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A literary essay is a non-fiction essay about any literary topic. The term “literary” simply means of or having to do with literature, therefore an essay that is about literature is a literary essay. Generally, the point of a literary essay is to determine a person’s in-depth understanding of a particular novel, short-story, or other work of literature. Topics for literary essays can be extremely broad, like “the role of emotion in Shakespeare’s plays” or narrower, like “the role of jealousy in Iago’s treatment of Othello in Shakespeare’s Othello.” Therefore, when asked to write a literary essay, it is critical to tailor your response to the prompt or directions you are given.
Literary Devices in "Because I Could Not Stop for Death"
Emily Dickinson's "Because I Could Not Stop For Death" recounts how Death follows the narrator along her final journey and though the title insinuates that the narrator does not have time to see what her gentleman caller wants, he is patient and is in no rush to complete his task. In the poem, Dickinson personifies Death and makes it clear that she accepts death as a natural part of the life cycle and something that cannot be avoided. Dickinson uses several literary devices in the poem including personification, simile, alliteration, and anaphora to different degrees in order to demonstrate the interaction and relationship between the narrator and Death.
In "Because I Could Not Stop For Death," the narrator tells the story of how Death is one of her companions on her final carriage ride. In order to make Death more…… [Read More]
The poem is musical in how it reads. The rhyming is easy and, overall, the poem reads well. Clearly, the poet wanted to emphasize the beauty of the poem through song but he wanted to keep it simple.
ordsworth also utilizes several literary devices in the poem. For example, ordsworth sets the mood and tone of the poem by describing a girl is in a field singing alone. Connotation includes what the lady might be singing about or what caused her to sing in the first place. Another example of connotation occurs with the reaper, the song, and the field. These things are very real and they are significant to the meaning of the poem. Denotation occurs as the poet describes the song as a "melancholy strain" (6) and a "vale profound" (7). The poet also alludes to the Arabian sands" (12) and the Hebrides islands. The poet wonders about…… [Read More]
Because Celie idolizes Shug Avery she wants to make her a special quilt, out of affection.
At the start of this endeavor Celie writes, more fluently now to God:
Me and Sofia work on the quilt. Got it frame up on the porch. Shug Avery donate her old yellow dress for scrap, and I work in a piece every chance I get. it's a nice pattern called Sister's Choice. If the quilt turn out perfect, maybe I give it to her, if it not perfect, maybe I keep [emphasis added].
alker, the Color Purple, p. 62)
The pattern name "Sister's Choice" points rhetorically toward sisterly closeness Celie feels toward Shug and Sofia based on bonding that has occurred during their conversations together. Earlier Celie has been submissive, meek, obedient, and not at all her own person. Now though, Celie's increased fluency of both verbal and written communication corresponds to and…… [Read More]
illiam ells Brown
The ork(s) of illiam ells Brown; Clotel: or, the President's Daughter
One of the most discussed and controversial topics during the 18th and early 19th centuries were on slavery and slaves' trade. The American continent was one of the major participants in the trade. Being an American native, illiam ells Brown is one of the African-Americans who endured the bitter fruits of slavery. Born into slavery within Lexington-Kentucky and having spent much of his youthful life in St. Luis, Brown physically witnessed the slavery life and experiences, an effect, which motivated him to advocate for slaves freedom. Consequently, illiam wrote several historical works (books), addressing the factors, occurrences and effects of slavery and slaves' trade on the African-American family lives. One of his historical works and the first novel published in 1853 was the Clotel; or, The President's Daughter (Paula 197).
Most of the scholars acknowledge that…… [Read More]
African-American Duality of Identity:
Literary Criticism of the short story "Sonny's Blues" by James Baldwin
James Baldwin's face, with its piercing eyes and craggy forehead, is a frequently depicted image upon anthologies and volumes of African-American literature and criticism, particularly post-colonial criticism that emphasizes the alienated sense of self and national identity frequently experienced by Blacks in America during the 1960's when Baldwin wrote some of his greatest works, including the short story "Sonny's Blues." Baldwin was an African-American, a child of the Southern states of America, a homosexual, and also an expatriate from America. He lived a great deal of his life in France and Turkey and stated that he was happiest living away from America. Yet most of his works attempt to come to grips with the African-American experience.
All of these influences upon the author's identity can be seen in "Sonny's Blues." Most particularly, Baldwin's sense of…… [Read More]
Hills like white elephants," Ernest Hemingway make use of a literary style that focuses on the appreciation the natural world by relating it to real life incidents. Space is often a literary mechanism used by many writers, and is often very symbolic in nature. Based on that assumption, this paper will first briefly provide an overview of the story follow by an analysis of the symbolic representations of space. This relationship will be illustrated by the usage of space in regards to the symbolic nature of an individual female's biological internal, self-struggle as opposed to her ACTUALLY consciously wanting to bear a child.
The genre of this reading would be that of a short story, with the setting being in a train station with a train that has a destination in Madrid. When reading the story, the narrative point-of-view remains a mystery as it becomes highly evident early on that…… [Read More]
Bars Fight" is Lucy Terry's only surviving work. Transmitted orally for approximately one hundred years before going into print, the ballad is considered the first composition of an African-American citizen. Born in 1724 in Africa, Terry, later married Prince, had come to The States after being kidnapped and sold as a slave. In 1756 she became free by marrying Abijah Prince. The two settled in Guilford, Vermont along with their children. Lucy is known to have been a skilful orator, although failing to obtain admission for her son at illiams College, she managed to win a case over an attempt of thievery to which Samuel Chase acknowledged that her arguments stood before any of the Vermont's lawyers. In this paper however, we are not so much concerned with Terry's unofficial lawyer activities, rather the focus is to provide further critical attention in regards to Terry's poem "Bars Fight." In this…… [Read More]
Postcolonialism: History And an Overview
Postcolonialism is both a political orientation as well as a theory of literary criticism and a philosophy. Broadly defined, it is "a study of the effects of colonialism on cultures and societies. It is concerned with both how European nations conquered and controlled 'Third orld' cultures and how these groups have since responded to and resisted those encroachments" ("Key terms in post-colonial theory"). Postcolonial studies add an additional dimension to the realm of cultural studies, focusing on how European perspectives have misappropriated and distorted the cultures of those whom they conquered. "Post-colonial critics are concerned with literature produced by colonial powers and works produced by those who were/are colonized. Post-colonial theory looks at issues of power, economics, politics, religion, and culture and how these elements work in relation to colonial hegemony (western colonizers controlling the colonized" ("Postcolonial criticism," The Owl at Purdue).
One of the…… [Read More]
Joy" in Chopin's "Story of an Hour"
When the joy of liberation turns into the shock of oppression, the life can go out of an individual. This is what happens to Mrs. Mallard in "The Story of an Hour" by Kate Chopin. What is ironic about the story is that everyone thinks she dies from the shock of "joy" at seeing her husband is alive (after being told he was dead). Before, Mrs. Mallard had been sick and ailing, but when she is told by her sister that her husband has died, Mrs. Mallard is relieved inside and comes to life: she is tired of being his wife. However, everyone has been misinformed and the husband yet lives -- and this twist is enough to overcome Mrs. Mallard -- her sudden relief is turned to sudden grief, and she dies. Chopin uses irony to achieve a humorous and satirical twist…… [Read More]
Literary texts reflect the common beliefs and thoughts prevalent in the society. They are a mirror that acquaints the society with its prejudices, obsessions, its passions, its strengths and its weaknesses. Literature and literary texts are used by authors to help reform society and advise people on what they ought to change to flourish as a whole.
The two texts that are being compared for this project are 'The Story of an hour' and 'The Necklace.' Both short stories have women at their center and they both show a side of marriage opposite to the fairy tale image of perfect marital bliss. The two female characters are similar yet not so similar. In their flaws, their strengths and their passions they reflect the general female population of not just the era but of all time. So it can be said that the stories are the authors comment on marriage…… [Read More]
They know that they, like the child, are not free. They know compassion. It is the existence of the child, and their knowledge of its existence, that makes possible the nobility of their architecture," and the other good things about Omelas (6).
The metaphor of the child is a metaphor for our own, less perfect, but still pleasant existence. In America, while we enjoy relative prosperity, millions still suffer in poverty and want, suffering that could be eased by the price of a plasma television or a cell phone. In other regions of the world, people toil for pennies a day to make clothing we wear cheaply on our backs. It is easy to forget these people.
In LeGuin's tale, some people walk away from the pleasure of Omelas, unable to accept this societal bargain. As our own society is based upon the suffering of more than one child, the…… [Read More]
Chokshi, Carter, Gupta, and Allen (1995) report that during the critical states o emergency, ongoing intermittently until 1989, a low-level police oicial could detain any individual without a hearing by or up to six months. "Thousands o individuals died in custody, requently ater gruesome acts o torture" Those who were tried were sentenced to death, banished, or imprisoned or lie" (Chokshi, Carter, Gupta, & Allen, ¶ 6). The enactment o apartheid laws institutionalized racial discrimination. The race laws dramatically impacted every aspect o the individual's personal, social lie, and proessional lie. The laws prohibited marriage between non-whites and whites, and sanctioned "white-only" jobs. In regard to identity, Chokshi, Carter, Gupta, and Allen recount that during 1948 through 1994:
[a] white person was deined as in appearance obviously a white person or generally accepted as a white person. A person could not be considered white i one o his or her…… [Read More]
Prater Violet and Eagleton's Literary Theory
Often, when writing a literary work, authors are focused so much on their personal views and intentions with the story that no literary theory comes to mind. Furthermore, writers are seldom concerned with adhering to or promoting any specific theory. Nevertheless, it is the nature of readers and critics to want to impose theories upon literary works. Much like life, literary works present themselves in an unstructured way. It is human nature, especially on the side of critics and readers, to wish to impose order where no such order is apparent. Indeed, this is the nature of critical reading and even human life in general. In Prater Violet by Isherwood (2001), for example, one might imposed various paths towards the literary theories explicated by Eagleton (2008), as followed by some of the characters in the novel b y Isherwood.
One example of such literary…… [Read More]
The skill of Saki to utilize subtle foreshadowing is also evident as the niece reasonably develops the scenario of a fictitious tragedy, the death of the three men (and the dog) exactly a year before, which coincides to a year after the man's sister had been in residence nearby. The niece begins by ascertaining that Nuttel knows nothing of the people or place and that he would be easy to fool, foreshadowing that she is playing a trick on him. She then determines that the "tragic" events took place after the sister left and proceeds to describe exactly how the three figures and the dog looked when they left just that morning, with the supposition that they would return looking just the same.
Nuttel's shock, fear and outwardly rude reaction to seeing the three figures, with their dog come across the lawn is the climax of the work. The Niece…… [Read More]
Thus he becomes, much like the title sailor of Herman Melville's Billy Budd, a figure who is martyred as a result of intolerance. Budd draws the ire of the captain of his ship because he is attractive and charismatic in a way that defines conventional maritime rules and conventions. Budd is literally hung out to dry upon a mast, while illiams is only symbolically strung up -- but the kind of hatred of the new that both figures call upon is the same impulse depicted in both Romantic texts, of the film and the novella. "Oh captain, my captain," say the boys, overcoming the natural timidity all of them feel, as they jump up upon their desks in a show of support. By uniting in common bonds, forming a solidarity of purpose and ideological unity against tradition and by using hitman's words to embody their lives, they demonstrate a true…… [Read More]
Dante distinguishes a feeling of false guilt in Tartuffe's eyes, as his character seems to be unaffected by the situation that he is in. Even as he is limited by his inability to move or speak, his mind appears to be remained intact, considering that he tries to influence Dante to think that he does not actually belong there.
In spite of the fact that one might be inclined to consider that Tartuffe's sin in not that great, his fabricated piety is an essential factor showing the kind of person that he is. He did not hesitate to use God as a means to achieve his goals, this being an unforgivable sin and proof that his actions were unlimited when it came to treachery. Orgon failure to see the real man that Tartuffe was further contributes to the person's general image. Tartuffe was a con artist that was willing to…… [Read More]
It is clear that Butler is challenging the narrow definition of the female gender ("women") in several senses; one is that that the masculine power structure wants to stay in control by keeping women in "oppression" (of lesser importance in society than men). Another is that while feminists debate the question of "the universality of female identity" those feminists seem to seek to put together a "coalition" (p. 103) of women. But even that idea has problems, according to Butler, because despite the fact that putting together a coalition of several feminine cultures is a nice democratic exercise, the leader or leaders ("coalitional theorists") who try to put together that coalition may "inadvertently reinsert" themselves as "sovereign of the process."
What she means by that is that forcing unity on women's cultures makes it less than a natural evolution. Butler agrees that in order to put together a political coalition,…… [Read More]
Authors Use Similar or Contrasting Elements of Fiction
In his autobiographical work, "The Ethics of Living Jim Crow," ichard Wright describes a disturbing violent scene that was very common among Black communities in Southern United States. He claims that one day, when he was polishing brass at the front of a clothing shop, his boss, together with his young son (aged 20), drove up in their automobile and got out half kicking and half dragging a Black female into the shop. A policeman who stood just at the store's corner did nothing but look on, "twirling his nightstick." The poignant image depicted here summarizes the essence of the author's work, revealing how racism was, at the time, deep-rooted in U.S. society. The policeman's callous attitude -- emphasized by the expression "twirling his nightstick" -- and his lack of intervention in the matter proved that the law institutionalized and virtually upheld…… [Read More]
.....space below to complete this section. Include the number and first sentence of the prompt you chose from the list of prompts.)
Prompt 2: 'In some stories, characters come into conflict with the culture in which they live.'
For this literary assignment, I have chosen Prompt 2, which explains that the characters of some tales enter into discord with their surrounding culture. Usually, a character may feel estranged and different from the society on account of his/her ethnic/racial group, sex, or social class.
What interests you most about this prompt and why?
The above prompt interests me as it addresses the subject of heritage and culture. Modern-day individuals depict greater cultural sensitivity and awareness and are more mindful of the distinctions between themselves and others, compared to their forebears. Humanity has now permitted its cultural disparities and backgrounds to guide its social interactions with individuals belonging to other backgrounds. Some,…… [Read More]
In the social environment, mental illness is a serious condition and with an advancement of technology and modern science, the physiological issue surrounding a mental illness is not well understood. The stigma that place on people suffering from mental illness is so much making people pretending that they are not suffering from the problems. Although, many people were not born with a mental problem, however, the societal burden can make people demonstrating signs of mental disorders such as depression and irrational behaviors.
The objective of this paper explores the concept of mental illness illustrated in different literary books.
Literary Issues on Mental Illness
This study investigates the issue of mental illness in the literary books with a focus on "Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar," (Ames 1) and "Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper." (Gilman 1) The study develops personal connection and similarities between the two characters and their…… [Read More]
A literary critical analysis is not merely a summary of a literary work. Instead, it is an argument that expresses an interpretation, judgment, or critical evaluation of the work. This is accomplished by examining specific literary devices (symbols, themes, metaphors, tone, point of view, diction, structure, etc.), within the work. The purpose of a critical analysis is to demonstrate how these elements convey meaning. In your analysis, you will most likely discuss how certain literary techniques are used to convey specific ideas. You will discuss what a literary piece means and how it achieves its effect. To write critically, you must provide analysis of specific evidence from the text (words and phrases; avoid long quotes). The goal of this assignment is to give the audience an interpretation of the literature.
1. Introduction (explore the subject? of your analysis and end with a thesis statement).
2. Body Paragraphs…… [Read More]
Not of the Same Feather: Cultural Appropriation in The Invention of Wings
As problematic as it may be for a white Southern author to presume understanding of the psyche of a slave, Sue Monk Kidd embeds enough nuances in The Invention of Wings to make the fictionalized account of the Grimke sisters compelling and enlightening. Alternating between the voices of Hetty (Handful) and Sarah is the literary device Kidd relies on to demonstrate different perspectives and points of view, while also showing what Hetty and Sarah have in common too. In fact, Kidd shows how Sarah and Hetty develop the courage to rebel against social norms and even the law in order to make the world a better place. Symbolism also helps tie together the disparate worlds in which Hetty and Sarah live. Thick with symbolism related to the theme of flying and the freedom flight implies, The Invention of…… [Read More]
Literary Analysis: Sue Monk Kidd’s The Invention of Wings
Sue Monk Kidd uses symbol and theme in The Invention of Wings to tell the story of Sarah Grimke, her sister Nina and Sarah’s slave Handful, whom Sarah vows to help to freedom over the course of her life. The novel is based on the historical character of Sarah Grimke, an abolitionist and activist. To tell the story, Kidd uses the black triangles that Handful’s mother stitches into her quilts to symbolize flight and freedom; likewise, the feathers that Handful and her mother collect to stuff the quilt symbolize the spiritual wings with which one can fly to freedom. Kidd also applies the theme of power in both positive and negative terms: Sarah’s trauma at witnessing the brutality of slavery causes her to develop a stutter, which gives her a degree of powerlessness in terms of speaking her mind; likewise, her…… [Read More]
The characters have faults, the endings are not happy, and the characters have real emotions and feelings. Just like real life, the young boy cannot fulfill his desire to buy the girl he loves a present, he is too afraid. And similarly, the young girl tries to kill herself, only to be rescued by a young doctor who then feels "obligated" to love her. The similarities here are that love is complicated, and does not always end happily.
The biggest difference in these two stories is the innocence of the young boy and the darker, more sinister "love" of the doctor and Mabel. Mabel manipulates the doctor, even if she does not realize it, while the young boy is not manipulative in his love, he is just young, naive, and afraid. It seems he will have another, more grown-up chance at love, while Jack and Mabel will not.
Joyce,…… [Read More]
David - a Literary Perspective smehra
Literary Perspective on David from the Bible
Throughout literary history, authors have created characters that are both enigmatic and treacherous; who by their very nature epitomize all that is evil, as well as all that is good in human nature. Character development is an important part of any story, and for there to be a realization on the reader's behalf, there must be a justifiable, and equally strong character development, or moral change for such a message to get across in the story, or literary work.
Many authors will have a turn of events, as a means to justify this change in personality of a particular character, as seen in Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens. While others may let their character follow a course of action and in turn, suffer the consequences as a lesson to the reader, as in the case of Antigone.…… [Read More]
Literary Characters in Exile
Exile can be the self-imposed banishment from one's home or given as a form of punishment. The end result of exile is solitude. Exile affords those in it for infinite reflection of themselves, their choices, and their lives in general. Three prominent literary characters experience exile as part of the overall narrative and in that, reveal a great deal about themselves to themselves as well as to the readers. The three narratives in questions are "The Epic of Gilgamesh," "The Tempest," and "Things Fall Apart." All of the main characters of these narratives experience exile as a result of actions taken by the protagonists at earlier points in the story. The protagonist in each respective story are exiled because of their choices and the exile forces each character to face consequences that ultimately bring their inner character to the surface in a more direct manner…… [Read More]
Yin and Yang in Literary Relationships
Yin and Yang in eastern philosophy constitute two parts of a whole. The one cannot exist without the other. They also represent perfect balance; if one dominates, the balance is disturbed and there is conflict. This idea can be applied to several literary relationships, including Adam and Eve from Milton's Paradise Lost and Gilgamesh and Enkidu from the epic Gilgamesh.
Adam and Eve
The Biblical Adam and Eve begin their lives in perfect wholeness and bliss. God makes them equal, they share everything and they lack nothing. Their love binds them in complete unity and balance. They are also bound together by their obedience and love for God.
The imbalance comes with the arrival of the snake. The snake tempts Eve away from what she knows is right. When she tempts Adam, there is an imbalance between the two of them and Adam attempts…… [Read More]
This is justified by the argument that the original Homeric language was accessible to Homer's audience and as prose is more accessible to contemporary readers it is a better way to mimic the first reception of Greek audiences. Other classicists translate the works into a form of poetry which attempts to more accurately mimic Homeric verse. Some ancient texts are radically modernized in their language to make them seem more visceral and real, or foreign texts are denuded of their foreign phrases to convey the ordinariness of the events. All of this is an interpretive choice and quite often the most popular translations are by persons who are not able to actually speak the ancient language at all, but rather use a technical or literal translation to render the emotion and feeling of the first work into emotionally 'translatable' terms to a modern audience. But this can produce 'Ted Hughes'…… [Read More]
For example, in the United States, the Civil War occurred less than 150 years ago, and yet different historians provide conflicting perspectives about the causes of the war, why it was lost, and the consequences of the war for America's history. Moreover, it was only after the Civil War and the end of slavery that one began to see widespread, reliable publication about various slave rebellions that had occurred in the antebellum South. This is interesting, because it makes one wonder if that information would be available or suppressed had the war ended differently. Moreover, the vast majority of Americans are unaware that some northern states were slaveholding states. Furthermore, when one looks at the number of Holocaust deniers, despite the overwhelming physical evidence and documentation regarding the Holocaust, one can see how intentional misrepresentation can play a role in history; there are entire countries that believe it is a…… [Read More]
Blurring the Gap Between Fiction and eal Life
This is a paper that outlines how modern literature integrates personal experiences of the writers into works of fiction. It has 5 sources.
It is quite interesting to note the means by which eminent writers attract attention to their ideas and literary content. On closer examination, we may come to the conclusion that the means by which public attention may be grabbed has followed a definite pattern through the years. While writers like Shakespeare and his contemporaries used fiction to project their literary geniuses, modern day writers strive to catch the attention of the masses by presenting their own personal conflicts and tragedies to the public. The modern writer has lessened the gap between a literary piece of work and real life. However, literature in the classical period is known for its often unnatural and over-dramatized perspectives on life. Today, the stories…… [Read More]
The only material similarity between Prynne's scarlet "badge" and Faith's pink ribbons is that both are made of cloth and adorn some type of clothing, i.e., Faith's ribbons are part of her cap while Prynne's "badge" is sewn into her dress as needlework.
The reader is first introduced to Prynne's "badge" in Chapter Two of the Scarlet Letter when she emerges from jail -- "On the breast of her gown, in fine red cloth, surrounded with an elaborate embroidery and fantastic flourishes of gold thread, appeared the letter a." Upon being led to her "place of punishment" for committing adultery with Arthur Dimmesdale, all eyes are immediately drawn to the scarlet "A" which "had the effect of a spell, taking (Hester) out of the ordinary relations with humanity and enclosing her in a sphere by herself" (ell, 163-164). Obviously, this scarlet emblem upon Hester's dress seems to emit a life…… [Read More]
Joseph Conrad and His Influence on British Literary History
Joseph Conrad was born in the Polish-dominated side of Ukraine in the year 1857, and was originally known as Jozef Teodor Konrad Nalecz Korzeniowski. He was at sea for twenty years, after which he became an author. He wrote in English, which was the language he learnt third. hat he went through while in Africa, the Caribbean and Southeast Asia, along with all the reading and the knowledge he had about Europe were the bases for his writing. He was listed as the top British author of the 20th Century (Larabee).
He was well-known as a sophisticated and subtle observer of the physical world and the behavior of humans. Conrad was also a renowned literary artist. He had many writings including memoirs, novels and short stories, which are still widely read and studied today. For example, his 1899 story, Heart of…… [Read More]
Machiavelli shared Douglass' opinion concerning the role of religion in one's society. He believed that religion is instrumental in bringing about not only a moral society, but also a just one. In his discourse, "The Prince," he asserted that the ideal leader, the Prince, must not "...deceive friends...be without faith, without mercy, without religion..." This invoked the belief that a leader, in order to become effective, efficient, and respected by the civil society, must also be of moral character. This means that in the same way as people let their lives be influenced by religion and its values and beliefs, so too must the Prince engage in a lifestyle dominated by religion. A religious individual is a moral individual, hence commanding the respect of his people and giving him credibility to lead over society.
However, it is also vital to note that while he put premium to religiosity, Machiavelli's characterization…… [Read More]
Twain and Cooper
The following essay looks at Mark Twain's reaction to James Fennimore Cooper's writing, and more specifically at the praise given to Cooper by these people. The reader should take away that Twain was correct in what he wrote because he was structurally accurate. However, Twain slights Cooper in that he looks at his works from an only a structural standpoint. Cooper's works meant much more to American literature than the face value of the books. Cooper was an innovator as far as American literature went, and gave American writers a distinct voice.
At first the essay strikes of jealousy, but Twain seemed more irritated by what the critics overlooked than he was of Cooper's writing. The assignment was enjoyable because it speaks to the clear differences between a visionary writer and a more structural one. Twain is more of an engineer than a creator. He…… [Read More]
Salinger is an American literary treasure, best known for his novella Catcher in the ye. However, Catcher in the ye is but one of many in the canon of Salinger works. Salinger's short stories have recently garnered renewed attention because several unpublished Salinger stories were leaked online in November of 2013, three years after the author's death (uncie, 2013). Salinger died a recluse, and a man of mystery who was as much an American antihero as Holden Caulfield of Catcher in the ye. There have been numerous cultural allusions of Salinger's iconic novel and its quintessentially postmodern protagonist. Although no film has ever been made directly from the story of Catcher in the ye, Morgan (2010) points out that there have been allusions to Salinger stories in films like The Collector (1965) and Six Degrees of Separation (1993). Additionally, a 2013 documentary film about J.D. Salinger promises to reveal the…… [Read More]
Cleandro has learned everything from Nicomaco, but is not grateful enough to share the prize with Nicomaco. (Phillipakis, 2011, p. 13). According to Phillipakis, "…they are competitors for a prize that cannot be shared. Fortune is a kingdom 'safeliest when with one man manned.'" (Phillipakis, 2011, p. 13)
Phillipakis concludes that Machiavelli "must remain the philosopher who generates thoughts but not deeds," simply "…because he cannot be anything more." (Phillipakis, 2011, p. 13).
Phillipakis appears to have something against philosophers and bookish men in general. Men who are thinkers, rather than doers. Or perhaps only against bookish men who presume to be manly men, such as Machiavelli.
Phillipakis' rage seems to stem from certain passages in Machiavelli's The Prince that could be perceived as misogynistic. She appears to dwell particularly on Machiavelli's comments about raping "Fortuna," the female characterization of fortune. Machiavelli is, of course, speaking metaphorically here. Though…… [Read More]
In his short piece, he describes the nature of how we think, as stemming from our own paranoiac tendencies.. He believes that in our current modern states of paranoia caused by the restrictions of reality, we tend to want to abolish it entirely. The power of the unconscious does not agree with the restrictions of pure reality, with no allowances for fantasy or paranoiac states of mind. Still, in this state of paranoia, we adjust how we view our own realities. Here, Dali states that "the reality of the external world is used for illustration and proof, and so comes to serve the reality of our mind," (Dali 487). Dali believes that it is the paranoiac mechanism which is at the very foundation of how we view images. In this, there is a sort of inherent surrealism in all of us, even if we do not know it entirely. Embracing…… [Read More]
If literary genius can be described as one person's ability to influence the thinking of others and to do it only with written words, then Ernest Miller Hemingway was certainly deserving of the title. With his direct, declarative and streamlined style of writing, a style he first learned while writing as a newspaper journalist, Hemingway observed the world around him and the people in it, and then wrote of his observations on the nature of mankind.
Born on July 21, 1899 in the family home at Oak Park Illinois, Hemingway was the second of six children for his parents. His father, Dr. Clarence Hemingway, was a family physician, and his mother, Grace Hall Hemingway a music teacher. As a boy he was taught by his father how to hunt and fish, and it was in his childhood that he developed a passion for exploring nature that would not only…… [Read More]
Alcohol vs. coffee: Literary reaction
"The sweet Poison of the Treacherous Grape/....Drowning our very Reason and our Souls." The 18th century marked the beginning of what would come to be known as the neoclassical era of art and literature. It was the era of satire, marked by a belief in reason over emotion, an age which prized what was artificial, man-made and constructed over what was natural and instinctive. It was also the era of coffee and the coffee house. In this poem, coffee is celebrated as a beverage that sharpens the intellect, rather than dulls it like alcohol, the 'poison' that drowns reason. Throughout the poem, a dichotomy of coffee vs. alcohol is created. The values of the Age of Enlightenment are exemplified in this contrast, as well as many of the literary features of the era, including rhyming couplets, metrical verse, and poems that 'say' what they mean…… [Read More]
quantifiable terms, Tillie Olsen's literary output has been admittedly modest. However, her influence has been anything but. As a writer, a feminist and an activist, she has worked throughout her life to serve her core values. Born to a pair of Jewish Russian immigrants, Ida and Samuel Lerner, Olsen's circumstances would play a significant role in both the formation of her belief system and the ways in which she would pursue its actualization. Well regarded in the notes of history, particularly those forged by advocates of the advancement of the women's movement, she holds a legacy of fellowships, awards and documents to justify the acclaim. Perhaps the most important and unique characteristic of Olsen's life is the apparently seamless fashion in which she tied the varied strands of her life into a singular identity. Her devotion to her literary work, to her family and to her politics were inextricable from…… [Read More]
In this reading, Dobyns' "Counterparts" is his statement of personal philosophy that argues the only way to reach the Apollonian ideals is to work with, and embrace, the Dionysian and thus create a whole, or a yin-yang. This practice of using the Dionysian in order to achieve the Apollonian is a common strategy used in Dobyns' poetry.
Likewise, poet Frank O'Hara also uses Apollonian themes in the majority of his works. Like Dobyns, Frank O'Hara is also an American poet. He is best known as being a key member of the New York School of poetry.
O'Hara is known for his ability to write provocative and provoking poetry that was composed immediately, sometime even over the time frame of a lunch break. Thus, both high and low brow cultural references are common in O'Hara's work, as they are in Dobyns'.
O'Hara was good friends and deeply inspired by numerous leading…… [Read More]
In fact, one of the principle facets of Moominpappa's character is to introduce didactic messages to his family, particularly to his children. Doing so is part of his job as a father and as the head of a household. Unfortunately, not all of his methods of teaching his family are as entertaining as his memoirs, as the following quotation from Moominpappa at Sea, in which he warns his family of the dangers of forest fires, proves.
He had warned the family. Time and time again he had explained how necessary it was to be careful in August. He had described the burning valley, the roar of the flames, the white-hot tree trunks, and the fire creeping along the ground underneath the moss. Blinding columns of flame flung upward against the night sky! aves of fire, rushing down the sides of the valley and on toward the sea… (Jansson).
The hyperbolic…… [Read More]
"Outsiders" in a Multicultural Society
The United States is generally recognized for the multitude of cultural values present in the country as a result of the wide range of ideas that have been introduced here across the years. hile the majority of individuals in the country have often discriminated against people that they considered "outsiders," many notable non-white persons in the country's history have managed to emphasize the fact that they too are an active part of its culture and that they are able to contribute to making society as a whole acknowledge its complex nature. Langston Hughes and Jhumpa Lahiri are two of the most prominent artists responsible for making the American community accept its multicultural character and for influencing Americans to adopt less discriminatory attitudes concerning non-white individuals. Hughes got actively involved in changing the way that the masses and African-Americans in particular saw discriminated groups…… [Read More]
The evolution of mankind on all levels, and especially the new focus of the modern society on technology and material development, has brought about an estrangement from the spiritual life.
The new world offers "alternatives," as it were, to love, through a complexity of personal, both material and social developments, that seem to been able to replace or fill the spiritual needs.
Although men and women still interact what happens between them seems to be different from what was called love before, and it is often said that more and more isolation and solitude result from these interactions. The pressure of the material complex world and of the various social facts do not allow for the openness required by love. It can be said that the complexity of the modern society influence the emotional sates of the individual and make it impossible for him or her to return to the…… [Read More]
Racism and Society -- Literary Comparison
Zora Neal Hurston's heartfelt essay How It Feels to Be Colored Me (1928) presents the experiences of a young girl as remembered by an adult black woman in the early 20th century. Her narrative is simultaneously disarming and sad, because the good cheer and humor seems to belie justified resentment toward white merican society. She presents an image of cheerful acceptance of racial inequality and the persistent social exclusion and discrimination more than half a century since slavery was abolished. Her tone when relating heartbreaking memories is reminiscent of the "everything happens for a reason" mentality and it seems to be concealing repressed resentment.
There is a glimpse of the anger bubbling under the surface of cheerfulness when the author describes dancing "wildly inside myself; I yell within, I whoop; I shake my assegai above my head, I hurl it true to the mark…… [Read More]
Author Nathaniel Hawthorne's literary works constantly reference ideas of the supernatural and the religious ideas of the Puritans who colonized the United States. Of particular interest to Hawthorne is how these two things work together in that time period. Many of Nathaniel Hawthorne's works take place in Colonial times, a good century before the author himself was born. His own ancestors were active participants in Puritan society, even serving as judges during the Salem itch Trials. Scholars have argued that Hawthorne's work heavily features this time because of the guilt he felt over the actions of his relatives. Nathaniel Hawthorne used this historical setting to create moral points about Puritanical society and the hypocrisy of those times, as well as the continued hypocrisy of his own time period. This hypocrisy is linked back to the religious zealousness of the Puritan times where the beliefs of the church superseded all…… [Read More]
Abalone, Abalone, Abalone is a literary work by Toshio Mori explores the relationship between Mori and a neighbor named Mr. Abe. Mr. Abe is a Japanese man that is a carnation grower and who also collects shells. The story focuses on why these Abalone shells are important to Mr. Abe and eventually Mori. This short essay will present my thoughts about Mr. Abe's character and the aspects of the story that led to the conclusions that I made about Mr. Abe.
Mr. Abe's Character
According to the story Mr. Abe seems to be a friendly thoughtful man who enjoys collecting Abalone shells and seemed to have a slight sense of mystery about him. Mori writes, "At noontime I used to go to his front porch and look at his collection of Abalone shells...I was curious as to why he bothered to collect them...but he did not tell me why he…… [Read More]
ghosts in two literary works. The Spanish Tragedy and Hamlet each have a ghost which guides and drives the action of the story. The writer works to compare and contrast the ghosts in each story and tell how they relate to the story. There were two sources used to complete this paper.
Throughout history writers have used unusual methods to illustrate points if their work that they want the reader to understand. In two classic works of literature a ghost was used to provide many of the needed details to the story that would have been unknown otherwise. In The Spanish Tragedy and in Hamlet there were ghosts to provide the foundation for many of the stories actions. Without the ghosts much of the things that occurred would not make any sense to the reader. While they each uses a ghost for the purpose of information provision the ghosts and…… [Read More]
Brendan Behan contributed much to the literary genre, though his literary achievements often are subordinate to his public recognition as a drunk, disorderly and often amusing or entertaining member of society. Many literary critics fail to recognize Behan for the serious contributions he made to writing, instead choosing to focus on the controversy that exists regarding his work ethic and personal habits.
This paper asserts however that Behan used his writing to voice his disagreement with the notion of cultural nationalism that existed during the time he lived in Ireland. Brannigan (2002) supports this notion claiming that Behan's writing in fact allowed him to "articulate dissident" and contributed to the emergence of revisionist and other critiques of nationalism (Brannigan, 2002).
This paper will also delve into the idea that Behan wrote from a strictly humanistic point, attempting to enlighten his audience with amusing anecdotes about human nature, sharing the notion…… [Read More]
There is no such thing as a time machine. Ancient history can only be understood by modern peoples through the cultural documentation that was left behind. ritings from the period of the New Testament exist but they do not provide information into every aspect of everyday life. Consequently, historians and scholars must analyze the documents that are in existence in order to gain a greater understanding into the world's past. One technique that makes it possible for current populations to understand ancient texts is the use of literary ethnography. This procedure is the endeavor to use qualitative means to learn about and to better understand various cultural documentation and ideology which mirror that culture's society. Particularly of importance to ethnography is the ways and means of knowledge acquisition of a culture and also the system of meanings and which dictate that culture, such as language and the roles of…… [Read More]
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is perhaps the best example of Realism in literature because of how Twain presents it to us. Morality becomes something that Huck must be consider and think out as opposed to something forced down his throat. He knows the moral thing to do would be to report Jim, noting, " "People would call me a low down abolitionist and despise me for keeping mum -- but that don't make no difference. I ain't agoing to tell" (Twain 269). Furthermore, he cannot send Miss atson his letter he because his friendship with Jim trumps the morality he knows. Similarly, Jim wrestles with issues of good vs. bad. This is evident because of they way he decides to escape. He even begins to understand what Huck is going through when Huck does not turn him in. His revelation forces him to realize that Huck is "de bes'…… [Read More]
worked tirelessly to understand the literary works of a variety of authors including poets Pat Mora, Shirley Geok-Lim, John Keats, and Robert Frost, and short-story writer DH Lawrence. As we have compared the works of these poets and determined how common themes are shared, and through a deep reading and literature analysis of Lawrence's short, I have been able to explore different writing and analytical approaches that have allowed me to develop, review, and strengthen my writing style and capabilities.
One of the first assignments we were given was to perform a comparative analysis of two poets: John Keats and Robert Frost. In this paper, Keats' and Frost's individual fears are analyzed through a close reading of "When I Have Fears That I May Cease to Be" and "The Road Not Taken," by Keats and Frost, respectively. These poems forced me to look beyond what Keats and Frost had written…… [Read More]
Instead, we find two highly actionable and yet passionless men. In Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, Stoppard has fleshed out two men inevitably bound to their fates by the passions and wills of those around them, creating a compelling discussion on the balance between fate and free will. Stoppard develops twin personas through whom the passive complacency of man is examined, with basic impulses of self-preservation, concession to authority and a willingness to be moved by the desires of others ruling idle lives inexorably approaching deaths which will be overlooked by all. In Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, Stoppard creates two tragic figures that reflect the philosophical idleness of the average man, using their baseness, incomprehension and apathy to offer a critique of society.
Introduced in one of their frequent, pointless games, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern immediately reveal themselves as internally contradictory figures. Clearly intended as comical figures in the spirit of Shakespeare's classic fools,…… [Read More]
In McTeague, Norris applied the caged bird motif to illustrate the protagonist's chained existence that was at the mercy of naturalistic forces. As the canary is moved from place to place, so is the protagonist forced to move from one experience to another until he dies. It symbolizes the protagonist's life and death experiences. When McTeague finally dies near the end as he is handcuffed with a corpse, we see the canary also breathing her last: "McTeague remained stupidly looking around him, now at the distant horizon, now at the ground, now at the half-dead canary chittering feebly in its little gilt prison." (Chapter 22)
In Three Lives by Gertrude Stein, we have three important characters Lena, Anna and Melanctha whose lives are succinctly discussed. In this novel, it is Anna's character that can be closely associated with a caged bird. She is a German immigrant who works ceaselessly with…… [Read More]
Technology is indeed among the provisions to learning. With the wide existence of technology, such as computers, in today's world, the article showed why it must not be ignored.
Although there are many instructional interventions that can be used in enhancing literacy learning, the process of monitoring students' performance is another element that can improve the possibility of a successful learning process. The article somehow suggests that teachers must not use technology as a replacement to the responsibilities that they must function. That is, to monitor and assess the students' progress in learning. In the article, it was suggested that Monitoring students' early literacy development through ongoing classroom assessment and then planning lessons and instructional intervention based on the diagnostic information obtained enhances achievement.
Moreover, the writers suggests that Teachers can maximize students' reading success by building on their strengths and providing reading experiences designed to meet their individual needs.…… [Read More]
Keats and Hemingway
Although the literary texture John Keats' poem "La Belle Dame Sans Merci" and Ernest Hemingway's "A Very Short Story," have profoundly different tones, given that one was written during the Romantic period of the 19th century in England, and the other during the modernist period of 20th century American literature, both works have similar tales and attitudes towards love -- a military man seeks beauty and solace in the arms of a woman. Yet the man's love comes to naught because of a woman's faithlessness.
The Keats has a distinctly 'unreal' or crafted poetic tone, in contrast to the Hemingway attempt to have the quality of ordinary speech and life. Keats' poem is a ballad in the modern style. Hemingway's reads almost like a newspaper story in its quiet, factual description of its characters. Keats' poem is about a fairy queen, rather than an attempt at capturing…… [Read More]
Racine's Phaedra -- Compared to Blake's "Lamb" and Melville's Billy Budd
As Bernard Grebanier states, Racine's Phaedra speaks "with the violence of life itself" (xiv). If one were to compare the French playwright's most famous female lead to the English-speaking world's most famous male lead (as Grebanier does), it would have to be to Hamlet, whose passionate assessment of life is likewise problematic. Indeed, Phaedra raises many themes, including the importance of origin, innocence, and sin -- themes that may be found in as seemingly disparate works as illiam Blake's "The Lamb" and Herman Melville's Billy Budd. hile Racine's Phaedra is the tale of a woman, torn by a passion that possesses her so cruelly that it destroys not only her life but the lives of others around her -- including the innocent man who is her obsession, Hyppolytus; Blake's poem deals with the triple theme of origin, innocence, and…… [Read More]
Strength of the Human Spirit know why the Caged Bird Sings is an autobiography by Maya Angelou. It is the first book of the five volumes of the author's autobiography covering her life from the early 1930s up till 1970. This particular volume "I know why the Caged Bird Sings" is one of the most popular of the five volumes as it talks about her initial years as a child up to the time when she turns sixteen. The autobiography is based on her life as a black child, teenager and woman; it covers all elements of her family and their trials and tribulations.
Although the book is based on Angelous' life, it basically talks about the development of the human self and the impact of various experiences in life on the strength of the human spirit. As Angelou herself describes the reason for writing this book "somebody needs to…… [Read More]
The short stories "The hite Heron" by Sarah Orne Jewett and "The Story of an Hour" by Kate Chopin focus on strong and sensitive heroines who seek to forge some sort of path of autonomy in a world of men. It is without question that men control the worlds that these characters find themselves in, and each protagonist struggles to find some sort of autonomy within those worlds. Both stories depict the successful achievement of liberation from these masculine worlds by the heroines -- though the liberation occurs in dramatically different ways.
Sylvia in "The hite Heron" is accosted with the adult world of men when she encounters the hunter in the forest. However, she doesn't succumb her values to this strange and exciting world. If anything she becomes stronger for it. Sylvia becomes friendlier with the hunter, and he even provides her with a jack-knife as a…… [Read More]
John esley Before Referencing
Supernatural tales of death and jealousy: Edgar Allen Poe's "Masque of the Red Death" and Robert Olen Butler's "Jealous Husband Returns in the Form of a Parrot"
Both Edgar Allen Poe's "Masque of the Red Death" and Robert Olen Butler's "Jealous Husband Returns in the Form of a Parrot" use supernatural plots to highlight the intense emotions human beings often feel about common and ordinary subjects, namely death and the loss of a loved one to someone else. Poe's tale is written in the style of American Romanticism, and uses highly ornate language and a European setting to create an atmosphere of death, misery and decay. Poe's tale begins strangely, and becomes even stranger as the narrative wears on. The final appearance by death as a masked figure at a costume ball makes the allegorical theme of the story horrifyingly real -- not even the wealthy…… [Read More]