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Tax Deductions for Default
Words: 1187 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 57996689
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Tax Deductions: Are Unpaid Loans Tax Deductible?

John loaned his friend Jack $1,000. Jack did not repay the debt and left town. John wants to know if he can claim any tax deduction, and, if so, what is the character of the deduction? However, to answer John's question, one must first find out more information about the nature of the loan. This is critical because there are two broad types of loans and debts: business loans and personal loans. Furthermore, under the correct circumstances, it is possible for people to take tax deductions for certain types of business loans and personal loans. Knowing whether John made Jack a loan from his personal money or from his business money is the crucial first step in determining which, if any, Internal evenue Service (IS) regulations or tax laws will permit John to deduct the unpaid debt.

If John is a business owner…


Bailey, A.C. (2014). Unpaid personal loans can reduce your tax bill. Retrieved April 12, 2014

from MyTaxHQ website: 

Fishman, S. (2013, June 7). Bad loans to friends and family may be tax deductible. Retrieved April 11, 2014 from Inman News website: 

Internal Revenue Service. (2013, December 12). Topic 453- Bad debt deduction. Retrieved April 12, 2014 from IRS website:

S& l the Discussion Explored the
Words: 1942 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3346939
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As a response to the savings and loans debacle, there have been several attempts by congress and other governmental agencies to assists consumers and some financial institutions alike. The most significant and some say extreme solution thus far came when the Federal government assisted JP Morgan with the purchase of Bear Stearns for $2 per share.

One of the most discussed solutions has to do with baling out the mortgage lenders and assisting borrowers. There are several different remedies that have been proposed. These remedies include everything from a moratorium on foreclosures to the freezing of interest rates.

As it pertains to the mortgage companies it has been suggested that limits should be lifted so that companies can purchase jumbo housing loans. According to one article this type of mortgage relief could help staunch the hemorrhaging in high-priced housing markets...where buyers have had difficulty getting loans and are paying…

Works Cited

Jumbo Loans Spell Relief; Analysts See Economic Fix. (2008, January 29). The Washington Times, p. A01.

Kuttner, R. (2007, October). The Bubble Economy: The Financial Meltdown Is the Logical Consequence of Deregulation. Will We Reverse Field in Time to Prevent Another 1929?. The American Prospect, 18, 20+.

Peterson, J.R. (2005). Designer Mortgages: The Boom in Nontraditional Mortgage Loans May Be a Double-Edged Sword. So Far, Most Banks Have Moved Cautiously. ABA Banking Journal, 97(10), 30+.

What is the real definition of inflation?." Retrieved May 8, 2007 from;

For-Profit Colleges
Words: 1742 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88659726
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Profit Colleges

"hy do you think they are called for-profit colleges:"

The big business of (not) educating students 'You need a college degree.' This is the conventional wisdom articulated in today's society, where job prospects remain scarce, despite the softening economy. On average, "unemployment is still far lower for the college-educated than for high school graduates (10%) and those without high school diplomas (15.7%)," and the most severe effects of the recession were felt in the manufacturing and construction sectors, typically the areas of the economy which offer the brightest prospects to non-college degree holders (Davidson 2010). orries about one's viability in the job market have driven many workers to seek out higher education in nontraditional formats. Few adults have the ability to afford a traditional four-year school and balance the needs of home and work. Online, for-profit colleges or nighttime schools may seem the ideal solution. On the surface,…

Works Cited

Carey, Kevin. "Why do you think they're called for-profit colleges?" Chronicle of Higher

Education. 25 Jul 2011. [4 Mar 2010]. 

Davidson, Paul. "Unemployment rate for college grads is highest since 1970." USA Today.

Bsba Integrative Project Learning Growth Internal Business
Words: 1295 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42142576
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Bsba Integrative Project

Learning Growth

Internal Business Processes

Customer Service


Employee training hours, employee satisfaction,

New loans created, new accounts, new products introduced, cross sells, and referrals.

Number of products per customer, number of new customers, customer satisfaction, customer retention, sales calls to customers, and thank you calls to existing customers.

Outstanding Loan Balances, Deposit Balances, Noninterest income,


Performance Measures

Internal Business Process

Objectives and Performance Measures

Customer Objectives

and Performance



Learning & Growth

Objectives and Performance Measures

The causal chain indicates that objectives of the company in relation to the balanced scorecard depend significantly on the vision and strategies of the business entity. The objectives and measures in relation to the consumers of the company play a critical role in achievement of the three main financial goals: loan balances, deposit balances, and noninterest income. The company should focus on improving services to their…


Albright, T.; Davis, S.; & Hibbets, A. (2001, October). Tri-Cities Community Bank: A Balanced Scorecard Case. Strategic Finance, 83(4), 54-60.Retrieved May 17, 2010, from the library: 

Silverthorne, S. (2008). Executing Strategy with the Balanced Scorecard. Retrieved May 17, 2010, from 

Raab, G. (2008). Customer relationship management: A global perspective. Aldershop: Gower.

Mcbride Security Policy Security Policies and Recommendations
Words: 955 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93989741
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McBride Security Policy

Security Policies and ecommendations for McBride Financial Services

McBride Financial Services has experienced increased consumer interest in its innovative and economical loan offerings and terms. With rising competition in the market, McBride is now aggressively working to boost market share through a renewed focus on customer service and simple and speedy loan processing (Fluss, 2009). While many automated processes in the financial sector can be convenient for customers, they can also present unique and significant security risks for companies (Compton, 2004). The following policies are aimed at covering certain critical security areas for the loan department at McBride Financial Services.

General Information Security

Sensitive information can be defined as a customer's full name, address, phone number, credit information, social security number, date of birth, mother's maiden name, employment and salary information, username/passwords combinations, or PIN ids (Bilich, 2000). All such information should be stored securely in order…


Bilich, F. (2000). 'Total quality management: quality macro-function model for banks. (Cover story)', Total Quality Management, 11(1), 15.

Brandt, D. (2012). 'Work Perfect', Industrial Engineer: IE, 44(9), 66.

Britt, P. (2005). 'Finding the Formula for Successful Cm', Econtent, 28(1/2), 38-42.

Compton, J. (2004). 'CRM Is Go!', CRM Magazine, 8(10), 30-35.

Accounting Tootsie Ratio Analysis in
Words: 944 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63439349
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46. So far the firm looks to be a good potential candidate for a loan.



The current and quick ratio looks at the short-term ability of a firm to meet its obligations. A lender will also want to look at the longer term position and the ability to repay the entire debt plus interest and fees (Libby et al., 2010). The solvency ratio assesses the level of cash generated in a year as a percentage of the debt. The cash generated is calculated by taking the net profit after tax and adding back the depreciation. The total liabilities are calculated by adding together the current and the long-term (non current) liabilities.

Table 3; Solvency ratio for Tootise oll Industries Inc.



Net profit after tax (a)



Depreciation (b)



Adjusted net profit (a + b) (c )



Current liabilities (d)




Paper is based on a case supplied by the student

Howells P.G.A, Bain, K, (2007), Financial Institutions and Markets, London, Longman

Libby, R; Libby, P. Short D, (2010), Financial Accounting, McGraw-Hill

Finance There Are a Number
Words: 1543 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60595827
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I would advise that Mr. Haskins has to understand that the banks are businesses, and make strategic investments when they think those businesses will pay off. This means that AMD needs to ensure that the banks are happy, in order to secure financing. That means giving the banks what they need to feel secure in this investment. Receivables are not adequate collateral, for a lot of reasons, and ancient receivables are especially worthless. Likewise, giant stockpiles of inventory are not good collateral for a bank. Mr. Haskins has to understand that banks are not interested in these things as collateral, but if he gives the banks what they want he can have loans on the strength of his business.

Mr. Haskins must realize that banks are partners, but they need something out of the deal as well, and do not operate on blind faith. As such, Mr. Haskins needs to…

Business Requirements Analysis for Long
Words: 2720 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55691620
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Where pricing integration typically fails however are in the handling of exceptions. Columbus (2003) makes the point that the use of automated approaches to managing special pricing requests can be one of the highest OI activities of any company. The focus for LOM then is in turning the one-off loan request specifically including a differing rate or structure into a competitive advantage by quickly being able to fulfill it. The use of automated special pricing requests applications and techniques as defined by Columbus (2003) are strong competitive tools that could be used as part of FlashQuote and BFOT overall.

FlashQuote Use Case Analysis

Identifier: FlashQuote Use Case Analysis

Name: BFOT System component that includes quoting, pricing, loan interest rates and the ability to electronically upload the loan, once approved, to the LOS.

Purpose: To more accurately and completely capture the quotes given to prospects over the telephone, the Web, and…


AMR Research (2003) - Configuration is the Heart of Customer Fulfillment for Complex Product Manufacturers. AMR Research Report. Monday March 31, 2003. Retreived from the Internet on July 21, 2006 at

Askegar and Columbus (2002) - Channel Management Best Practices: It's All About Orders. AMR Research Report. Monday September 9, 2002. Retrieved from the Internet on July 21, 2006:

Columbus (2002) - The Sell-Side E-Commerce Market: It's All About Integration. AMR Research Report. Monday April 1, 2002. Retreived from the Internet on July 21, 2006:

Damages Is Whether or Not There Is
Words: 1567 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33737903
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damages is whether or not there is a contract that has been breached. Under Texas law, a plaintiff must be establish four elements in order to prevail on a breach of contract clam. The four elements are: 1) the existence of a valid contract; 2) performance or tendered performance by the plaintiff; 3) breach of the contract by the defendant; and 4) damages sustained by the plaintiff as a result of the breach (Valero Mkfg. & Supply Co. v. Kalama Int'l. LLC).

The best evidence available for the plaintiff in establishing a possible breach of contract action is the loan commitment letter issued on March 31, 2005. The letter in question sets forth all the terms and conditions but, unfortunately, it also included a new term of which the plaintiffs were not aware. Additionally, the bank's employee, Max Brandt, assured the plaintiffs that compliance with the new term was not…

Works Cited

Gaughan, Patrick A. Measuring Business Interruption Losses and Other Commercial Damages. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, 2009.

Valero Mkfg. & Supply Co. v. Kalama Int'l. LLC. No. 51 S.W.3d 345, 351. Texas Ct. Of Appeals. 2001.

essay question

Predatory Lending and the Subprime
Words: 6468 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Seminar Paper Paper #: 14582464
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nd we must take into consideration what would happen if, somewhere down the line, we encountered the very real possibility of changed financial circumstances.

The financial knots we're tying ourselves into now, as we scramble to purchase homes and wind up owning less of them, can have serious long-term ramifications. Because today's overall tighter finances often necessitate putting off major purchases, many adults don't buy their first home until they're well into their thirties or even forties.

s a result, those thirty-year mortgage payments follow us right into retirement, hanging around even as rising health care and tuition expenses for college-aged children begin to spike. s a result, we discover too late that the asset we gambled everything to acquire because it was going to see us through retirement is instead pushing that retirement further and further away. lready, an increasing number of seniors are borrowing against their homes, accumulating…

Adam Tanner, San Francisco Suburb Vallejo Files for Bankruptcy, REUTERS, May 23, 2008;

Fishbein & Woodall.

Michael M. Phillips, to Help Broke Homeowners, He's Taking the Law into His Own Hands, WALL ST. J., June 6, 2008, at A1.

Student Aid Programs Student Finance Aid Can
Words: 1737 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71725722
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student aid programs.

Student finance aid can be described as funds given to the student to make it easy for them to fix cost of education such as fee and tuition, room and board, supplies and books where the students are undertaking their education like in universities, colleges or private schools.The funds which is being given out to public educations by government in general is known as financial aid meaning that it is being given to particular students, Financial aid can also be referred to as scholarship, although scholarship has some other components like students loans and grants.Loans are finance that one lend and must be paid back with an intrest after a period of time.In the case of student loan the money will be taken back after graduating.Aid is the help one is given.

All the U.S. states governments and The United States government offer loans, grants and work…

Work cited

Berkeley (December 2009)"students debt "Schackner Pittsburgh Post Gazette

Fetterman Mindy (2006)"Young people struggle to deal witht kiss of debts "USA Today

Kantrowitz, Mark (2010-03-26). "Student Loans - The New York Times." . Retrieved 2011-02-07.

Schemo, Diana Jean (June 10, 2007) "Private loan deepen acrisis in student Debt "by new York times Tim Grant,(July 29,2009) "student loan puts college graduates into deep financial hole" Pittsburgh Post Gazette

Skills and Knowledge Area
Words: 2089 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47947140
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Skills and Knowledge Area

The ability to research and interpret and then apply various local and federal and State laws as well as ordinances related to Community Programs is an extremely important and demanding skill. One example of the demonstration of this ability is that explained by Thomas R. Suozzi, the County Executive of Nassau, and Lorna B. Goodman, County Attorney of Nassau County, in their Annual Report on their County presented in December 2004. Herein, it is stated that with the support of the people of the county, they have managed to indeed accomplish a great many things, and they then proceed to list out the various activities and accomplishments. The first one is, according to the Report that of managing to bring 'in-house' the remaining part of the more than $10 million of specified legal work that had actually been given to the private bar earlier. The reason…

Defaults Who Goes Into Foreclosure
Words: 1183 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 52949187
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Predictably, adjustable rate mortgages had a higher rate of default than non-adjustable rate mortgages, given the increase in interest rates in the years before the crisis, after many borrowers took out loans during an era of unusually low, near-zero rates. But another puzzling finding was that loans below $100, 000 and loan amounts in the $250,000 to half-million range had higher interest rates than loans of a half-million and above, once again suggesting that while middle-income individuals who might otherwise appear to be 'good' risks had been targeted for loans that were not advantageous to them.

"The finding that blacks and Latinos tended to borrow more helps explain why they received a disproportionately high share of high-cost loans, but the larger amounts borrowed by Asians contradicts the hypothesis that loan amount explains the rate spread differentials the best predictor that a borrower would default is the amount borrowed" as Asians…


Doviak, Eric & Kevin MacDonald. (2011). "Who defaults? Who goes into foreclosure?" 1-34.

Subprime Mortgage Market Was an
Words: 2338 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 62396802
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The term "adjustable-rate mortgage" describes any mortgage with an interest rate and payments that adjust according to some formula agreed upon by the borrower and lender. ARMs have been generally available to borrowers for about three decades on prime mortgages, but variants have been common to subprime mortgages over the past 10 years. The traditional ARM linked the mortgage's interest rate to the LIOR plus several percentage points." (Utt,2008)

Alt -- a Mortgages. Sometimes referred to as a "low-doc" mortgage, an Alt -- a mortgage is structured like the other mortgages described in this section but is made available only to prime borrowers or those with FICO scores above 660. However, these prime borrowers were required to offer only limited documentation on their qualifications, so many may not have been as "prime" as they represented themselves to be, as subsequent default rates indicate." (Utt, 2008)

Extremely Low- or No-Down-Payment Mortgages.…


Utt, Ronald D. (2008) the Subprime Mortgage Market Collapse: A Primer on the Causes and Possible Solutions. Backgrounder 2127 the Heritage Foundation. Online available at 

The Subprime Mortgage Market (2008) National and Twelfth District Developments. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Online available at 

Chomsisengphet, S. And Pennington-Cross, a. (2006) the Evolution of the Subprime Mortgage Market. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (2001) Online available at>

Federal Government's Impact on the Rise of
Words: 723 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 25560043
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Federal Government's Impact on the Rise of Student Loans

On the surface, student loans seem like such a beneficial and risk-free government program that there appears to be no reason to object to them. After all, the purpose of federally subsidized student loans is to give students who might not otherwise have a chance to get a post- high school education the chance to get that education. College degrees, vocational certificates, and graduate degrees all expand a person's earning potential, and, theoretically increase the likelihood that the person will elevate, not only his or her own financial status, but also the status of his immediate family. Therefore, the federal government subsidizing student loans seems like an efficient and responsible use of government money. However, further investigation suggests that student loans may simply be a way of shifting a tax burden into groups that are basically tax-immune. Therefore, the appropriate policy…

Public Policy Institute of California
Words: 975 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72347256
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Discuss the asymmetric informational problem that arises in the case of hourly loan officers issuing loans. Propose at least two proposals to minimize these concerns.

One of the primary reasons that so many home loans were issued in recent years to individuals who were not sufficiently creditworthy to be able to make timely payments on those loans is that there was an ongoing condition of asymmetric information. The individuals seeking the loans had much more information than the loan officers; in many cases they knew that they could not reasonably meet the conditions of the loan.

The hourly loan officers in many cases could probably have been able to determine that the individual was unlikely to be able to service the loan. However, these hourly loan officers were being rewarded for making loans and they had no real personal investment in whether or not the loan conditions were honored. They…

4. There has been much discussion about grade inflation at schools and universities. Discuss and display graphically the impact of grade inflation and the loosening of educational standards. Make sure to discuss how this will affect the ability of education to be used as a signal of worker quality.

One of the reasons that many individuals are focused on getting the best possible education for themselves is that they believe it will lead to a better job for them -- not just because they will have better skills and increased knowledge but also because a sparkling transcript will impress potential employers and give them a leg up in the employment process.

This is a reasonable assumption on the part of students and future employees. However, an essential part of this assumption is that there is a stable and predictable relationship between a student's efforts and abilities and the grades that that individual receives. Both the stability and predictability of this relationship are being deteriorated by grade inflation, in which students have to work less hard and demonstrate lower skills to get the same grades that more talented students once got. The following graph ( ) demonstrates how badly grades and scholastic accomplishment have become unhinged:

Consumer Credit in the American
Words: 1363 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 6734528
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Closing the loan is also known as firm commitment, and involves the completion of all key paperwork within a designated time. A closing date is set, and the closing costs are established. hen the client pays the costs and completes the paperwork, the loan is closed.

The next step is to service the loan. Servicing refers to the management of the payments. The loan creates an obligation on the part of the borrower to make payments as specified in the agreement. The role of the bank is to ensure that those payments are received. Servicing may be contracted out to a secondary party. In the U.S. that might be Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, who provide a secondary market for mortgages. In a servicing arrangement, the bank would collect the payments and remit most of this money to the secondary market investor. The bank would keep a portion of the…

Works Cited:

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation website. Retrieved April 30, 2009 from 

Rajan, Raghuram G. (no date). Why Bank Credit Policies Fluctuate: A Theory and Some Evidence. University of Chicago. Retrieved April 30, 2009 from 

Penwell, Tracy L. (2009). The Credit Process: A Guide for Small Business Owners. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Retrieved April 30, 2009 from 

No author. (2009). Closing. Mortgage X. Retrieved April 30, 2009 from

Small Business - Banking Start-Up
Words: 7548 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8891230
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Video Tape and Disc ental


Catalog/Mail Order


Health and Personal Care Stores


Table 2: Comparisons of Most isky Small Business (, cited by Telberg, 2003)

An Engine of Economic Growth

More and more, Craig, Jackson and Thomson (2007) argue, policymakers perceive the small business sector "as a potential engine of economic growth. Policies to promote small businesses include tax relief, direct subsidies, and indirect subsidies through government lending programs." These authors stress that encouraging lending to small business purports the Small Business Administration's (SBA's) primary policy objective of the loan-guarantee program. In their study, Craig, Jackson and Thomson (2007) implement empirical research to focus on SBA-guaranteed lending, utilizing a panel data set of SBA-guaranteed loans, they assess whether SBA-guaranteed lending discernibly impacts local economic performance. Ultimately, these authors cautiously conclude that "There is a positive (although small) and significant relationship between the level of SBA-guaranteed lending in…


Authority, purpose and scope. (2002). EXTENSIONS of CREDIT by FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS (REGULATION a). Retrieved November 10, 2007, at 

Bannock, G. (2005). The Economics and Management of Small Business: An International Perspective. New York: Routledge. Retrieved November 12, 2007, from Questia database: 

Bielski, L. (2006). On the Hunt for the Meaningful Segment: With a Deluge of Customer Information to Choose from, Bankers Struggle to See Their Customers in More Refined, Specific Ways. ABA Banking Journal, 98(9), 45+. Retrieved November 12, 2007, from Questia database: 

Brew, J. (2007). Taxes: The Forgotten Piece of Bank Profits Investigating Two Overlooked Strategies Could Put You on Your Way to Cutting Taxes by Half. Got Your Attention?. ABA Banking Journal, 99(5), 22+. Retrieved November 12, 2007, from Questia database:

Securities and International Financial Management
Words: 757 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8654526
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There are also non-qualitative, or financial risks, associated with foreign currency loans. Namely, because foreign currencies can be effected by such uncontrollable as political, governmental and natural factors, a foreign currency can suddenly change in a manner that either significantly benefits or disadvantages the borrower. For example, often time the rate of a foreign currency is based on such things as internal, regional or international political conditions. If a particular country has a significant political upheaval, the instability associated with such an event can have a negative impact on a nation's economy, which of course effects the foreign currency exchange rate and, thus, the borrowers investment. When such an event happens to a nation with a dominant currency, this change can have devastating effects on a loan, as was the case following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States.

Another means to reduce risk is to use…


Almekinders, Geert J. (1995): Foreign Exchange Intervention: Theory and Evidence. New York: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.

Eijffinger, Sylvester. Foreign Exchange Intervention: Objectives and Effectiveness. New York: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.

Business Ethics Case Study --
Words: 590 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53332105
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Michael has no moral "right" to undermine their loan evaluation process even if he genuinely believes that the lender will not be harmed by the deception. After all, beliefs are always subjective and people in Michael's position can be very sure about what they genuinely believe but still be wrong.

One need look no further than the .S. housing market in 2007 to see what can happen when peoples' beliefs about the value of property and about the ability of borrowers to pay back loans are wrong. Therefore, Michael is acting unethically to misrepresent information to the lender that the lender intends to use to determine whether or not the loan to Kokomo is safe enough to issue. Michael probably believes (honestly) that the lender simply does not understand enough about Kokomo's business processes and competitive situation to make the "right" decision. He probably feels morally justified in lying for…

Undoubtedly, Michael believes that his deception will not actually cause harm to anybody. On that level, his approach to securing the loan is only unethical "technically" because the lenders are entitled to use whatever criteria they want to decide how to make lending decisions. Michael has no moral "right" to undermine their loan evaluation process even if he genuinely believes that the lender will not be harmed by the deception. After all, beliefs are always subjective and people in Michael's position can be very sure about what they genuinely believe but still be wrong.

One need look no further than the U.S. housing market in 2007 to see what can happen when peoples' beliefs about the value of property and about the ability of borrowers to pay back loans are wrong. Therefore, Michael is acting unethically to misrepresent information to the lender that the lender intends to use to determine whether or not the loan to Kokomo is safe enough to issue. Michael probably believes (honestly) that the lender simply does not understand enough about Kokomo's business processes and competitive situation to make the "right" decision. He probably feels morally justified in lying for that reason.

The more ethical approach to the same situation and the one that I would prefer would be to devote the necessary effort to teach the lender about Kokomo's position and to present all of the facts that might not be apparent from the traditional information requested on the loan application. Michael should create a presentation to educate the lender so that the lender can understand that the poor past profits recorded for Kokomo are simply not a reliable indicator of the security of the loan. Michael should illustrate why the loan will enable Kokomo to become profitable and repay the loan instead of relying on unethical deception to get the loan.

Unfairness This Is a Short Review of
Words: 1481 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 97840338
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This is a short review of literature that discusses the subprime mortgage crisis which many believe had a significant impact on the financial crisis that began in 2008. The discussion will range from how the crisis started and what the banks knew might happen because of faulty legislation and greedy lenders prior to the crash, to how the crash has impacted families and how some entities have tried to mitigate it with little success.

The financial crisis that began in earnest in 2008 followed many decisions which, in retrospect, were not wise. Legislation can be traced back to the 1960s that began allowing lending companies (banks) and hedge funds to buy large numbers of mortgages and leverage them as if they were real assets (Block-Lieb & Janger, 2011). Other laws followed such as the Community einvestment Act first passed in 1977 and amended with much stronger language in 1995…


Block-Lieb, S., & Janger, E.J. (2011). Reforming regulation in the markets for home loans. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 38(3), 681-699.

Canner, G.B., & Passmore, W. (1995). Home purchase lending in low-income neighborhoods and to low-income borrowers. Federal Reserve Bulletin, 81(2), 71-78.

Miller, M. (2009). Stemming the subprime crisis: The North Carolina foreclosure prevention project. Stanford Law & Policy Review, 20(1), 213-231.

Peterson, J.R. (2005). Fannie fallout: The ongoing scrutiny of Fannie Mae will affect you. The effects could be a plus for some mortgage lenders, but hedging will require more careful attention. ABA Banking Journal, 97(4), 34-53.

Hardship Letter Any Business Relationship
Words: 1790 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 77963534
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4. I did not obtain my current mortgage under any materially false pretenses.

As part of the Hope for Homeowners program, I would be able to attain a new affordable mortgage based on a current appraisal value. I would retain 10% equity in the property, and would be sharing the equity and future appreciation with the Federal government, which would prohibit me from taking out any additional loans against the property except for direct repairs and/or maintenance. There are also up front insurance premiums for this type of loan, which I am aware of.

If you would please consider one of these two options, I believe we can come up with a mutually satisfying solution to help avoid foreclosure on my home. I am writing this hardship letter to plead with your company to review my loan information, take into account my current financial situation, my excellent payment history prior…


Mortgage Bankers Association. Fannie Mae Posts Conventional Mortgage Servicing Modifications (06-18). Related Documents, 2008 Mortgage Bankers Association. Website with .pdf file:,7601299&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL

Housing Market Economic Analysis to
Words: 2240 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68197804
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Even Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac should be made totally independent from the government. This should be followed up by other methods to increase the individual ownership of housing and at the same time reduce the costs of owning a house. Even if the housing sector cannot be made totally private, it is important that the government make statements saying that it has no intentions of supporting Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac any further, and at the same time, try to improve the operations of these two companies. This can be achieved by limiting the amount of debt that these regulatory deposit organizations can hold and also focusing clearly with the two institutions on the sections of the housing market where their activities would provide the best social benefits. (Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and Housing Finance: Why True Privatization Is Good Public Policy)

The weakness comes from the feeling that…


After the Housing Boom. 11 April, 2005. Retrieved at . Accessed on 30 April, 2005

Cederholm, Fred. Is the Housing Market Going to Crash? Retrieved at . Accessed on 30 April, 2005

Federal Home Loan Bank System. Retrieved at Accessed on 30 April, 2005

Housing' Direct Economic Impact. 2005. Retrieved at  on 30 April, 2005

Credit Application Analysis
Words: 832 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99922587
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redit Analysis Smehra

redit Analysis for Neal Harris

Neal Harris recently submitted his credit application for our consideration. Mr. Harris is 45 years old, married and has 2 children. He currently works at Franklin Industries where he has been employed as office manager for 2 years. Prior to that, he was in sales at Providencial Insurance for 3 years. Neal has resided at his current residence in Tennessee for 1 year.

His credit application has been filed in joint with his wife, Helen Harris, 43 years old. Helen has recently returned to the workforce from being a housewife. She is also employed by Franklin Industries where she has been marketing director for 4 months. Both individuals have a checking and savings account with AmSouth. The purpose of their loan is for a 2003 hevrolet Tahoe. Following is a review of the 5 's of redit for Mr. And Mrs. Harris…


After reviewing the joint credit application for Mr. And Mrs. Harris, I have drawn the conclusion that they should be granted the loan under the terms listed. These are for a loan of $24,000, repayable over 48 months at 4%, minimum monthly payment of $540. While Neal Harris has on record a Chapter 7 file in January, 2001, review of their assets and liabilities reveals that they are suitable candidates for this loan. They also demonstrate timely repayments to their current obligations which include a mortgage with Countrywide, an auto payment with Nissan, and 4 credit cards, one of which is currently at a 0 balance.

The couple is also within the 20% average for credit capacity- net income, and have also demonstrated that they will be able to take on the extra expenditure through this loan through their supplementary income listed. I recommend that AmSouth give Mr. And Mrs. Harris their requested loan under the conditions mentioned.

Sba the Small Business Association
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Of course, the FEMA application process itself was also problematic. The SBA created secure Internet-based application templates for aid to expedite the loan request process. Stress testing and plans for maximum user capacity levels was instituted within the system (SBA, 2006, GMO).

User applications were thus better 'triaged' based upon likelihood of approval, and where the loan should be directed. isk modeling was introduced, to help cope with future emergencies. The prediction of damage from a variety of types of disasters, in target locations would allow for anticipation of increased levels of demand (SBA, 2006, GMO). Unfortunately, improvement of the system was undertaken only after the backlog had been created. Unmet demand can create more demand, as businesses without critical resources can fall into more debt and see more damage being done to their businesses, as a result of the aftereffects of the disaster.

While the SBA blamed its faulty…


SBA: Actions needed to provide more timely data assistance. (2006). GMO. Retrieved August

8, 2010 at 

US Small Business Association awards contract to SRA. (2006, April 3). SRA. Retrieved August

8, 2010 at

Monitoring Microcreditors Monitoring of Micro-Creditors
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"Under group liability, clients have an incentive to screen other clients so that only trustworthy individuals are allowed into the program. In addition, clients will make sure that funds are invested properly and effort exerted. Finally, enforcement is enhanced because clients face peer pressure, not just legal pressure, to repay their loans. Thus, by effectively shifting the responsibility of certain tasks from the lender to the clients, group liability claims to overcome information asymmetries typically found in credit markets, especially for households without collateral" (Gine & Karlan, 2008, p.2).Social collateral becomes a replacement for financial collateral.

Additionally, the data suggests that when individuals alone have liability there is less monitoring of one another other's loans although "this lowered monitoring does not lead to higher default" statistically (Gine & Karlan, 2008, p.2).However, lenders "with weaker social networks prior to the conversion are more likely to experience default problems after conversion to…


Gine, Xavier & Dean S. Karlan. (2008, January). Peer monitoring and enforcement:

Long-term evidence from microcredit lending groups with and without group liability.

World Bank. Retrieved November 21, 2009 at

Business Ethics Recognizing and Resolving
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The Bank CEO's ole in Defining Ethical Integrity

Based on a thorough review of existing literature of the role of ethics in the banking industry, the role of the CEO as the ethical leader of their organization is next discussion. Based on the concepts presented in the paper to this point as the foundation, these key points provide insights into how CEOs and senior management actively shape the ethical standards of the organizations they manage on behalf of shareholders.

isk Management Is a CEOs' Ethical esponsibility combination of forces -- changing regulatory expectations that open companies up to intense levels of examination, heightened stakeholder sensitivity to and scrutiny of corporate behavior, and the severity of punishment by financial markets for corporate missteps -- push reputation and ethics management onto the CEOs' and senior managements' agenda. The paradox CEOs face is when to risk the reputation and brand of the company…


John Bond (2007). A safety culture with justice: A way to improve financial performance. Loss Prevention Bulletin,(196), 31-39. Retrieved October 20, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1333256011).

Donald R. Cassling (2008). Poehl v. Countrywide Home Loans, Inc. The Banking Law Journal, 125(9), 865. Retrieved October 21, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1571291211).

Chris Churchill (2007). State targets lender ethics: Mortgage brokers must get training, undergo criminal checks starting next year. Knight Ridder Tribune Business News. Retrieved October 21, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Dateline database. (Document ID: 1335614991).

Greenberg, J. (1990). Employee theft as a reaction to underpayment inequity: The hidden cost of pay cuts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 561-569.

Tillman Unconscionability What Is Contractual
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Response 1: Robyn Finster

You make a good point about asymmetry of information. There was no third party made available to draw up this contract to make it equitable, or explain its terms. The Commercial Credit Loan drafted the agreement. There was no opportunity for the borrower to allow a lawyer or other individual to examine the terms of the agreement, given the pressure Commercial Credit exerted upon the borrower for an immediate signature.

Response 2: Elizabeth Laage

Your personal story indicates how even when consumers seek out information, frequently the language used is so confusing it sounds contradictory. Part of the notion of contractual unconscionability, I believe, should include consideration of language that is deliberately misleading to one of the parties. Consumers often are confused and agree to lopsided legal contracts, based upon biased information they hear, or because of the way the agreement is phrased.

Response 3: Derek…

Interest Paid at the Beginning of a
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interest paid at the beginning of a loan period than at the end of the loan period?

Whether an equal total payment plan is adopted or an equal principle plan, in both cases the interest paid at the beginning of a loan repayment period is more than at the end. This is because the interest is calculated on the amount that is loaned. When the first payment is made then a specific principle amount that the borrower has paid for is deducted from the total loan given. Thus the total amount loaned reduces and hence the interest on the new amount is lesser for the second payment.

Using an example of an equal principle plan, if a borrower borrows $10,000 for a repayment plan of 10 years at the rate of 10% per annum, the premium will be divided equally in 10 parts. Which means that each year $1,000 will…

Consumer Borrowing
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Consumer Borrowing -- Spending an Economy Out of a Recession

The 'answer' provided by consumer borrowing and spending during recessions and even depressions revolves around the classical, microeconomics 'answer' to what seems like an economics paradox. Namely, how does one stimulate the economy into a state of recovery, when one is faced with consumers who have less money to spend on basic goods? Consumers who may be unemployed are understandably cautions about their economic future, so how does one 'give' them money to spend and encourage producers to produce.

Neo-classical or naturalistic theories of economics have tended to stress the need for the Federal Reserve Bank to lower the interest rate. This makes it cheaper for consumers to borrow money from banks, less punitive for consumers to use their credit cards to make purchases with money they do not have at the moment, and it also gives consumers an incentive…

Kim and Dan the Price
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But, the family must also consider that the interest rate is variable and is subject to inflation indexation in case of high market volatility and thus future monthly payments of the family may increase significantly if the risks of the lender increase. Presently the Federal eserve discount rate is increasing constantly and there is overall tendency to growing cost of financial resources in international markets which can further push interest rates upwards and the family will have very high mortgage servicing costs.

The renting option would include $1,400 per month plus utilities of $220 and insurance of $25, thus overall monthly payments of $1,645, while mortgage servicing and utilities costs are $2,758. Presently they are purchasing a house for $280,000 and it is expected to increase in value by 3% annually, or up to $324,500 approximately by the end of the fifth year. This means that their rental payments will…

References Available at 

Brealey, Myers. Fundamentals of Corporate Finance, 6th Ed., McGraw & Hill, 2003. Available at

Calculate Touring Enterprises' Weighted Average Cost of
Words: 1419 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 6736490
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Calculate Touring Enterprises' weighted average cost of capital (WACC).

Work as follows: first, compute the after-tax cost of debt, then compute the cost of equity.

WACC = E/V x Re + D/V x Rd x (1 - Tc)

Re = cost of equity

Rd = cost of debt

E = market value of the firm's equity

D = market value of the firm's debt

V = E + D = firm value

E/V = percentage of financing that is equity

D/V = percentage of financing that is debt

Tc = corporate tax rate

Cost of equity 5%

Cost of debt 10%

Total Equity- 7 million

Total debt- 18 million

Total 25 million

Determine the weightings of debt and equity in the capital structure.

Equity -28% (7 divided by 25)

Debt- 72%

Using your answers to the above questions, calculate the WACC

WACC = E/V x Re + D/V x Rd…

Credit Crunch on UK Residential
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While it was generally agreed that the increase in prices was due mainly to an insufficient offer as the stock house was limited, opinions have also been forwarded according to which the buy-to-let purchases have contributed to the inflation of the house prices (Property Mark).

The debate concerning the reasons for the massive price increases for residential properties (materialized mostly between 1996 and 2005) is however still ongoing. On the one hand, there are the property bulls, who argue that the increase in the prices of residential builds is the result of natural processes of economic growth and development. In other words, they state that the increase in prices was the natural reaction to higher levels of employment, economic stability and lower interest rates. On the other hand however, sit the property bears, who claim that the increase in property prices is not linked to any economic processes, but is…


Billington, I., 2010, 2011 set to be slow year for U.K. market, the Source,  / last accessed on January 14, 2011

Blackson, S., 2005, the practical guide to total financial freedom, Volume 3, Lulu Press Incorporates, ISBN 1411620569

Blackson, S., 2005, the guide to real estate investing, Lulu Press Incorporated, ISBN 1411623835

Booth, T., 2003, the buy to let guide: how to invest for profit in residential property and manage the letting yourself, 2nd Edition, How't Books, ISBN 1857038649

Corporate Capital Structure Decisions Are
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Statement 3

Another important issue to consider in the contraction of debt is represented by the impact of this debt on the company stakeholders -- employees, business partners, the public, and most importantly, the share holders. The primary scope of the economic agent is that of creating value for its stakeholders, but excessive debt could jeopardize this desire, especially since debt is money that has to be repaid and it as such reduces the future levels of profitability.

At the level of value creation, a crucial aspect to be analyzed is represented by the source of the debt to be contracted. On the one hand, there is the contraction of debt through loans, which are characterized by the fact that control and ownership of the company remains intact, but payments have to be regularly made; the payments are nevertheless tax deductible.

On the other hand, there is the contraction of…