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Local Government and Tax Incentives
Like federal and state governments, local governments offer tax incentives to businesses to help solve economic and/or environmental problems. Conduct an Internet search and find an example of a state or local government (perhaps your own) that offers an incentive to businesses and cite your resource(s). Describe the tax incentive you found, determine what economic problem(s) government is trying to solve by offering the incentive you highlight, and do your best to evaluate the costs and benefits of the incentive.
For business owners currently living in Philadelphia, PA, or those who hope to relocate their operations to the city, a wide selection of generous tax incentives have been provided on the federal, state, and municipal levels that are designed to incentivize this choice. According to the City of Philadelphia's Business Services division, there are more than a dozen tax incentives currently in place to alleviate…
City of Philadelphia, Business Services Division. (2009). Credits, grants & other incentives. Retrieved from website: https://business.phila.gov/pages/taxcreditsotherincentives.aspx?stage=start&type=all business types§ion=financing & incentives&bspcontentlistitem=tax credits, grants & other incentives
Illinois Department of Revenue, Office of Local Government Services. (2012). The illinois property tax system: A general guide to the local property tax cycle. Retrieved from website: http://tax.illinois.gov/publications/localgovernment/ptax1004.pdf
Mayes, E. (2013, March 13). Mayor's budget: No new taxes, slight spending hike. The Philadelphia Tribune. Retrieved from http://www.phillytrib.com/newsarticles/item/8165- mayor's-budget-no-new-taxes,-slight-spending-hike.html
Mikesell, J.L. (2010). Fiscal administration: Analysis and applications for the public sector. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Around the world, different nations, which are enclosed by their own geographical boundaries, adhere to various different styles of government. Those styles may either be democratic or dictatorial. Within democratic styles of government, there are other different sub-styles such as direct democracies, representative democracies, bi cameral houses, unicameral houses etc. These governments are setup on both federal and provincial or state level along with a local government for each local within a state or province. How these government structures are organized from federal to local level vary from country to country. Likewise, the degree to which individual states and/or provinces enjoy their respective administrative autonomy also vary from country to country.
The United States of America is a constitutional republic constituting 52 states in itself and adheres to the representative democratic style of government. This means that the general public in the United States of America, on…
Bowler, S., & Hanneman, R. (2006). Just How Pluralist Is Direct Democracy? The Structure of Interest Group Participation in Ballot Proposition Elections.Political Research Quarterly, 59(4), 557+. Retrieved March 2, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5035215406
Cardozo, M.A. (2007). The Use of ADR Involving Local Governments: The Perspective of the New York City Corporation Counsel. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 34(2), 797+. Retrieved March 2, 2012, from Questia database:
Specifically, education is made accessible to all children by means of the public school system, which stretches across all states, cities and counties. Furthermore, the law requires all students to be enrolled in school once they reach a certain age, which could vary from state to state. The law does not allow any child to be prohibited from a school education (FatNewt, 2011).
Although tertiary education is not free of charge, the government does promote further education by providing student loans, scholarships, and grants. Every student in the United States has the right to apply for such assistance by using the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA).
While it is clear that the government cares deeply about both health and education, it is also true that the sheer scale of need sometimes makes it difficult to offer timely help to all who are in need, especially in terms of…
FatNewt (2011). Government Services. Retrieved from: http://government.fatnewt.com/government-services
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). Key Initiatives. Retrieved from: http://www.hhs.gov/
Citizen trust in Local government performance in Botswana_
Meaning and content of trust has kept changing because of the changing points of reference. Trust in government used to refer to the belief that the government will not become autocratic (Bouckaert & de Walle, 2003). It currently refers to down to earth matters such as reliability of service delivery or the expectation that policy will correspond to an individual's wishes (Hofstede, 1980). Factors that determine trust in a government are not universal (Light and Labiner, 2001). Political systems with impeccable public service do not have to rely on evaluation on public service to determine one's trust in government.
Trust is related to performance. Citizens tend to distrust governments that underperform. Antigovernment context and negative images of bureaucrats are indicators that a government may not be performing well. To reverse declining trust, government institutions have integrated new public management and new public…
Bouckaert, G. & Van de Walle, S. (2003). Comparing Measures of Citizen Trust and User
Satisfaction as Indicators of Good Governance: Difficulties in Linking Trust and Satisfaction Indicators. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 69, 329.
Bouckaert, G., Kampen, J.K., Maddens, B. And Van de Walle, S. (2001)
Bij De Overheid: Eerste Rapport Burgergericht Besturen: Kwaliteit En
Citizen Perceptions of Local Government Performance in Botswana
When many people in the West hear the word, "Africa," they think of the kind of impoverishment and corruption that has kept much of the continent from joining the international community in meaningful ways in recent years. Indeed, for the majority of countries in Africa, this dismal perception holds true. One shining example that has managed to overcome the constraints and obstacles to development following its independence is Botswana. In fact, Botswana has combined its natural resources with an informed and enlightened approach to government that has facilitated the developmental process. Although major progress has been achieved in recent years in improving the quality of living for the people of Botswana, some observers, including Botswanian expatriates, are cautioning that the government is becoming too large and will inevitably suffer the same outcomes as its less fortunate neighbors. To determine the truth, this…
Bawa, K.A. & Mangope, B. (2011, March). Student teachers' attitudes and concerns about inclusive education in Ghana and Botswana. International Journal of Whole Schooling,
Beaulier, S.A. & Subrick, J.R. (2007, Fall). Limited government and economic growth in Botswana. Journal of Private Enterprise, 23(1), 52-55.
Botswana. (2012). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications / the-world-factbook/geos/bc.html.
American Mistrust of Centralized Government
This is a paper written in APA style that examines the traditional preference that Americans have for local government, the traditional distrust they have of centralized government, and the reasons behind these phenomena.
Local Government: A Traditional American Preference
There is a strong traditional preference for local government over centralized government in this country. This preference goes back all the way to the beginnings of our nation and can be plainly seen in the debates between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists over the ratification of the Constitution. It can still be seen going strong today in the never-ending cry of politicians to put an end to "big government." There is an obvious distrust for centralized government in this country, and our political history and current political climate proves this time and time again. Yet what are the reasons for this preference for local government and…
Articles of Confederation. Philadelphia, PA. 1782.
Colonial Charters." (2000). Kuyper Institute. Retrieved on December 3, 2003 at http://capo.org/Charters.html.
Colonial Government." (2000). USGenNet. Retrieved on December 3, 2003 at http://www.usgennet.org/usa/topic/colonial/book/chap10_5.html.
Colonial Government." (2001). USA History. Retrieved on December 3, 2003 at http://www.usahistory.info/colonial/government.html .
public policy directly affects local government area organization located. You select a policy affects,, local government area work located. (I work Orlando, Fl). The private sector affected federal, state, local policies.
Public policy: Healthcare in Orlando, Florida
Public policy is a government's attempt to address a problem that affects the public or to improve citizens' lives through legislation. One example of public policy on a federal level is that of the government's efforts to reform both government-sponsored and private healthcare insurance and to curtail spiraling healthcare costs. On a state level, Florida has made an aggressive attempt to reform healthcare. The focus of the proposed Florida program to reform Medicaid, the government insurance program for low-income residents, has been to force healthcare entities to limit care by setting spending caps, increasing the emphasis on personal responsibility, and charging patients fees for procedures to reduce the use of services.
Deslatte, Aaron. (2011, February 11). Florida Senate Medicaid bill would use HMO-like plans, ban illegal immigrants from care. Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved February 19, 2011 at http://www.orlandosentinel.com/health/os-mulling-medicaid-cuts-20110217,0,1932812.story
reed Specific ans
State and Local Government Laws on reeding Dangerous Pets
While some states and local government have breeding bans on dangerous pets, other states and local governments have failed to address this issue. Rather than a ban on breeding of dangerous pets, the law would be better served to hold owners of dangerous pets responsible for their pets.
The purpose of the study proposed is to examine the state and local laws on breeding of dangerous pets and to determine if a federal law should be enacted on this issue.
The significance of this study is the additional knowledge that will be added to the already existing base of knowledge in this area of inquiry.
The research questions addressed in this study include those as follows:
(1) What types of laws have been enacted by state and local governments to address the issue of breeding dangerous…
Breed Specific Legislation (2012) ASPCA. Retrieved from: http://www.aspca.org/fight-animal-cruelty/dog-fighting/breed-specific-legislation.aspx
Review of the Viability of City of County Pre-Emption of Banning Certain Dog Breeds By Ordinance (2008) The Florida State Senate Interim Report 2009-102. Oct 2008. Retrieved from: http://archive.flsenate.gov/data/Publications/2009/Senate/reports/interim_reports/pdf/2009-102ca.pdf
Snyder, E. (2012) Dangerous Dog Breeds. Edgar Snyder and Associates Law Firm. Retrieved from: http://www.edgarsnyder.com/dog-bite/dangerous-dogs.html
It appears that keeping people from moving is a priority and by implementing these plans, the town is effectively helping and serving its people (oysterbaytown.com.
Recommendations for Change and Conclusion
One must keep in mind that while Oyster Bay is a town much in tune with its citizens and their needs, there is still much room for improvement at the government level. By making changes locally, opens the floor to new ideas and way of solving problems. One change I would allow myself is to put a term limit on the council people. By allowing new members of the community on the board as terms complete, offers representation of a larger segment of the town's population. I would like to see more women represented as well the younger segment of the population. By making this change, government practices will become more flexible to other changes. ith the board as it…
Nash, Colin. "In Oyster Bay -- Suit Stalls Underhill Development -- Civic group seeks to keep land open." Newsday 2 Feb. 1997.
Oyster Bay Town: A message from Town Supervisor John Vendetto. 13 Jan 2005 http://www.oysterbaytown.com/ .
Local Elections in the City of York, UK
Many Western democracies are dealing with the problem of low voter turnout in elections. The United Kingdom is no different in this regard. Local elections seem to be particularly hard hit by an absence of voters participating in these elections. Political scientists everywhere have been studying the problem of low voter turnout for quite some time, though interviews and surveys with the voting population. Thus far, results of these studies have pointed to a variety of reasons why people may choose to not participate in voting in their local elections. This paper examines a May 2003 local election in the city of York in the United Kingdom, and looks at reasons why voter turnout in this election was relatively low.
In a local election in the city of York in May of 2003, the voter turnout was rather low. While it was…
Rallings, C. And Thrasher, M. (1997). Local Government Elections in Britain. London, Routledge.
Statistics About York." (2004). Neighborhood Statistics. Retrieved on January 12, 2004 at http://neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/AreaProfileFrames.
The local and regional councils that administer the Porirua City metropolitan area have different, but interrelated responsibilities that must be taken into account in formulating effective economic developmental initiatives as described in Table 1 below.
espective esponsibilities and Areas of Interest for egional and Local Councils in New Zealand
Description of esponsibilities and Areas of Interest
esponsible for the integrated management of natural and physical resources, management of natural resources such as water and soil.
esponsible for carrying out multiple functions that enable them, among other things, to promote development projects with the private sector; also responsible for land-use planning, subdivision, service delivery, etc.; however, local councils are not involved in educational, health and welfare matters and these remain in the domain of national government.
Source: Gouldson & oberts, p. 54
Therefore, local councils would be best suited for establishing priorities for…
Blair, J.P. & Carroll. (2009). Local economic development: Analysis, practices, and globalization. New York: Sage Publishing.
-. Social capital in local economic development. In Theories of local economic development:
linking theory to practice, J.E. Rowe (ed.) (2009), Auckland: Ashgate Publishing.
Colbert, E. (1997). The Pacific Islands: Paths to the present. Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Government Budgeting for Kelsey: Budget Changes Needed to Better Protect and Serve the Community
"We're not going to use the budget as an excuse. We're not crying about it. But I'm going to push as hard as I can to get as many people on the streets as I can. We need all hands on deck," so were the words of the Philadelphia Police Chief when faced with a similar situation to what Kelsey faces now (Steele 2010 p 2). Police strength is an absolute necessity in the effort to fight crime, both on local and larger federal levels. Without the appropriate funding resources, many local police forces around the country are beginning to suffer in terms of just how effective they are at fighting crime overall. Limited budgets mean limited capabilities, and that is exactly what the city of Kelsey is experiencing right now. Essentially, the budget is already…
Budget of the United States Government. (2004). Budgets and taxes. Almanac of Policy Issues. Web. http://www.policyalmanac.org/economic/budget.shtml
City of Kelsey. (2006). Annual Budget for the Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of Phoenix. Web. https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/aapd/cist/vop/Government/KelseyCity/docs/KelseyBudgetBook2005.pdf
City of Kelsey. (2009). Kelsey profile. City Government. University of Phoenix. Web. https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/aapd/cist/vop/Government/KelseyCity/docs/KelseyProfile.doc
DeWeese, Adrianne. (2011). Police say safety tax is needed to help alleviate 'blackout.' The Examiner. Web. http://www.examiner.net/features/x1896018474/Police-say-safety-tax-needed-to-help-alleviate-blackout
A lack of local understanding by FEMA and & #8230;. Caused a clear inability for these agencies to exercise their logistics plan during such a catastrophic event.
The first clear weakness was experienced by FEMA, the national organization appointed to deal with supplementing local relief efforts and providing extended services to those in need in an event of a natural disaster or terrorist attack. FEMA is supposed to work as a supplement to local emergency service efforts, and as such it is supposed to be in tune with the capabilities and procedures of the local agencies that were on the front line of Katrina disaster relief. However, the research shows that "there was nobody that even knew FEMA's history, much less understood the profession and the dynamics and the roles and responsibilities of that states and local governments" (University Transportation Centers Program, 2007, p 22). Essentially, FEMA operatives were not…
City of Hampton. (2012). Emergency operations plan: Abstract. Emergency Management. The City of Hampton Virginia. Retrieved September 5, 2012 from http://hampton.gov/eoc/iframe.html?linkfrom=main&bc=Emergency%20Operations%20Plan%20%28abstract%29&url=./pdf/eop_abstract_2011.pdf
National Response Team. (2004). National Incident Management System. Productions. Retrieved September 5, 2012 from www.nrt.org/Production/NRT/...385aNIMS.../NIMS-90-web.pdf?
University Transportation Centers Program. (2007). Comparison of Disaster Logistics Planning and Execution for 2005 Hurricane Season. Midwest Transportation Consortium. Retrieved September 5, 2012 from http://www.intrans.iastate.edu/reports/disaster-management.pdf
What they did not anticipate was the levees breaking nor were they aware of the level of immediate need of the people. He also says that with Hurricane Andrew, about two million residents were evacuated and only about 10% we left homeless whereas with Hurricane Katrina approximately the same number of residents were evacuated yet over 90% were left homeless (Halton, 2006). This was much more of a burden than FEMA had anticipated and it was a result of poor emergency response at lower levels of government.
Even still, FEMA should have been better prepared to handle the situation. They should have been called in earlier than they were and if this were the case they situation would have been easier to manage. Paulison says that FEMA was not fully aware of what was needed and where. This is a result of poor communication. y the time they were called…
Halton, B. (2006). FEMA's response to Hurricane Katrina. Fire Engineering, 159(5), 213-218.
Kelley-Romano, S. And Westgate, V. (2007). Blaming Bush: An analysis of political cartoons following Hurricane Katrina. Journalism Studies, 8(5), 755-719.
Perry, R.W. And Lindell, M.K. (2003). Preparedness for emergency response: Guidelines for emergency planning process. Disasters, 27(4), 336-350.
Government in Continuity Planning
Since the 1950s, continuity planning has been a major part of U.S. government policy. This is because there were concerns that some kind of nuclear attack or natural disaster could have an adverse impact on entire regions of the country. When this happens the odds increase that there could be various forms of lawlessness in these areas. To mitigate these kinds of situations, continuity planning was created to ensure that vital resources and personnel are dispatched to these kinds of areas. (Daleo, 2009, pp. 919 -- 925) ("Continuity Guidance Circular," 2009)
After September 11th, is when these ideas were once again revisited. In this case, National Security Presidential Directive-51 (NSPD-51) and Homeland Security Presidential Directive-20 (HSPD-20) were enacted to provide a strategy for dealing with disasters. Taking the lead in this area is the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA). They have created the Continuity Guidance Circular.…
Continuity Guidance Circular. (2009), FEMA. Retrieved from: http://www.fema.gov/pdf/about/org/ncp/cont_guidance1.pdf
Daleo, E. (2009). State Constitutions and Legislative Continuity. DePaul Law Review 58, 919 -- 925.
Government Funds for Internet ducation
The government has a duty to provide the best possible education to our future leaders. It is imperative that the school environment is conducive to learning. Textbooks should be up-to-date, teachers should be well qualified and the curriculum should teach children the skills they need to succeed in the world, no matter what career path they choose. Denying funding to connect our children to the Internet is to deny them an adequate education. The purpose of the Internet far surpasses that of instant messages and email, the Internet is a useful tool for just about anything. Learning how to navigate the World Wide Web is not an option; it has become mandatory for anyone who wishes to thrive in this century and for the rest of time.
Brian Goldfarb, a student at Canyon High School in Anaheim, California whose ingenuity, computer savvy and his realization…
Ehlert, Bob. Technology Skills. Retrieved on November 16, 2002 from Web site: http://www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m1041/6_77/54635441/p1/article.jhtml
Pedroni, Gulliermo. The Importance of the Internet in K-12 Education." Retrieved on November 16, 2002 from Web site: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/5461/paper_1.html
Government at all levels drive the Reinvention of Schools." Retrieved on November 16, 2002 from Web site: http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/techgap/navigate.cgi
As a part of this initiative, the EPA works with local communities to: establish the optimal use of the cleaned up sites, it provides relevant information to the potential buyers / developers and dispenses advice on technical needs for re-utilization of the site. ("SARA Overview," 2010)
In this particular case, the RTU is effective at helping communities be able to reclaim land that had once been considered to be contaminated. For business, this will have long-term benefits as the reclaimed land could help to support other commercial activities. At the same time, time it will help to increase property values, by taking land that was thought to be destroyed and making it re-useable once again. This will have ripple effects for a host of different businesses, as their net worth will increase from a rise in the price of land.
However, over the short and medium term, this will have…
SARA Overview. (2010). EPA. Retrieved from: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/policy/sara.htm
Title 42 Public Health and Welfare. (2008). GPO Access. Retrieved from: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/usc.cgi?ACTION=BROWSE&TITLE=42USCC103
What is the Super Fund. (2010). EPA. Retrieved from:
B. In market economies, governments are supposed to provide economic conditions for private enterprises to function effectively. However, the main purpose is to create an environment for a healthy national economy, in which all the parties are prosperous, not only private enterprises (USINFO, 2007). The main difference between market economies and planned economies lies on whether the influence of the government is used to preclude private decision (Wikipedia, 2007). The fact that the Mercedes bidding process took place at the state and local level of governments probably influenced the inducements for this project. In other words, a federal government probably would not have offered such favorable tax condition for the Mercedes plant implementation, being more preoccupied on the social welfare.
C. The state and local governments were definitely in favor of the Alabama Mercedes project, and the enormous amounts of money invested in this project by the Alabama government prove…
Hirschey, Mark. Case Study: Oh, Lord, Won't You Buy Me a Mercedes-Benz (Factory)? Fundamentals of Managerial Economics.
Government in a Market Economy (2007). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved July 17, 2007 at http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/market/mktec8.htm.
Market Economy Introduction (2007). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved July 17, 2007 at http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/market/mktec1.htm.
Market economy (2007). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved July 17, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_economy#Government_intervention .
Government Accounting Office in America (GAO)
This is an examination of the Government Accounting Office in America. The writer discusses the history, purpose and background of the GAO as well as the duties that the office is charged with performing. The writer then analyzes literature that illustrates the office in action. The final discussion revolves around the question, "Is the office effective or is it a waste of money." There were four sources used to complete this paper.
During the last few years there has been a public outcry and demand to investigate government spending. The public was brought stories by the media about the government paying thousands of dollars for toilet seats, and spending hundreds of dollars on a screwdriver and other such tools. When the reports began to surface about wasted government spending the public became angry. Lobbyists across the nation began to demand an accounting of not…
Bibliography for a listing of non-GAO publications.) It should be noted that, as with any effort to put current events into historical context, alternative interpretations are possible. Often debated are the intent and motivation of the framers of the Constitution who created the census. In this report, we have quoted the Constitution and various laws relating to the decennial census and have attempted to place their language in an historical context. We are not, however, providing our own independent review or interpretation of the constitutional and statutory issues discussed in this report, which, unless otherwise noted, are based primarily on the analysis contained in the various publications and documents we relied upon in preparing this report.
Short answers to some frequently asked questions about the decennial census are in appendix 1. Appendix 11 contains information on changes in the apportionment of the membership of the House of Representatives between the 1920 and 1990 Decennial Censuses by region of country and on changes in the nation's population and its undercount by race and ethnicity between the 1950 and 1990 censuses, as well as a snapshot of the growth and cost of census-taking since the first decennial census in 1790. Major contributors to this report are identified in appendix III.
L. Nye Stevens Director, Federal Management and Workforce Issues
Why Take the Census?
The State of Nevada and Clark County appear to have a different manner of meeting budget deficiencies. The Office of udget and Management has an amount of finances reserved for supplemental and emergency funding, at a total of $153.1 billion dollars. Neither Clark County nor the State of Nevada appears to have emergency or supplemental funding in their budgets.
State of Nevada
The budget for the State of Nevada is larger than Clark County. The total 2006 budget for the State of Nevada is reported to be $2,400 million dollars with a deficit of -2.3%. The state of Nevada's transportation budget for 2006 was $4.6 million dollars; agriculture $21.1 million; education $56.6 million; health and human services $69.2 million; and $21.0 million for justice programs. These amounts are considerably higher than Clark County in comparison. The State of Nevada's Department of usiness and Industry recently released a new prevailing wage…
Clark County (2006). Clark County. Retrieved September 22, 2006, from Nevada's Clark County
Website: http://www.co.clark.nv.us/ .
Office of Budget and Management. (2006). The White House's Office of Budget and Management.
Retrieved September 22, 2006, from the Office of Budget and Management's Website: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/ .
government that governs least the best sort of government for a freedom-Loving nation to have.
Does the Government that Governs Least Govern the Best?: A Closer Look
That government is best which governs least." This statement has been attributed to Thomas Jefferson, though there is no actual evidence of the statement in any of his extant writings. Whether Jefferson originally made this famous saying or not is inconsequential. The fact is, this saying has been repeated countless times over the past two centuries by proponents of democracy, states' rights, civil liberties, and all sorts of other precepts upon which our nation was supposedly founded. Those who believe that a true freedom-loving democracy consists of a government that stays out of the business of its citizens as much as possible are many and loud. There are many historically famous people who can be counted among the ranks of those who believe…
De Tocqueville, Alex. Democracy in America. New York: Harper Collins. (re-issue) 1988.
Publius. The Federalist Papers. New York: Signet. (re-issue) 2003.
Florida state government is divided up into branches that each hold a precise and specific mandate. As with the federal government, Florida's state government consists of three branches -- the executive branch, the legislative branch, and the judicial branch. Each branch has its own special duties and responsibilities. Moreover, the state also has local government agencies that serve both general and special purposes (American Government, n.d.). This paper will discuss each of these elements of the Florida state government.
The basic structure of the Florida state government can be summarized by explaining the responsibilities of the Florida Governor and Cabinet, the Florida Legislature and the Florida Judicial branches of government (State and Local Governemnt, n.d.).
The Governor is the chief executive of the state government -- just like the President is the chief executive of the nation. In Florida, the Governor is responsible for overseeing the state budget…
American Government. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ushistory.org/gov/12.asp
The Florida Constitution. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.leg.state.fl.us/statutes/index.cfm?submenu=3
Forms of Municipal Government. (n.d.). NLC. Retrieved from http://www.nlc.org/build-skills-and-networks/resources/cities-101/city-structures/forms-of-municipal-government
State and Local Government. (n.d.). White House. Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/1600/state-and-local-government
Successful sustainable development also requires an evaluation of major trends and problems in the tourism industry rather than focusing on minor new developments that may have localized impact only (Butler, 1998).
Taken together, the foregoing indicates that irrespective of the precise definition that is used, sustainable tourism development is based on three main principles, economic, environment and social which are described below:
1. Economic: This principle refers to something that affects to the majority number of people and enhance the economic situation which is related to sustainable management of economic in tourism sector. This can regarded as opportunities to educate and train employees, support local suppliers, trade, producers and so on (Chapman, 2007). This principle is consistent with the observation by King (2008) that, "tourism in Thailand, as with tourism in the Asian region more generally, is a highly diversified, complex, and changing phenomenon, the impact and consequences of which…
'Bung Kan Is Thailand's 77th Province.' 2011, March 23. Pattaya Daily News. [online]
available: http://www.pattayadailynews.com/en/2011/03/23/bung-kan-is-thailand%E2%80%99s-77th-province/ .
Burton, S., & Steane, P. 2004. Surviving Your Thesis. New York: Routledge.
Cater, E. 1993. 'Ecotourism in the Third World: Problems for Sustainable Tourism
status of federalism within the U.S. It is the thesis of the paper that the President, the Courts and Congress have assumed influential and significant roles in the shaping of federalism in recent decades. Initially, a conceptualization of federalism will be offered as established by the founding fathers. Current literature will then be used to identify factors associated with and the role assumed by the presidency, the Courts and Congress in federalism as it exists today within the U.S.
Conceptual Framework unique federal system of government to replace the original Articles of Confederation was established b the U.S. Constitution. On the basis of federalism, the Framer's of the Constitution delineated that national concerns were to be handled by a national legislative branch and executive branch of government while concerns at the local and state level would be handled by state legislatures and governors. It was the intent of the Framer's…
Brock, P. (2001). Supreme Court Justice Thomas Smith speaks. Montpelier Magazine (Spring, 2001), Harrisonburg, VA: James Madison University, Montpelier.
Eastman, J.C. (2002). Re-entering the arena: Restoring a judicial role for enforcing limits on federal mandates. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 01934872, 25 (3), 931-952.
Greve, M. (2000). The supreme court's federalism. AEI Federalist Outlook, 2 (August 2000). Found at http://www.federalismproject.org/outlook/8-2000.html.
Jeffrey, K. (1995). Guide to regulatory reform: The federalism rule. Brief Analysis No. 151, National Center for Policy Analysis, Washington DC. Found at http://www.ncpa.org/ba/ba151.html
This is largely due to the global nature of the phenomenon as the Internet is indeed the trademark of interdependence and globalization. The relations and connections it facilitates allow people around the world to come together in all sorts of activities, and, inevitably, pornography is one of them. Therefore, this type of complexity demanded a thorough response from the part of the authorities both at global and at the national level.
From a global perspective, the phenomenon is dealt with by numerous international organizations. On the one hand, the United Nations has been promoting concerted action in this field through the Economic and Social Council that supervises the activities of the Human ights Council. Its annual reports on the state of children around the world have improved the visibility of child pornography as a contemporary problem. From this point-of-view, the Council monitories the evolution of national states and its elaboration…
Child Net International. (2004) Retrieved 14 March 2007, at http://www.childnet-int.org/
Council of Europe. (2001). Convention on cybercrime. Retrieved 14 March 2007, at http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/EN/Treaties/Html/185.htm
Interpol.(2006) Crimes against children. Retrieved 14 March 2007, from www.interpol.int/Public/Children/Default.asp
Livingstone, S., Bober, M. (2004) UK Children Go Online, Economic and Social Research Council. Retrieved 14 March 2007, from www.children-go-online.net
Norfolk Virginia is a medium sized city, and like many other local communities, has had to adapt to the new reality that the events of September 11, 2001 have forced the nation to accept. In the wake of the attacks a federal Commission was charged with exploring the causes, events, and lessons to be learned from the tragedy. This commission recommended a dual path approach to keeping the nation safe: firstly confronting terrorism outside the United States and improving and then maintaining adequate defenses against potential terrorist attacks. In the years following the attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Virginia, the city of Norfolk, in conjunction with both the state of Virginia and the federal government has implemented a number of new policies to deal with the threat faced by the community.
The events of September 11, 2001 have had a significant…
"2009 Virginia Terrorism Threat Assessment." (March 2009). Virginia Fusion Center.
Commonwealth of Virginia Department of State Police. Retrieved from http://rawstory.com/images/other/vafusioncenterterrorassessment.pdf
"9/11 Commission Report." (2004). The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks
Upon the United States. Retrieved from http://www.9-
federal grant application process. According to Grants.gov, a federal grant is an award of financial assistance from a federal agency to a recipient "to carry out a public purpose of support or stimulation authorized by a law of the United States."
The grant process is detailed and specific, with rules that must be closely adhered to. Although a few individuals receive federal grants, most federal grants are awarded to organizations, institutions, and state and local governments planning major projects that will benefit specific sectors of the population or the community as a whole. Organizations that receive government grants are subject to strict government oversight. They must meet detailed government performance standards during the duration of the project and funding period of the grant. Failure on the part of the grant recipient to perform under the requirements of the grant can result in penalties that range from economic sanctions to prison…
Non-voting public advocate groups that will advise the City Council on: how different policies will affect neighborhoods. Their main responsibility is to represent the interests of the general public. (erg, 2007)
What form of city or county government does your local municipal or county jurisdiction have?
Representative democracy. (erg, 2007)
What kinds of elections do your local city, county, and school board employ?
Direct elections every four years.
Direct elections every four years.
Direct elections every four years.
Appointed by orough Presidents. (erg, 2007)
Community oards. (2011). NYC. Retrieved from: http://www.nyc.gov/html/cau/html/cb/directory.shtml
Mayor loomberg. (2011). NYC. Retrieved from: http://www.nyc.gov/portal/site/nycgov/?front_door=true
The New York City Council. (2011). NYC. Retrieved from: http://council.nyc.gov/html/home/home.shtml
New York City Courts. (2011). New York Unified Court System. Retrieved from: http://www.courts.state.ny.us/courts/nyc/index.shtml
Community Boards. (2011). NYC. Retrieved from: http://www.nyc.gov/html/cau/html/cb/directory.shtml
Mayor Bloomberg. (2011). NYC. Retrieved from: http://www.nyc.gov/portal/site/nycgov/?front_door=true
The New York City Council. (2011). NYC. Retrieved from: http://council.nyc.gov/html/home/home.shtml
New York City Courts. (2011). New York Unified Court System. Retrieved from: http://www.courts.state.ny.us/courts/nyc/index.shtml
Government Regulations and Hospice
Government Regulations Affecting Health Care in Hospice
Regulations Affecting Health Care in Hospice
Impact of rules on Hospice services
This paper focuses on how government regulations impact hospice. The paper starts off with an introduction to the hospice system that was revived by a nurse, Cecily Saunders, who then went on to become a physician, establishing one of the first modern hospices. The concept of total pain is explained in some detail. The body of the paper then includes the studies that have been conducted on patients and caregivers in hospice systems as well as on people who died after they were diagnosed with terminal illness resulting in death in six months following the prognosis. The overall conclusion that can be drawn here is that while in Japan there is a marked need for improving the Day hospice system, the American hospice industry…
American Medical Directors Association. (n.d.). White Paper on Palliative Care And Hospice In Long-Term Care. Retrieved March 10, 2012, from American Medical Directors Association: http://www.amda.com/governance/whitepapers/palliative_care.cfm
Carlson, M.D., Morrison, R.S., Holford, T.R., & Bradley, E.H. (2007). Hospice Care: What Services Do Patients and Their Families Receive? Health Services Research, 42(4), 1672-1690.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2008). Medicare and Medicaid Programs: Hospice Conditions of Participation; Final Rule. Federal Register, 73(109), 32088-32220.
Christakis, N.A., & Escarce, J. j. (1996). Survival of Medicare patients after enrollment In hospice programs . The New England Journal of Medicine, 172-179.
There were incidences of the army having supplies but no requests came in for the supplies from FEMA which was supposed to be initiating that.
The lack of the CIA activation also meant there was no unified command on the ground hence the delay of the arrival of the active duty-federal troops in New Orleans. Even though there were in excess of 50,000 troops sent with resources from over 49 states, the operations did not proceed efficiently due to lack of the command from federal Northern Command, which was overseeing the large-scale deployments and operations of the active-duty military (Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, 2006:Pp11).
3. Politics and decision making process
In the event of any disaster, be it natural or an act of terrorism, there is always an attempt to politicize the process of making decisions particularly relating to the search and rescue and general response…
Department of Homeland Security, (2004). Catastrophic Incidence Annex. National Response
Plan. Pp1. Retrieved October 2, 2012 from http://www.uscg.mil/hq/cg5/cg534/nsarc/Catastrophic_Incident_Annex.pdf
Homeland Security, (2005). Catastrophic Incident Supplement to the National Response
Plan. Retrieved October 2, 2012 from http://publicintelligence.net/catastrophic-incident-supplement-to-the-national-response-plan/
. The state gives tax incentives for the creation and restoration of private wetlands and riparian zones, and the state's "Acres for Wildlife" program encourages farmers to take land out of production for the benefit of wildlife (Arkansas, 2007).
Environmental Concerns During Construction
Environmental issues are accounted for in planning and in the granting of permits, usually on the basis of an Environmental Assessment (EA) as required by law. During construction, the provisions of such a statement are to be followed to the satisfaction of city, state, and federal agencies charged with monitoring such issues, depending on the type of construction and jurisdictional considerations.
Public participation is encouraged during the hearings held by the Little ock Planning Commission in deciding on permits requested by developers and others or by the zoning agency if a variance is sought. The public may also participate in a similar manner when new…
Arkansas (2007). New Mexico Center for Wildlife Law. Retrieved December 16, 2007 at http://ipl.unm.edu/cwl/statbio/arkansas.html.
City of Little Rock (2007). Retrieved December 16, 2007 at http://www.littlerock.org/ .
Planning (2005). City of Little Rock. Retrieved December 16, 2007 at
Local, State and Federal Partnership: Terrorism
National Response Framework (NRF)
National Response Framework is a document that guides and presents an integrated national rejoinder to emergencies and disasters stipulating how all hazardous responses are conducted by nations (Alperen 2011). It deals with the large catastrophes and the smaller incidences. A comprehensive approach is established to respond to domestic incidences with the framework spelling out key responses that are principle, as well as the structures and roles that organize national response. Clear description on how States, private sector, Federal Government, nongovernmental organizations or partners and communities use these principles for an effective and coordinated national response are included. Moreover, the NRF shows specific circumstances whereby the Federal Government exercises a larger role involving federal interests and catastrophes where significant support is required by the state. Therefore, the NRF provides mechanism and structure for the National-level policies in regards to incidents management…
As of May 2, 2009, CNN has reported there are 160 confirmed cases of swine flu across the United States of America and about 108 cases throughout the rest of the world.
Although the swine flu (H1N1) strain's discovery in the 1930s has shown not so much an aggressive spread of the disease through the years worldwide, a flaccid approach to the prevention and eradication of any communicable pathogen could result into a catastrophe worldwide, as transmission methods are numerous and casual like mere sneezing, coughing, and usual human activities, like handshakes, kissing and talking with an infected or healthy pathogen carrier.
Preventive measures include keeping one's self healthy by having a well-balanced diet, taking in ample or optimal amounts of water (8 glasses of water for normal individuals) to keep one normally hydrated, getting enough quality sleep and rest (normally 8 hours of sleep) with some stress relieving naps,…
Black, Richard. Global Warming risk 'much higher'. BBC NEWS. 23 May 2006.
"The Great Storm reigns today as the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history. Between 10,000 and 12,000 people died during the storm...the added toll on commercial structures created a monetary loss of $30 million, about $700 million in today's dollars" (Smith 2003).
A more recent powerful tropical system that affected the Texas coast was that of Hurricane Carla. Carla illustrated how storms are particularly damaging to the low-lying areas of Texas near the Gulf Coast. "Carla's circulation enveloped the entire Gulf of Mexico with fringe effects along all Gulf Coast states," and one-half million residents of the area had to be evacuated to higher ground ("Texas Hurricane History," 2008, USA Today).
Because of its location in the Southeast, Houston is subject to the El Nino effect, the climate changes that occur because of variations in water temperature in the Pacific Ocean. El Nino years tend to have higher levels of…
About our office." (2008). National Weather Service (NWS). Retrieved 12 Aug 2008 at http://www.srh.noaa.gov/hgx/office.htm
The Great Christmas Eve Snow Storm." (2004) National Weather Service Forecast Office
NWS). Retrieved 12 Aug 2008. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/hgx/projects/xmasevesnow04.htm
Houston." (2008). Environmental Protection agency EPA. Retrieved 12 Aug 2008 at http://www.epa.gov/hiri/pilot/houston.html
Governments neutralize the monetary impacts of their foreign exchange activities. This sterilization seeks to prevent foreign exchange transactions from posing as obstacles to the domestic monetary policy objectives. The underlying disturbance is likely to cause conflict between governments. When the underlying disturbance to exchange rate originates from the domestic government, it is likely to pursue inflation objectives through non-sterilized foreign exchange interventions (Auerbach & Kotlikoff, 2009).
While other governments have boundaries on investments relating to international financial markets in different currencies, some governments factor objectives of nominal exchange rates into their financial policy decisions. For instance, the federal government occasionally alters the rate of federal funds while it undertakes compatible foreign exchange activities. Erecting the required monetary policy changes across the sale or purchase of foreign currency has a bigger impact on the foreign exchange rate. This is contrary to initiating this move through open market activities in state securities.…
Auerbach, a.J., & Kotlikoff, L.J. (2009). Macroeconomics: An integrated approach. Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.: MIT Press.
Madura, J. (2011). International Financial Management. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning, Inc.
Yotopoulos, Pan a. (2010). Exchange Rate Parity for Trade and Development: Theory, Tests, and Case Studies. Cambridge Univ Pr.
Evaluate how Public Policy Decisions Affect the Receipt of Revenues
Politics and attitudes about where the various revenues should be spent can create heated amounts of debate. In the case of the Department of Defense, this can mean that periodic reviews could occur that can have an impact upon a host of different spending programs. At the same time, various assessments will take place with Secretary of Defense. Where, they will review the size and necessity of the various bases / personnel. A good example of this can be seen when the Secretary of Defense will recommend various base closures and force adjustments. As politics and changes in the Department's needs / availability of funds will affect what programs are going to receive the most appropriate amount of revenues.
Analyze the Economic Conditions that Affect Revenue Projections
The economic conditions will play a major role in determining how…
Base Closure List. (2005). MSNBC. Retrieved from: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7834939/ns/us_news
The Numbers. (2010). Tax Policy Center. Retrieved from: http://www.taxpolicycenter.org/briefing-book/background/numbers/revenue.cfm
Bender, B. (2010). Spending Critic Brown. Boston Globe. Retrieved from: http://www.boston.com/news/nation/washington/articles/2010/04/08/spending_critic_brown_backs_mass_weapons_bid/
Dupy, T. (2010). Defense Secretary Wants Spending Cuts. Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/tina-dupuy/defense-secretary-wants-d_b_571906.html
The Japanese government has a onstitution created in 1947. It is founded on three principles, respect for fundamental human rights, sovereignty of the people, and renunciation of war. There are also three branches of the government. The legislative or Diet, executive or cabinet, and judicial or courts.
The highest organ of state power, the Diet, is Japan's national parliament. They are the singular law-making organ of the states. There are 480 seats in the House of Representatives, 242 seats in the House of ouncillors, all a part of the Diet. Furthermore, all Japanese citizens, once they are 20, can vote in election.
Diet members elect not a president, but a prime minister from amongst the group. The cabinet, from where the prime minster leads, is responsible to the Diet. Things like currency are run by the Diet. On page 21 of hoi's book, he explains the connection between the…
Cummings, William K, and Philip G. Altbach. The Challenge Of Eastern Asian Education. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997.
Wade, Robert. Governing The Market. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004.
Walter, Lynn. Women's Rights. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2001.
Finally, this sub-component also recognizes the growing problem associated with diversion of prescription drugs into the illicit black market. The policy provides funding for methods to redress that issue by improved tracking of prescriptions for controlled substances, including the practice of "doctor shopping" sometimes used to obtain legal prescriptions for controlled substances with the intention of distributing them illegally for profit (USONDCP, 2004).
III. Disrupting the Market: Attacking the Economic asis of the Drug Trade: The third major component of the President's drug policy incorporates law enforcement and prosecution in a manner designed to address the economic basis of the drug trade. Specifically, the policy authorizes both increased funding as well as tactical reorganization of various elements of the criminal justice system with respect to the illegal drug trade. In that regard, the policy emphasizes a priority targeting initiative designed to identify and prosecute specific criminal organizations and enterprises involved…
Farwell, S. Man Who Sells Tips on How to Avoid Arrest Is Running for Congress; the Dallas Morning News (Mar. 3/08)
Macionis, J. (2003) Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
USONDCP (2004) the President's National Drug Control Strategy. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs04/index.html
" For most this is generally seen as a reference to the Federal Judiciary. One thinks of the arren Court, and the great number of decisions concerning civil rights, voting rights, etc. It is often not realized, however, to what an extent state judges play ar ole in shaping these issues. In many state court systems, the state system was actually more liberal than the Federal:
First and foremost, state constitutions may be used not only to broaden rights but also to restrict them. They are far easier to amend than the U.S. Constitution. Therefore, forces within a state dissatisfied with liberal court interpretations of the fundamental state law may, without nearly the same effort required on the federal level, undo those rulings....In Florida... voters adopted an amendment to the state constitutional search and seizure provision, requiring the provision to be "be construed in conformity with the 4th Amendment to…
The primary areas of concern of the FSA were different types of acts that would be injurious to the public interest, serious violations of law and regulations, and extremely inappropriate actions in the private banking unit. The main area of concern was that the private banking unit had amassed large profits illegally by allowing money laundering transactions, in which customers were mislead in various private bond deals and were sold securities and derivatives at an unfair price without being informed of the risks. Another issue of concern was that Citigroup had similar problems of non-compliance with regulations that had been reported in different countries, and that Citigroup in general had no disregard for a country's regulations.
The firms strategic options were to close the private banking unit in Japan, and launch a clean-up program that included firing certain high-level employees that were accountable for the scandal, and appoint a new…
" (Zimmerman, 25) The graduating implications of this premise can
be seen today in what must be assessed as a positive scenario, where local
governments are enabled to directly affect popular demand.
This endorsement of the preservation of local authority comes with the
understanding that implied powers are all those entitlements which are not
explicitly defined as unconstitutional, illegal or illicit. This is to
suggest that the federal government is in a place of authority still, to at
least restrict the movement of states and localities within the boundaries
of lawfulness. Simultaneously, federal government is prevent from levying
to great a social, economic or cultural control on state and local bodies
which it cannot acutely represent. Indeed, we may say that this is a
direct reflection of the compromise sought and discussed in this research
discussion. States and localities must be entitled to respond to their
publics, even as they…
Post, S.S. (2002). Understanding Interstate Compacts. American
Political Science Association.
Price, B. (2008). A (Very) Brief History of Dillon's Rule.
Community Environmental Legal Defense Fund.
Starn, M.L. (1983). Municipal Home Rule: Grassroots Democracy or a
Symbolic Gesture. Maine Townsman.
POL 319 State & Local Governments
emocracy in America has evolved from the concept of federalism allowing citizens at all levels to develop their own governance system. Since the founding of the United States in 1776 different governmental structures both on the state and local level developed. My paper takes a closer look at three different faces of state and local government in the United States of today: irect emocracy Government, Police Jury Government and Mayor-Council Government. While California and Louisiana are showcase examples for the irect emocracy and Policy Jury Government system, New York City stands exemplary for a strong Mayor Council governmental system. The goal of the paper is to point out the distinctive features of the three models, their historic background, and various impacts for citizens in the three geographic surroundings.
Case Study # 1 -- Examination of irect emocracy in California
Does the legislature or the governor have more power in Louisiana based on your analysis? The governor has more power than the legislature because the legislature can completely overpower the governor. There is not one bill he can stop if they chose this veto and there is not an expense he can block for the same reason. The legislature can organize the executive branch anyway it chooses subject to the constitutional imperative of the presence of certain constitutional officers. Furthermore it can get rid of any regulatory authority in it, and propose any constitutional amendment it likes regardless of the governor's opinion on the matter
(Sadow, J.D. (23 May 2011, p.2).
How is the provision of funds to local and state efforts affected or optimized by Louisiana's French-based system? The state of Louisiana faces a severe decline in revenues through fiscal year 2012 which, if no corrective action is taken, will leave a significant funding gap in the state government expenditures and will create serious sustainability issues in financing of state obligations. It is essential that the state act now to reduce the cost of state government, through all means available, including efficiencies, economies, greater effectiveness, and other means to streamline government in order to overcome the projected severe revenue reductions occurring through 2012 . Louisiana also created the Commission on Streamlining Government (CSG) to examine each agency's constitutional and legal duties to gain efficiency and lower costs by reducing the size of state government. This commission is charged with making real reforms to reduce the size of government by finding and getting rid of a ballooning bureaucracy and duplicative services and low-performing programs both on the state and local government level (Streamlining Louisiana: Driving Government Reform in an Era of Fiscal Crisis (29 January 2010, p. 2). Proposers of the reform i.a. request the issuance of annual public reports online of all state grants by funding source, agency, parish and
Today, China owns the majority of U.S. debt, thereby inflating the Yuan and further downgrading the security of the dollar across the globe. These trends mean that American taxpayer money will increasingly be used to benefit foreign governments, leaving even fewer resources available for American citizens. A smaller, more efficient government is clearly needed, but in order to reduce government growth, a grassroots effort needs to be created to encourage term limits and eliminate wasteful and redundant government bureaucracies. In order to be successful, though, this effort must be embraced across all political party lines but the payoff will be worth it. By curbing government growth and control in business and Americans' private lives today, the country will be able to regain its financial security and maintain America's fundamental constitutional liberties.
Beland, D. & Chantal, V.F. (2004). Fighting 'Big Government': Frames, federalism, and social policy reform in the United…
Beland, D. & Chantal, V.F. (2004). Fighting 'Big Government': Frames, federalism, and social policy reform in the United States. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 29(2), 241-244.
Branum, T. & Dokupil, S. (2002). Security takeovers and bailouts: Aviation and the return of Big
Government. Texas Review of Law & Politics, 6(2), 431-434.
Feulner, E. (2001, November 14). The Return of Big Government. The Heritage Foundation.
"God gave the world to men in common" is a theme that supports the view that Locke would see property and something that should not be wasted, as waste deprives others. That survival is taken out of the equation tilts the moral balance towards Locke viewing much of the expropriation of land that occurs in South Florida as needless.
There remains the question of spinoff benefits, and this is something that lies at the heart of much debate about land use today. While the proverbial Donald Trump may not need to expropriate that land in order to survive, there are going to be people who work on that land who do support themselves and their families. The landowner is not necessarily the beneficiary of that land's development. On the surface it seems self-evident that if jobs are created that the expropriation should be viewed as acceptable by Locke. However, it…
Loss of local control in emergency management is a legitimate concern. Yet access to state and federal resources is critical for effective emergency response. The most effective emergency response involves carefully coordinated roles between local, state, and federal agencies. Local agencies are always first responders, and therefore have a great deal of authority and responsibility in emergency management. States may have significant resources and distinct responsibilities to work with local officials. Yet the primary role of state agencies is “to supplement local efforts before, during, and after incidents,” (United States Department of Homeland Security, 2008, p. 6). States in many ways play the least visible role in emergency management, often working as liaisons between local governments requesting additional support and the federal government needing more information about the situation. Not all incidents require state or federal intervention and assistance, and city councils should not be concerned about losing control. Compliance…
British Parliamentary System of Government with the United States Federal System of Government
The British Parliamentary system of government is one of the oldest political systems in the world that has evolved over a period of centuries. The British model has influenced the system of governments in many countries of the world including the United States. On the other hand, the U.S. system of government is a Federal system that came into existence when the United States (the former American colonies) rebelled against British rule and declared its independence in the latter part of the eighteenth century, followed by the adoption of its own constitution in 1787. Although having some similarities with the British System of government, the U.S. system of government is unique in several aspects, having its own characteristics. In this paper we shall look at some key features of the two systems of government and compare and…
Baker, Jean H. "The United States Government." Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003. CD-ROM Version
The British Constitution -- an Introduction." April 22, 2002. December 10, 2002. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/british_constitution1.htm
The British Parliamentary System." BBC Web Site. 2002. December 10, 2002. http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/classic/A591383
Judicial Independence" April 2002. December 10, 2002. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/judicial_independence.htm
Local Economic Development Initiatives
THE IMPACT OF LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The Concept of Sustainable ural Communities in Local Areas
The Concept of ural Development in Local Areas
The Concept of Endogenous Development Initiatives in Local areas
Transformation is key when it comes to local economic development initiatives. Ever since World War II economies in so many different rural areas have been faced with the rising harsh economic circumstances that have been threatening people's everyday existence. A lot of the situations that they are going through have a lot to do with depopulation resulting for the most part from low growth in job opportunities, out-migration, an aging population, underemployment rate, high unemployment and low family income, lack of socio-economic infrastructure ( shopping centers, health centers, schools, power and electric supply water supply,). esearch show that the rural economy in both developed and developing nations countries has also gone through a big…
Andolina, R. (2012). THE VALUES OF WATER: Development cultures and indigenous cultures in highland ecuador. Latin American Research Review, 21(12), 3-26,231,235.
Blignaut, J. & . (2011). The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives. Water S.A., 34(12), 123-145.
Cole, M.A. (2009). imits to growth, sustainable development and environmental kuznets curves: An examination of the environmental impact of economic development. . Sustainable Development, 12(4), 23-67.
Gordon, T.M. (2009). Bargaining in the shadow of the ballot box: Causes and consequences of local voter initiatives. Public Choice, 23(14), 45-56.
Unitary State vs. The Federal State
Unitary vs. Federal
A unitary state government is one in which the state's entire affairs are overseen by a single central governing authority. A federal state government is one in which governing powers are shared between a central government and a local or state government(s). France offers us today an example of a unitary state, while the U.S. offers us an example of a federal state. To judge which type of government is better, one could look to these two examples -- but as neither appears to be ideal in its present-day condition (both are broke), this paper will instead look at the dynamic of both types of states to show why a federal state is preferable to a unitary state.
The unitary state solution is one that lends itself to the Weber-based system of modern bureaucracy, and for that reason is bound to…
Macionis, J. (2006). Society: The Basics. Prentice-Hall.
Ritzer, G. (2009). Contemporary Sociological Theory and Its Classical Roots: The
Basics. NY: McGraw-Hill.
Washington, G. (1796). Washington's Farewell Address. Avalon Project. Retrieved from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/washing.asp
At its simplest and most succinct, the mission of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA, 2018a) is “helping people before, during, and after emergencies,” (p. 1). To fulfill this mission, FEMA engages in a variety of related actions including strategic planning, intelligence gathering, communication, and coordination. FEMA conducts risk assessments, helps communities build resilience, and helps to protect or recovery essential services. FEMA (2018b) also outlines its five core mission areas, which include prevention, protection, mitigation, response, and recovery. FEMA remains active at each of these stages of emergency management and does not discriminate against any one type of emergency, playing as integral a role in natural disaster management as in technological, cyber, and terrorist-related incidents.
Prevention involves strategic planning, information gathering, intelligence sharing, threat detection, and any other activity that would involve stopping a problem before it manifests. Protection is a phase during which a disaster may be unpreventable,…
Mandates And The Governments That Impose Them
No Child Left Behind (NCLB): The fiscal and budgetary impact on public organizations
Traditionally, public education has been left to the governance of state and local authorities. However, in creating the mandate of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), the federal government extended unprecedented authority over the ability of states to set minimal standards for student achievement and what was considered a failing school. Although not specifically fiscal in nature, NCLB affected both how schools were funded by determining how to 'grade' a school as failing or passing as well as the curriculum. "NCLB requires states to implement a wide range of annual student assessments including reading and math assessments for each grade level between 3rd and 8th and once during the high school grades" (Chapter 3: NCLB costs, n.d., Legislative audit: 1).
Tests cost money to operate, as do the materials to…
Blume, Howard. (2012). No Child Left Behind waiver could cost $2 billion, report says.
The LA Times. Retrieved:
Chapter 3: NCLB costs. (n.d.). Legislative audit. Retrieved:
Balance of Power between the Federal and State Governments
The balance of power is a concept applied in the federal system to organize the government in a way that ensures there is proper division of powers between the federal, state, and local governments. America is referred to as a federal-constitutional-presidential republic because the U.S. constitution delegates specific powers to the national government, and reserves others for the state (Gerston, 2007). For a long time, the balance of power favored the states and guaranteed their independence from the national government, and also allowed them to exercise their authority to the benefit of the citizens. However, due to recent changes in economic circumstances, the balance of power has shifted in favor of the federal government; and governors and state attorney generals are constantly challenging decisions that overstep the federal government's constitutional role.
Majority of the citizens are also of the opinion that…
Gerston, L. N (2007). American Federalism: A Concise Introduction. New York: M. E Sharpe, Inc.
Welch, S., Gruhl, J., Rigdon, S. & Thomas, S. (2012). Understanding American Government. (13th Ed). Cengage Learning
Trust and Government
The public trust in government has become an increasingly salient issue in recent years as many governments around the world have illustrated substantial volatility in their governance and their economies. In recent years there have been regime changes in the Middle East and North Africa that have been largely fueled by a mistrust of the governments. However, even in modern nations, there is often a deep mistrust of government on the State and Federal level. This makes it incredibly important for local governments to function efficiently and effectively as they are on the frontlines in regard to the political system for the local population. In the United States, a majority of the population feel that big government is the institutional form that is the greatest threat to America's future; significantly larger than big business or big labor. Therefore, local governments have many obstacles to overcome to in…
Carez, K. (2014, August 16). Do You Trust the Government? 87% of Americans Don't. Retrieved from Truthout: http://www.truth-out.org/news/item/25628-do-you-trust-the-government-87-of-americans-don 't
Jones, J. (2015, June 19). In U.S., Confidence in Police Lowest in 22 Years. Retrieved from Gallup: http://www.gallup.com/poll/183704/confidence-police-lowest-years.aspx
McCarthy, J. (2014, September 22). Americans Still Trust Local Government More Than State. Retrieved from Gallup: http://www.gallup.com/poll/176846/americans-trust-local-government-state.aspx
Riffkin, R. (2015, December 4). Big Government Still Named as Biggest Threat to U.S. Retrieved from Gallup: http://www.gallup.com/poll/187919/big-government-named-biggest-threat.aspx?g_source=Politics&g_medium=newsfeed&g_campaign=tiles
Nevertheless, the heavy reliance on such debt led in some cases to severe difficulties, as illustrated by the Mexican tequila crisis of late 1994 and the Brazilian crisis of 2001. In Mexico the problem happened when investors became increasingly reluctant to roll over their short-term peso-denominated cetes and instead shifted their funds to short-term dollar-indexed tesobonos. This shift to dollar-indexed liabilities supplied a temporary respite for the government but the short-term nature of outstanding securities also meant that the transformation in the structure of debt towards tesobonos was extremely quick. The rapid withdrawal of foreign investment from the domestic market at the end of 1994 and the resulting sharp drop in the Mexican peso resulted in an explosive growth in the peso value of dollar-indexed government liabilities, thereby adding a fiscal dimension to the external crisis (Jeanneau and Tovar, n.d.).
The local government bond market has expanded rapidly in Mexico…
Dalla, Ismail and Hesse, Heiko. (2009). Rapidly growing local-currency bond markets offer a viable alternative funding source for emerging-market issuers. Retrieved April 9, 2010,
from Vox Web site: http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/4081
Jeanneau, Serge and Tovar, Camilo E. (n.d.). Financial stability implications of local currency bond markets: an overview of the risks. Retrieved April 9, 2010, from Web site:
However, local enterprises face problems related to diseconomies of scale and this has forced them to charge higher prices which the lower and middle income classes cannot afford. There are instances where the local governments have had to intervene by subsidizing their operations something that has worsened the citizen's tax burden. Proponents of buying local have posited that buying locally made goods enhances velocity of money arguing that the currency will circulate more quickly and pass through more hands. Consequently, more people will have the benefit of that money and what it has purchased for them (Schwartz, 2009). Buying local as opposed to chain stores means more money will be put into the community.
However, quality of products and prices charged cannot be substituted with velocity of money. It is good when money flows in the local economy but no body in his right senses can buy an extremely expensive…
Cranbrook, C. (1997). The Rural Economy and Supermarkets. Suffolk: Great Glemham.
DeWeerdt, S. (2013, Jun. 22). Is Local Better? World Watch Institute.
McGinnis, M .V. (ed). (1999). Bioregionalism. London and New York: Routledge.
New, C. (2012, Sept. 18). Made in America Is a Luxury Label That Will Cost You. Huffington
Then, a second major difference resides in the sources used to retrieve the necessary funds. The nonprofit organizations do indeed get the support of the federal budget in the meaning that they are often exempt from tax payment; but they have to raise the funds by themselves without any additional help or interference. They do this through the organization of various events, such as concerts, dinner parties or theatre plays, during which wealthy members of the community donate money to the causes promoted by the NPOs. In the case of governmental institutions however, the funds come directly from the state officials. The money is initially collected from the general public in the form of taxes, fines or other transfers to the state budget, and then redistributed to the state agencies.
A third difference also deals with the financial nature of the organizational activities, but is somewhat different from the previous…
Alvarado, E.I., 1998, Is there a Difference between 'Nonprofit' and 'Not-for-profit'?, Idealist, http://www.idealist.org/if/idealist/en/FAQ/QuestionViewer/default?section=01&item=09last accessed on June 19, 2008
Feiock, R.C., Andrew, S.A., Understanding the Relationships Between Nonprofit Organizations and Local Governments, Florida State University, Retrieved at http://www.fsu.edu/~spap/feiock/papers/Nonprofits_&_Public_Services.pdfon June 19, 2008
Frumkin, P., Kim, M.T., 2000, Strategic Positioning and the Financing of Nonprofit Organizations: Is Efficiency Rewarded in the Contributions Markeplace?, the Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations and the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Retrieved at http://www.ksghauser.harvard.edu/PDF_XLS/workingpapers/workingpaper_2.pdfon June 19, 2008
Hopkins, B.R., 2005, Starting and Managing a Nonprofit Organization: A Legal Guide, Wiley
representative system of government has motivated a vital chain of discussions in the literature about police workers administration and representation of women and racial minorities. The serious questions in this study are: (a.) Does the under oath police force rationally mirror a cross section of the groups being monitored? And (b.) hat aspects are measured in representation of women and minority police officers in law-enforcement agencies? Black and Hispanic depictions on police forces are strongly associated with its incidence in community populations. Regions differ in the quantity of female and minority illustrations, blacks being better characterized in southern police forces than in another place; women are better characterized in the northwest. Nevertheless, findings disclose that men, more often than not whites, maintain to hold unreasonably more sworn positions in the largest part of law-enforcement agencies. The data sets of female and minority representation also demonstrate the extent of female and…
Ayres, Ian, and Steven Levitt. Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack. Quarterly Journal of Economics, February 2008, 43-77.
Bahrke, Mike, and Bob Hoffman. Identifying the Fitness Needs of Law Enforcement Officers. Working Paper, Fit Force, 2007.
Coate, Stephen, and Glenn Loury. Will Affirmative-Action Policies Eliminate Negative Stereotypes? American Economic Review, 2003, 1220-40.
Donohue, John J, and Steven D. Levitt. The Impact of Race on Policing, Arrest Patterns, and Crime. Working Paper, Stanford University Law School, August 2009.
For example, the interior regions of China are extremely conservative politically and will not divulge information about the local government offices online, and Google needs to define this as a strategy in China (Hanson, Rothlin, 79, 80). Google needs to respect this and not index these pages and provide the Chinese government with a technology to provide updates on this auditing process.
Second, Google needs to define its operating strategy including its ethical principles as they relate to the Chinese government. The statement of these ethical principles needs to be developed in conjunction the Chinese government and key Chinese partners to ensure ownership of them. Further, these principles need to set the foundation for arbitrating government concerns and complaints about Google's operations (Hamilton, Knouse, Hill, 145, 146).
Third, Google needs to lead the development of a more effective framework for keeping China in compliance to the UN Int'l Covenant on…
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Policy Making and Power Plant Emissions
There are many considerations that a government official in charge of developing policy concerning gas and particulate emissions must take into account in order to protect the environment and citizens while allowing business and the basic functions of society and its infrastructure to progress. The balance that must be struck here is one of the major reasons that environmental policy is so complex, and why it is such a hot-button issue for many officials and constituents alike. The potential effectiveness of each policy detail that might be implemented, the cost of each proposed implementation, the benefits and detriments to the various parties, and all other related minutiae must be taken into account in order for the best possible policies to be developed and implemented. The following paragraphs will consider two different alternative policies for protecting the environment and the human population surrounding a…
taxes and their implementation in various states. It will highlight the different tax philosophies of progressive as well as regressive tax and what are the various examples of each type of tax. This paper will also justify the local property tax and its necessity in towns and cities.
State and local policies in Massachusetts
Introduction tax is a fee charged by a government on a product, income or activity. It is a charge imposed by the government on people, entities, or on property in order to raise revenue. If tax is levied directly on personal or corporate income, then it is a direct tax. If tax is levied on the price of a good or service, then it is called an indirect tax. The purpose of taxation is to finance government expenditure. One of the most important uses of taxes is to finance public goods and services, such as street…
Gilbert E. Metcalf, The National Sales Tax: Who Bears the Burden, last viewed: 13 thMay'04 http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa-289.html
Investopedia, last viewed: 13th May'04
Richard garner, Regressive Taxation, last viewed: 13th May'04