens still supporting it. Furthermore, judicial processes are slow and difficult to change, further complicating the matter. Nonetheless, the best alternative so far suggested by researchers is life without parole. This is a very severe punishment, imposing lifelong suffering and deprivation for the convicted. This is a viable alternative for the death penalty, as it does in effect deprive the convicted of life. It also addresses the main concern of capital punishment -- the irreversible execution of the innocent.
"A Matter Of Life And Death: The Effect Of Life- Without-Parole Statutes On Capital Punishment." Harvard Law Review 119.6 (Apr. 2006): 1838-1854. Academic Search Premier. ESCO. ESCO U. Of MD…
"A Matter Of Life And Death: The Effect Of Life- Without-Parole Statutes On Capital Punishment." Harvard Law Review 119.6 (Apr. 2006): 1838-1854. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. EBSCO U. Of MD U. Coll. Info. And Lib. Services. 12 May 2009 .
Cholbi, M. "Race, Capital Punishment, and the Cost of Murder." Philosophical Studies 127.2 (15 Jan. 2006): 255-282. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. U of MD U. Coll. Info. And Lib. Services. 14 May 2009 .
Dieter, Richard C. "A Crisis of Confidence: Americans' Doubt About the Death Penalty" A death Penalty Information Center Report, June 2007. http://uspolitics.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?zi=1/XJ&sdn=uspolitics&cdn=newsissues&tm=49&gps=303_96_988_609&f=10&tt=15&bt=0&bts=1&zu=http%3A//www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/CoC.pdf
Johnson, Robert & McGunigall-Smith, Sandra. "Life Without Parole, America's Other Death Penalty." The Prison Journal, Vol. 88, No. 2, June 2008. http://ft.csa.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/ids70/resolver.php?sessid=e1ptn71nrdccnehb6mb103l6r4&server=csaweb112v.csa.com&check=820d391703772b6c5ebf97825cbea5c0&db=sagecrim-set-c&key=0032-8855%2F10.1177_0032885508319256&mode=pdf
hile "The Raven" is a powerful poem, it reads more like a story and therefore seems less serious and effective than "Thanatopsis." In their uniqueness, each poem realizes the human condition in that we can and are affected by death in different ways. In short, every individual will handle death and the thoughts of death in his or her own way.
Bryant, illiam Cullen. "Thanatopsis." Masterpieces of American Poetry. Van Doren, Mark, ed. New York: Garden City Publishing Co., Inc. 1936.
Eddings, Dennis. "Theme and Parody in 'The Raven.'" Poe and His Times: The Artist and His Milieu. 1990. Gale Resource Database. Information Retrieved December 08, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Gado, Frank. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 250: Antebellum riters in New York. 2001. Gale Resource Database. Information Retrieved December 08, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Raven." The Complete Tales of Mystery and Imagination. Minneapolis: Amaranth Press. 1981.
Bryant, William Cullen. "Thanatopsis." Masterpieces of American Poetry. Van Doren, Mark, ed. New York: Garden City Publishing Co., Inc. 1936.
Eddings, Dennis. "Theme and Parody in 'The Raven.'" Poe and His Times: The Artist and His Milieu. 1990. Gale Resource Database. Information Retrieved December 08, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Gado, Frank. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 250: Antebellum Writers in New York. 2001. Gale Resource Database. Information Retrieved December 08, 2008.
Her need for love makes her kill Homer. He was her last chance for love and her only chance to avoid being alone every night for the rest of her life. Dead in her bed was one way she knew she could have him forever. Death keeps Emily's dream alive.
Emily's life is one of loss. From the beginning of the story, we know Emily is protected and sheltered by her father. He was doing his best to keep her from getting hurt but all he did was make her life after his death more difficult. He had " driven away" (455) all of Emily's suitors in her younger days. Her father keeps Emily from partaking in some basic aspects of life so that when he dies, she is lost. She misses out on opportunities and friendships because he father is in the way.
"A Rose for Emily" is a…
Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction. Cassill, R.V.,
ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1981. pp. 451-8. Print.
For the author, death in its simplest term is stupid and weak. Death is useless, that every time it executes its job it often misses which only adds on misery and pain for man. Death is perceived to be pathetic and frail showing most of its weaknesses in every attempt to fulfill its work even with man's own intervention.
Sometimes it isn't strong enough, to swat a fly from the air"
Ill will won't help
And even our lending hands with wars and coup de etat is so far not enough"
It still cannot impede the overall offspring of life because every time it does it only fails and life still continues to prevail. The creativity of man to dissuade death has made it lose its credibility in modern times. According to the poem, there have many times that the occurrence of death has opposed the natural flow time and…
Death Be Not Proud, the Holy Sonnets, John Donnes, v. 5, 10, 15; Extracted October 11, 2006
On Death Without Exaggeration, Wilawa Szymborska, v. 5-45; Extracted October 11, 2006
drama is tragic not only because of Willy Loman's suicide, but because he has left his family with nothing, and his sons with no hopes and abilities of their own.
Brief overview of the play
Argument for tragedy
Pro argument for tragedy
Con argument against tragedy
What the critics say
Death of a Salesman as Tragedy
This paper analyzes the play Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller. Specifically, it discusses the definition of tragedy by Aristotle, and research if it is correct to label the play as a tragedy.
Death of a Salesman is indeed a tragedy of epic proportions. The drama is tragic not only because of Willy Loman's suicide, but because he has left his family with nothing, and his sons with no hopes and abilities of their own.
Arthur Miller wrote Death of a Salesman in 1948,…
Adamczewski, Zygmunt. The Tragic Protest. The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1963.
Amsden, Robert. "Aristotle's Definition of Tragedy." Ripon College. 2002. 29 Aug. 2005.
Bloom, Harold. Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House, 1988.
Although many modern Christians do not realize it, an understanding of Jesus' historical context is extremely helpful, perhaps even essential to true understanding of Christianity. After all, it is only once one understands the geographical, political, religious, and social environment of Jesus' time period that one can truly understand the impact of Jesus Christ. One of the reasons that a historical perspective is important is because many modern-day Christians are separated from their Jewish roots. However, one must always bear in mind that Jesus was not a Christian; Jesus was a Jew and his life and death had been foretold in Jewish prophecies for hundreds of years. In addition:
Jesus addressed his gospel- his message of God's imminent kingdom and of judgment, of God's fatherly providence, of repentance, holiness, and love- to his fellow countrymen. He preached only to Jews. Not a syllable shows that he detached this message…
Edersheim, Alfred. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. Grand Rapids, MI: Christian
Classics Ethereal Library, 2005. 15 Oct. 2006 http://www.ccel.org/ccel/edersheim/lifetimes.html .
Edersheim, Alfred. Sketches of Jewish Social Life. Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 2005. 15 Oct. 2006 http://www.ccel.org/ccel/edersheim/sketches.toc.html .
Dennis ader (BTK Killer)
Dennis ader who is commonly as the BTK killer was born in Kansas in 1945 and was the first born of four siblings born to William and Dorothea ader. He is renowned as an American serial killer who carried out the murder of 10 individuals in Sedgwick County between 1974 and 1991 around Wichita, Kansas. Dennis ader's nickname as BTK killer or BTK strangler is derived from the method he used in killing his victims. In essence, ader used bind, torture and kill to execute his serial murders, which resulted in his nickname as BTK killer. Dennis ader derived great joy and pleasure from killing to an extent that he wanted his nickname on the list of the worst serial killers across the globe. Similar to most depraved serial killers, the BTK killer or BTK strangler covered his demon behind an ordinary human's facade.
Anderson, P. (2014, October 7). Dennis Rader -- aka the 'BTK Killer' -- Wanted His Nickname
on the List of the World's Worst Serial Killers. Herald Sun. Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/law-order/dennis-rader-aka-the-btk-killer-wanted-his-nickname-on-the-list-of-the-worlds-worst-serial-killers/story-fni0ffnk-1227082442236?nk=3951385106e690efb9c641a717d17e8a
Blanco, J.I. (n.d.). Dennis Lynn Rader. Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://murderpedia.org/male.R/r/rader-dennis.htm
"Dennis Rader Biography." (n.d.). Biography. Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://www.biography.com/people/dennis-rader-241487#synopsis
hatever the significance of the phrase "He kindly stopped for me," the speaker does not dread Death, as personified by the kindly carriage driver. This poem also suggests that the speaker's perceptions of time and space are different in death; centuries may pass, yet it still Feels shorter than the Day first surmised the Horses Heads
ere toward Eternity -- (Lines 22-24)
In both "465" ("I heard a Fly buzz -- when I died"), and "712" ("Because I could not stop for Death -- ") death is a theme. In neither poem is the speaker afraid or resisting death. In the first, the speaker simply awaits death while family and friends anxiously mark the "onset" and arrival of the "King" (which never comes). In the second, Death, is a kindly carriage driver, and welcomed. Neither poem contains inference of fear of death. Both poems may therefore underscore Emily Dickinson's own…
Dickinson, Emily. "465." The Harper American Literature. Vol. 2, 2nd. Ed.
Donald McQuade et al. (Eds.). New York: Longman, 1993. 188.
Dickinson, Emily. "712." The Harper American Literature. Vol. 2. 2nd Ed.
Donald McQuade et al. (Eds.). New York: Longman, 1993. 193.
During that time, I cannot recall mourning, but I cannot recall feeling much of anything else, either.
My grief returned more intensely than before at the graveside service.
Afterwards, I was exhausted by the emotional flood that I had experienced, but it is equally possible that the relief was more a function of all the energy that it had required not to release during the time between my father's death and his funeral. As powerful as the feelings of outright grief were some of the more unexpected feelings I began to experience in the next few weeks: feelings of anger at my father, anger at myself, shame, totally inexplicable feelings of hurt, and fear, and also relief.
A realized for the fist time, only weeks after my father's death, that I was angry at my father: angry that he'd refused the dialysis which could have prolonged his life; angry at…
Moreover, in Perry v. Louisiana, 498 U.S. 38 (1990), the Court used that decision to bolster Louisiana's attempts to forcibly medicate a prisoner in order to make him death-eligible. If one agrees that the death penalty is a just penalty for one who has committed a capital crime, and that the reason that mentally ill defendants should not be executed is because they lack competence, then it does not seem unethical to allow them to be forcibly medicated in order to be competent. After all, in that scenario, avoiding medication could be likened to any other attempt to avoid punishment. Moreover, an organic physical disorder that arose after conviction, but that would have prevented a defendant from committing a crime, would not be sufficient reason not to execute a person on death row.
However, forced medication, especially for court appearances, may violate a defendant's Fifth Amendment right to present a…
Bonnie, R. (2007). Panetti v. Quarterman: mental illness, the death penalty, and human dignity. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 5, 257-283.
Fentiman, L. (1986). Whose right is it anyway? Rethinking competency to stand trial in light of the synthetically sane insanity defense. University of Miami Law Review, 40, 1109-1127.
Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399 (1986).
Panetti v. Quarterman, 127 S. Ct. 2842 (2007).
Indeed, the death penalty is one of the most divisive issues in the entirety of the criminal justice system as it currently exists within the United States of America. Although many polls do suggest that a majority of Americans ultimately do support the employment of the death penalty, it faces stern and strong opposition from a violent minority that radically opposes the death penalty for a variety of reasons, including the concerns that it is unfair for the state to deny an individual of his life, that it is racist in its employment, that it is more likely to be applied to defendants that cannot afford their own counsel, and that it is a terrible practice because mistaken executions are irrevocable and no fitting reparations can ever be made. Indeed, the concerns are so great that the United States Supreme Court even instituted a death penalty ban during…
Carlson, Margaret. "Don't Give Him the Satisfaction." Time Magazine. April 22, 2003.
Retrieved November 19, 2003, at http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/ article.
Shapiro, Bruce. "Dead Reckoning." The Nation. August 6, 2001. Retrieved November 18, 2003 at
However, the reasons why people commit crime are as different as the individuals themselves. Intentional murder comes in two different flavors. The first is the carefully plotted, well thought out, planned act. In this scenario, motivational theory takes over. The person must feel that they will gain some type of value from the action. It may be that they gain something, such as money, or they may feel that eliminating a person will offer them some type of protection. In any case, the person justifies their actions through a perceived reward in the future (Horisch and Strassmair).
In the case of an intentional murder, the death penalty may deter the action. However, several conditions must be met for the fear of death to act as a deterrent. The person must feel that there is a significant possibility that they will be caught and punished for their crimes. In many cases,…
Amnesty International. Death Penalty. 2008. www.amnestyusa.org/death-penalty/page.do?id=1011005).
Death Penalty Information Center. Facts About the Death Penalty. March 1, 2009. http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/ FactSheet.pdf (Accessed March 10, 2009). (Gumbel, a. The Innocence Project: Guilty Until Proven Innocent. Common Dreams My 4, 2006). http://www.commondreams.org/headlines06/0504-09.htm (Accessed March 10, 2009).
Horisch, H. And Strassmair, C. An experimental test of the deterrence hypothesis. Discussion Papers in Economics. February 27, 2008. University of Munich. http://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/2139/2/crime_Munich_DP.pdf (Accessed March 10, 2009).
Radelet, M., Bedau, H., and Putnam, C. In Spite of Innocence: Erroneous Convictions in Capital Cases. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1992, and Bedau and Radelet, "Miscarriages of Justice in Potentially Capital Cases." Stanford Law Review 40 (1987): 21-179)