Robert Frost's "Nothing Gold Can Stay." Deconstructionism is the reasons the poetry have meaning to the reader and the author. hat are the biases in the poem?
THE ROAD NOT TAKEN
Robert Frost wrote the poem, "Nothing Gold Can Stay." Robert Frost's poem discusses nature's color of gold. He states that nature's first green as gold. Deconstructionism is taking a poem and applying it to life. "All of life is text to be interpreted, whether it is a poem..." (Bahnsen 3). The changes of nature can be described as gold and it deteriorates until it is gone. Love can be described as gold when a person first falls in love. Once the romance starts deteriorating, love (gold) is gone. hether Robert Frost is describing a woman who is born in beauty then the beauty deteriorates can be a second meaning to this. Both will be used to discuss the meaning…… [Read More]
seeds of gender equality, however elusive such a thing may continue to be, were surely planted by the frustration of women confined to the roles crafted by longstanding patriarchy. Herein, women inclined toward any level of independent thought or transcendent desire were stunted by the obligations of sociological appropriateness. Women were strictly daughters, wives and mothers. Certainly, in a world were men pontificated abstractly, while affording little time for emotional intimacy with family, women were the cross-bearers of domestic responsibility and the perpetuation of love. There was little time or space beyond that in which a woman could propose to be herself, thinking and acting upon her own desires. Virginia Woolf's work invited a new perspective of the individual woman both in times of male-dominated stagnancy and self-guided metamorphosis. One of Woolf's first watershed devices was the very simple assertion of a female protagonist, or as is the case in…… [Read More]
atership Down, Psychological Criticisms
Psychological Criticisms, Figures & Concepts
Psychological critics of literary works approach a novel by looking at it through a psychological lense. Critics will usually look at the motivations of the characters themselves, or, if there is enough known about the author (for example, Shakespeare), they will analyze the authors motivation, or purpose, for the novel. There are several methods to a psychological criticism; some critics use the Freudian approach, where characters, concepts, and even the setting are broken down into various parts (the id, symbols, sexuality, etc.). Some critics use the Jungian approach, where most of the analysis is focused on the main character and villain, such as the different parts of the self and the persona (Burris). There is yet another method, by Charles Mauron, which focuses on the literary works of an author as though they were a dream, and the final stage of…… [Read More]
hat are the three or four most important concerns for the psychoanalytic criticism theory?
One concern off the bat is that no matter how valid the field of psychoanalytic investigation is, and how much respect that Freud's theory has garnered over the years, in terms of the psychoanalytic criticism theory's contribution to understanding humans and society, there are doubts as to its validity. hen the psychoanalytic criticism theory it is used to look into the reasons that authors use certain conflicts, characters, themes and other literary tools, it can be seen as an inappropriate intrusion into literature. An author like Edgar Allen Poe, for example, has been deceased for many years, but 21st century critics can rip through his novels and short stories and conclude that his psychological makeup was twisted, that his mind was warped in the direction of hideousness. Obviously Poe had a dark imagination, and…… [Read More]
Cultural criticism has been for the most part unfairly limited to cultures apart from the majority culture. ithin Robert Frost's poetry, there is an obvious cultural understanding which should be explored by literary scholars. Frost was writing at the beginning of the twentieth century from the perspective of a male member of the majority culture who was witnessing the beginnings of other groups' demands for equalization within the society. He was also witness to the industrial overtaking of the natural world in the form of expansions of cities and factories before and during the First orld ar. My intention is to prove that both of these topics can be explored by linking Robert Frost's poetry to the theory of cultural criticism using both the texts as well as academic evidence related to this theory, including the text by Charles Bressler.
Frost's poem "The Road Not Taken" is one of the…… [Read More]
Macbeth and the Struggle between Good and Evil
Like all of Shakespeare's tragedies, the action of Macbeth is based around the fatal flaw of the man who would otherwise be a hero. For Macbeth, his flaw is his ambition. He allows his ambition to drive him and this overcomes his reason. In doing so, he chooses the path of evil over the path of good. In the end though, he cannot live with his own choice and his good side becomes his underdoing. In this way, Macbeth is not only the story of a man choosing evil, but also the story of a man who cannot be driven to ignore his good side. This makes Macbeth a unique play because it shows both sides of the struggle between good and evil and makes it a human struggle. This major theme in the play is expressed in several ways. This…… [Read More]
Religious Criticism and Idealization of Women in Giovanni occaccio's "Decameron"
In the world of medieval literature, Giovanni occaccio is renowned for his timeless contributions in the form of "Decameron," also translated as "Ten Day's Work." This literary piece by occaccio chronicles the short stories and narratives of ten (10) people who sought refuge from the city that is being affected with lack Plague, a disease that left Europe's developing human civilization to ruin and destruction. "Decameron" is created to provide people with a venue for discussion of the social ills that "plague" the 13th and 14th century society of Europe, particularly occaccio's homeland, Italy. These social ills are parallel to the disease that is ravaging Europe's cities during the lack Plague, and occaccio uses this event to discuss and criticize the dysfunctions that he found to exist in his society. Thus, with this in mind, Giovanni occaccio set out to…… [Read More]
hat you do in life, good, bad, otherwise, comes back to haunt you. And the suicide of Robert X is an embodiment of that lesson.
In reading about this book, in preparation for this essay, I came across a conversation the author had with John Lowe concerning the tight narrative quality of the book, and I think in commenting about it, Gaines underscores one of the book's major themes:
P: There's nothing wasted in that book. It's totally honest and almost foreordained from the beginning, from the first page.
Gaines: A great man falls, and what he's going to do when he gets up. He feels that even God had failed him. He could not even please God any more (Lowe 184).
This theme, or question rather, of how does one deal with failure is an important one, on the individual level as well as on the group level. How…… [Read More]
At this precise time, a young communist named Mao Zedong popularized the idea of land reforms and focused his attention on the issue of poverty among peasant class. He convinced his fellow communists that the only solution to all problems lied in strengthening the agricultural sector by introducing land reforms. He worked ceaselessly for the peasants but his party was driven to remote corners of North China during the Long March. This action, taken by Chiang government, was a clear indication of the paranoia and insecurity that were building in nationalist forces (Peoples: Rise). Mao continued to fight government's oppressive rule even while in exile and this lasted till 1937 at which point, Japan invaded China and the nationalist-communist conflict came to an end.
In 1920s, Malraux was present in China and observed the political dynamics of the country. The oppression and communist popularity affected his deeply and 1927 revolution…… [Read More]
Twain and Cooper
The following essay looks at Mark Twain's reaction to James Fennimore Cooper's writing, and more specifically at the praise given to Cooper by these people. The reader should take away that Twain was correct in what he wrote because he was structurally accurate. However, Twain slights Cooper in that he looks at his works from an only a structural standpoint. Cooper's works meant much more to American literature than the face value of the books. Cooper was an innovator as far as American literature went, and gave American writers a distinct voice.
At first the essay strikes of jealousy, but Twain seemed more irritated by what the critics overlooked than he was of Cooper's writing. The assignment was enjoyable because it speaks to the clear differences between a visionary writer and a more structural one. Twain is more of an engineer than a creator. He…… [Read More]
Luther's thought incited anti-Roman sentiment and thought initially in his native Germany. He strongly influenced sympathetic local princes to confiscate church lands and property and to redistribute these. He urged for the end of the practice of granting indulgences. Through his work, 95 Theses, he questioned the worth and truthfulness of indulgences. The Roman Catholic Church "granted" indulgences to absolve one's sin from a "treasury of merits" of the Church. Luther could not accept the clergy's ability to absolve sin and that it was something, which could be bought. He held that there was no biblical basis for indulgences and that the ible should be the sole basis and center of Christian theology. Outside of the ible, the clergy had no sure and valid foundation for their interpretations (Hermansen).
The foremost Reformation figure after Luther and Huldreich Zwingli, a Swiss pastor, was John Calvin, a French Protestant theologian (Microsoft Encarta…… [Read More]
Objective Criticism of a Short Story:
The Shawl by Louise Erdrich
Louise Erdrich's narrative is a story within a story. The author begins with a legend-like introduction of the hardships facing a family, which she later links with the present troubles, though a few generations later, of the same family. In the first part of the narrative, the author presents her audience with the two parents and their two children, a boy of five and a girl of nine. However, she makes note that the mother bears a child by a man other than her husband, which soon tears the family apart. The mother falls out of love with her husband quickly, and chooses to go live with her lover. She takes her daughter and her baby, and proceeds to be driven to her lover by his uncle, while the father is left behind with the boy of five.…… [Read More]
Greene's the Power and the Glory
Graham Greene's The Power and the Glory is believed by some to be his finest work. The book addresses a variety of social, religious and personal issues that lay close to the heart of the author. The Mexican situation and the Catholic faith are for example two prominent issues addressed by the work. elow is then a consideration of the context and inner truths from which Graham Greene created this work.
Roman Catholicism in Mexico
Greene met the woman who would be his wife, Vivien Dayrell-rowning while he was working at the Nottingham Journal. While some say that this is his reason for converting to Roman Catholicism, it is obvious that his devotion and affection for this religion later became much deeper than the catalyst for a woman's love. The way in which the protagonist of The Power and the Glory, the priest, is…… [Read More]
Man's Fate" by Andre Malraux [...] use of opium in the novel and research and critique this aspect of the novel and how it relates to the literary accuracy of the novel. Opium use is well documented in Asia, and the use of opium figures heavily in this novel. Baron de Clappique smuggles opium, and several characters use opium throughout the book. Opium and China seem to go together in history. esearch into opium, and how opium in portrayed in this novel will show that opium use was widespread in Chinese culture, and it was accepted, even if it did eventually become illegal.
Opium has a long and varied history, and it always seemed threaded through the Chinese people. There are records of opium poppies being cultivated as far back as 3400 B.C. By the Sumerians, and it had spread to China by the eighth century. By the sixteenth century,…… [Read More]
Brendan Behan contributed much to the literary genre, though his literary achievements often are subordinate to his public recognition as a drunk, disorderly and often amusing or entertaining member of society. Many literary critics fail to recognize Behan for the serious contributions he made to writing, instead choosing to focus on the controversy that exists regarding his work ethic and personal habits.
This paper asserts however that Behan used his writing to voice his disagreement with the notion of cultural nationalism that existed during the time he lived in Ireland. Brannigan (2002) supports this notion claiming that Behan's writing in fact allowed him to "articulate dissident" and contributed to the emergence of revisionist and other critiques of nationalism (Brannigan, 2002).
This paper will also delve into the idea that Behan wrote from a strictly humanistic point, attempting to enlighten his audience with amusing anecdotes about human nature, sharing the notion…… [Read More]
Playwright August ilson won two Pulitzers in his illustrious career. In The Pittsburgh Cycle, ilson wrote a series of plays each depicting a different decade in the lives of African-Americans living in the United States. Of these, Fences, takes place in the 1950s and features the problems not only of the African-American experience, but also the situation of societal oppression indicative of that period. At the heart of the play is protagonist Troy Maxson. His actions result in comedy and tragedy for all of the characters around him, making him the center of this universe that ilson has created, representing the tumultuous time period in which the play takes place. August ilson has stated that the character is based upon his own step-father, David Bedford providing the story with an autobiographical context. ilson uses his own perception of his step-father in order to illustrate a story about the difficulties…… [Read More]
Because society compromises the value of the woman, it is allowed the life of domesticity and life. The speaker however remains forever beyond this because she chooses self-realization instead.
In Heaney's "Punishment," feminism can be seen from the male viewpoint, as it were. The corpse of a bog girl, an adulteress, educates the narrator regarding issues of gender and politics. The narrator, far from the conventional male reaction of disgust, instead becomes infatuated with her. It is as if he is the male representative of the feminist viewpoint; that women offer value and education rather than objects of sex or symbols of domesticity. The intimacy between the speakers involve no blame. Instead of man and woman, they are equals, in strong contrast with the society that would condemn them both for their actions and their association.
Academy of American Poets. A Close Reading of "I Cannot Live With You."…… [Read More]
Communicative Theory of Biblical Interpretation
Any theory is a composite of residual aspects of earlier theories and fresh compositions illuminated by the present context. The several theories that have been applied to the study of Scriptures are no exception, and this discussion will explore how several theories have come to coalesce in the communicative theory of Biblical interpretation. The relation of literary criticism, structural criticism, and reader-response criticism to the Biblical interpretation as seen through the lens of communicative theory will be discussed. Aspects of contextualization, relevance theory, and speech-act theory are explored with regard to the influence of these constructs on the development of modern communicative theory.
Communicative theory. The written word is a special form of communication -- a mysterious way for people to experience the inner thoughts of another being. The Bible, as a written record of the experiences and history of ancient Israelites and Christians, provides…… [Read More]
hat does this passage say about the relationship with God?
Robert Imperato observes that "Matthew connects Jesus repeatedly to Jewish prophecy throughout the text" (17). The point he emphasizes, however, is that the Jews had a special relationship to God, through the Mosaic covenant contained in the Old Testament.
Yet, Jesus makes it clear, according to Imperato, that He is giving "a new interpretation of the Law" (17). In fact, Jesus is fulfilling the Old Testament prophecies, identifying Himself as the Son of God, and the Messiah in whom the prophets must place their trust if they seek salvation.
Therefore, Christ sets out the guidelines for the new relationship with the Lord that all must have who do indeed wish to cry out, "Lord, Lord." The Lord, through Christ, is showing that the way to salvation is not through legalism, or through adherence only to the Old Law,…… [Read More]
Critic Donald B. Pruitt uses "cold hard fact" from the narrative involving Christ's trial to set those chapters aside from the chapters that are fantasy. Pruitt sees the success that Bulgakov has accomplished by editing St. John's version of Pilate and Christ's discussion, and in truth Bulgakov's version is read-made for creative realism.
In the Gospel According to John, Pilate says to Christ: "Do you not know that I have the power to release you and power to crucify you?" (Pruitt, 1981, p. 2). Christ answered: "You would have no power over me unless it had been given you from above…" (p. 2). In Bulgakov's version, Pilate says something more contemporary and likely more true to what actually took place: "[Your life] is hanging by a thread: know that." Christ answered cryptically: "You don't think, do you, hegemon, that it is you who hung it?" "If you do," Christ continued,…… [Read More]
"e're leaving,' he hissed. "I'm taking you straight to the hospital." hen Susan rose shakily to her feet, uncontrollable diarrhea had stained her dress and dripped from the chair. hite with fury, Charles Hay took her by the arm and led her slowly from the hall." (Melville 134)
The work again intones an incredible journey through what a women sees a man thinking. The disconnectedness of Susan from her husband is so complete that her voice is only marginal in the work, but the message is clear in the literary expression of her secreted activities. The masculine is represented as the feminist idea of greater association with industry than home, to the peril of loving relationships. The writing demonstrates a character who is wholly disconnected from ethics in love and life, and in s sense is a demonized masculine archetype.
Among these three works are three completely differing context…… [Read More]
John Dryden, English poet and critics who was is well-known for his political and religious poetry, explicates on the nature of good writing in his essay, "An essay of dramatic poesy." In this discourse, Dryden looks into the qualities that best defines good writing in literature as a literary work created through three important elements: the work must have a purpose, has a well-conveyed message comprehensible to the reader, and is expressed with wit and intelligence in the simplest and easiest language to understand.
For Dryden, works of literature must be created for a purpose, an honest purpose with strong effectiveness, not a literary works written for the writer's benefit only. This kind of writer, which Dryden identifies as the 'first sort of poetry' -- that is, good poetry -- is synonymous with the writer who is "...so much a well-willer to the satire that he spares no…… [Read More]
watching a James ond film, one often wonders. If the ond character were real, would he be able to experience a traumatizing situation -- killing a villain or escaping with his life -- and then straightening the lapels of his dinner jacket proceed to seduce a beautiful woman? While ond's celluloid heroics transport us as long as the movie lasts, we know that it is unrealistic, and comes from the imagination of Ian Fleming, who like most authors and novelists, probably sat at his desk tapping away at his Remington, letting his mind do the wandering or the conjuring, as was necessary for the plot.
Ernest Hemingway, we know, has lived his novels. He was larger than life, and he lived larger than life E.L. Doctorow, in a tribute to Hemingway, describes a day in Florida when Hemingway persevered after hooking a huge marlin to snag and capture it. ut…… [Read More]
A description of the entrance of Elmer Stark, father of Eddy and Tony, into the world of the story makes both the masculine and the feminine exotic, other, and unknowable, while at the same time igniting tensions and passions -- outright lust, in fact -- between them in a fetishization of the other. Nettie, the Stark matriarch, is described watching this stranger wash, "his naked shoulders, the gleam of his skin, and the lines of charred bronze where the sun had burned his neck and wrists, the faint red-gold of the hairs that edged from under his belt at his waist" (Lane, p. 144). This description makes it clear that Elmer is not being viewed as a human, but as an other, just as Nettie is creating her own distance and just as distances were created with the native peoples through such objectification. ith such beginnings as these, it is…… [Read More]
He is concerned that as the social sciences increasingly becomes more quantified, they loffer less understanding into the concepts behind symbols. This is especially of concern, since symbols have played such an important role throughout history. Duncan gives examples of symbol misunderstandings such as: confusion of the symbolic and subjective, failure to study symbolic forms, and sociologists' inability to use non-mechanistic models. Even worse, there is no agreement between scholars on how to define the concept of symbol nor explain the ambiguity of symbols. Is this lack of definitive agreement the reason why people perceive reality differently? Does this lead to misunderstandings and a failure to communicate?
Berger and Luckmann. Social construction.
QUESTION: Berger and Luckman state that society is a human product. Can it also be the product of lower animals? Recently, it was shown that chimpanzees actually are capable of culture or the passing of knowledge from one…… [Read More]
Theseus reminds Hermia that the person she is, with her beauty as an asset that is so appreciated by Lysander, is because she is the product of her father. She is "but as a form in wax (Shakespeare online), a reproduction of her father, "By him imprinted within his power (Shakespeare online).
Johnnie Patricia Mobley resolves the conflict between the characters of Hermia and Helena (on whose behalf Oberon intercedes with his good intentions of administering the magic potion). Hermia and Lysander do this by sharing with Helena their plan to run away beyond the authority of Hermia's father so that they can be together (Mobley 16). This is Shakespeare's way of addressing the love triangle, which must have often come up in the lives of people whose marriages were arranged. It also looks at the solution for Hermia and Lysander, and Oberon's intervention gives the audience, and Hermia, time…… [Read More]
role of religion in the history of European society is a tumultuous one. Christianity, from its obscure beginnings in the classical age, eventually took the reins as the centerpiece of philosophical, literary, and scientific thought. It is true that religion, often, tends to justify actions that might objectively be perceived as incongruous to the established faith. It has historically been the case that when traditional forms of worship become threatened, morally questionable methods are undertaken to strengthen the order. This is certainly the case with Christianity. Since the birth of the Catholic Church in the Roman Empire, Church officials have actively attempted to make their privileged positions in society impervious to assault -- this process has progressed for centuries and, indeed, tens of centuries. For many years this single faith dominated nearly every aspect of European society and was a strong force in maintaining the status quo. However, the many…… [Read More]
"She relaxed limply in the seat. "Oh, no. No. I don't want to go. I'm sure I don't." Her face was turned away from him. "It will be enough if we can have wine. It will be plenty." She turned up her coat collar so he could not see that she was crying weakly -- like an old woman" (Steinbeck).
There are a number of fairly eminent points to be made about this quotation -- the first of which is that Allen's husband has taken her away from her source of power -- her garden. Away from that source, she is described by imagery that is rather enervating and in opposition to the vivacity she previously personified. The imagery of her sitting "limply" and weeping "weakly" is strongly contrasted with the images of her cutting through plants and powerfully gripping handfuls of earth -- which symbolizes the source of her…… [Read More]
Love Poem" John Frederick Nims info authors life included literary criticism poem. essay a strong consistent thesis statement, written 3rd person
John Frederick Nims' poem "Love Poem" makes it possible for readers to understand that a love poem does not necessarily need to incorporate traditional concepts in order for it to be successful in sending the right messages. Nims' understanding of love appears to be much more complex in comparison to typical love-related feelings present in most poems. The poet wishes to surprise by putting across his strongest feelings and it is very likely that he wants readers to understand that loving words are not always enough to put across one's love. The lover that this poem is dedicated to is human and in spite of the fact that some might consider this to be a flaw, the poet intends to raise people's awareness regarding the perfection related to being…… [Read More]
"hat does that have to do with your daddy?"
"Heh, one of them even had cow dung on his left shoe. Did you know my dad enterted one of them great plantations and rubbed dung all over one of their rugs?"
"No Sarty, you ain't tell me anything like that."
"That's cause the day he died I never looked back. I decided that my momma, my aunt, my brothers, my dad, they were all part of the past and I was headed towards the future."
"eren't you scared of being on your own? You were only ten."
"ell, the owner of the plantation, De Spain, felt bad for killin my dad for startin the fire, and decided to pay for me to go stay at one of his servant's quarters. It was there I spent the next couple years learnin to read and write and became obsessed wth trains."…… [Read More]
Not only does he display his knowledge of race relations but also his understanding of classism and how the government treats poor people. More specifically, Dyson utilizes scholarship to points out the failings of the Bush administration and the American government as it pertained to Hurricane Katrina and its response to the victims who were overwhelmingly black and poor. The Scholar in Eric Dyson also presents statistics and facts associated with the population of New Orleans.
Scholarly and literary Criticism of Come Hell or High ater
Indeed Dyson's book has received a great deal of scholarly and literary criticism. As it pertains to scholarly criticism professor of history at UCLA Gary B. Nash, refers to Come Hell or High ater as a "brilliant and sobering analysis" ("Reviews and Praise"). Nash goes on to say that the book accurately addresses racial politics and the inadequacies of the bush administration in light…… [Read More]
..render up myself...Doom'd for a certain term to walk the night...And for the day confined to fast in fires, / Till the foul crimes done in my days of nature/Are burnt and purged away." (I.5). At first, Hamlet believes the ghost is from Purgatory because of the vividness of these images. Then Hamlet constructs a test for the ghost as he worries: "the devil hath power/to assume a pleasing shape; yea, and perhaps/Out of my weakness and my melancholy, / as he is very potent with such spirits" (2.2). In short, Hamlet begins to doubt the doctrine because the ghost ostensibly from Purgatory has asked him to commit a murder, to kill a king.
Hamlet seldom displays a consistent attitude to Purgatory in the play. In his most famous soliloquy, Hamlet says that death is a place from which "no traveler returns" indicating he doubts the ghost (III.1). Hamlet wrestles…… [Read More]
Some -- give trouble for half a year (Kipling)."
The above passage is clear and plain as it describes deaths by heart attacks that are sudden, accidents that are sudden and death by illness in which the person slowly dies.
In another passage Kipling illuminates the fact that just as there are many different personalities among the living, there are also many different personalities among the dying and how they choose to react to their impending death.
Some die quietly. Some abound
In loud self-pity. Others spread
Bad morale through the cots around...
This is a type that is better dead (Kipling). "
There is no question about what point Kipling seeks to make with his writing. He is clear and concise and there is no need to try and second guess any underlying meaning of his intent as one passes through the poems and stories of his career.
His…… [Read More]
" Emecheta uses metaphors, similes and allusions with appropriate timing and tone in this book, and the image of a puppet certainly brings to mind a person being controlled, manipulated, made to comply instantly with any movement of the controlling hand. In this case Ego seems at the end of her rope -- the puppet has fallen nearly to the floor and is dangling helplessly.
The Emecheta images and metaphors are sometimes obvious, as this one is, but always effective. The reader is clearly aware of Ego's initial identity, and Ego's swift feet of lightness and intensity running in the misty darkness, presents a fluid sensation -- a hoped for escape. She is running towards a new identity and when she hits the gravel road the color is of blood and water and she runs like this will be her duty forever, like someone is following her. The image of…… [Read More]
Scholars have repeatedly stated that the gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are linked together by various similarities. As such, the three writings have been united under the entitlement Synoptic Gospels. The majority of literary investigations rely on equivalences in content, style, and order of events being similar and frequent in the Synoptic Gospels to such extend that they appear vastly separated from John's. Cursive analyses of the gospels have defined the questioning of the interrelationship between the three as problematic. There are those who claim various priorities, such as Matthew's preceding Mark's and vice versa, while other scholars, specifically Christians, avoid addressing the matter. The latter deny the existence of a literary interrelationship and maintain strong beliefs that the three gospels were written independently. From a religious point-of-view, there would be no need to explain or emphasize on similarities because of the gospels' divine nature. Our goal for this…… [Read More]
This basically means that the criticism to feminist political theories resembles more the substance of other I theories.
6. First off, we should discuss the differences between system level theories and state level theories. What are the benefits to studying international relations at the state level? What are the drawbacks?
In its most basic formulation, state level theories of international politics refer to those ideas which place the country at the core of political actions and decisions. Examples of this sense include the previously discussed realism and transnationalism schools of thought, which argue that the state places itself based on its particular interests. The relevant example of system level theories refers to the class system theories, and they are characterized by the fact that decisions and actions in international politics are not established based on national interests, but relative to the desires and power of specific groups -- generally those…… [Read More]
Soon after, an Aztec general murders several Spaniards from Cortez's band and prove that Cortez and his companions are frauds. Cortez takes Montezuma prisoner and compels him in surrendering the entire empire. The Aztec people choose to disobey their master and than kill Montezuma after he attempts to calm the spirits of the rebellion.
Hearing the news of Cortez's success in Mexico, Velasquez sends an army to arrest the deserter, but most of the men sent to capture Cortez join him after a clash between Cortez's forces and Velasquez's men.
Following several days of skirmish, Cortez enters the capital of the Aztecs once again, with the cost of thousands of lives of native people. After two years of attacks from the Spaniards and their allies, on the 13th of August, 1521, the Aztec king of Guatemoc surrenders his country before Hernan Cortez.
For the following seven years, Cortez remained in…… [Read More]
As such, she fails to address the central problem of feminism in the Pontellier perspective, namely the impossibility of female individuality and independence in a patriarchal world. It is only in isolation that Edna can find any happiness, and she must make this isolation more and more complete in order to maintain her happiness, as the patriarchy has a means of encroaching on all populated areas, and Wollstonecraft's feminism does not offer an alternative to this need to escape humanity.
A final snort of disgust might be distinctly heard from Edna Pontellier upon her reading of this line of Wollstonecraft's, afterwards she might likely have flung the text aside (or into the fireplace, depending on the season): "Pleasure is the business of woman's life, according to the present modification of society" (ch. 4, par. 10). What Wollstonecraft means is that women are thought to be so fragile, so emotional, and…… [Read More]
The French tradition of the Arthurian legends, however, are far less overtly political in their approach to the tales and to Guinevere in particular, and though politics and loyalties are still important elements of these stories the aspects of romance, love, and sexuality are far more prominent. Beginning with the poet Chretien de Troyes, Guinevere began to take on a more active role that at once justifies the feminine and begins to suggest the degradation and un-holiness of the female body and intent. Though Man might still be the more active and potent partner, Woman can corrupt and influence Man, these tales suggest, and the character of Guinevere seems a brand new creation given her immensely increased prominence when compared to all known earlier forms of the legends (Fulton, 3).
Erec and Enide is the tale of one of Arthur's knights and the peasant maid he loves and marries, but…… [Read More]
A appreciate the fact that this English course also included sections on writing effective narrative papers. I found narrative papers to be fun to write because they involve storytelling and rich descriptive language. I feel more creative writing narrative papers, which is why I prefer writing them, as opposed to research papers. When we write narrative papers, I can draw from personal experience, which makes the writing process easier than it is during the process of writing a research paper. Also, the techniques of writing narrative papers differ from the techniques of writing research and persuasive papers. Organization and focus is important, but the paper can be less formal in a narrative essay.
A found literary analysis papers to be among the most difficult to write. I found it very helpful to encounter some of the common techniques for approaching literary criticism. Learning about the different formats such as MLA…… [Read More]
Fiction's Come a Long Way, aby
The development of fiction from its nascent stages until today's contemporary works is a storied one. Many features mark contemporary fiction and differentiate it from the classics of the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries: For one, modern writers use different perspectives to narrate: In some works, the narrator switches from third-person omniscient to first person, and in some contemporary works, even the challenging second-person. Experimentation in styles also marks contemporary fiction: Nabokov, perhaps fiction's greatest ever stylist, has written one novel penned to ladies and gentlemen of the jury, and another as literary criticism on a purposefully mediocre poem. (Nabokov: Lolita and Pale Fire).
ut one of the most pronounced shifts in fiction over these centuries has been the move from stuffy, high art to a fixation on and immersion in pop culture. George Eliot, for instance, in "Daniel Deronda," interspersed a very staid…… [Read More]
hy Is Angst So Universally Appealing?
The course of true love never did run smooth according to the Bard of Avon. Certainly any relationship involving at least two people must allow for at least a good chance of turbulence. But surely true love might indeed run smoothly within the pages of a novel or the rolls of an epic? ell, yes, if that were what the author wanted and (at least as importantly) what the audience wants and expects. But the idea of love that we as humans in different eras and different places often seem most content to embrace as we follow fictional lovers is one in which there is confusion and angst. Fictional lovers are often those who do not know their own minds about what will make them happy and must be forced by fate and the gods to acknowledge the love simmering within them.
This…… [Read More]
" Instead of establishing a set rhythm as with his rhyme scheme, he punctuates in order to delineate an end of a particular episode within the poem which also helps the audience understand when and where his narration changes. Each period concludes an establish section of the poem, the first period ends on "Over her, thrashing and thrusting until he was spent." (ln 8), which importantly ends his narrative of Victorian sex. The following breaks each connote the ending of one thought tangent and the beginning of another. The implication on narrative voice occurs through the shifting of his speaking tone and message after periods. In his first address the narrator is informative, the second he is reflective and the third he places mockery on contemporary standards. Thus, punctuation in this case is use to delineate what specific theme and audience he is address. The use of commas is also…… [Read More]
Anold pefes a compaative method of judging liteatue, a topic he addesses in "The Study of Poety." Accoding to Anold, histoical and pesonal gounds can often confound the compaison. Theefoe, it is impotant to emain as unbiased as possible o at least to acknowledge one's biases when judging liteatue. It is impotant neithe to oveestimate no undeestimate the elevance o impotance of a piece of liteatue, simply because one has a special affection fo it o finds it elevant to a histoical issue. Anold also efes to the ways judging liteatue is constained by histoical context and attitudes. The meit of the wok on a pesonal level is going to be diffeent fom that wok's meit to a boade audience. The compaative method helps to eliminate biases as much as possible.
The Function of Citicism
Liteay citicism functions in seveal diffeent ways. Anold fist notes that the main…… [Read More]
Some artists, such as Aaron Douglas, captured the feeling of Africa in their work because they wanted to show their ancestry through art. Others, like Archibald J. Motley Jr., obtained their inspiration from the surroundings in which they lived in; where jazz was at the forefront and African-Americans were just trying to get by day-to-day like any other Anglo-American. Additionally, some Black American artists felt more comfortable in Europe than they did in America. These artists tended to paint landscapes of different European countries. Most of the latter, however, were ostracized for this because many black politicians felt they should represent more of their African culture in their work (Campbell 1994, Powell and Bailey).
Whatever the case, most African-American artists during this period of time had a similarity that tied them together. Black art was often very colorful and vivacious; having an almost rhythmic feel to it. This was appropriate…… [Read More]
Changes within a text are accounted for as transformations in the synchronic system, and this meant a tendency to fail to deal with time and social changes, which concerned many of the method's critics from the beginning.
Ferdinand de Saussure offers an explication of the linguistic approach and the meaning of language and contributed to the development of structuralism. He sees the nature of communication as deriving from ongoing processes and also considers the relationship between the human being and language as a social relationship. He offers an analysis of the different planes on which language operates and so points to areas for study and comprehension to be applied to literary criticism as to language studies in general. In emphasizing process, he also emphasizes structure, for he denies that we can begin with units -- with words, say, or phonemes -- and instead sees language as deriving meaning and value…… [Read More]
And had Bucke never read any of hitman's earlier poetry (Leaves of Grass, for example) "we might think that words could not convey greater passion" than they did in Drum-Taps (p. 171). "But now we know better," he went on. The "splendid faith" of hitman's earlier poems is "greatly dimmed" in Drum-Taps, he insists. Bucke writes that he was told by a person "who knew the poet well, and who was living in ashington when 'Drum-Taps' were being composed, that he has seen alt hitman…turn aside into a doorway or other out-of-the-way place on the street…" (p. 171).
Once out of the bustle of the busy street, hitman would take out his notebook, Bucke continues, write some lines to Drum-Taps "…and while he was so doing he has seen the tears run down [hitman's] cheeks. I can well believe this, for there are poems in Drum Taps that can…… [Read More]
There is a continuing debate within scholarly circle about the "motiveless malignity" of Iago. (Kolin 214) In other words, a close reading of the play raises the question as to whether evil is spurred by ulterior motives and feelings such as jealously or whether evil is a purely senseless act that is its own motive.
The poet Coleridge was of the view that Iago represents senseless evil in human nature and that his character is a symbol and incarnation of evil itself; hence the famous quote, "The motive-hunting of motiveless Malignity," This refers in particular to Act 1, Scene 3 of Othello in which Iago takes leave of Roderigo. In this soliloquy Iago states that, …. I hate the Moor:
And it is thought abroad, that 'twixt my sheets
He has done my office: I know not if't be true;
ut I, for mere suspicion in that kind,
Will do…… [Read More]
His son, Michael, oversaw the final stages of publication, after his death, of Verne's last written story the Lighthouse at the End of the orld.
CHAPTER 2: THE ORKS of JULES VERNE
Of course, Jules Verne was and remains one of the most well-known writers of fiction in the modern age. Although he was doubtlessly a gifted writer, and used a handful of literary mechanisms that were relatively innovative for his time, his enduring appeal as an author remains the fantastical subject matter of his stories. In this way, far more than any other writer from his age, Verne was a visionary. Though he failed to completely alter the primary literary conventions of the nineteenth century, he was instrumental in the invention of what has come to be the science fiction genre. Furthermore, his tales have revealed a level of foresight and scientific foresight that may never be equaled in…… [Read More]
Eat, Pray, Love
Into the Wild
Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail
epresentation from Media Studies -- Culture and its elevance
Post Modernism Literature
Importance of Culture in Analysis
Theory and Methodology
Thematic Analysis -- Framework
Thematic analysis is appropriate for the following situations
Detective and inductive approaches
Analysis of two different phased of data
Analysis and Process of Comparing Literary Works of Post-Modern Period
Post Modernism Writers
Post Modern Literary Theory
A person's personal, work, and family life and how they relate to nature all define how well the person knows himself. This article will explore how one comes of age and life stages by comparing three movies and three novels. The books are Motorcycle Diaries (Che Guevara), Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail (Cheryl Strayed) and Into the Wild (John Krakauer). The…… [Read More]
Ulysses: An Odyssey of Errors
Critics of James Joyce call his work cryptic and rambling, not easily followed by most readers. They proclaim that it lacks plot and classical elements of modern literature. However, Joyce did not intentionally write a bad novel, rather he was experimenting with a new literary style, one which broke almost all of the rules of modern literature. None the less, there have been those in society who have attempted to "correct" and "improve" upon Joyce's works. These attempts at "improvement" are to be the subject of this research. This research will approach the controversy surrounding Ulysses in reference to its place as a piece of art. In such a context, it is doubtful whether later versions of Ulysses have succeeded in clearing up the obscurities in the original novel, but rather have served to further confuse the issue.
Joyce was the first to use the…… [Read More]
Paired Poets." It attempts to compare and contrast the lives, personality, psychology and the work of T.S. Elliot and DH Lawrence. Furthermore, it elaborates the similarities and the differences between both the poets and also details some of the most significant work done by these poets.
Life and Personality of T.S. Elliot and D.H.Lawrence
Thomas. Stearns. Elliot; a poet, editor and a critic was born on 26th September 1888 in St. Louis Missouri. His father; Henry are Eliot was the president of the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company and his mother Charlotte Champe Stearns, a former teacher, an amateur poet and a social work volunteer at the Humanity Club of St. Louis. Born into a prosperous old New England family, Eliot was the youngest of the seven children. Afflicted with a congenital double hernia, he was in the constant eye of his mother and five older sisters. (notablebiographies.com)
Eliot was initially educated…… [Read More]
English writing has taken a new evolutionary path in its development since Independence. India was observed post-colonially by English writers of Indian origin. While new ideas were being developed, emphasis was placed on religious, socio-economic, filial, and political problems as talking points; these issues captured the national movement sensation and attracted the attention of creative writers. Events like the partition and the resulting communal riots following it, coupled with the problems of caste discrimination, misogyny and the squalor in which the proletariat lived, were the major issues of the time. The clamour raised over these issues is massive, with many budding writers boosting the perception of literature as time passes. This paper seeks to evaluate and provide insight into the progress of English writing over a time period ranging from the post- independence period till the present time. Writing veterans who displayed the fifties' realism in their works are…… [Read More]
Poe's famous poem, "The Raven," to most readers is a straightforward yet haunting, chilling tale of the loss of someone loved, and the troubling emotions and inner sensations that go along with a loss, no matter how the loss occurred. In this case, the "rare and radiant maiden whom the angels named Lenore..." is the one lost. hy did an angel name Lenore, one has to wonder? Is there something associated with death or the afterlife in this image?
In fact Poe builds up the beauty of "lost Lenore" in sharp contrast to him saying that it was a "bleak December," and "each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor" and adds that when he awoke from his nap, and looked out his chamber door, there was only darkness "and nothing more."
So the poet is giving a narrator's identity as a person who hears a…… [Read More]
The message is further developed when he refuses to listen to her explanation about why she would work as an agent of suicide, explaining that "a woman's not a woman till the pills wear off." (41). Through these twists and turns, we can see Vonnegut's exploration of sex, sexiness, and age. He utilizes humor and irony to highlight social contradictions and, perhaps, to point out timeless truths about what makes us human.
Another of Vonnegut's trademark literary tools is the use of outright jokes. In this story, Billy the Poet woos his women with poetry, and most of the poems are lewd: "Soak yourself in Jergen's Lotion; Here comes the one man population explosion," (Vonnegut, 1968: 37). The use of humor contributes to Vonnegut's accessibility and helped him become a cult hero for thousands of readers over the years.
Vonnegut may be writing superficially light fiction, but no reader…… [Read More]
Crucible and hat I Have Learned
Arthur Miller's The Crucible is a dramatic, engaging work that challenges the reader/viewer to see beneath the "black and white" dichotomy by which the world is simplistically characterized via such "venerable" institutions in America as the "right" and the "left," the "conservative" and the "liberal" establishment, and the "patriot" and the "traitor" conception. In this play, Miller brings to the fore the fact that there can be and often are conflicting motives within every single human heart, a phenomenon that colors the way people act, interact, think, speak, and -- yes -- betray. At the heart of The Crucible is a drama of sexual tension and spite -- a girlish revenge twisted into something much more heinous by the cruel paroxysms of a community going mad with suspicion, condemnation, and holier-than-thou syndrome. It is a play that reflects one of the sinister secrets of…… [Read More]
Moonstone," a cornerstone in English literature that marks the birth of detective novels
Wilkie Collins published his novel "The Moonstone" in 1868, after a series of novels that had already consecrated him as a genius in the art of sensational fiction. The genre became popular, at that time, in England and abroad, thorough the translations of Collins' novels. "The Moonstone" is written in a narrative form of a detective novel that leads thorough the complicated but well constructed plot built around the theft of a diamond of Indian origin from "a quiet English house" (The Moonstone, p. 46).
In the preface to his novel, Collins emphasizes the fact that the narrative form took over in the construction of The Moonstone, as compared to his previous works: "In some of my former novels, the object proposed had been to trace the influence of circumstances upon character. In the present story I…… [Read More]
This idea appears repeatedly. hen Billy proposes marriage to Valencia:
Billy didn't want to marry ugly Valencia. She was one of the symptoms of his disease. He knew he was going crazy when he heard himself proposing marriage to her, when he begged her to take the diamond ring and be his companion for life, (ibid p.107).
However, he was trapped in his life, for better or worse, such as the fact that Billy knew when he would be killed, yet didn't try to do anything about it. His death is compared with mankind's fate.
At one point Billy discusses the problem of war with the Tralfamadorians (p.117). They tell him that war is inevitable and he is stupid to try to change it. Humanity is trapped in his human nature, to create war and wreak death. Some people want peace, but they are naive and are unaware of human…… [Read More]
Change, however, rather than pure survival propels newly female created and depicted Italian women -- in Barolini, women are not forces of the home front and reaction and religion, as they are in male urban narratives. Rather, beginning even in Barolini's Italian Calabria, women propel a family destiny of fundamental change. After the first years of struggle, the woman and her husband relocate the family to upstate New York where it is Umbertina's determination and innate intelligence that propels her family to unexpected and unanticipated middle class success and security. Thus, because of the determination of a successive generation of women the family can live out the destiny of the American dream that their forbearers set in motion so many years ago in Italy and resolving the tensions between the Italian-American women's conflicts between their socially constructed dual identities and their yearnings for both success and security, family life and…… [Read More]
According to Korean-American comedian Margaret Cho, her first appearance on American television was one of the most devastating experiences of her life, rather than something positive and uplifting. Her sitcom All-American Girl was the first sitcom ever to depict an Asian-American family on screen. But Cho was not permitted to be her funny, raunchy self and the scripts were fully of stereotypes of Asian American people “Critics panned the show for its bad jokes, stereotyped characters and banal storylines that endorsed, rather than shattered, ethnic myths” and Cho struggled with the constant criticism of her weight and appearance by the show’s producers, which they felt was inappropriate for an Asian American woman (Woo). Despite advances in understanding in the intersection of race and culture, representations of Asian women in American sitcoms still revolve largely around the stereotype of the demure yet hyper-sexualized geisha and the desexualized “nerdy” positive stereotype of…… [Read More]